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Sample records for fuelling direct hydrazine

  1. Investigation of the direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine in nitric acid medium on platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cames, B.

    1997-01-01

    allow consideration of the process of direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine to nitrogen, and of Pu(III) to Pu(IV), with electrochemical yields of 100 %. (author)

  2. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.K.; Aris, I.; Mahmod, S.; Sidek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NO x , O 2 and CO 2 , were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  3. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  4. Investigation of the direct and indirect electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine in nitric acid medium on platinum; Etude de l`oxydation electrochimique directe et indirecte de l`hydrazine en milieu acide nitrique sur platine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, B

    1997-12-31

    allow consideration of the process of direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine to nitrogen, and of Pu(III) to Pu(IV), with electrochemical yields of 100 %. (author) 59 refs.

  5. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  6. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  7. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management.

  8. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  9. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  10. Fuelling with flow at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M G [Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Fuelling with flow is the solution chosen by Bruce A to overcome the potential power pulse caused by a major inlet header failure. Fuelling with flow solves the problem by rearranging the core to place new fuel at the channel inlet and irradiated fuel at the channel outlet. The change has a significant impact on the Bruce A fuel handling system which was designed primarily to do on power fuelling in the against flow direction. Mechanical changes to the fuelling machine include a modification to the existing ram head and the replacement of standard fuel carriers with new fuelling with flow fuel carriers having the capability of opening the channel latch. Changes to the control system are more involved. A new set of operational sequences are required for both the upstream and downstream fuelling machines to achieve the fuel change. Steps based on sensitive ram push are added to reduce the risk of failing to close the latch at the correct position to properly support the fuel string. Changes are also required to the protective interlocks to allow fuelling with flow and reduce risk. A new fuel string supporting shield plug was designed and tested to reduce the risk of endplate cracking that could occur on the irradiated bundle that would have been supported directly by the channel latch. Some operational changes have been incorporated to accommodate this new shield plug. Considerable testing has been carried out on all aspects of fuel handling where fuelling with flow differs from the reference fuelling against flow. (author). 3 figs.

  11. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  12. From the idea to the construction of a biomass fuelled plant. The marketing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Ranveig Vaa

    2000-12-01

    The report deals with the case handling in connection with the planning of a biomass fuelled plant as well as the market potential for a biomass fuelled Stirling engines and direct combustion of biomass with a steam circuit

  13. SOFC direct fuelling with high-methane gases: Optimal strategies for fuel dilution and upgrade to avoid quick degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinelli, A.; Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Di Michele, A.; Vivani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SOFCs are operated on natural gas and biogas direct feeding. • Methane partial oxidation and dry reforming are compared. • The optimal oxygen-to-carbon stoichiometry to avoid degradation is determined for both natural gas and biogas. • NiYSZ anodes degradation mechanisms are investigated though SEM-EDX and XRD. - Abstract: In the outlook of the transition to the carbon-free society, low-carbon gases, such as natural gas or biogas, are very promising. The first is commonly used for stationary applications based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) equipped with external reformers. Similar installations are required when the SOFC is run on biogas. Yet, high SOFC operative temperature enables internal decomposition of light hydrocarbons, therefore allowing the suppression of external reforming. Evidently, this brings about benefits in terms of system complexity and cost reduction. Nonetheless, unlike reformate fuels, direct exposure to large amount of methane favours SOFC anodes degradation. Implementing a systematic experimental approach, this paper aims at determining a simple operative strategy to carry out direct feeding without meeting with quick degradation issues, producing interesting outcomes with regards to the management of SOFC-based systems. Particularly, the regulation of the oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) relative fraction of the fuel through air addition to natural gas and partial CO_2 separation from biogas is helpful in the prevention of those mechanisms. In this study, NiYSZ anode SOFCs are exposed to air-diluted natural gas and upgraded biogas, featuring O/C between 0.2 and 1.2. Tracing these cases, at 800 °C and 500 mA/cm"2 constant load, cell performances are measured over a time interval of 100 h. Finally, post-mortem analysis is performed on the specimens to investigate material morphological changes after the exposure to high-methane fuels. Results showed that O/C = 0.8 (+63% air) is the best case to employ air-diluted natural gas

  14. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  15. Epoxide reduction with hydrazine on graphene: a first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Chan; Hwang, Gyeong S; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2009-08-14

    Mechanisms for epoxide reduction with hydrazine on a single-layer graphene sheet are examined using quantum mechanical calculations within the framework of gradient-corrected spin-polarized density-functional theory. We find that the reduction reaction is mainly governed by epoxide ring opening which is initiated by H transfer from hydrazine or its derivatives. In addition, our calculations suggest that the epoxide reduction by hydrazine may predominantly follow a direct Eley-Rideal mechanism rather than a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. We also discuss the generation of various hydrazine derivatives during the reduction of graphene oxide with hydrazine and their potential contribution to lowering the barrier height of epoxide ring opening.

  16. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  17. CANDU 9 fuelling machine carriage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, D J; Slavik, J F [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Continuous, on-power refuelling is a key feature of all CANDU reactor designs and is essential to maintaining high station capacity factors. The concept of a fuelling machine carriage can be traced to the early CANDU designs, such as the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station. In the CANDU 9 480NU unit, the combination of a mobile carriage and a proven fuelling machine head design comprises an effective means of transporting fuel between the reactor and the fuel transfer ports. It is a suitable alternative to the fuelling machine bridge system that has been utilized in the CANDU 6 reactor units. The CANDU 9 480NU fuel handling system successfully combines features that meet the project requirements with respect to fuelling performance, functionality, seismic qualification and the use of proven components. The design incorporates improvements based on experience and applicable current technologies. (author). 4 figs.

  18. CANDU 9 fuelling machine carriage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, D.J.; Slavik, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous, on-power refuelling is a key feature of all CANDU reactor designs and is essential to maintaining high station capacity factors. The concept of a fuelling machine carriage can be traced to the early CANDU designs, such as the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station. In the CANDU 9 480NU unit, the combination of a mobile carriage and a proven fuelling machine head design comprises an effective means of transporting fuel between the reactor and the fuel transfer ports. It is a suitable alternative to the fuelling machine bridge system that has been utilized in the CANDU 6 reactor units. The CANDU 9 480NU fuel handling system successfully combines features that meet the project requirements with respect to fuelling performance, functionality, seismic qualification and the use of proven components. The design incorporates improvements based on experience and applicable current technologies. (author). 4 figs

  19. Electrochemical performance and stability of Ni1-xCox-based cermet anode for direct methane-fuelled solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicharee Wongsawatgul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon deposition on Ni-based anode is well-known as a major barrier for the practical use and commercialization of hydrocarbon-fuelled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs. In this work, Co alloying in Ni-YSZ was studied as an alternative anode material for using CH4 as a fuel. The Ni-YSZ and Ni-Co alloyed-YSZ were prepared by the traditional impregnation method without further mixing processes. After sintering and reduction in H2 atmosphere, the introduced Co can completely dissolved into the Ni lattice and changed the morphology with an increase in the Ni-YSZ grain size and showed a better uniform microstructure. The Co alloying also enhanced the electrochemical performance under CH4 fuel by reducing the resistance and anodic overvoltage. Moreover, the Co addition enhanced the stability of the cell with CH4 a constant load current of 80 mA for 60 h. This performance related to the carbon deposition on the anode surface. The Co alloying showed a high efficiency to suppress the carbon deposition and improved the electrochemical performance of an SOFC cell operating under CH4 fuel.

  20. Ag supported on carbon fiber cloth as the catalyst for hydrazine oxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ran; Ye, Ke; Gao, Yinyi; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CFC supported microspherical Ag is obtained by square-wave potential method. • Ag/CFC electrode has high catalytic activity toward hydrazine oxidation. • Hydrazine oxidation on the electrode proceeds by a near 4-electron pathway. - Abstract: Silver particles with microspheric structure are directly electrodeposited on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) substrate by square-wave potential electrodeposition method. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the Ag/CFC electrode toward hydrazine oxidation in alkaline solution are examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. An onset oxidation potential of -0.5 V and a peak current density of 30 mA cm −2 are achieved in the solution containing 1.0 mol L −1 KOH and 20.0 mmol L −1 hydrazine. The microspheric structure of the Ag/CFC electrode provides large electroactive surface area, hence, abundant active sites are vacant for hydrazine oxidation. The calculated apparent activation energies at different potentials show that hydrazine electro-oxidation at higher potential has faster kinetics than that at lower potential. In addition, the transfer electron number of hydrazine oxidation reaction on the Ag/CFC electrode is close to four, suggesting hydrazine is almost completely electrooxidized on the electrode and the full use of hydrazine fuel is basically achieved.

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on the Environmental Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels (3rd) Held in Panama City Beach, Florida on 15-17 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aqueous or alcoholic hydrazine. It is interesting to note that no chromium (II) hydrazine complex has been prepared directly from a chromium (III...S.E. Bowden, " Oxydation of Hydrazine in Aqueous Solutions", CEEDO-TR-78-11 (1978). AD-A058239. N72-12242. 117p VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE...phthalocyanlne. Stearyl alcohol was added to improve the transfer, The response to hydrazine was fast, but the sensors were very slow to recover.(3) The

  2. Advanced fuelling system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)], E-mail: raman@aa.washington.edu

    2008-12-15

    Steady-state high-performance discharges in reactors, such as the Advanced Tokamak (AT) scenarios would rely on optimized density and pressure profiles that must be maintained. This maximizes the bootstrap current fraction, reduces reactor recycling power and reduces thermal stresses. Other than a system for the balance of current drive not provided by bootstrap current drive, no other sources of input power, such as from neutral beams, are allowed. For these systems, a precision fuelling system would be the ideal way to control the fusion burn by controlling and maintaining the required pressure profile. This requires a fuelling system that is capable of depositing fuel at any radial location within the plasma while at the same time not altering the density profile to a level that degrades the required pressure profile. Present fuelling systems are incapable of meeting these requirements. An advanced fuelling system based on Compact Toroid injection has the potential to meet these needs while simultaneously providing a source of toroidal momentum input. Description of a conceptual Compact Toroid fueller for ITER is presented in conjunction with a plan for developing this much needed technology.

  3. The design and development of AGR fuelling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, J.P.; Hardon, L.

    1986-01-01

    The main functional requirements and essential generic design aspects of the UK AGR fuelling machines are listed and described as a precursor to reviewing some detail features of the individual station designs. The paper highlights the variability of engineering solutions adopted to meet the common challenge of on-load refuelling the first generation AGR stations. Design development from first to second generation stations is illustrated by detailed reference to the Hinkley B/Hunterston B and Heysham II/Torness fuelling machine designs. The paper concludes with a brief speculative view on the possible direction of future design development. (author)

  4. Research on anhydrous hydrazine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1967-03-01

    The first part of this work concerns the radiolysis of pure liquid ammonia. The fundamental importance of the dose rate and of the dose on the yield of radiolytic products has been demonstrated. By using a capture solute at concentrations of between 10 -3 and 1.2 mole s/litre, it has been possible to determine the yields of radicals and of molecules in the irradiated pure ammonia. During later work, it was possible to determine, by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters, the most favorable conditions for carrying out the radiosynthesis; the maximum radiochemical yield of the hydrazine obtained has a value: G (N 2 H 4 ) = 2.2/100 eV. An analysis of the molecular yields in the presence of deuterated solutes makes it possible to explain partially the role of the capture species. A project is also described for an installation producing hydrazine continuously; it is followed by an economic study of the process. From this work it appears that the yields of hydrazine obtained justify an industrial application, especially if strong radiation sources are available, for example nuclear reactors. (author) [fr

  5. Influence of alumina oxide nanoparticles on the performance and emissions in a methyl ester of neem oil fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Gnanasikamani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of the influence of Al2O3 nanoadditive on performance and emissions in a methyl ester of neem oil fueled direct injection Diesel engine is reported in this paper. The Al2O3 nanoparticles are mixed in various proportions (100 to 300 ppm with methyl ester of neem oil. The performance and emissions are tested in a single cylinder computerized, 4-stroke, stationary, water-cooled Diesel engine of 3.5 kW rated power. Results show that the nanoadditive is effective in increasing the performance and controlling the NO emissions of methyl ester of neem oil fueled Diesel engines.

  6. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  7. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  8. Density Limits with Different Fuelling Methods in the HL-2A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Longwen; Zhou Yan; Chen Chengyuan; Cao Zeng; Song Xianming; Li Wei; Dong Yunbo; Hong Wenyu; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru

    2009-01-01

    Density limits with different fuelling methods have been compared in HL-2A, i.e. direct gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) from outer midplane, and divertor gas fuelling. The maximum densities for low current discharges are 3.4x10 19 m -3 , 4.3x10 19 m -3 and 4.7x10 19 m -3 for the 3 kinds of fuelling methods. The corresponding density ratios to Greenwald density limit are 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, respectively. The behavior of density limit disruption is analyzed as well. (magnetically confined plasma)

  9. Hydrazine reagents as derivatizing agents in environmental analysis--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M; Büldt, A; Karst, U

    2000-04-01

    Hydrazine reagents are a well-known group of derivatizing agents for the determination of aldehydes and ketones in liquid and gaseous samples. Within this article, the most important hydrazine reagents are critically summarized, and their major applications in different fields, including environmental analysis, food chemistry and industrial analysis are introduced. As 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) is the basic reagent for several international standard procedures, its properties are discussed in detail. Particular focus is directed on the chemistry of the hydrazine reagents, and chemical interferences are considered. Recent methods for the determination of various oxidants using hydrazine reagents are presented as well. Due to limited space, this review does not cover the related field of carbohydrate analysis, although many chemical aspects are similar.

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrazine Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Nancy E.; Bates, Kami R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in 1996, however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented. The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed.

  11. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: peter.lang@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  12. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Day, Ch.; Fable, E.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Köchl, F.; Mooney, R.; Pegourie, B.; Ploeckl, B.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  13. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  14. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  15. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  16. Occupational safety considerations with hydrazine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, H. J.; Haddad, T. S.; George, M. E.; Mcdougal, J. N.; Andersen, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    A simple pharmacokinetic model and a specially designed dermal vapor exposure chamber which provides respiratory protection were used to determine the rate of penetration of hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) vapor through the skin of rats. Parameters for the pharmacokinetic model were determined from intravenous and inhalation exposure data. The model was then used to estimate the skin permeation coefficient for hydrazine or UDMH vapor from the dermal-vapor exposure data. This analysis indicates that UDMH vapor has a relatively high permeability through skin (0.7 cm/hr), a value somewhat higher than was obtained for hydrazine by the same procedure (0.09 cm/hr). Based on these skin permeability results, a skin-only vapor exposure limit giving protection equivalent to the inhalation Threshold Limit Value (TLV) could be calculated. The current TLV's for UDMH and hydrazine are 0.5 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. The corresponding skin-only TLV equivalents, for personnel wearing respiratory protection, are 32 ppm for UDMH and 48 ppm for hydrazine. Should the proposed lowering to the TLV's for these compounds to 0.01 ppm be adopted, the equivalent skin-only TLV's would become 0.64 ppm for UDMH and 4.8 for hydrazine.

  17. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

    2011-01-01

    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  18. Fuel cells fuelled by Saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechner, P.; Mor, L.; Sabag, N.; Rubin, Z.; Bubis, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Saccharides, like glucose, fructose and lactose, are ideal renewable fuels. They have high energy content, are safe, transportable, easy to store, non-flammable, non poisonous, non-volatile, odorless, easy to produce anywhere and abundant. Fuel Cells are electro-chemical devices capable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy from fuels, with theoretical efficiencies higher than 0.8 at room temperatures and with low pollutant emissions. Fuel Cells that can produce electricity form saccharides will be able to replace batteries, power electrical plants from biomass wastes, and serve as engines for transportation. In spite of these advantages, saccharide fuelled fuel cells are no available yet. Two obstacles hinder the feasibility of this potentially revolutionary device. The first is the high stability of the saccharides, which requires a good catalyst to extract the electrons from the saccharide fuel. The second is related to the nature of the Fuel Cells: the physical process takes place at the interface surface between the fuel and the electrode. In order to obtain high densities, materials with high surface to volume ratio are needed. Efforts to overcome these obstacles will be described. The use of saccharides as a fuel was treated from the thermodynamic point of view and compared with other common fuels currently used in fuel cells. We summarize measurements performed in a membrane less Alkaline Fuel Cell, using glucose as a fuel and KOH as electrolyte. The anode has incorporated platinum particles and operated at room temperature. Measurements were done, at different concentrations of glucose, of the Open Circuit Voltage, Polarization Curves and Power Density as function of the Current Density. The maximum Power Density reached was 0.61 mW/cm 2 when the Current density was 2.13 mA/cm 2 and the measured Open Circuit Voltage was 0.771 V

  19. Performance evaluation of a colorimetric hydrazine dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Karen P.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    1994-06-01

    A dosimeter for real-time, colorimetric detection of hydrazine in air has been developed. The passive badge consists of a dosimeter card containing a vanillin solution coated on a thin paper substrate. The active patch consists of a thick cellulose substrate coated with a vanillin solution. When placed in a plastic sample holder attached to a personnel pump, up to 5 L/min can be drawn through the active badge substrate. Through a condensation reaction, vanillin reacts with hydrazine to form a colored product that absorbs in the visible region. The hydrazone formed in the reaction is yellow; its intensity is proportional to the dose. When exposed passively to hydrazine, the experimental detection limit is less than 20 ppb-hrs. Extrapolated results indicate a detection limit of less than 5 ppb-hrs for long sampling periods. Actively sampling of hydrazine vapors gives an experimental detection limit of less than 100 ppb-L at a sample rate of 5 L/min. Relative humidity effects on badge response were minor. High humidity enhanced the color development on the vanillin badge; while low humidity had no effect on badge response. Interference testing of the dosimeters revealed a tobacco smoke interference. Preliminary shelf life tests indicated no decrease in sensitivity to hydrazine when stored at room temperature for 6 months.

  20. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  1. Natural gas fuelling stations installation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigar, C; Burford, G; Adragna, M; Hawryn, S

    2004-07-01

    This Canadian Standard applies to natural gas fuelling stations that can be used for fleet and public dispensing operations. This document is divided into 11 sections that address the scope of the Standard; definitions and reference publications; general requirements; compressors; storage; dispensing; flow control devices; storage vessel dispatch and receiving; design, installation and testing of piping, tubing and fittings; and installation of vehicle refuelling appliances (VRAs) connected to storage piping. The most recent revision to the Standard includes requirements for indoor fuelling of natural gas vehicles. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2004. tabs., figs.

  2. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): gas fuelling of spiral galaxies in the local Universe II. - direct measurement of the dependencies on redshift and host halo mass of stellar mass growth in central disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate-stellar mass (sSFR-M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disc central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5 M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR-M* relations of disc-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR-M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disc galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 × 108 yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the `main sequence of star-forming-galaxies' from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star formation in discs, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3 M⊙ over z = 0-0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disc-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for discs are unclear.

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of residual hydrazine and morpholine in boiler feed water and steam condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsala, S.; Bansal, V.; Tuli, D.K.; Rai, M.M.; Jain, S.K.; Srivastava, S.P.; Bhatnagar, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrazine, an oxygen scavenger in boiler water, was derivatised to the corresponding acetone azine and determined at the ng ml -1 level by gas chromatography. Morpholine, a corrosion inhibitor used in steam boilers, was estimated either directly (if >2.0 μg ml -1 ) or by quantitative preconcentration (0.1 ng-2.0 μg ml -1 ). To obtain symmetrical peaks for these amines, the column packing was coated with KOH. Use of a nitrogen-specific detector improved accuracy of estimation of hydrazine and morpholine, giving a RSD of 1.9-3.6%. Chromatographic analysis of these amines in boiler feed water and steam condensate samples collected from boilers servicing a pertroleum refinery is described. Environmental safety regulations calls for monitoring of hydrazine and the methods developed can easily be adapted for this purpose. (orig.)

  4. Solvent properties of hydrazine in the preparation of metal chalcogenide bulk materials and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Mitzi, David B

    2009-08-21

    A combination of unique solvent properties of hydrazine enables the direct dissolution of a range of metal chalcogenides at ambient temperature, rendering this an extraordinarily simple and soft synthetic approach to prepare new metal chalcogenide-based materials. The extended metal chalcogenide parent framework is broken up during this process, and the resulting metal chalcogenide building units are re-organized into network structures (from 0D to 3D) based upon their interactions with the hydrazine/hydrazinium moieties. This Perspective will review recent crystal and materials chemistry developments within this family of compounds and will briefly discuss the utility of this approach in metal chalcogenide thin-film deposition.

  5. Hydrazine in the Ugi Tetrazole Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Zhang, Ji; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We describe the hitherto unknown use of N-Boc-protected hydrazine in the Ugi tetrazole reaction to access a library of highly substituted 5-(hydrazinomethyl)-1-methyl-1H-tetrazoles. The reaction is very versatile and good to high yielding. A one-pot, two-step procedure is given.

  6. Experimental study on the performance and emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with butanol diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Duraid F.; Prabhakaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of butanol with diesel to a direct injection diesel engine was carried out. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with butanol to replace conventional diesel as the fuel for diesel engine; the fuel consumption, brake efficiency, exhaust temperature, and volumetric efficiency of the engine fuelled by the blends were comparable with that fuelled by diesel. The characteristics of the emissions were also studied. CO, CO 2 , HC and NO X are measured and compared with the base fuel case when the conventional diesel is used alone. The results were different for different speeds, loads and blends. (author)

  7. Removing fuelling transient using neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, S.; Chan, P.K.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: Stephane.Paquette@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Preliminary criticality and burnup calculation results indicate that by employing a small amount of neutron absorber the fuelling transient, currently occurring in a CANDU 37-element fuel bundle, can be significantly reduced. A parametric study using the Los Alamos National Laboratories' MCNP 5 code and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's WIMS-AECL 3.1 is presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Design of on-power fuelling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    In May 1957, CGE was asked to design a fuelling machine for NPD2 Reactor. Two fuelling machines were required, one at each end of the reactor, that could either push the fuel bundles through the reactor or accept the bundles being pushed out. The machines had to connect on to the end fittings of the same tube, seal, fill with heavy water and pressure up to 1000 psi without external leaks. Each machine had to remove the tube seal plug from its end fitting and store it in an indexing magazine, which also had to hold up to six fuel bundles, or retrieve that many, if the magazine was empty. There was also the provision to store a spare plug. When finished moving fuel bundles, the tube plugs were to be replaced and tested for leaks, before the fuelling machines would be detached from the end fittings. This was all to be done by remote control. By late September 1957, sufficient design features were on paper and CGE management made a presentation to AECL at Chalk River Laboratories and this proposal was later accepted

  9. Hydrazine Determination in Sludge Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Elias; G. A. Park

    2006-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed to detect and quantify hydrazine in a variety of environmental matrices. The method was developed primarily for sludge samples, but it is also applicable to soil and water samples. The hydrazine in the matrices was derivatized to their hydrazones with benzaldehyde. The derivatized hydrazones were separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed-phase C-18 column in an isocratic mode with methanol-water (95:5, v/v), and detected with UV detection at 313 nm. The detection limit (25 ml) for the new analytical method is 0.0067 mg ml-1of hydrazine. Hydrazine showed low recovery in soil samples because components in soil oxidized hydrazine. Sludge samples that contained relatively high soil content also showed lower recovery. The technique is relatively simple and cost-effective, and is applicable for hydrazine analysis in different environmental matrices.

  10. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  11. Development of innovative fuelling systems for fusion energy science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    The development of innovative fueling systems in support of magnetic fusion energy, particularly the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is described. The ITER fuelling system will use a combination of deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas puffing and pellet injection to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. This combination will provide a flexible fuelling source with D-T pellets penetrating beyond the separatrix to sustain the ignited fusion plasma and with deuterium-rich gas fuelling the edge region to meet divertor requirements in a process called isotopic fuelling. More advanced systems with potential for deeper penetration, such as multistage pellet guns and compact toroid injection, are also described

  12. Recent developments in Cope-type hydroamination reactions of hydroxylamine and hydrazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, André M

    2013-11-07

    Cope-type hydroaminations are versatile for the direct amination of alkenes, alkynes and allenes using hydroxylamines and hydrazine derivatives. These reactions occur via a concerted, 5-membered cyclic transition state that is the microscopic reverse of the Cope elimination. This article focuses on recent developments, including intermolecular variants, directed reactions, and asymmetric variants using aldehydes as tethering catalysts, and their applications in target-oriented synthesis.

  13. The influence of tertiary butyl hydrazine as a co-reactant on the atomic layer deposition of silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Marshall, Paul A.; Romani, Simon [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Rushworth, Simon [EpiValence, The Wilton Centre, Redcar, Cleveland, TS10 4RF (United Kingdom); Chalker, Paul R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Potter, Richard J., E-mail: rjpott@liverpool.ac.uk [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering,The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • We demonstrate metallic silver growth by direct liquid injection thermal ALD. • A substituted hydrazine is used as a powerful reducing agent for the first time. • The hydrazine extends the ALD temperature window compared with alcohol. • Hydrazine promotes a more planar growth mode compared to alcohol. • Film adhesion is improved using hydrazine compared with alcohol. - Abstract: Ultra-thin conformal silver films are the focus of development for applications such as anti-microbial surfaces, optical components and electronic devices. In this study, metallic silver films have been deposited using direct liquid injection thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) using (hfac)Ag(1,5-COD) ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) as the metal source and tertiary butyl hydrazine (TBH) as a co-reactant. The process provides a 23 °C wide ‘self-limiting’ ALD temperature window between 105 and 128 °C, which is significantly wider than is achievable using alcohol as a co-reactant. A mass deposition rate of ∼20 ng/cm{sup 2}/cycle (∼0.18 Å/cycle) is observed under self-limiting growth conditions. The resulting films are crystalline metallic silver with a near planar film-like morphology which are electrically conductive. By extending the temperature range of the ALD window by the use of TBH as a co-reactant, it is envisaged that the process will be exploitable in a range of new low temperature applications.

  14. Automated analysis for nitrate by hydrazine reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphake, L J; Hannah, S A; Cohen, J M

    1967-01-01

    An automated procedure for the simultaneous determinations of nitrate and nitrite in water is presented. Nitrite initially present in the sample is determined by a conventional diazotization-coupling reaction. Nitrate in another portion of sample is quantitatively reduced with hydrazine sulfate to nitrite which is then determined by the same diazotization-coupling reaction. Subtracting the nitrite initially present in the sample from that after reduction yields nitrite equivalent to nitrate initially in the sample. The rate of analysis is 20 samples/hr. Applicable range of the described method is 0.05-10 mg/l nitrite or nitrate nitrogen; however, increased sensitivity can be obtained by suitable modifications.

  15. Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Quantities of Hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, A. M. Haji; Dadfarnia, S.; Dehghan, K. [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    An indirect, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of trace amounts of hydrazine is described. The method is based on the oxidation of hydrazine by a known excess of iodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The unreacted iodate is used in the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. Sulfanilic acid is diazotized by the nitrite formed. The resulting diazonium ion is coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to form a stable azo dye, which shows an absorption maximum at 540 nm. Hydrazine can be determined in the range of 20-400 ng mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 3.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation for 50, 200 and 400 ng mL{sup -1} of hydrazine is 2, 1.5 and 1.3%, respectively (n = 10). The method was applied to the determination of hydrazine in water samples

  16. The platinum catalysed decomposition of hydrazine in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, A.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Brossard, Ph.; Broudic, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic study of the hydrazine decomposition in the solutions of HClO 4 , H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 in the presence of Pt/SiO 2 catalyst has been undertaken. It was shown that the kinetics of the hydrazine catalytic decomposition in HClO 4 and H 2 SO 4 are identical. The process is determined by the heterogeneous catalytic auto-decomposition of N 2 H 4 on the catalyst's surface. The platinum catalysed hydrazine decomposition in the nitric acid solutions is a complex process, including heterogeneous catalytic auto-decomposition of N 2 H 4 , reaction of hydrazine with catalytically generated nitrous acid and the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine by nitric acid. The kinetic parameters of these reactions have been determined. The contribution of each reaction in the total process is determined by the liquid phase composition and by the temperature. (authors)

  17. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng, E-mail: wangpc@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-Chun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liu, Li-Hung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yao-Jane [Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  18. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Liao, Yu-Chun; Liu, Li-Hung; Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in Ion/Ioff ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  19. Clean fossil-fuelled power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using fossil fuels is likely to remain the dominant means of producing electricity in 2030 and even 2050, partly because power stations have long lives. There are two main ways of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. These are carbon capture and storage (CCS), which can produce near-zero CO 2 emissions, and increases in plant efficiency, which can give rise to significant reductions in CO 2 emissions and to reduced costs. If a typical UK coal-fired plant was replaced by today's best available technology, it would lead to reductions of around 25% in emissions of CO 2 per MW h of electricity produced. Future technologies are targeting even larger reductions in emissions, as well as providing a route, with CCS, to zero emissions. These two routes are linked and they are both essential activities on the pathway to zero emissions. This paper focuses on the second route and also covers an additional third route for reducing emissions, the use of biomass. It discusses the current status of the science and technologies for fossil-fuelled power generation and outlines likely future technologies, development targets and timescales. This is followed by a description of the scientific and technological developments that are needed to meet these challenges. Once built, a power plant can last for over 40 years, so the ability to upgrade and retrofit a plant during its lifetime is important

  20. Research on anhydrous hydrazine synthesis; Recherche sur la synthese de l'hydrazine anhydre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    The first part of this work concerns the radiolysis of pure liquid ammonia. The fundamental importance of the dose rate and of the dose on the yield of radiolytic products has been demonstrated. By using a capture solute at concentrations of between 10{sup -3} and 1.2 mole s/litre, it has been possible to determine the yields of radicals and of molecules in the irradiated pure ammonia. During later work, it was possible to determine, by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters, the most favorable conditions for carrying out the radiosynthesis; the maximum radiochemical yield of the hydrazine obtained has a value: G (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 2.2/100 eV. An analysis of the molecular yields in the presence of deuterated solutes makes it possible to explain partially the role of the capture species. A project is also described for an installation producing hydrazine continuously; it is followed by an economic study of the process. From this work it appears that the yields of hydrazine obtained justify an industrial application, especially if strong radiation sources are available, for example nuclear reactors. (author) [French] La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur la radiolyse de l'ammoniac liquide pur. Le role fondamental du debit de dose et de la dose sur les rendements des produits de radiolyse a ete mise en evidence. L'emploi de solute capteur dont les concentrations sont comprises entre 10{sup -3} et 1,2 mole/litre, a permis de determiner la valeur des rendements radicalaires et moleculaires dans l'ammoniac pur irradie. Au cours d'une etape ulterieure, une variation systematique des parametres physico-chimiques a permis de determiner les conditions les plus favorables a la radiosynthese le rendement radiochimique maximum de l'hydrazine obtenu a pour valeur: G(N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) 2,2/100 eV. L'analyse des rendements moleculaires en presence de solutes deuteres nous permet de rendre compte partiellement du role des

  1. Research on anhydrous hydrazine synthesis; Recherche sur la synthese de l'hydrazine anhydre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    The first part of this work concerns the radiolysis of pure liquid ammonia. The fundamental importance of the dose rate and of the dose on the yield of radiolytic products has been demonstrated. By using a capture solute at concentrations of between 10{sup -3} and 1.2 mole s/litre, it has been possible to determine the yields of radicals and of molecules in the irradiated pure ammonia. During later work, it was possible to determine, by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters, the most favorable conditions for carrying out the radiosynthesis; the maximum radiochemical yield of the hydrazine obtained has a value: G (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 2.2/100 eV. An analysis of the molecular yields in the presence of deuterated solutes makes it possible to explain partially the role of the capture species. A project is also described for an installation producing hydrazine continuously; it is followed by an economic study of the process. From this work it appears that the yields of hydrazine obtained justify an industrial application, especially if strong radiation sources are available, for example nuclear reactors. (author) [French] La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur la radiolyse de l'ammoniac liquide pur. Le role fondamental du debit de dose et de la dose sur les rendements des produits de radiolyse a ete mise en evidence. L'emploi de solute capteur dont les concentrations sont comprises entre 10{sup -3} et 1,2 mole/litre, a permis de determiner la valeur des rendements radicalaires et moleculaires dans l'ammoniac pur irradie. Au cours d'une etape ulterieure, une variation systematique des parametres physico-chimiques a permis de determiner les conditions les plus favorables a la radiosynthese le rendement radiochimique maximum de l'hydrazine obtenu a pour valeur: G(N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) 2,2/100 eV. L'analyse des rendements moleculaires en presence de solutes deuteres nous permet de rendre compte partiellement du role des capteurs. Un projet d'une installation

  2. Preparation of fine Ni powders from nickel hydrazine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Woo; Chae, Eun H.; Kim, Sang H.; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Jeong Wook; Yoon, Seon Mi; Choi, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Fine nickel powders with narrow size distribution have been prepared from the reduction of nickel hydrazine complexes in aqueous solution. The pure nickel hydrazine complexes, [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 were prepared with the molar ratio of N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ = 4.5, while a mixture of complexes, such as Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 , [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 , and [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 2 were formed with N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ 2+ to metallic Ni powder proceeded via the formation of nickel hydroxide which was reduced by hydrazine liberated from the ligand exchange reaction between the nickel hydrazine complex and NaOH. The standard deviation of the particle size decreased with the decreasing molar concentration of nickel hydrazine complex while the mean particle size increased. As the amount of hydrazine increased, the surface roughness of the particles was improved significantly due to the catalytic decomposition of the excess hydrazine at the surface of the nickel particle. It was found that average particle size could be controlled from 150 to 380 nm by adjusting the reaction molar ratio and temperature

  3. Gas Fuelling System for SST-1Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Kalpesh; Raval, D. C.; Khan, Ziauddin; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, M. S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in the Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down & initiation, piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as a primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low construction and maintenance cost and its flexibility in the selection of the working gas. Hydrogen gas feeding with piezoelectric valve is used in the SST-1 plasma experiments. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of the gas fuelling system of SST-1.

  4. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  5. Research about the hydrazine-ammonia system. Untersuchungen am system hydrazin-ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-03-15

    Some qualities of hydrazine-ammonia mixtures are investigated with regard to their use as rocket fuels by means of conventional measuring methods being adapted to the problems of these systems vapor pressures, densities and viscosities of such mixtures are determined as functions of compositions. The findings of these studies show in view to vapor pressure and densities deviations from ideal behavior, which are however, of disadvantage when using this system as fuel for rocket engines.

  6. System of ytterbium nitrate-hydrazine(mono-)dinitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Katamanov, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Solubility in ternary systems ytterbium nitrate-hydrazine monohydrate-water and ytterbium nitrate-hydrazine dinitrate-water is studied at 25 and 50 deg C. Salt components of both systems do not form with each other double addition compounds in the chosen temperature range. Initial salts are equilibrium solid phases of saturated solutions. Correlation of the range of primary crystallization of nitrate acydocomplexes of lanthanides formed in similar systems with their atomic number is considered. It is shown that hydrazine dinitrate can be used for separation of rare earth elements of cerium group

  7. The reaction of hydrazine nitrate with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Takashi; Sugikawa, Susumu

    2004-03-01

    It is known that hydrazine nitrate used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is an unstable substance thermochemically like hydroxylamine nitrate. In order to take the basic data regarding the reaction of hydrazine nitrate with nitric acid, initiation temperatures and heats of this reaction, effect of impurity on initiation temperature and self-accelerating reaction when it holds at constant temperature for a long time were measured by the pressure vessel type reaction calorimeter etc. In this paper, the experimental data and evaluation of the safe handling of hydrazine nitrate in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are described. (author)

  8. Some observations on hydrazine and ammonia based chemistries in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunning, J.; Cake, P.; Harper, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of factors related to activated corrosion product transport in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operating hydrazine and ammonia-based chemistries. Measurements of the concentrations of corrosion products in the coolant of reactors operating both chemistry regimes are compared under steady operation and during shutdown. These data allow some comparisons to be drawn of corrosion product transport under ammonia and hydrazine based chemistries. Experimental measurements of electrochemical potential under PWR conditions in the presence and absence of radiation fields and under hydrazine and ammonia chemistries are also presented. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Some observations on hydrazine and ammonia based chemistries in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunning, J; Cake, P; Harper, A; Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of factors related to activated corrosion product transport in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operating hydrazine and ammonia-based chemistries. Measurements of the concentrations of corrosion products in the coolant of reactors operating both chemistry regimes are compared under steady operation and during shutdown. These data allow some comparisons to be drawn of corrosion product transport under ammonia and hydrazine based chemistries. Experimental measurements of electrochemical potential under PWR conditions in the presence and absence of radiation fields and under hydrazine and ammonia chemistries are also presented. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. On hydrazine oxidation in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'berman, B.Ya.; Lelyuk, G.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Yasnovitskaya, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Yield of products of radiolytic ( 60 Co gamma radiation) and chemical hydrazine (HZ) oxidation in nitric acid media is studied. Under radiolyte HZ oxidation by nitric acid hydrazoic acid, ammonia and nitrogen appear to be the reaction products. HN 3 yield maximum under HZN oxidation makes up ∼ 0.35 mol per a mol of oxiduzed HZN. Under chemical oxidation HZN is oxidized by HNO 3 according to reaction catalysed by technetium HN 3 yield makes up ∼ 0.35 mol per a mol of oxidized HZN. Radiation-chemical oxidation of HN 3 proceeds up to its complete decomposition, decomposition rate is comparable with HZ oxidation rate. Under the chemical oxidation HN 3 is more stable, it is slowly decomposed after complete HZ decomposition

  11. Fuelling effect of tangential compact toroid injection in STOR-M Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onchi, T.; Liu, Y., E-mail: tao668@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dreval, M. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); McColl, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Asai, T. [Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wolfe, S. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Xiao, C.; Hirose, A. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Compact torus injection (CTI) is the only known candidate for directly fuelling the core of a tokamak fusion reactor. Compact torus (CT) injection into the STOR-M tokamak has induced improved confinement accompanied by an increase in the electron density, reduction in Hα emission, and suppression of the saw-tooth oscillations. The measured change in the toroidal flow velocity following tangential CTI has demonstrated momentum injection into the STOR-M plasma. (author)

  12. Candu 600 fuelling machine testing, the romanian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.; Doca, C.; Iorga, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Candu 600 Fuelling Machine is a complex mechanism which must run in safety conditions and with high reliability in the Candu Reactor. The testing and commissioning process of this nuclear equipment meets the high standards of NPPs requirements using special technological facilities, modern measurement instruments as well the appropriate IT resources for data acquisition and processing. The paper presents the experience of the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania, in testing Candu 600 Fuelling Machines, inclusive the implied facilities, and in development of four simulators: two dedicated for the training of the Candu 600 Fuelling Machine Operators, and another two to simulate some process signals and actions. (authors)

  13. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  14. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  15. Determination of U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate by volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xi; Wang Nanjie; Zhang Tao; Wang Lin; Guo Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    To be determined U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in exist together, chromium (VI) and 1,10-phenanthroline is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for U(IV), and N-bromineimino and methyl red is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for hydrazine nitrate, U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in the same sample is determined sequentially in the nitric acid by adjusting concentration of nitric acid. Results show that the precision is better than 2.0% when the mass concentration of U(IV) is ranged over 5.5-205 mg/mL; and the precision is better than 2.0% when the concentration of hydrazine nitrate is ranged over 0.05-1.0 mol/L. (authors)

  16. Enthalpy of Formation of N2H4 (Hydrazine) Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, David; Bross, David H; Ruscic, Branko

    2017-08-17

    In order to address the accuracy of the long-standing experimental enthalpy of formation of gas-phase hydrazine, fully confirmed in earlier versions of Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT), the provenance of that value is re-examined in light of new high-end calculations of the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) variety. An overly optimistic determination of the vaporization enthalpy of hydrazine, which created an unrealistically strong connection between the gas phase thermochemistry and the calorimetric results defining the thermochemistry of liquid hydrazine, was identified as the probable culprit. The new enthalpy of formation of gas-phase hydrazine, based on balancing all available knowledge, was determined to be 111.57 ± 0.47 kJ/mol at 0 K (97.42 ± 0.47 kJ/mol at 298.15 K). Close agreement was found between the ATcT (even excluding the latest theoretical result) and the FPD enthalpy.

  17. Hydrazine - hydrate water regime and operation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashevitch, V.I.; Pashevitch, D.V.; Bogancs, J.; Tilky, P.

    1997-01-01

    Water chemistries currently used in WWER reactors are potassium based water chemistry (KOH) to adjust the pH with ammonia or hydrazine as oxygen scavenger. Based on the measurements of Zr 95 which is a corrosion product of the zirconium cladding, it is shown in this paper that the amount of corrosion products accompanying the reactor shutdown is smaller when hydrazine is used. This is particularly obvious on PAKS 1 and 2 when Zr 95 measurements are performed before and after switching the water chemistry from ammonia to hydrazine. It is concluded that the main advantage of using the hydrazine water chemistry is to decrease the thickness of the corrosion product layer formed on the fuel cladding, therefore the fuel temperature can be kept low. It is estimated that the fuel temperature increase due to the layer of corrosion products is 120 deg. C for KOLA 3 which is operated with ammonia water chemistry. (author). 5 figs

  18. Hydrazine determination in presence of uranium by modified spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velavendan, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work an indirect, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of hydrazine is described. The method is based on the formation of yellow coloured azine complex by post column derivatization of hydrazine with P-dimethylamino benzaldehyde. The formed yellow coloured complex is stable in acidic medium and has a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Interference due to uranium was studied and the method was applied for the determination of hydrazine in presence of uranium in aqueous stream of nuclear fuel reprocessing. A calibration graph was made for the concentration range of hydrazine from 0.05 ppm to 10 ppm with RSD 0.807% and correlation coefficient of 0.99996. (author)

  19. Hydrazine - hydrate water regime and operation of fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashevitch, V I; Pashevitch, D V [Pand Co. (Russian Federation); Bogancs, J; Tilky, P [Paks NPP (Hungary)

    1997-02-01

    Water chemistries currently used in WWER reactors are potassium based water chemistry (KOH) to adjust the pH with ammonia or hydrazine as oxygen scavenger. Based on the measurements of Zr 95 which is a corrosion product of the zirconium cladding, it is shown in this paper that the amount of corrosion products accompanying the reactor shutdown is smaller when hydrazine is used. This is particularly obvious on PAKS 1 and 2 when Zr 95 measurements are performed before and after switching the water chemistry from ammonia to hydrazine. It is concluded that the main advantage of using the hydrazine water chemistry is to decrease the thickness of the corrosion product layer formed on the fuel cladding, therefore the fuel temperature can be kept low. It is estimated that the fuel temperature increase due to the layer of corrosion products is 120 deg. C for KOLA 3 which is operated with ammonia water chemistry. (author). 5 figs.

  20. Fuelling study of CANDU reactors using neutron absorber poisoned fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.J.; Chan, P.K.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: s25815@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A comparative fuelling study is conducted to determine the potential gain in operating margin for CANDU reactors incurred by implementing a change to the design of the conventional 37-element natural uranium (NU) fuel. The change involves insertion of minute quantities of neutron absorbers, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, into the fuel pellets. The Reactor Fuelling Simulation Program (RFSP) is used to conduct core-following simulations, for the regular 37-element NU fuel, which is to be used as control for comparison. Preliminary results are presented for fuelling with the regular 37-element NU fuel, which indicate constraints on fuelling that may be relaxed with addition of neutron absorbers. (author)

  1. Fuelling Economic Growth: The Role of Public–Private Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-26

    Apr 26, 2009 ... At the same time, however, traditional sources of research funding – from ... Fuelling Economic Growth: The Role of Public–Private Sector ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  2. Experimental investigations on CRDI diesel engine fuelled with acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that NOx emission amplified by means of an amplification in the proportion ... performance and emission characteristics of CRDI engine when fuelled with diesel, ..... rate of NOx formation is primarily a function of flame temperature, the ...

  3. Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

  4. Interactions of Hydrazine and of Hydrazine Derivatives with Soil Constituents and with Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-23

    the amount of hydrazine adsorbed per meq of A1 3+ was nearly thrice as inch for kaolinite (420 Peq me - 1 ) than for montmorillonite (150 peg -1) showing...1952) Absorption (cm ) Assignment Vapour Liquid 3350 3338 N-H stretching 3325 3314 3280 3200 1628 N-H bending 1587 1493 1275 1280 Table 15 IR spectra of...contrast, the spectrum of the monomethylhydrazine-clay complex when treated in a similar way, still included an absorption at 3350 cm 1 which assigned to

  5. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Shukla, Pravesh C.; Dhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  6. Clustering of amines and hydrazines in atmospheric nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Qu, Kun; Zhao, Hailiang; Ding, Lei; Du, Lin

    2016-06-01

    It has been proved that the presence of amines in the atmosphere can enhance aerosol formation. Hydrazine (HD) and its substituted derivatives, monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which are organic derivatives of amine and ammonia, are common trace atmospheric species that may contribute to the growth of nucleation clusters. The structures of the hydrazine and amine clusters containing one or two common nucleation molecules (ammonia, water, methanol and sulfuric acid) have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The clusters growth mechanism has been explored from the thermochemistry by calculating the Gibbs free energies of adding an ammonia, water, methanol or sulfuric acid molecule step by step at room temperature, respectively. The results show that hydrazine and its derivatives could enhance heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation in the earth's atmosphere.

  7. Gas fuelled heavy-duty trucks for municipal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, A. (City of Helsinki Construction Services (Finland)); Hietanen, L. (Lassila and Tikanoja, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Nylund, N.-O. (TEC TransEnergy Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Helsinki City Public Works Department (HKR) and the environmental management company Lassila and Tikanoja joined forces to demonstrate the suitability of heavy-duty gas fuelled trucks for municipal services. HKR acquired two and Lassila and Tikanoja five Mercedes-Benz Econic trucks. HKR's trucks are equipped with interchangeable platforms, Lassila an Tikanoja's trucks with refuse collection equipment. The trucks are subjected to a two-year follow-up study to establish reliability, operational costs and exhaust emissions. Diesel trucks representing up-to-date technology are used as reference. If the gas fuelled trucks perform well, this can lead to increased numbers of natural gas trucks in municipal services, and in the long run to the introduction of biogas fuelled trucks. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of three-dimensional porous Cu film supported on Cu foam and its electrocatalytic performance for hydrazine electrooxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ran; Ye, Ke; Gao, Yinyi; Long, Ziyao; Cheng, Kui; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A binder-free Cu/Cu foam electrode is prepared by an electrochemical method. • The electrode owns a novel three-dimensional porous structure. • The electrode exhibits superior catalytic activity for hydrazine electrooxidation. - Abstract: A three-dimensional porous copper film is directly deposited on Cu foam by an electrodeposition method using hydrogen bubbles as dynamic template (denoted as Cu/Cu foam). Its electrocatalytic activity toward hydrazine electrooxidation is tested by linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Compared with Cu foam, hydrazine electrooxidation on the Cu/Cu foam electrode shows that the onset oxidation potential displays a ~100 mV negative shift, the current density at −0.6 V raises about 14 times, the apparent activation energy and the charge transfer resistance reduce significantly. The increasing electrocatalytic performance for hydrazine electrooxidation is mainly caused by the highly porous structure of the Cu/Cu foam electrode which can provide a large surface area and make electrolyte access the electrocatalyst surfaces more easily. Hydrazine electrooxidation on the Cu/Cu foam electrode proceeds through a near 4-electron process.

  9. Estimation of Hydrazine Decomposition on Measuring the High-Temperature pH in Hydrazine/ETA Solutions at 553 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yeon, Jei Won; Yun, Myung Hee; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Sang Ill

    2010-01-01

    Hydrazine is one of the most excellent oxygen scavengers used in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, in some pants, the hydrazine is used as a source of hydrogen required to suppress radiolysis of the coolant water in the primary loop. When hydrazine was exposed in the high temperature and high pressure water, it can be decomposed into the various products such as NH 3 , N 2 , H 2 , and NO 3 ions. As the result, the pH of solution containing hydrazine in the condition of the high temperature and high pressure can be changed by those decomposed products. In the present work, we investigated the decomposition behavior of hydrazine in ETA (ethanol amine) solution. In addition, we measured the high temperature pH at 553 K on the various hydrazine/ETA solutions for confirming the applicability of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)- based pH electrode in secondary circuit of the nuclear power plants

  10. Sensitive amperometric determination of hydrazine using a carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver-loaded nanozeolite-L-modified carbon paste electrode (Ag/L–CPE) was used as a novel sensing platform for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of hydrazine. Zeolite L nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal approach and then characterized using various techniques such as X-ray ...

  11. CU(II): catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferric nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1981-11-01

    A method is described for producing ferrous nitrate solutions by the cupric ion-catalyzed reduction of ferric nitrate with hydrazine. The reaction is complete in about 1.5 hours at 40 0 C. Hydrazoic acid is also produced in substantial quantities as a reaction byproduct

  12. hydrazines and their nickel(II) complexes: Syntheses, structures and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Narendra Babu

    Abstract. The Schiff bases N-(acyl)-N -(ferrocenylidene)hydrazines (HFcah (1) and HFcbh (2), where acyl = acetyl in 1 and benzoyl in 2 and H represents the dissociable amide proton) were synthesized in high yields (74 and 81%) by condensation reactions of equimolar amounts of ferrocene-carboxaldehyde and the ...

  13. Comparative exergy analyses of gasoline and hydrogen fuelled ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.; Dincer, I.; Yang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative exergy models for naturally aspirated gasoline and hydrogen fuelled spark ignition internal combustion engines were developed according to the second laws of thermodynamics. A thorough graphical analysis of heat transfer, work, thermo mechanical, and intake charge exergy functions was made. An irreversibility function was developed as a function of entropy generation and graphed. A second law analysis yielded a proportional exergy distribution as a fraction of the intake charge exergy. It was found that the hydrogen fuelled engine had a greater proportion of the intake charge exergy converted into work exergy, indicating a second law efficiency of 50.13% as opposed to 44.34% for a gasoline fuelled engine. The greater exergy due to heat transfer or thermal availability associated with the hydrogen fuelled engine is postulated to be a part of the reason for decreased work output of a hydrogen engine. Finally, a second law analysis of both hydrogen and gasoline combustion reactions indicate a greater combustion irreversibility associated with gasoline combustion. A percentage breakdown of the combustion irreversibilities were also constructed according to information found in literature searches. (author)

  14. Core fuelling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. It is shown that with radially 'hollow' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles that are peaked off-axis. The fuelling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fuelling does not require Megavolt particle energies. Even with beam voltages of ∼ 200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement is needed to achieve net electrical power generation. The required ratio of particle to thermal diffusivities is an order of magnitude outside the range reported for tokamaks. In a system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fuelling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fuelling systems with low energy cost per particle - such as cryogenic pellet injection - must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ P ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/s show that the peaking factor, n e0 / e >, approaches 2. (author). 65 refs, 8 figs

  15. Synthesis of the row of new functional derivatives of 7-arylalkyl-8-hydrazine theophyllines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Korobko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazine functional derivatives are widely used in medical practice as remedies applied for pharmacotherapy of depression, infection diseases, hypertension, diabetes, etc. It is worth mentioning that among obtained 7-R-8-hydrazine derivatives of 1,3-dimethylxantine promising substances have been identified. Due to the fact that literature sources display only results of occasional studies of the reactions between 7-R-8-hydrazine theophyllines and mono- or dicarbonyle substances, the use of other keto reagents for xanthine bicycle at 8th position functionalization will allow to explore synthetic potential of the last one, and with high probability may lead to obtaining original biologically active substances.Aim. To study types of reaction between 8-hydrazinyl-1,3-dimethyl-7-aryl alkyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H-diones and a number of carbonyl containing reagents.Methods. A nucleophilic addition reaction followed by dehydration or ethanol splitting was used, as well as the complex of the modern analysis methods to confirm the structure and individuality of the synthesized substances.Results. Different directions of 8-hydrazinyl-1,3,-dimethyl-7(fenetyl-, 3-phenylpropyl-, 3-phenylalyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H-diones chemical transformations in reactions with the appropriate carbonyl containing compounds have been studied experimentally. The structure of synthesized substances was confirmed by chromatography/mass and 1H NMR spectroscopy.Conclusion. The group of 7-arylalkyl-8-(3,5-R,R1-pyrazole-1-yltheophyllines, consisting of two functionally substituted bioactive heterocycles, has been synthesized by reaction between initial substances and selected mono- and dicarbonyl compounds

  16. Oxygen consumption by hydrazine in long sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Lisheng; Turner, Carl-W.

    2012-09-01

    In nuclear power plants secondary side system dissolved oxygen concentration is a strictly controlled chemistry parameter intended to minimize corrosion and fouling of steam cycle components. Low dissolved oxygen concentration is maintained by a combination of mechanical de-aeration and chemical reaction. The dissolved oxygen concentration in feedwater is monitored by sampling systems to ensure it remains within station specification during operation. The sample lines in a nuclear power plant's sampling system can be from 5 to nearly 200 meters in length, resulting in sample residence times between the take-off point to the analyzer from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the flow rate and the length of the sample line. For many chemical parameters the residence time is of no concern. For measurements of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine in the secondary coolant, however, for residence times longer than one minute, it is uncertain whether the sample is representative of conditions in the secondary coolant, especially for samples taken from locations where the temperature is well over 100 deg. C. To address this concern, a series of tests were conducted under both warm-up and power operation conditions, respectively, to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time, sample line length, surface area, hydrazine-to-oxygen ratio, and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine on the consumption of oxygen by hydrazine. The test results revealed that dissolved oxygen measurements in CANDU plants are underestimated to various degrees, depending on the sampling system operating conditions. Two distinct types of behaviours are observed for the oxygen removal rate: 1) the percentage removal of dissolved oxygen is invariant with time during the tests, and increases with increasing residence time in the test section, when the reaction between hydrazine and oxygen is better described by a homogenous reaction mechanism, and 2) the percentage oxygen

  17. Stress analysis of fuelling machine magazine housing of PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Mehra, V.K.; Charan, J.J.; Kakodkar, A.

    1983-01-01

    PWR has fuelling machines for on-line refuelling of the core. Magazine housing of this fuelling machine is a thick pressure vessel. It has a cylindrical vessel with flat head on one side and reservable flange closure on the other side. The vessel has many small and big openings. This paper describes the two sets of experiments conducted for its stress analysis. First set of experiment was conducted on a 1:5 photoelastic model which was stress frozen under load of internal pressure. The second set of experiment involved strain gauge measurements at some important locations of the magazine housing. The paper summarises results of the experiments. In conclusion comparison is made between the experimental results and the results of finite element analysis. (orig.)

  18. Determination of hydrazine in technological waters of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.; Hlatky, J.; Santova, E.; Nadasky, A.

    1991-01-01

    The available commercial automatic analyzers for the determination of hydrazine with spectrophotometric detection are described. Analyzers that are manufactured at present in Czechoslovakia can be divided into two groups. The first group involves the commercially available UPFA IV NH industrial analyzer. Experience in the introduction of this analyzer in the conditions of the nuclear power plant secondary circuit bear out the earlier observation of failures in the injection and dispensing of reagents and frequent failures of the mechanical programmer. For the determination of hydrazine, the reagent was dissolved in sulfuric acid, and in a time the analyzer had to be put out of operation due to corrosion problems. A remedy consists in the replacement of sulfuric acid with the less aggressive oxalic acid. Another group of automatic analyzers for the determination of hydrazine is based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) method. Although exhibiting a high throughput, analyzers of this kind put high demands on the purity of reagents. The instruments are better suited to laboratory work, whereas problems can arise in industrial conditions. Based on experience gained in the use of automatic analyzers of the two groups, two new analyzers were designed. The one is based on the flow analysis principle and is of modular design, whereas the other is based on the stopped-flow FIA principle; an adapted flow cell is accommodated in the detector, and the device uses a hydraulic path whose diameter is 2 to 5 mm. The determination of hydrazine occurs in a closed system, the reagent being protected from contact with air; this extends the lifetime of the facility and minimizes personnel exposure to toxic and/or radioactive substances. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  19. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  20. Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB) [de

  1. Optimal placement of biomass fuelled gas turbines for reduced losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Francisco; Cano, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the optimal location and sizing of biomass fuelled gas turbine power plants. Both profitability in using biomass and power loss are considered in the cost function. The first step is to assess the plant size that maximizes the profitability of the project. The second step is to determine the optimal location of the gas turbines in the electric system to minimize the power loss of the system

  2. METEV: Measurement Technologies for Emissions from Ethanol Fuelled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandtroem-Dahl, Charlotte

    2009-11-15

    The interest of using alcohols, and especially ethanol, as vehicle fuel is high in Sweden. The advantages are many, such as; being renewable, the ethanol can be produced locally and it is easily mixed with gasoline. Alcohol fuels are considered to be a substantial part of the alternative fuel market, especially in Brazil, USA and Sweden. With this growing interest it is of most importance to investigate the emission performance of vehicles fuelled with alcohols. The focus in this study is on measurement and calculation of hydrocarbon emissions. The emission regulations in different countries have different ways to treat alcohol fuelled vehicles. When alcohols are used as blending components in gasoline, uncombusted alcohols from the fuel are emitted in the exhaust in various amounts. If a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is used to measure hydrocarbons, the uncombusted alcohol will be included in the measurement. The alcohol is, per definition, however not a hydrocarbon (hydrocarbons contains only hydrogen and carbon). In the US regulations, the alcohol content is measured separately, and the FID measurement is adjusted for the alcohol part. This is not performed in the European regulations. The aim of this project is to highlight the need for a discussion regarding the methodology for measuring hydrocarbon and alcohol emissions from flexible fuelled vehicles operating on alcohol fuel blends.

  3. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......-cylinder Stirling engine SM3D with an electric output of 35 kW. This engine is a further development of the engine SM3B that has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The engine heater is being adapted for use with wood powder as fuel. During a two-year period a combustion system for this engine...

  4. Developing a New Sampling And Analysis Method For Hydrazine And Monomethyl Hydrazine: Using a Derivatizing Agent With Solid Phase Microextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2001-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) will be used to develop a method for detecting monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and hydrazine (Hz). A derivatizing agent, pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBCI), is known to react readily with MMH and Hz. The SPME fiber can either be coated with PFBCl and introduced into a gaseous stream containing MMH, or PFBCl and MMH can react first in a syringe barrel and after a short equilibration period a SPME is used to sample the resulting solution. These methods were optimized and compared. Because Hz and MMH can degrade the SPME, letting the reaction occur first gave better results. Only MMH could be detected using either of these methods. Future research will concentrate on constructing calibration curves and determining the detection limit.

  5. Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine at elevated temperatures: Pt. 2. Solutions containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Stuart, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Here, we investigate the effects of oxygen on the radiation chemistry of hydrazine at elevated temperatures. The chemistry of this system is important to reactor coolant chemistry, particularly under start-up conditions when hydrazine is added to suppress corrosion which would otherwise be caused by the ingress of oxygen. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine has been investigated previously in the presence of oxygen by Ershov et al., but only at room temperature. In those experiments, both steady-state γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to deduce the mechanism of decomposition of hydrazine in the presence of oxygen. (author)

  6. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  7. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  8. New opportunity for hydrogen fuelled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepec, T.; Hong, H.

    1998-01-01

    The present case study is showing that with recent developments in automotive technology, the concept of a hydrogen hybrid electric vehicle with a range of 300 km is feasible. To extend this range, more progress must be made in the batteries and in the gas tanks, as well as in automobile materials and structure to lower the weight of the vehicle. Regarding a possible commercialization of HHEV, the greatest obstacles are: the cost of the fuel, the refueling infrastructure and the public acceptance of hydrogens as the fuel for cars, taking into account some negative perception related to the past history of accidents with hydrogen. Still, the deciding factor in the acceptance of HHEV's might be the society's desire for zero emission vehicles supported by subsidies towards ZEV's from higher taxation of gasoline. One more aspect of hydrogen car should be discussed here. It is the recently, by Chrysler unveiled, new fuel cell car supplied with gasoline which is scheduled for production in 2005. While it is a step in the right direction, several doubts remain: (1) it will be an LEV not a ZEV, (2) it will produce CO 2 , contributing to greenhouse effect, (3) it will use a not renewable energy source, and as such it can be considered only as a mid-solution to the environmental and energy crisis. 3 refs

  9. On-power fuelling machine of Dhruva research reactor: An indigenous effort (Paper No. 043)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.K.; Andhansare, M.G.

    1987-02-01

    On-power fuelling machine of Dhruva Research Reactor has been indigenously designed, manufactured, installed and commissioned. This is being used for fuelling of Dhruva Research reactor regularly since June 1985. This paper deals with the developmental efforts made during design and manufacture for meeting the functional requirements of the fuelling machine. This paper also highlights the special features of the components like servo valves, hydraulic motors, S.S. bellows, bearings, roller chains, solenoid valves etc. needed for reliable operation and maintenance of the fuelling machine whose down time should be minimum to achieve maximum reactor availability. (author). 17 figs

  10. Visualized fuelling process and 3 dimensional reactivity device and core monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.; Cusson, R.; Crowell, T.

    2006-01-01

    A new reactor fueling animated graphical display and a 3 dimensional view of the reactor core display are presented that are useful for the physics fuelling engineer, the Control Room Operators, the fuel handling operators and the fuel handling support engineers. Data is downloaded from the online fuelling computer to a data server that is network accessible. The fuelling display and 3Dview display can run on any network connected Computer. The animated graphical fuelling display offers a huge reduction in cognitive workload for all users. The authors recommend that animated graphical displays be developed and utilized wherever personnel have to visualize complex equipment operation. (author)

  11. Pellet fuelling and ELMy H-mode physics at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    As the reference operating regime for ITER, investigations of the ELMy H-mode have received high priority in the JET experimental programme. Recent experiments have concentrated in particular on operation simultaneously at high density and high confinement using high field side (HFS) pellet launch. The enhanced fuelling efficiency of HFS pellet fuelling is found to scale favourably to a large machine such as JET. The achievable density of ELMy H-mode plasmas in JET has been significantly increased using HFS fuelling although at the expense of confinement degradation back to L-mode levels. Initial experiments using control of the pellet injection frequency have shown that density and confinement can simultaneously be increased close to the values necessary for ITER. The boundaries of the available ELMy H-mode operational space have also been extensively explored. The power necessary to maintain the high confinement normally associated with ELMy H-mode operation is found to be substantially higher than the H-mode threshold power. The compatibility of ELMy H-modes with divertor operation acceptable for a fusion device has been studied. Narrow energy scrape-off widths are measured which place stringent limits on divertor power handling. Deuterium and tritium codeposition profiles are measured to be strongly in/out asymmetric. Successful modelling of these profiles requires the inclusion of the (measured) scrape-off layer flows and of the production in the divertor of hydrocarbon molecules with sticking coefficients below unity. Helium exhaust and compression are found to be within the limits sufficient for a reactor. (author)

  12. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M; Majid, A

    2013-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO 2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO 2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO 2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants

  13. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  14. Bruce B fuelling-with-flow operations: fuel damage investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzer, A.M. [CANTECH Associates Ltd., Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Morikawa, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hains, A.J.; Cichowlas, W.M. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Roberts, J.G.; Wylie, J. [Bruce Power, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel bundle damage characterization done by Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited (NSS) and the out-reactor flow visualization tests done at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to reproduce the damage observed on irradiated fuel bundles. The bearing pad damage mechanism was identified and the tests showed that a minor change to the fuelling sequence would eliminate the mechanical interaction. The change was implemented in January 2005. Since then, the bearing pad damage appears to have been greatly reduced based on the small number of discharged bundles inspected to date. (author)

  15. Bruce B fuelling-with-flow operations: fuel damage investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzer, A.M.; Morikawa, D.; Hains, A.J.; Cichowlas, W.M.; Roberts, J.G.; Wylie, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel bundle damage characterization done by Nuclear Safety Solutions Limited (NSS) and the out-reactor flow visualization tests done at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to reproduce the damage observed on irradiated fuel bundles. The bearing pad damage mechanism was identified and the tests showed that a minor change to the fuelling sequence would eliminate the mechanical interaction. The change was implemented in January 2005. Since then, the bearing pad damage appears to have been greatly reduced based on the small number of discharged bundles inspected to date. (author)

  16. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology [it

  17. Problems of stress analysis of fuelling machine head components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of stress analysis of fuelling machine head components are discussed. To fulfil the functional requirements, the components are required to have certain shapes where stress problems cannot be matched to a catalogue of pre-determined solutions. The areas where complex systems of loading due to hydrostatic pressure, weight, moments and temperature gradients coupled with the intricate shapes of the components make it difficult to arrive at satisfactory solutions. Particularly, the analysis requirements of the magazine housing, end cover, gravloc clamps and centre support are highlighted. An experimental stress analysis programme together with a theoretical finite element analysis is perhaps the answer. (author)

  18. Proposed amendment to the final decision document for the hydrazine blending and storage facility, interim response action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-25

    From April through August 1989, a bench-/pilot-scale testing program was conducted to evaluate whether qualified manufactures of ultraviolet (UV)/chemical oxidation equipment could reduce the concentrations of hydrazine fuel compounds (hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH)) and n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the wastewater to action levels identified in the Final Decision Document. A secondary objective of this testing program was to generate design and operational information for use during the full-scale startup program.

  19. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  20. A rhodol-based fluorescent chemosensor for hydrazine and its application in live cell bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensomjitr, Khomsan; Noorat, Rattha; Wechakorn, Kanokorn; Prabpai, Samran; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Kanjanasirirat, Phongthon; Pewkliang, Yongyut; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

    2017-10-01

    A rhodol cinnamate fluorescent chemosensor (RC) has been developed for selective detection of hydrazine (N2H4). In aqueous medium, the rhodol-based probe exhibited high selectivity for hydrazine among other molecules. The addition of hydrazine triggered a fluorescence emission with 48-fold enhancement based on hydrazinolysis and a subsequent ring-opening process. The chemical probe also displayed a selective colorimetric response toward N2H4 from colorless solution to pink, readily observed by the naked eye. The detection limit of RC for hydrazine was calculated to be 300 nM (9.6 ppb). RC is membrane permeable and was successfully demonstrated to detect hydrazine in live HepG2 cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of New Hydroxybenzylidene Hydrazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Sersen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. Here, we report synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of nine new N-(hydroxybenzylidene-N′-[2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl]phenylhydrazines. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 19F-NMR, IR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The prepared compounds were tested for their activity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, galvinoxyl radical (GOR, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals. The free radical scavenging activity expressed as SC50 values of these compounds varied in a wide range, from a strong to no radical scavenging effect. The most effective radical scavengers were hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines containing three hydroxyl groups in the benzylidene part of their molecules. The prepared compounds were also tested for their activity to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts. IC50 values of these compounds varied in wide range, from an intermediate to no inhibitory effect.

  3. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  4. Synthesis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of New Hydroxybenzylidene Hydrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, Frantisek; Gregan, Fridrich; Kotora, Peter; Kmetova, Jarmila; Filo, Juraj; Loos, Dusan; Gregan, Juraj

    2017-05-29

    Hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. Here, we report synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of nine new N-(hydroxybenzylidene)-N'-[2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)]phenylhydrazines. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 19F-NMR, IR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The prepared compounds were tested for their activity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), galvinoxyl radical (GOR), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The free radical scavenging activity expressed as SC50 values of these compounds varied in a wide range, from a strong to no radical scavenging effect. The most effective radical scavengers were hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines containing three hydroxyl groups in the benzylidene part of their molecules. The prepared compounds were also tested for their activity to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts. IC50 values of these compounds varied in wide range, from an intermediate to no inhibitory effect.

  5. Dihydropyrimidine based hydrazine dihydrochloride derivatives as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ajmal; Hashim, Jamshed; Arshad, Nuzhat; Khan, Ijaz; Siddiqui, Naureen; Wadood, Abdul; Ali, Muzaffar; Arshad, Fiza; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Four series of heterocyclic compounds 4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiones 7-12 (series A), N,S-dimethyl-dihydropyrimidines 13-18 (series B), hydrazine derivatives of dihydropyrimidine 19-24 (series C), and tetrazolo dihydropyrimidine derivatives 25-30 (series D), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro urease inhibitory activity. The series B-D were first time examined for urease inhibition. Series A and C were found to be significantly active with IC50 values between 34.7-42.9 and 15.0-26.0 μM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship showed that the free S atom and hydrazine moiety are the key pharmacophores against urease enzyme. The kinetic studies of the active series A (7-12) and C (19-24) were carried out to determine their modes of inhibition and dissociation constants Ki. Compounds of series A (7-12) and series C (19-24) showed a mixed-type of inhibition with Ki values ranging between 15.76-25.66 and 14.63-29.42 μM, respectively. The molecular docking results showed that all the active compounds of both series have significant binding interactions with the active sites specially Ni-ion of the urease enzyme. Cytotoxicity of all series A-D was also evaluated against mammalian mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell lines, and no toxicity was observed in cellular model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency...

  7. Enthalpies of Formation of Hydrazine and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Olga V; Ryzhova, Oxana N; Suchkova, Taisiya A

    2017-07-20

    Enthalpies of formation, Δ f H 298 ° , in both the gas and condensed phase, and enthalpies of sublimation or vaporization have been estimated for hydrazine, NH 2 NH 2 , and its 36 various derivatives using quantum chemical calculations. The composite G4 method has been used along with isodesmic reaction schemes to derive a set of self-consistent high-accuracy gas-phase enthalpies of formation. To estimate the enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization with reasonable accuracy (5-20 kJ/mol), the method of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) has been used. The value of Δ f H 298 ° (NH 2 NH 2 ,g) = 97.0 ± 3.0 kJ/mol was determined from 75 isogyric reactions involving about 50 reference species; for most of these species, the accurate Δ f H 298 ° (g) values are available in Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT). The calculated value is in excellent agreement with the reported results of the most accurate models based on coupled cluster theory (97.3 kJ/mol, the average of six calculations). Thus, the difference between the values predicted by high-level theoretical calculations and the experimental value of Δ f H 298 ° (NH 2 NH 2 ,g) = 95.55 ± 0.19 kJ/mol recommended in the ATcT and other comprehensive reference sources is sufficiently large and requires further investigation. Different hydrazine derivatives have been also considered in this work. For some of them, both the enthalpy of formation in the condensed phase and the enthalpy of sublimation or vaporization are available; for other compounds, experimental data for only one of these properties exist. Evidence of accuracy of experimental data for the first group of compounds was provided by the agreement with theoretical Δ f H 298 ° (g) value. The unknown property for the second group of compounds was predicted using the MEP model. This paper presents a systematic comparison of experimentally determined enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of sublimation or vaporization with the results of

  8. Fuel cycle modelling of open cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, S.F.; Lindley, B.A.; Parks, G.T.; Nuttall, W.J.; Gregg, R.; Hesketh, K.W.; Kannan, U.; Krishnani, P.D.; Singh, B.; Thakur, A.; Cowper, M.; Talamo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • Comparison of these systems is made to a reference U-fuelled EPR. • Fuel cycle modelling is performed with UK NNL code “ORION”. • U-fuelled system is economically favourable and needs least separative work per kWh. • Th–U-fuelled systems offer negligible waste and proliferation resistance advantages. - Abstract: In this study, we have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open cycle thorium–uranium-fuelled (Th–U-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. This has been done by assessing three such systems, each of which requires uranium enriched to ∼20% 235 U, in comparison to a reference uranium-fuelled (U-fuelled) system over various performance indicators, spanning material flows, waste composition, economics, and proliferation resistance. The values of these indicators were determined using the UK National Nuclear Laboratory’s fuel cycle modelling code ORION. This code required the results of lattice-physics calculations to model the neutronics of each nuclear energy system, and these were obtained using various nuclear reactor physics codes and burn-up routines. In summary, all three Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems required more separative work capacity than the equivalent benchmark U-fuelled system, with larger levelised fuel cycle costs and larger levelised cost of electricity. Although a reduction of ∼6% in the required uranium ore per kWh was seen for one of the Th–U-fuelled systems compared to the reference U-fuelled system, the other two Th–U-fuelled systems required more uranium ore per kWh than the reference. Negligible advantages and disadvantages were observed for the amount and the properties of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated by the systems considered. Two of the Th–U-fuelled systems showed some benefit in terms of proliferation resistance of the SNF generated. Overall, it appears that there is little

  9. Hydrazine blending and storage facility, interim response action, draft implementation document for rinsewater transfer, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-09

    This Draft Implementation Document (ID) for Rinsewater Transfer has been prepared as a requirement for conducting and completing the Interim Response Action (IRA) at the Hydrazine Blending and Storage Facility (HBSF) located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Commerce City, Colorado. This document has been prepared in accordance with requirements set forth in the October 1988 Final Decision Document for the HBSF IRA (Peer, 1988) and the Amendment to the Final Decision Document (HLA, 1991). The HBSF IRA task was separated into two phases that comprise complete decommissioning of the HBSF as cited in the Federal Facility Agreement. The design portion of Phase I of the HBSF IRA included analytical methods development and laboratory certification for analysis of hydrazine fuel compounds (hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine) (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) and n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in HBSF rinsewater, chemical characterization of hydrazine rinsewater, bench- and pilot-scale testing of ultraviolet (UV) light/chemical oxidation treatment systems for treatment of hydrazine rinsewater, full-scale startup testing of a UV light/chemical oxidation treatment system, and air monitoring during startup testing as described in the Draft Final Treatment Report (HLA, 1991).

  10. Effect of Water Chemistry Factors on Flow Accelerated Corrosion : pH, DO, Hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion(FAC) of the carbon steel piping in pressurized water reactors(PWRs) has been major issue in nuclear industry. Severe accident at Surry Unit 2 in 1986 initiated the worldwide interest in this area. Major parameters influencing FAC are material composition, microstructure, water chemistry, and hydrodynamics. Qualitative behaviors of FAC have been well understood but quantitative data about FAC have not been published for proprietary reason. In order to minimize the FAC in PWRs, the optimal method is to control water chemistry factors. Chemistry factors influencing FAC such as pH, corrosion potential, and hydrazine contents were reviewed in this paper. FAC rate decreased with pH up to 10 because magnetite solubility decreased with pH. Corrosion potential is generally controlled dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrazine in secondary water. DO increased corrosion potential. FAC rate decreased with DO by stabilizing magnetite at low DO concentration or by formation of hematite at high DO concentration. Even though hydrazine is generally used to remove DO, hydrazine itself thermally decomposed to ammonia, nitrogen, and hydrogen raising pH. Hydrazine could react with iron and increased FAC rate. Effect of hydrazine on FAC is rather complex and should be careful in FAC analysis. FAC could be managed by adequate combination of pH, corrosion potential, and hydrazine

  11. Reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization in steam generator wet lay-up solution: Identifying optimal degradation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildermans, Kim; Lecocq, Raphael; Girasa, Emmanuel

    2012-09-01

    During a nuclear power plant outage, hydrazine is used as an oxygen scavenger in the steam generator lay-up solution. However, due to the carcinogenic effects of hydrazine, more stringent discharge limits are or will be imposed in the environmental permits. Hydrazine discharge could even be prohibited. Consequently, hydrazine alternatives or hydrazine degradation before discharge is needed. This paper presents the laboratory tests performed to characterize the reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization using bleach or hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed with either copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) or potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ). The tests are performed on two standard steam generator lay-up solutions based on different pH control agents: ammonia or ethanolamine. Different neutralization conditions are tested by varying temperature, oxidant addition, and catalyst concentration, among others, in order to identify the optimal parameters for hydrazine neutralization in a steam generator wet lay-up solution. (authors)

  12. Hematoxylin multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Nasirizadeh, Navid

    2007-01-01

    A new hydrazine sensor has been fabricated by immobilizing hematoxylin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The adsorbed thin films of hematoxylin on the MWCNT modified GCE show one pair of peaks with surface confined characteristics. The hematoxylin MWCNT (HMWCNT) modified GCE shows highly catalytic activity toward hydrazine electro-oxidation. The results show that the peak potential of hydrazine at HMWCNT modified GCE surface shifted by about 167 and 255 mV toward negative values compared with that at an MWCNT and activated modified GCE surface, respectively. In addition, at HMWCNT modified electrode surface remarkably improvement the sensitivity of determination of hydrazine. The kinetic parameters, such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the standard heterogeneous rate constant, k 0 , for oxidation of hydrazine at the HMWCNT modified GCE were determined and also is shown that the heterogeneous rate constant, k', is strongly potential dependent. The overall number of electron involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining steps are 2 and 1, respectively. The amperometric detection of hydrazine is carried out at 220 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7) with linear response range 2.0-122.8 μM hydrazine, detection limit of 0.68 μM and sensitivity of 0.0208 μA μM -1 . Finally the amperometric response for hydrazine determination is reproducible, fast and extremely stable, with no loss in sensitivity over a continual 400 s operation

  13. Environmental implications of fossil-fuelled power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, A.

    1979-01-01

    The public health and environmental implications of electricity generation by fossil-fuelled power stations are discussed with respect to pollutant emission and the disposal of waste products. The following conclusions were deduced. The policy of using tall chimney stacks has ensured that acceptable concentrations of potential pollutants are observed in the vicinity of power stations. Large scale carbon dioxide emission may represent a problem in the future due to its effect on the climate. The effects of sulphur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen need to be kept under review but it is likely that sources other than power stations will be of greater importance in this context. Pulverised fuel ash is a safe and useful by product of power production. Finally the radiation dose to man caused by the release of naturally occurring radioisotopes is negligible compared to the natural background levels. (UK)

  14. Ninth international conference on CANDU fuel, 'fuelling a clean future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society's 9th International Conference on CANDU fuel took place in Belleville, Ontario on September 18-21, 2005. The theme for this year's conference was 'Fuelling a Clean Future' bringing together over 80 delegates ranging from: designers, engineers, manufacturers, researchers, modellers, safety specialists and managers to share the wealth of their knowledge and experience. This international event took place at an important turning point of the CANDU technology when new fuel design is being developed for commercial application, the Advanced CANDU Reactor is being considered for projects and nuclear power is enjoying a renaissance as the source energy for our future. Most of the conference was devoted to the presentation of technical papers in four parallel sessions. The topics of these sessions were: Design and Development; Fuel Safety; Fuel Modelling; Fuel Performance; Fuel Manufacturing; Fuel Management; Thermalhydraulics; and, Spent Fuel Management and Criticalty

  15. Light-fuelled transport of large dendrimers and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Jenni E; Liljeström, Ville; Lim, Jongdoo; Simanek, Eric E; Ras, Robin H A; Priimagi, Arri; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-05-14

    This work presents a facile water-based supramolecular approach for light-induced surface patterning. The method is based upon azobenzene-functionalized high-molecular weight triazine dendrimers up to generation 9, demonstrating that even very large globular supramolecular complexes can be made to move in response to light. We also demonstrate light-fuelled macroscopic movements in native biomolecules, showing that complexes of apoferritin protein and azobenzene can effectively form light-induced surface patterns. Fundamentally, the results establish that thin films comprising both flexible and rigid globular particles of large diameter can be moved with light, whereas the presented material concepts offer new possibilities for the yet marginally explored biological applications of azobenzene surface patterning.

  16. Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, E G; Matsui, F; Curran, N M; Robertson, D L; Sears, R W

    1983-08-01

    Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine have been measured over a 2-year period under ambient conditions and under temperature and humidity stress. Hydralazine tablets are stable under ambient conditions, but the hydrazine level in an injectable formulation increased from 4.5 to 10 micrograms/ml over a 23-month period. Isoniazid tablets are also stable, but hydrazine levels in an elixir and a pyridoxine combination product doubled to 44 micrograms/ml and 19 micrograms/tablet, respectively. Levels in phenelzine tablets appeared to remain constant at approximately 60 micrograms/tablet, with considerable tablet-to-tablet variation.

  17. Antisymmetric Amino-Wagging Band of Hydrazine up toK‧ = 13 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulaczyk, Iwona; Kre, Marek; Valentin, Alain

    1997-12-01

    A newly recorded high-resolution infrared spectrum of hydrazine has been studied in the 729-1198 cm-1region (the ν12antisymmetric wagging band) with a resolution of 0.002 cm-1. About 1350 transitions withK‧ from 7 to 13 have been newly assigned and about 2350 transitions with lower values ofK‧ reanalyzed with the improved precision. The effective parameters have been calculated separately for each value ofK‧ using the Hougen-Ohashi hamiltonian for hydrazine. The extended assignment completes the analysis of the ν12band of hydrazine.

  18. The CEGB programme on comparative assessment of alternatives to hydrazine for oxygen removal from aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, B.; Wall, K.H.; Wates, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The principal conclusion from the programme of work carried out by the CEGB was that Carbohydrazide appeared to be the most promising alternative to hydrazine for boiler feedwater conditioning. It is an effective oxygen scavenger at higher feedwater temperatures, its breakdown products are not a serious threat to circuit materials and it is safer to handle than hydrazine. The main disadvantages, at the time of the study, appeared to be the lack of a simple reliable method for measuring residual carbohydrazide in feedwater and a cost for the alternative chemical of up to 20 times that of hydrazine. (orig.)

  19. Enthalpy of Formation of N 2 H 4 (Hydrazine) Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, David [Department; Bross, David H. [Chemical; Ruscic, Branko [Chemical; Computation

    2017-08-02

    In order to address the accuracy of the long-standing experimental enthalpy of formation of gas-phase hydrazine, fully confirmed in earlier versions of Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT), the provenance of that value is re-examined in light of new high-end calculations of the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) variety. An overly optimistic determination of the vaporization enthalpy of hydrazine, which created an unrealistically strong connection between the gas phase thermochemistry and the calorimetric results defining the thermochemistry of liquid hydrazine was identified as the probable culprit. The new enthalpy of formation of gas-phase hydrazine, based on balancing all available knowledge, was determined to be 111.57 ± 0.47 kJ/mol at 0 K (97.41 kJ/mol at 298.15 K). Close agreement was found between the ATcT (even excluding the latest theoretical result) and FPD enthalpies.

  20. A new potentiometric determination of hydrazine in the presence of uranium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.S.; Mohan, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The present method describes the determination of hydrazine by making use of potentiometric titration technique. The underlying principle is back titration of unreacted excess cerium remaining after the complete oxidation of hydrazine. Standardized ferrous ammonium sulfate was used for titration. This method was applied to 'real samples' generated from a nuclear reprocessing plant wherein control of hydrazine is of paramount importance. The interference of U(IV), Cr(III), U(VI), nitrite, and chloride was studied and of all these ions the way to eliminate the interference of U(IV) was only attempted. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for synthetic as well as 'real samples' were determined. The method gives RSD of less than 1% in the range of 1 mg to 20 mg of hydrazine. The error in the range 3 mg to 17 mg was found to be less than 1%. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Hydrazine selective dual signaling chemodosimetric probe in physiological conditions and its application in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Sandip; Sahana, Animesh; Mandal, Sandip [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, 713104 West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Archya; Chatterjee, Ansuman [Department of Zoology, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Safin, Damir A., E-mail: damir.a.safin@gmail.com [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Babashkina, Maria G.; Tumanov, Nikolay A.; Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Das, Debasis, E-mail: ddas100in@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, 713104 West Bengal (India)

    2015-09-17

    A rhodamine–cyanobenzene conjugate, (E)-4-((2-(3′,6′-bis(diethylamino)-3-oxospiro[isoindoline-1,9′-xanthene] -2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)benzonitrile (1), which structure has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, was synthesized for selective fluorescent “turn-on” and colorimetric recognition of hydrazine at physiological pH 7.4. It was established that 1 detects hydrazine up to 58 nM. The probe is useful for the detection of intracellular hydrazine in the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 using a fluorescence microscope. Spirolactam ring opening of 1, followed by its hydrolysis, was established as a probable mechanism for the selective sensing of hydrazine. - Highlights: • A selective rhodamine–cyanobenzene conjugate is synthesized. • The conjugate is a selective dual signaling chemodosimetric probe towards hydrazine. • Spirolactam ring opening of the probe, followed by its hydrolysis, is the sensing mechanism. • The probe detects hydrazine in the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 imaging.

  2. Role of recycling flux in gas fuelling in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, H.

    2004-01-01

    The 'effective' fuelling efficiency of hydrogen gas puffing ranges from 10% to 50% in the Large Helical Device. A local increase in neutral particle pressure at the gas puff port was measured in the experiment. The pressure increase rate corresponds to ∼ 10% of the gas puff flux. The other 90% of the gas puff flux increases the density and/or the plasma outflow. A particle balance model reveals that the recycling flux estimated from the particle flux on the divertor plates increases during the gas puffing. It is shown that the high effective fuelling efficiency is possibly due to the large recycling flux. At the limit of small recycling flux, the effective fuelling efficiency decreases to ∼10%. In the helium gas puff discharge, the effective fuelling efficiency is larger than the hydrogen gas puffing and approaches 100%. This can be related to the large recycling coefficient of more than 0.95. (author)

  3. Safeguarding on-power fuelled reactors - instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligura, A.; Konnov, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Head, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques applicable to safeguarding reactors that are fuelled on-power, particularly the CANDU type, have been developed. A demonstration is being carried out at the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station in Canada. Irradiated nuclear materials in certain areas - the reactor and spent fuel storage bays - are monitored using photographic and television cameras, and seals. Item accounting is applied by counting spent-fuel bundles during transfer from the reactor to the storage bay and by placing these spent-fuel bundles in a sealed enclosure. Provision is made for inspection and verification of the bundles before sealing. The reactor's power history is recorded by a track-etch power monitor. Redundancy is provided so that the failure of any single piece of equipment does not invalidate the entire safeguards system. Several safeguards instruments and devices have beeen developed and evaluated. These include a super-8 mm surveillance camera system, a television surveillance system, a spent-fuel bundle counter, a device to detect dummy fuel bundles, a cover for enclosing a stack of spent-fuel bundles, and a seal suitable for underwater installation and ultrasonic interrogation. The information provided by these different instruments should increase the effectiveness of Agency safeguards and, when used in combination with other measures, will facilitate inspection at reactor sites

  4. The factors affecting MTC of thorium–plutonium-fuelled PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, Nurjuanis Zara; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Shwageraus, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Plutonium loading in a plutonium–thorium (Pu–Th) mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled pressurized water reactor (PWR) core is typically constrained by large maximum radial form factors (RFF) and positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). The large form factors in higher Pu content fuels stem from the large differences in burnup, and thus reactivity, between fresh and burnt fuel, while positive MTC can potentially be the result of the high soluble boron concentrations needed to maintain criticality for such reactive fuel. The conventional solution to these problems is the use of burnable poisons (BPs). While BPs are able to reduce RFF, the positive MTC is not entirely due to a large critical boron concentration (CBC) requirement. In fact, analysis shows a positive MTC in Th–Pu fuel is mainly caused by fissioning in the epithermal–fast energy range. A reduction in epithermal–fast fissioning through the use of certain BPs and the strategic employment of loading patterns that encourage leakage are more effective in attaining negative MTC, as a reduction in CBC has a negligible effect on MTC. This paper examines the contributions to positive MTC by isotope and energy and identifies characteristics of BPs that are able to mitigate positive MTC in a Pu–Th MOX PWR core.

  5. Safeguarding on-power fuelled reactors - instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligura, A.; Konnov, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Head, D.A.

    1977-05-01

    Instrumentation and techniques applicable to safeguarding reactors that are fuelled on-power, particularly the CANDU type, have been developed. A demonstration is being carried out at the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station in Canada. Irradiated nuclear materials in certain areas - the reactor and spent fuel storage bays - are monitored using photographic and television cameras, and seals. Item accounting is applied by counting spent-fuel bundles during transfer from the reactor to the storage bay and by placing these spent-fuel bundles in a sealed enclosure. Provision is made for inspection and verification of the bundles before sealing. The reactor's power history is recorded by a Track-Etch power monitor. Redundancy is provided so that the failure of any single piece of equipment does not invalidate the entire safeguards system. Several safeguards instruments and devices have been developed and evaluated. These include a super-8-mm surveillance camera system, a television surveillance system, a spent-fuel bundle counter, a device to detect dummy fuel bundles, a cover for enclosing a stack of spent-fuel bundles, and a seal suitable for underwater installation and ultrasonic interrogation. (author)

  6. Evolution of on-power fuelling machines on Canadian natural uranium power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, P.

    1984-10-01

    The evolution of the on-power fuel changing process and fuelling machines on CANDU heavy-water pressure tube power reactors from the first nuclear power demonstration plant, 22 MWe NPD, to the latest plants now in design and development is described. The high availability of CANDU's is largely dependent on on-power fuelling. The on-power fuelling performance record of the 16 operating CANDU reactors, covering a 22 year period since the first plant became operational, is given. This shows that on-power fuel changing with light (unshielded), highly mobile and readily maintainable fuelling machines has been a success. The fuelling machines have contributed very little to the incapabilities of the plants and have been a key factor in placing CANDUs in the top ten list of world performance. Although fuel handling technology has reached a degree of maturity, refinements are continuing. A new single-ended fuel changing concept for horizontal reactors under development is described. This has the potential for reducing capital and operating costs for small reactors and increasing the fuelling capability of possible large reactors of the future

  7. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczyński, Stanisław W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  8. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghare, A.B.; Chhatre, A.G.; Vyas, A.K.; Bhambra, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghare, A B; Chhatre, A G; Vyas, A K; Bhambra, H S [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2003-03-01

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  11. Synthesis and structural studies of Cp{sup *} rhodium and Cp{sup *} iridium complexes of picolinic hydrazine ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palepu, Narasinga Rao; Kollipara, Mohan Rao [Centre for Advanced Studies in Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong (India); Kaminsky Werner [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A series of Cp{sup *}Rh and Cp{sup *}Ir complexes of picolinic hydrazine ligand are synthesized and characterized. Picolinic hydrazine has yielded only dinuclear complexes in the case of rhodium metal whereas both mono and dinuclear complexes with iridium metal. Iridium complexes are formed as quaternary salts by the migration of the N–H proton onto the adjacent amine group of the hydrazine after binding to the metal. Picolinic hydrazine acts as nitrogen and oxygen donor ligand in the form of bi and tetradentate bonding modes.

  12. Ambient temperature does not affect fuelling rate in absence of digestive constraints in long-distance migrant shorebird fuelling up in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Magali; Vezina, Francois; Piersma, Theunis; Heldmaier, G.

    Pre-flight fuelling rates in free-living red knots Calidris canutus, a specialized long-distance migrating shorebird species, are positively correlated with latitude and negatively with temperature. The single published hypothesis to explain these relationships is the heat load hypothesis that

  13. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  14. ITER-FEAT vacuum pumping and fuelling R and D programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, D.K.; Antipenkov, A.; Ladd, P.; Boissin, J.-C.; Day, C.; Haas, H.; Mack, A.; Pimanikhin, S.; Saksagansky, G.; Viniar, I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the ITER-FEAT vacuum pumping and fuelling systems is supported by two key R and D programs, the first directed towards the development of a steady state tritium compatible pellet injector, and the second towards the development of a supercritical helium cooled cryogenic pump for torus exhaust. While the pellet injector programme for ITER-FEAT is new, that for the cryopump has evolved from a programme that originally supported the 1998 ITER design. As the plasma exhaust parameters have remained essentially unchanged between these two machines, the R and D conducted to date remains valid. Initial test results on the prototype injector, TPI-1, which included continuous injection of 3 mm hydrogen pellets at 500 m/s and at 1 to 2 Hz for periods up to, are reported. A model of the cryopump has now been installed in a new dedicated test bed at the Karlsruhe Research Centre where acceptance tests have been completed and preliminary results from pumping tests obtained. An extensive test campaign to fully characterise pump performance and identify any mechanical details which require modification has started. (author)

  15. Combustion and emission response of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shan, G.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the growing energy needs, alternative energy sources particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel, consisting of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats, has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbo charged, inter cooled, DI (Direct Injection) diesel engine was fuelled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and its 20% blend with commercial diesel to study the regulated exhaust pollutants in the light of combustion parameters in the cylinder. The experimental results show that BTE (Brake Thermal Efficiently), MCP (Maximum Combustion Pressure) and SOI (Start of injection) angle were increased, ID (Ignition Delay) was decreased; however, RHR (Rate of Heat Release) remained almost unaffected in case of biodiesel. The BTE and RHR were not much affected with B20; however Sol angle and MCP were improved, and ID was decreased with B20. Smoke opacity, CO (Carbon Monoxide), and HC (HydroCarbons) emissions were decreased, but NO. (Oxides of Nitrogen) pollutants were increased in case of both B100 and B20 compared to fossil diesel. However, the increase in NO emissions was lower with B20. (author)

  16. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U; Lundorf, P; Ivarsson, A; Schramm, J [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  17. Central MHD activities and role of the q=1 rational surface for pellet fuelled JT-60 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka; Ozeki, Takahisa; Azumi, Masafumi; Yoshino, Ryuji; Nagami, Masayuki; Konoshima, Shigeru

    1990-08-01

    Improved energy confinement for the pellet fuelled plasmas on JT-60 is mainly due to the peaked density and pressure profiles inside the q=1 rational surface, where the confinement characteristics appear to be better than those in the outer (q>1) region. In the well-center-fuelled pellet injection discharges, the sawtooth activity can be suppressed completely during 0.4∼1 sec or the frequency of sawtooth is reduced by up to one order of magnitude during 0.5∼1.5 sec after the pellet injection. For high high-current low-q (Ip = 2.5∼3.1 MA; q(a) < 3) discharges, reduction in the sawtooth frequency has a strong relationship with enhanced confinement and peakedness of the electron density profile. The contribution of the sawtooth activity to the global energy confinement increases systematically with decreasing q(a). At the sawtooth emerging after the pellet injection into high-Ip limiter discharges, only small amount of the central kinetic energy is released and the sawtooth does not follow the fully reconnecting style. The release of the central kinetic energy and the existence of precursor and successor m = 1 oscillations are discussed. The sawtooth crash tends to have more ideal-like characteristics for higher beta values and lower safety factors. The rotation velocity of the central plasma column after the pellet injection is also discussed with the frequencies of the m = 1 oscillations. Just after the pellet injection, the plasma column starts to rotate in the ion-diamagnetic direction or the co-direction to the plasma current. At each sawtooth, the rotation frequency changes suddenly to the ion-diamagnetic direction or the co-direction. (author) 47 refs. 44 figs

  18. Optimization of wet lay-up conditions for steam generators hydrazine chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.; Organista, M.; Brun, C.; Combrade, P.

    2002-01-01

    Since a long time, hydrazine is used as a chemical agent to prevent corrosion of unalloyed steels. This is a conventional treatment widely used by nuclear power plant operators. But its application in SG lay-up at French nuclear power plants has, however, lead to some drawbacks. Effluent releases: Due to regulation relative to release of hydrazine and alkaline chemical compounds, some plant operators limit the concentrations of reagents to levels that could lead to insufficient protection of materials. Safety hazards associated with SG nitrogen blanketing: Prohibiting use of nitrogen blankets for SG wet lay-up due to associated safety hazards could likewise jeopardize corrosion protection at normally specified hydrazine levels. As the exact limits of hydrazine action against corrosion during SG lay-up are not well known, it is sometimes difficult to evaluate the risk associated to low dosage of N 2 H 4 . In order to answer to these problems, Framatome ANP (France) decided to carry out a test program aimed to determine the limit conditions for use of hydrazine in a wet lay-up environment. (authors)

  19. Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ding; Liu, Min; Lin, Min; Bu, Xinyuan; Luo, Xintao; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-28

    Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSe(x)Te(1-x), and Cd(y)Hg(1-y)Te. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.

  20. Advanced fuelling system for use as a burn control tool in a burning plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak (AT) scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. Conventional fuelling methods have not demonstrated successful fuelling of ATtype discharges and may be incapable of deep fuelling long pulse ELM-free discharges in ITER. The capability to deposit fuel at any desired radial location within the tokamak would provide burn control capability through alteration of the density profile. The ability to peak the density profile would ease ignition requirements, while operating ITER with density profiles that are peaked would increase the fusion power output. An advanced fuelling system should also be capable of fuelling well past internal transport barriers. Compact Toroid (CT) fuelling [R. Raman, et al., 'Experimental demonstration of tokamak fuelling by compact toroid injection,' Nucl. Fusion, 37, 967 (1997)] has the potential to meet these needs, while simultaneously providing a source of toroidal momentum input. A CT is a selfcontained toroidal plasmoid with embedded magnetic fields. The 20 Hz injector consists of the formation region, compression, acceleration and transport regions. Fuel gas is puffed into the formation region, and a combination of magnetic field and electric current ionizes this gas and creates a self-contained plasma ring (the 'CT'). Then a fast current pulse compresses and accelerates the CT by electromagnetic forces. The accelerated CT will travel at a speed of over 30 cm/{mu}s and for reactors will create a particle inventory perturbation of < 1% per pulse. At this level of particle inventory perturbation, optimized density profiles will not be adversely perturbed. Experimental data needed for the design of

  1. Stress and fatigue analysis of fuelling machine housing of 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Ramana, W.V.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most appealing features of the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors is the online refuelling capability. For this a fuelling machine is used. This machine opens a reactor channel by removing a seal plug and a shield plug and then does the necessary fuelling by pushing fuel bundles from a fuel magazine by rams. After necessary fuelling the machine closes the channel automatically. One of the most important parts of the fuelling machine is its pressure housing which becomes a part of the reactor channel during refuelling operation. It houses the fuel magazine, separators and rams. Beside channel pressure and other mechanical loads, the pressure housing experiences thermal transients during refuelling. The housing consists of two cylindrical shells having one end-closer in each. They are connected with each other by a large sized coupling. There are many holes on both the end-closers to accommodate ram movement, separators and magazine rive mechanisms. Some of these holes intersect with each other in the housing end-closers and hence end-closers are reinforced accordingly. This also makes the end-closers nonsymmetric. In the following sections the various analysis done to compute general stress distribution, stress concentration factors near to various holes, temperature transients during refuelling and also allowable fatigue cycles for pressure housing of fuelling machine for the proposed 500 MWe are described. (orig.)

  2. Stress and fatigue analysis of fuelling machine housing of 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Ramana, W.V.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most appealing features of the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors is the online refuelling capability. For this a fuelling machine is used. This machine opens a reactor channel by removing a seal plug and a shield plug and then does the necessary fuelling by pushing fuel bundles from a fuel magazine by rams. After necessary fuelling the machine closes the channel automatically. One of the most important parts of the fuelling machine is its pressure housing which becomes a part of the reactor channel during refuelling operation. It houses the fuel magazine, separators and rams. Beside channel pressure and other mechanical loads, the pressure housing experiences thermal transients during refuelling. The housing consists of two cylindrical shells having one end-closer in each. They are connected with each other by a large sized coupling. There are many holes on both the end-closers to accommodate ram movement, separators and magazine drive mechanisms. Some of these holes intersect with each other in the housing end-closures and hence end-closures are reinforced accordingly. This also makes the end-closures nonsymmetric. In the following sections the various analysis done to compute general stress distribution, stress concentration factors near to various holes, temperature transients during refuelling and also allowable fatigue cycles for pressure housing of fuelling machine for the proposed 500 MWe are described

  3. A Fluorescent Probe for Sensitive Detection of Hydrazine and Its Application in Red Wine and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Hao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-01-01

    A fluorescent probe, 7-(diethylamino)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-4-carbaldehyde (probe 1), was designed and synthesized for the sensitive detection of hydrazine. The addition of N 2 H 4 caused the fluorescence intensity of probe 1 to decrease. The probe's fluorescence was turn-off after adding N 2 H 4 , which could be observed under UV light at 365 nm. Moreover, once treated with different concentrations N 2 H 4 solutions, the solution color change could be distinguished, which indicates that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for hydrazine. Moreover, probe 1 can be used as a signal tool to determine hydrazine levels in solutions, such as red wine and water.

  4. Control and management of the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection across French nuclear fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, Mersiha; Dzemidzic Aida; Dijoux, Michel; Pages, Danielle; Rigal, Jean-Francois; Boize, Magali

    2012-09-01

    Across the EDF nuclear fleet, the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection has received much attention in the past decades. Since 1997, continuous investigation into the substitution of dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals has been conducted and regularly updated by EDF. As a downstream user of hydrazine hydrate, EDF is concerned by REACH legislation, in force since 1 June 2007. As part of the compliance process with REACH, EDF provided its hydrazine hydrate suppliers with information regarding the uses of the chemical. This was done by the end of 2008, as per REACH deadline. On the other hand, EDF contributed throughout European Chemicals Agency consultation phase by submitting data relating to hydrazine hydrate uses across nuclear sites. The absence of a suitable hydrazine hydrate replacement product, able to satisfy the entirety of technical requirements, entails rigorous arrangements to be implemented in order to segregate the zones where use of hydrazine is made and therefore eradicate the risk to personnel regarding hydrazine effects. Consequently, a number of engineering changes and modifications are to be carried out on the chemical injection systems of 58 French nuclear power plants over the next few years as part of the EDF Hydrazine Fleet Programme. (authors)

  5. Design of a thorium fuelled Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The main objective for development of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is to demonstrate thorium fuel cycle technologies, along with several other advanced technologies required for next generation reactors, so that these are readily available in time for launching the third stage. The AHWR under design is a 300 MWe vertical pressure tube type thorium-based reactor cooled by boiling light water and moderated by heavy water. The fuel consists of (Th-Pu)O 2 and ( 233 ThU)O 2 pins. The fuel cluster is designed to generate maximum energy out of 233 U, which is bred in-situ from thorium and has a slightly negative void coefficient of reactivity, negative fuel temperature coefficient and negative power coefficient. For the AHWR, the well -proven pressure tube technology and online fuelling have been adopted. Core heat removal is by natural circulation of coolant during normal operation and shutdown conditions. Thus, it combines the advantages of light water reactors and PHWRs and removes the disadvantages of PHWRs. It has several passive safety systems for reactor normal operation, decay heat removal, emergency core cooling, confinement of radioactivity etc. The fuel cycle is based on the in-situ conversion of naturally available thorium into fissile 233 U in self sustaining mode. The uranium in the spent fuel will be reprocessed and recycled back into the reactor. The plutonium inventory will be kept a minimum and will come from fuel irradiated in Indian PHWRs. The 233 U required initially can come from the fast reactor programme or it can be produced by specially designing the initial core of AHWR using (Th,Pu)MOX fuel. There will be gradual transition from the initial core which will not contain any 233 U to an equilibrium core, which will have ( 233 U, Th) MOX fuel pins also in a composite cluster. The self sustenance is being achieved by a differential fuel loading of low and a relatively higher Pu in the composite clusters. The AHWR burns the

  6. Concentric-Electrode Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Case Study for Selective Hydrazine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Pecqueur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs with a design consisting of concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors that are specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10−5 M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for nine other water-soluble common analytes, the capability to entirely recover its base signal after water flushing, and a very low operation voltage. The specificity for hydrazine to be sensed by our OECTs is caused by its catalytic oxidation at the gate electrode, and enables an increase in the output current modulation of the devices. This has permitted the device-geometry study of the whole series of 80 micrometric OECT devices with sub-20-nm PEDOT:PSS layers, channel lengths down to 1 µm, and a specific device geometry of coplanar and concentric electrodes. The numerous geometries unravel new aspects of the OECT mechanisms governing the electrochemical sensing behaviours of the device—more particularly the effect of the contacts which are inherent at the micro-scale. By lowering the device cross-talk, micrometric gate-integrated radial OECTs shall contribute to the diminishing of the readout invasiveness and therefore further promote the development of OECT biosensors.

  7. Chemical reactions in organic monomolecular layers. Condensation of hydrazine on carbonyl functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosilio, Charles; Ruaudel-Teixier, Annie.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is given for chemical reactions of hydrazine (NH 2 -NH 2 ) with different carbonyl functional groups of organic molecules in the solid state, in monomolecular layer structures. The condensation of hydrazine with these molecules leads to conjugated systems by bridging the N-N links, to cyclizations, and also to polycondensations. The reactions investigated were followed up by infrared spectrophotometry, by transmission and metallic reflection. These chemical reactions revealed in the solid phase constitute a polycondensation procedure which is valuable in obtaining organized polymers in monomolecular layers [fr

  8. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  9. Enhanced biodegradation of methylhydrazine and hydrazine contaminated NASA wastewater in fixed-film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwoala, A U; Egiebor, N O; Nyavor, K

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) wastewater that contains mixtures of highly concentrated methylhydrazine/hydrazine, citric acid and their reaction product was studied on a laboratory-scale fixed film trickle-bed reactor. The degrading organisms, Achromobacter sp., Rhodococcus B30 and Rhodococcus J10, were immobilized on coarse sand grains used as support-media in the columns. Under continuous flow operation, Rhodococcus sp. degraded the methylhydrazine content of the wastewater from a concentration of 10 to 2.5 mg/mL within 12 days and the hydrazine from approximately 0.8 to 0.1 mg/mL in 7 days. The Achromobacter sp. was equally efficient in degrading the organics present in the wastewater, reducing the concentration of the methylhydrazine from 10 to approximately 5 mg/mL within 12 days and that of the hydrazine from approximately 0.8 to 0.2 mg/mL in 7 days. The pseudo first-order rate constants of 0.137 day(-1) and 0.232 day(-1) were obtained for the removal of methylhydrazine and hydrazine, respectively, in wastewater in the reactor column. In the batch cultures, rate constants for the degradation were 0.046 and 0.079 day(-1) for methylhydrazine and hydrazine respectively. These results demonstrate that the continuous flow bioreactor afford greater degradation efficiencies than those obtained when the wastewater was incubated with the microbes in growth-limited batch experiments. They also show that wastewater containing hydrazine is more amenable to microbial degradation than one that is predominant in methylhydrazine, in spite of the longer lag period observed for hydrazine containing wastewater. The influence of substrate concentration and recycle rate on the degradation efficiency is reported. The major advantages of the trickle-bed reactor over the batch system include very high substrate volumetric rate of turnover, higher rates of degradation and tolerance of the 100% concentrated NASA wastewater. The

  10. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant study of N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    N,N’-bis(2-chlorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine was synthesized from 2-chlorobenzoylisothiocyanate and hydrazine in acetone. The compound was characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopies. X-ray crystallography study showed the molecule adopt trans configuration at both N-N and C-N bonds. The compound showed high antioxidant activity, EC{sub 50} of 374.89 µM, compared to ascorbic acid (EC{sub 50} of 561.36 µM)

  11. Selective fluorescent detection of aspartic acid and glutamic acid employing dansyl hydrazine dextran conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasomphan, Weerachai; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Smanmoo, Srung

    2014-01-01

    Highly water soluble polymer (DD) was prepared and evaluated for its fluorescence response towards various amino acids. The polymer consists of dansyl hydrazine unit conjugated into dextran template. The conjugation enhances higher water solubility of dansyl hydrazine moiety. Of screened amino acids, DD exhibited selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu). A plot of fluorescence intensity change of DD against the concentration of corresponding amino acids gave a good linear relationship in the range of 1 × 10(-4) M to 25 × 10(-3) M. This establishes DD as a potential polymeric sensor for selective sensing of Asp and Glu.

  12. Spark discharge and flame inception analysis through spectroscopy in a DISI engine fuelled with gasoline and butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimescu, A.; Merola, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive application of downsizing, as well as the application of alternative combustion control with respect to well established stoichiometric operation, have determined a continuous increase in the energy that is delivered to the working fluid in order to achieve stable and repeatable ignition. Apart from the complexity of fluid-arc interactions, the extreme thermodynamic conditions of this initial combustion stage make its characterization difficult, both through experimental and numerical techniques. Within this context, the present investigation looks at the analysis of spark discharge and flame kernel formation, through the application of UV-visible spectroscopy. Characterization of the energy transfer from the spark plug’s electrodes to the air-fuel mixture was achieved by the evaluation of vibrational and rotational temperatures during ignition, for stoichiometric and lean fuelling of a direct injection spark ignition engine. Optical accessibility was ensured from below the combustion chamber through an elongated piston design, that allowed the central region of the cylinder to be investigated. Fuel effects were evaluated for gasoline and n-butanol; roughly the same load was investigated in throttled and wide-open throttle conditions for both fuels. A brief thermodynamic analysis confirmed that significant gains in efficiency can be obtained with lean fuelling, mainly due to the reduction of pumping losses. Minimal effect of fuel type was observed, while mixture strength was found to have a stronger influence on calculated temperature values, especially during the initial stage of ignition. In-cylinder pressure was found to directly determine emission intensity during ignition, but the vibrational and rotational temperatures featured reduced dependence on this parameter. As expected, at the end of kernel formation, temperature values converged towards those typically found for adiabatic flames. The results show that indeed only a relatively small part

  13. Impact of hydrogen fuelling on confinement properties in radiative improved mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalupin, D; Dumortier, P; Messiaen, A; Tokar, M Z; Unterberg, B; Verdoolaege, Geert; Wassenhove, G Van; Weynants, R

    2003-01-01

    The radiative improved (RI) mode at TEXTOR is a high confinement regime, which is obtained by the seeding of neon into deuterium plasmas. Recent experiments were aimed to study the influence of external gas fuelling on the confinement properties of the RI mode. In particular, it was found that a hydrogen puff into such plasmas leads to lower confinement compared with the discharges fuelled with the same amount of deuterium gas. This paper attempts to explain the reduction of confinement in RI plasmas with an external hydrogen puff and its relation to the level of impurity concentration, which is a critical parameter for RI mode confinement

  14. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to -40 C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three......-stage evaporator. The main contribution to the total cost was the cost associated with exergy destruction, the capital investment cost contributed with 5-14 %. The main contribution to the exergy destruction was found to be thermally driven. The pressure driven exergy destruction accounted for 3-9 %....

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on the thermal and hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xianqing; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Huiyuan; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XAS study of GO and reduced GO was performed. • Detailed evolution of the electronic structures and chemical bonding of GO was revealed. • A new efficient route for the reduction of GO is proposed. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to systemically investigate the deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) via annealing and hydrazine treatment. Detailed evolution of the electronic structures and chemical bonding of GO was presented. The enhanced intensity of π * resonance and the appearance of splitting σ * resonance in C K-edge XAS spectra suggest high extents of recoveries of π-conjugation upon reduction using thermal annealing or hydrazine. Experimental results revealed that the carboxyl as well as epoxide and hydroxyl groups on the surface of GO were thermally reduced first, followed by the more difficult removal of carbonyl and cyclic ether groups at higher temperatures. The hydrazine reduction could remove epoxide, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups effectively, whereas the carbonyl groups were partially reduced with the incorporation of nitrogen species simultaneously. The residual oxygen functional groups on hydrazine-reduced GO could be further removed after modest thermal annealing. It was proposed that a combination of both types of reductions would give the best deoxygenation efficiency for the production of graphene

  16. Metabolomics of Hydrazine-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats for Discovering Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoling An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic pathway disturbances associated with drug-induced liver injury remain unsatisfactorily characterized. Diagnostic biomarkers for hepatotoxicity have been used to minimize drug-induced liver injury and to increase the clinical safety. A metabolomics strategy using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS analyses and multivariate statistics was implemented to identify potential biomarkers for hydrazine-induced hepatotoxicity. The global serum and urine metabolomics of 30 hydrazine-treated rats at 24 or 48 h postdosing and 24 healthy rats were characterized by a metabolomics approach. Multivariate statistical data analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were performed to identify the most significantly altered metabolites. The 16 most significant potential biomarkers were identified to be closely related to hydrazine-induced liver injury. The combination of these biomarkers had an area under the curve (AUC > 0.85, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. This high-quality classification group included amino acids and their derivatives, glutathione metabolites, vitamins, fatty acids, intermediates of pyrimidine metabolism, and lipids. Additionally, metabolomics pathway analyses confirmed that phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis as well as tyrosine metabolism had great interactions with hydrazine-induced liver injury in rats. These discriminating metabolites might be useful in understanding the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver injury and provide good prospects for drug-induced liver injury diagnosis clinically.

  17. Hydrazine and hydroxylamine as probes for O2-reduction site of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T; Yoshikawa, S

    1993-01-01

    Reactions of hydrazine and hydroxylamine with bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase in the fully reduced state were investigated under anaerobic conditions following the visible-Soret spectral change. Hydrazine gave a sharp band at 575 nm with 20% decrease in the alpha band at 603 nm, and hydroxylamine induced a 2 nm blue-shift for the alpha band without any clear splitting. The Soret band at 443 nm was decreased significantly in intensity, with the concomitant appearance of a shoulder with hydrazine or a peak with hydroxylamine, both near 430 nm. The dependence on pH of the affinity of these reagents for the enzyme indicates that only the deprotonated forms of these reagents bind to the enzyme, suggesting a highly hydrophobic environment of the haem ligand-biding site. These spectral changes were largely removed by addition of cyanide or CO. However, detailed analysis of these spectral changes indicates that hydrazine perturbs the shape of the spectral change induced by cyanide and hydroxylamine perturbs that induced by CO. These results suggest that these aldehyde reagents bind to haem a3 iron as well as to a second site which is most likely to be the formyl group on the haem periphery, and that these two sites bind these reagents anti-cooperatively with each other. PMID:8389138

  18. Redox conditions effect on flow accelerated corrosion: Influence of hydrazine and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, O. de [EDF, R and D Div., Moret sur Loing (France); Bouchacourt, M. [EDF, Engineering and Service Div., Villeurbanne (France); Fruzzetti, K. [EPRI, Science and Technology Div., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steels has been studied world-wide for more than twenty years and is now fairly well understood. The influence of several parameters like water chemistry (i.e. pH and oxygen content), temperature, hydrodynamic or mass transfer conditions (i.e. flow velocity, geometry, steam quality..) and steel composition on the corrosion kinetics has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. However, the effect of a reducing environment and variable redox conditions have not yet been fully explored. It's well known that a reducing environment is effective in increasing the resistance of steam generator tubing to intergranular attack / stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) and pitting. In that way, secondary water chemistry specifications have been modified from low hydrazine to high hydrazine chemistry in the steam-water circuit. Nevertheless, increasing hydrazine levels up to 200 {mu}g/kg could have a detrimental effect by potentially enhancing the FAC process. Moreover, in order to have a complete understanding of the possible impact of the water chemistry environment it is also important to consider the impact of redox conditions during shutdowns (cold and/or hot shutdowns) and start up periods when aerated water injections are made to maintain a constant water level in the Steam Generators from the auxiliary feedwater circuit. Therefore, a common EDF and EPRI R and D effort has been recently carried out to study the effects of hydrazine and oxygen on FAC. The results are presented as follows. (authors)

  19. The development of hydrazine-processed Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob, Brion; Lei, Bao; Chung, Choong-Heui; Yang, Wenbing; Hsu, Wan-Ching; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Hou, William Wei-Jen; Li, Sheng-Han; Yang, Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The hydrazine-based deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGS) thin films has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its potential for the high-throughput production of photovoltaic devices based on this absorber material. This article provides an introduction as well as presenting a complete picture of the current status of hydrazine-based CIGS solar-cell fabrication, including the three major steps of this deposition process: dissolution of the precursor materials in hydrazine, deposition of a film from the resulting precursor solution, and the completion and characterization of a photovoltaic device following absorber deposition. Recent discoveries are then discussed, regarding the dissolution chemistry of the relevant precursor complexes in hydrazine, which together represent the true foundation of this processing method. Recent studies on CIGS film formation are then summarized, including the control and analysis of the crystalline phase, electronic bandgap, and film morphology. Finally, the latest progress in high-performance device fabrication is highlighted, with a focus on optoelectronic characterization including current-voltage, junction capacitance, and minority carrier lifetime measurements. Finally, a discussion and future outlook is provided. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Hydrazine-induced thermo-reversible optical shifts in silver-gelatin bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Carole; Rietveld, Ivo B.; Coradin, Thibaud

    2011-03-01

    Bionanocomposites formed by in situ growth of silver nanoparticles within gelatin gels exhibit large (up to 100 nm) thermo-reversible optical shifts resulting from the enhancement of gel matrix scattering by the interaction of the biopolymer with the hydrazine reducing agent.

  1. Studies on the Mechanism of Action of Hydrazine-Induced Methylation of DNA Guanne

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-03

    and 7-methylguanine was detectable in the DNA. In another in vitro study hydrazine, formaldehyde, monomethythydrazine, methyl- nitrosourea , and...methyl- nitrosourea ; DEN, diethylnitrosamine; concentrations are expressed as millimoles per liter incubation medium. ** Ethylguanines, rather than...2436-2455. Griffith, O.W. and A. Meister, (1979), Potent and specific inhibition of glutathione synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (S-n

  2. Electron transport and electrocatalytic properties of MWCNT/nickel nanocomposites: hydrazine and diethylaminoethanethiol as analytical probes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available of the electrodes with the Ni and NiO nanoparticles was confirmed by techniques such as FTIR, FESEM, HRSEM, TEM, XRD, EDX and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrocatalytic oxidation of DEAET and hydrazine on the modified electrodes was investigated using CV...

  3. and Silver(I) Complexes of Hydrazine-Bridged Diphosphine Ligands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Gold(I), silver(I), hydrazine, diphosphine, antitumour, anticancer, mitochondrial membrane potential. 1. Introduction. The use of inorganic compounds as cancer treatment became well established with the FDA approval of cisplatin in 1978.1. Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in clinical settings today.

  4. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...

  5. Evaluation of Structural Integrity for the Magazine Housing of Fuelling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jua, Yong Sun; Han, Sung Bong; Chu, Jung Ho; Lee, Jeong Yoon; Kwak, Dae Il; Park, Tae Youn; Park, Wan Kyu; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Wolsong NPP 1 which is the reactor type of the PHWR uses the natural uranium and has 380 fuel channels. For 100% power operation, the refueling is accomplished in-service. The fuel changing operation is based on the combined use of two remotely controlled fuelling machines (F/M), one operating on each end of a fuel channel. New fuel bundles, from one F/M, are inserted into a fuel channel in the same direction as the coolant flow and the displaced irradiated fuel bundles are received into the second F/M at the other end of the fuel channel. The F/M Magazine acts as a temporary storage area for fuel bundles and the various plugs in the F/M during refueling. It generates thermal and mechanical loads in the F/M Magazine. Together with seismic loads during seismic activity, these loads are considered in the Magazine design. In this paper, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the F/M Magazine housing is performed for Design, Test and Service condition loads given in the analysis requirement for the extended life time from 30 years to 50 years. The Magazine is classified as Safety Class 1. A stress analysis of the Magazine is carried out based on the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB, 1998 Edition with 1999 Addenda. The Magazine housing is made up of a thick cylindrical shell and is connected to the End cover at one end through 30' Grayloc clamp. The other end of the Magazine is clamped to the ram housing with a 10' Grayloc clamp. The material of construction of the magazine housing is ASME SA-182, F6a, class 2. The stress analysis is done by using the finite element method

  6. Electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for simultaneous catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Hamid R., E-mail: hrzare@yazduni.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S. Hossein; Benvidi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-04

    For the first time, an electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles), as an excellent bifunctional electrocatalyst, was successfully used for hydrazine and hydroxylamine electrocatalytic oxidation. The results show that, at the present bifunctional modified electrode, two different redox couples of ruthenium oxides serve as electrocatalysts for simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. At the modified electrode surface, the peaks of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for hydrazine and hydroxylamine oxidation were clearly separated from each other when they co-exited in solution. Thus, it was possible to simultaneously determine hydrazine and hydroxylamine in the samples at a ruthenium oxide nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (RuON-GCE). Linear calibration curves were obtained for 2.0-268.3 {mu}M and 268.3-417.3 {mu}M of hydrazine and for 4.0-33.8 {mu}M and 33.8-78.3 {mu}M of hydroxylamine at the modified electrode surface using an amperometric method. The amperometric method also exhibited the detection limits of 0.15 {mu}M and 0.45 {mu}M for hydrazine and hydroxylamine respectively. RuON-GCE was satisfactorily used for determination of spiked hydrazine in two water samples. Moreover, the studied bifunctional modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity, good repeatability, wide linear range and long-term stability.

  7. The determination of aldehydes in the exhaust gases of LPG fuelled engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.A.F.M.; Burtner, C.W.J.; Visser, H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust gas of a LPG fuelled engine is drawn through two bubblers in series in an ice bath, and filled with saturated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 2M HCl. After heating the derivatives are extracted with toluene-cyclohexane and 1l samples injected on-column on a OV1 capillary column. Using an

  8. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...

  9. Edge dynamics in pellet-fuelled inner-wall jet discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Bartlett, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the density behavior in JET during pellet-fuelled inner-wall discharges without auxiliary heating. Certain discharges, characterized by minor disruptions at the q = 2 surface, show a ten times more rapid decay of the plasma density than previously observed. It is shown that this is related to the combined effects of plasma and wall properties

  10. Calculations on heavy-water moderated and cooled natural uranium fuelled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo V, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    One of the codes that the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico) has for the nuclear reactors design calculations is the LEOPARD code. This work studies the reliability of this code in reactors design calculations which component materials are the same of the heavy water moderated and cooled, natural uranium fuelled power reactors. (author)

  11. Demonstration of 3 buses fuelled with ethanol with ignition improver in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Weide, J. van der; Nie, L.H. de; Bruin, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This three year demonstration programme was initiated by OBL, a subsidiary of two Dutch sugar companies, and GADO, a public transport company. The programme was financially supported by a regional governmental organisation (ISP). In this programme, three bio-ethanol fuelled buses accumulated more

  12. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus; Maetningar paa och simulering av biogasbuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.O.; Nilsson, Johan

    1995-03-01

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  13. Comparative metabonomics of differential hydrazine toxicity in the rat and mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollard, Mary E.; Keun, Hector C.; Beckonert, Olaf; Ebbels, Tim M.D.; Antti, Henrik; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Shockcor, John P.; Cantor, Glenn H.; Stevens, Greg; Lindon, John C.; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies variation between rats and mice has been studied for hydrazine toxicity using a novel metabonomics approach. Hydrazine hydrochloride was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30 mg/kg, n = 10 and 90 mg/kg, n = 10) and male B6C3F mice (100 mg/kg, n = 8 and 250 mg/kg, n = 8) by oral gavage. In each species, the high dose was selected to produce the major histopathologic effect, hepatocellular lipid accumulation. Urine samples were collected at sequential time points up to 168 h post dose and analyzed by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The metabolites of hydrazine, namely diacetyl hydrazine and 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazine carboxylic acid (THOPC), were detected in both the rat and mouse urine samples. Monoacetyl hydrazine was detected only in urine samples from the rat and its absence in the urine of the mouse was attributed to a higher activity of N-acetyl transferases in the mouse compared with the rat. Differential metabolic effects observed between the two species included elevated urinary β-alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, citrulline, N-acetylcitrulline, and reduced trimethylamine-N-oxide excretion unique to the rat. Metabolic principal component (PC) trajectories highlighted the greater degree of toxic response in the rat. A data scaling method, scaled to maximum aligned and reduced trajectories (SMART) analysis, was used to remove the differences between the metabolic starting positions of the rat and mouse and varying magnitudes of effect, to facilitate comparison of the response geometries between the rat and mouse. Mice followed 'biphasic' open PC trajectories, with incomplete recovery 7 days after dosing, whereas rats followed closed 'hairpin' time profiles, indicating functional reversibility. The greater magnitude of metabolic effects observed in the rat was supported by the more pronounced effect on liver pathology in the rat when compared with the mouse

  14. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad B., E-mail: mbgholivand@razi.ac.ir [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Abbas [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS–MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS–MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800 μM with a low detection limit of 70 nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50–800 μM with the detection limit of 4.3 μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. - Highlights: • The Copper nanostructures (CuNS) were prepared by cyclic voltammetry deposition. • The CuNS-MWCNT/PGE sensor shows high activity toward hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}). • The proposed sensor exhibits a wide linear range (0.1 to 800 μM), low detection limit (70 nM), high sensitivity and stability for hydrazine.

  15. Effect of hydrazine on general corrosion of carbon and low-alloyed steels in pressurized water reactor secondary side water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvimäki, Sari [Fortum Ltd, Loviisa Power Plant, Loviisa (Finland); Saario, Timo; Sipilä, Konsta [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Bojinov, Martin, E-mail: martin@uctm.edu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Kl. Ohridski Blvd, 8, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The effect of hydrazine on the corrosion of steel in secondary side water investigated by in situ and ex situ techniques. • Oxide grown on steel in 100 ppb hydrazine shows weaker protective properties – higher corrosion rates. • Possible explanation of the accelerating effect of higher concentrations of hydrazine on flow assisted corrosion offered. - Abstract: The effect of hydrazine on corrosion rate of low-alloyed steel (LAS) and carbon steel (CS) was studied by in situ and ex situ techniques under pressurized water reactor secondary side water chemistry conditions at T = 228 °C and pH{sub RT} = 9.2 (adjusted by NH{sub 3}). It is found that hydrazine injection to a maximum level of 5.06 μmol l{sup −1} onto surfaces previously oxidized in ammonia does not affect the corrosion rate of LAS or CS. This is confirmed also by plant measurements at Loviisa NPP. On the other hand, hydrazine at the level of 3.1 μmol l{sup −1} decreases markedly the amount and the size of deposited oxide crystals on LAS and CS surface. In addition, the oxide grown in the presence of 3.1 μmol l{sup −1} hydrazine is somewhat less protective and sustains a higher corrosion rate compared to an oxide film grown without hydrazine. These observations could explain the accelerating effect of higher concentrations of hydrazine found in corrosion studies of LAS and CS.

  16. Morpho-functional Blood Changes Under the Influence of Hydrazine and Correction with “Salsokollin” Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat R. Khanturin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrazine derivatives are used in different areas: airspace industry, healthcare, laboratory-diagnostic activity, that’s why the environment is subjected to contamination by hydrazines. For Kazakhstan, which houses the "Baikonur" Cosmodrome, the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is a burning issue nowadays. This article deals with the impacts by industrial hydrazines on biochemical data of the blood and its correction with the “Salsokollin” Drug. The samples of bilirubin, the whole protein, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, aminotransferase a-amylases, α-amylase were taken. The thymol test was carried out.

  17. Utilization of reduced fuelling ripple set in ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ADORE is an ROP detect layout optimization algorithm in CANDU reactors. ► The effect of using reduced set of fuelling ripples in ADORE is assessed. ► Significant speedup can be realized by adopting this approach. ► The quality of the results is comparable to results from full set of ripples. - Abstract: The ADORE (Alternative Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) for CANDU® reactors has been recently developed. This algorithm utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique to come up with an optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. For each history in the SA iteration where a particular detector layout is evaluated, the goodness of this detector layout is measured in terms of its trip set point value which is obtained by performing a probabilistic trip set point calculation using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples will reduce the overall execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed.

  18. Evolution of new X and Y positioning system for 540 MWe PHWR fuelling machines - based on commissioning experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vivek; Vyas, A.K.; Gupta, K.S.; Rama Mohan, N.; Bhambra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In PHWR units, X and Y positioning system is provided to give feedback regarding the misalignment between end-fitting and Fuelling Machine (FM) Head during homing on process for carrying out the correction before clamping the Head. The existing design of X and Y Positioning System works by measuring the misalignment by sensing the tilt of the FM Head in X and Y direction caused by its mechanical interfacing with end-fitting as it is advanced in Z direction. The misalignment of Head is corrected by moving it in X and Y direction by X-fine and Y-fine drives, at Z pre-stop position. This correction is vital for achieving the satisfactory sealing of heavy water from channel at snout of FM Head with end fitting. During testing and commissioning trials, it was found that the end fitting of 540 MWe coolant channel assembly either tilts or bends due to the application of load by Fuelling Machines during the process of homing-on of FM Head. Due to this phenomenon, value of misalignment sensed by the Positioning System was considerably lower than the actual misalignment and consequently results in uncorrected misalignment. It was also observed that the high unbalanced moments caused by movement of heavier mass of B-ram in FM Head was further aggravating the misalignment problem. The problem, as an interim measure, was solved by optimising the loads acting on the end fitting to achieve the practically minimum possible uncorrected misalignment. However, to provide a lasting solution for this problem, a new X and Y Positioning System has been evolved. In this system, the misalignment between FM Head and end fitting is found by direct actuation of linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) sensors by four separate alignment plates mounted on the snout. Further development to evolve a completely non-invasive technique using laser sensors has also been undertaken. This paper describes the problems encountered during commissioning of existing design of X and Y Positioning

  19. Synthesis, structurale elucidation and antioxidant study of Ortho-substituted N,N’-bis(benzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausiah, Syadza; Hasbullah, S. A.; Yamin, B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Some bis(thiourea) compounds have been reported to posses excellent performance in pharmaceutical and environmental fields because of their ability to form chelating complexes with various anions and metal ions. Structurally for carbonyl thiourea derivatives, to become a chelating agent, it must adopt cis-configuration. In the present study, four new bis(thiourea) derivatives namely N,N’-bis(o-fluorobenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine (1), N,N’- bis(o-chloro-benzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine (2), N,N’-bis(o-nitrobenzamidothiocarbonyl)-hydrazine (3), and N,N’-bis(o-methylbenzamidothiocarbonyl)hydrazine (4) were successfully synthesized and characterized by CHNS microelemental analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. However chemical crystallography study showed that both thiourea moieties in compound (2) and (3) adopt trans geometry. Therefore they are potential monodentate ligand with two active moieties. DPPH radical scavenging experiment showed that compound (1), (2), and (4) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

  20. Micro-Electro-Analytical Sensor for Sensitive, Selective and Rapid Monitoring of Hydrazine in the Presence of Ammonia, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrazine, a volatile and flammable colorless liquid, is classified as a carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can cause chromosome aberrations...

  1. Thermo-economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell fuelled with methanol and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, B.; Abdulkareem, A.S.; Musa, U.; Mohammed, I.A.; Olutoye, M.A.; Abdullahi, Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified proton exchange membrane fuel cell was reported. • Thermolib software was used for the simulation of PEM fuel cell configurations. • Optimal operating parameters at 50 kW output of each process were determined. • Thermo-economic analysis is the most efficient way of process selection. • Methane system configuration has been identified as the best preferred PEM fuel cell. - Abstract: Exergy and economic analysis is often used to find and identify the most efficient process configuration for proton exchange membrane fuel cell from the thermo-economic point of view. This work gives an explicit account of the synergetic effect of exergetic and economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using methanol and methane as fuel sources. This was carried out through computer simulation using Thermolib simulation toolbox. Data generated from the simulated model were subsequently used for the thermodynamic and economic analysis. Analysis of energy requirement for the two selected processes revealed that the methane fuelled system requires the lower amount of energy (4.578 kJ/s) in comparison to the methanol fuelled configuration which requires 180.719 J/s. Energy analysis of both configurations showed that the principle of energy conservation was satisfied while the result of the exergy analysis showed high exergetic efficiency around major equipment (heat exchangers, compressors and pumps) of methane fuelled configuration. Higher irreversibility rate were observed around the burner, stack, and steam reformer. These trends of exergetic efficiency and irreversibility rate were observed around equipment in the methanol fuelled system but with lower performance when compared with the methane fuelled process configuration. On the basis of overall exergetic efficiency and lost work, the methanol system was more efficient with lower irreversibility rate of 547.27 kJ/s and exergetic efficiency of 34.44% in comparison with the methane

  2. The Reduction Reaction of Dissolved Oxygen in Water by Hydrazine over Platinum Catalyst Supported on Activated Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Moon, J.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    The reduction reaction of dissolved oxygen (DO) by hydrazine was investigated on activated carbon fiber (ACF) and Pt/ACF catalysts using a batch reactor with an external circulating loop. The ACF itself showed catalytic activity and this was further improved by supporting platinum on ACF. The catalytic role platinum is ascribed to its acceleration of hydrazine decomposition, based on electric potential and current measurements as well as the kinetic study. (author). 15 refs., 13 figs.

  3. A chromogenic and fluorogenic rhodol-based chemosensor for hydrazine detection and its application in live cell bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensomjitr, Khomsan; Noorat, Rattha; Chomngam, Sinchai; Wechakorn, Kanokorn; Prabpai, Samran; Kanjanasirirat, Phongthon; Pewkliang, Yongyut; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

    2018-04-01

    A rhodol-based fluorescent probe has been developed as a selective hydrazine chemosensor using levulinate as a recognition site. The rhodol levulinate probe (RL) demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity toward hydrazine among other molecules. The chromogenic response of RL solution to hydrazine from colorless to pink could be readily observed by the naked eye, while strong fluorescence emission could be monitored upon excitation at 525 nm. The detection process occurred via a ring-opening process of the spirolactone initiated by hydrazinolysis, triggering the fluorescence emission with a 53-fold enhancement. The probe rapidly reacted with hydrazine in aqueous medium with the detection limit of 26 nM (0.83 ppb), lower than the threshold limit value (TLV) of 10 ppb suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Furthermore, RL-impregnated paper strips could detect hydrazine vapor. For biological applicability of RL, its membrane-permeable property led to bioimaging of hydrazine in live HepG2 cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  4. Determination of hydrazine in third loops of China experimental fast reactor by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenjie; Wang Mi; Gao Yaopeng; Xie Chun; Yu Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    The method for the determination of hydrazine by Uv-vis spectrophotometer was proposed. The coloration conditions and instrument parameters were also optimized. In HCl, hydrazine formed a yellow azine with para-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde ((CH 3 ) 2 NC 6 H 4 CHO), and then determined by spectrophotometer. The complex's maximum absorption was exhibited at 458 nm. The coloration effect was excellent in conditions of 1% HCl, 10 mL para-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde and 10 minutes' developing time. A good liner relationship was obtained in the range of 5∼200 μg/L, and the recovery was (101.1±1.9)%. This method was used in the third loop of China experimental fast reactor with satisfactory results. (authors)

  5. 2-(Hetero(aryl)methylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamides as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Imran, Aqeel; Channar, Pervaiz A; Shahid, Mohammad; Mahmood, Wajahat; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-02-01

    A small series of 2-(hetero(aryl)methylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamides including two aryl derivatives was synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against urease. Compound (E)-2-(Furan-2-ylmethylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (3f), having a furan ring, was the most potent inhibitor of urease with an IC50 value of 0.58 μM. Molecular modeling was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the urease binding site to predict whether these derivatives have analogous binding mode to the urease inhibitors. The study revealed that all of the tested compounds bind with both metal atoms at the active site of the enzyme. The aromatic ring of the compounds forms ionic interactions with the residues, Ala(440), Asp(494), Ala(636), and Met(637). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Confidence Testing of Shell 405 and S-405 Catalysts in a Monopropellant Hydrazine Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRight, Patrick; Popp, Chris; Pierce, Charles; Turpin, Alicia; Urbanchock, Walter; Wilson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    As part of the transfer of catalyst manufacturing technology from Shell Chemical Company (Shell 405 catalyst manufactured in Houston, Texas) to Aerojet (S-405 manufactured in Redmond, Washington), Aerojet demonstrated the equivalence of S-405 and Shell 405 at beginning of life. Some US aerospace users expressed a desire to conduct a preliminary confidence test to assess end-of-life characteristics for S-405. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Aerojet entered a contractual agreement in 2004 to conduct a confidence test using a pair of 0.2-lbf MR-103G monopropellant hydrazine thrusters, comparing S-405 and Shell 405 side by side. This paper summarizes the formulation of this test program, explains the test matrix, describes the progress of the test, and analyzes the test results. This paper also includes a discussion of the limitations of this test and the ramifications of the test results for assessing the need for future qualification testing in particular hydrazine thruster applications.

  7. Interactions of hydrazine, ferrous sulfamate, sodium nitrite, and nitric acid in nuclear fuel processing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1977-03-01

    Hydrazine and ferrous sulfamate are used as reductants in a variety of nuclear fuel processing solutions. An oxidant, normally sodium nitrite, must frequently be added to these nitric acid solutions before additional processing can proceed. The interactions of these four chemicals have been studied under a wide variety of conditions using a 2/sup p/ factorial experimental design to determine relative reaction rates for desired reactions and side reactions. Evidence for a hydrazine-stabilized, sulfamic acid--nitrous acid intermediate was obtained; this intermediate can hydrolyze to ammonia or decompose to nitrogen. The oxidation of Fe 2+ by NO 2 - was shown to proceed at about the same rate as the scavenging of NO 2 - by sulfamic acid. Various side reactions are discussed

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen, hydrazine and pH outside the crevice on the galvanic corrosion of support plate alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKubre, M.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been performed of the initial corrosion of support structure alloys in crevices of various geometries, when galvanically coupled to alloy 600. Corrosion rates were monitored continuously by measuring the galvanic current flowing in each couple, transduced by a zero impedance ammeter. Experiments were performed in a single-pass flowing electrolyte system, with AVT water pumped through alloy 600 tubing past the orifice of each crevice. Fourteen crevices were studied simultaneously in two parallel flow arms containing seven specimens each. The steady state AVT water pH/hydrazine/oxygen concentrations were controlled by microcomputer, allowing the effect of secondary water chemistry on the corrosion rate to be studied easily. Control of the crevice electrolyte composition was achieved by separately pumping electrolyte, at a low rate, directly into the crevices of the seven specimens in the lower flow arm. In addition, a high pressure syringe was used to introduce chemicals directly into the secondary or crevice electrolyte flow streams, in order to rapidly evaluate the influence of potential corrodent or corrosion control agents on the galvanic corrosion rates. Specimens were studied in the five basic geometries

  9. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia, E-mail: ulkuyuce@hotmail.co [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Meric, Niyazi, E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Atakol, Orhan, E-mail: atakol@science.ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Yasar, Fusun, E-mail: ab121310@adalet.gov.t [Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara Branch, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  10. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia; Meric, Niyazi; Atakol, Orhan; Yasar, Fusun

    2010-01-01

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  11. Reaction of hydrazine hydrate with oxalic acid: synthesis and crystal structure of dihydrazinium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Premkumar, Thathan; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Saravanan, Kaliannan; Govindarajan, Subbiah

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic centre of symmetry in the middle of the C-C bond. The C-O bond distances are almost equal indicating the presence of resonance in the oxalate ion. The crystal packing is st...

  12. The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, P J; Andrew, P; Campbell, D; Clement, S; Davies, S; Ehrenberg, J; Erents, S K; Gondhalekar, A; Gadeberg, M; Gottardi, N; Von Hellermann, M; Horton, L; Loarte, A; Lowry, C; Maggi, C; McCormick, K; O` Brien, D; Reichle, R; Saibene, G; Simonini, R; Spence, J; Stamp, M; Stork, D; Taroni, A; Vlases, G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Ion temperature anisotropy in high power helium neutral beam fuelling experiments in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, A C; Core, W G.F.; Gerstel, U C; Von Hellermann, M G; Koenig, R W.T.; Marcus, F B [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    During helium beam fuelling experiments in JET, distinctive anisotropic features have been observed in the velocity distribution function describing both fast and thermal alpha particle populations. During the initial fuelling phase the central helium ion temperature observed perpendicular to the magnetic field is higher than the central electron temperature, while the central helium ion temperature observed parallel to the magnetic field is lower than or equal to the central electron temperature. In order to verify temperature measurements of both perpendicular and parallel lines of sight, other independent methods of deducing the ion temperature are investigated: deuterium ion temperature, deuterium density, comparison with neutron rates and profiles (influence of a possible metastable population of helium). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Plasma heating and fuelling in the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.; Barsukov, A.G.; Belyakov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the last two years of plasma investigations at Globus-M are presented. Described are improvements helping to achieve high performance OH plasmas, which are used as the target for auxiliary heating and fuelling experiments. Increased energy content, high beta poloidal and good confinement are reported. Experiments on NBI plasma heating with a wide range of plasma parameters were performed. Some results are presented and analyzed. Experiments on RF plasma heating in the frequency range of fundamental ion cyclotron harmonics are described. In some experiments which were performed for the first time in spherical tokamaks, promising results were achieved. Noticeable ion heating was recorded at low launched power and a high concentration of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas. Simulations of RF wave absorption are briefly discussed. Described also are modification of the plasma gun and test-stand experiments. Fuelling experiments performed at Globus-M are discussed. (author)

  15. GOTHIC analysis of post-accident hydrogen mixing behaviour in CANDU fuelling machine vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K.; Wong, R.C.; Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The GOTHIC code was used to assess the post-accident hydrogen gas mixing patterns in a CANDU reactor containment and demonstrate the acceptability of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's hydrogen mitigation methods. The fuelling machine vault, being a small volume room containing major reactor piping, is the room of most concern with respect to hydrogen concentrations. Detailed three dimensional modelling of the gas mixing patterns in the fuelling machine vault was completed. Results showed that, even without forced air circulation, there is enough dispersion of hydrogen to other parts of containment to preclude the build-up of sensitive mixtures in the vault. For a brief time during the peak period of hydrogen release, hydrogen concentrations rise to close to the lower ignition limit in a small portion of the vault, but these hydrogen-steam-air mixtures are considered acceptable. Natural mixing alone is sufficient to preclude damaging hydrogen burns. (author)

  16. U-233 fuelled low critical mass solution reactor experiment PURNIMA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Rasheed, K.K.; Subba Rao, K.

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous U-233 uranyl nitrate solution fuelled BeO reflected, low critical mass reactor has been built at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Christened PURNIMA II, the reactor was used for the study of the variation of critical mass as a function of fuel solution concentration to determine the minimum critical mass achievable for this geometry. Other experiments performed include the determination of temperature coefficient of reactivity, study of time behaviour of photoneutrons produced due to interaction between decaying U-233 fission product gammas and the beryllium reflector and reactor noise measurements. Besides being the only operational U-233 fuelled reactor at present, PURNIMA II also has the distinction of having attained the lowest critical mass of 397 g of fissile fuel for any operating reactor at the current time. The paper briefly describes the facility and gives an account of the experiments performed and results achieved. (author)

  17. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  18. Amperometric detection of hydrazine utilizing synergistic action of prussian blue @ silver nanoparticles / graphite felt modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jihua; Liu, Jianxin; Tricard, Simon; Wang, Lei; Liang, Yanling; Cao, Linghua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prussian Blue (PB) deposition on Ag/GF for electrochemical hydrazine sensing; • Lower detection limit of 4.9 × 10 −7 mol L −1 , stable over 24 days; • High sensitivity: 26.06 A mol −1 L. -- Abstract: In this study, a triple-component hydrazine sensor (PB@Ag/GF) was fabricated with freestanding graphite felt (GF), silver nanoparticles (Ag) and prussian blue (PB). The Ag nanoparticles were electrodeposited on GF ultrasonically (Ag/GF), and acted as a catalyst of the chemical deposition of PB. The electrode was characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical behavior of PB@Ag/GF was measured by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurements. The sensor displayed a prominent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrazine oxidation, with a fast response time of 2 s, a low detection limit of 4.9 × 10 −7 mol L −1 and very high detection sensitivity of 26.06 A mol −1 L

  19. Influence of hydrazine primary water chemistry on corrosion of fuel cladding and primary circuit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iourmanov, V.; Pashevich, V.; Bogancs, J.; Tilky, P.; Schunk, J.; Pinter, T.

    1999-01-01

    Earlier at Paks 1-4 NPP standard ammonia chemistry was in use. The following station performance indicators were improved when hydrazine primary water chemistry was introduced: occupational radiation exposures of personnel; gamma-radiation dose rates near primary system components during refuelling and maintenance outages. The reduction of radiation exposures and radiation fields were achieved without significant expenses. Recent results of experimental studies allowed to explain the mechanism of hydrazine dosing influence on: corrosion rate of structure materials in primary coolant; behaviour of soluble and insoluble corrosion products including long-life corrosion-induced radionuclides in primary system during steady-state and transient operation modes; radiolytic generation of oxidising radiolytic products in core and its corrosion activity in primary system; radiation situation during refuelling and maintenance outages; foreign material degradation and removal (including corrosion active oxidant species) from primary system during abnormal events. Operational experience and experimental data have shown that hydrazine primary water chemistry allows to reduce corrosion wear and thereby makes it possible to extend the life-time of plant components in primary system. (author)

  20. Electrochemical behavior of rhodium acetamidate immobilized on a carbon paste electrode: a hydrazine sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Eric de S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of rhodium acetamidate immobilized in carbon paste electrode and the consequences for sensor construction were evaluated. The electrode showed good stability and redox properties. Two reversible redox couples with midpoint potentials between 0.15 and 0.55 V vs SCE were observed. However, peak resolution in voltammetric studies was very dependent on the supporting electrolyte. The correlation between coordinating power of the electrolyte and peak potential suggests that the electrolyte can coordinate through the axial position of the complexes. Furthermore, the axial position may be also the catalytic site, as a catalytical response was observed for hydrazine oxidation. A good linear response range for hydrazine was fit by the equation i = 23.13 (± 0.34 c , where i = current in mA and c = concentration in mol dm-3 in the range of 10-5 up to 10-2 mol dm-3. The low applied potential (<300 mV indicates a good device for hydrazine sensor, minimizing interference problems. The short response time (~1 s may be useful in flow injection analysis. Furthermore, this system was very stable presenting good repeatability even after 30 measurements with a variance of 0.5 %.

  1. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  2. Hydrazine-hydrothermal method to synthesize three-dimensional chalcogenide framework for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Kanhere, Pushkar D.; Wong, Chui Ling; Tian Yuefeng; Feng Yuhua; Boey, Freddy; Wu, Tom; Chen Hongyu; White, Tim J.; Chen Zhong; Zhang Qichun

    2010-01-01

    A novel chalcogenide, [Mn 2 Sb 2 S 5 (N 2 H 4 ) 3 ] (1), has been synthesized by the hydrazine-hydrothermal method. X-ray crystallography study reveals that the new compound 1 crystallizes in space group P1-bar (no. 2) of the triclinic system. The structure features an open neutral three-dimensional framework, where two-dimensional mesh-like inorganic layers are bridged by intra- and inter-layer hydrazine ligands. Both two Mn1 and Mn2 sites adopt distorted octahedral coordination. While two Sb1 and Sb2 sites exhibit two different coordination geometries, the Sb1 site is coordinated with three S atoms to generate a SbS 3 trigonal-pyramidal geometry, and the Sb2 site adopts a SbS 4 trigonal bipyramidal coordination geometry. It has an optical band gap of about ∼2.09 eV, which was deduced from the diffuse reflectance spectrum, and displays photocatalytic behaviors under visible light irradiation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show compound 1 obeys the Curie-Weiss law in the range of 50-300 K. -- Graphical abstract: A novel chalcogenide, [Mn 2 Sb 2 S 5 (N 2 H 4 ) 3 ] (1), synthesized by hydrazine-hydrothermal method, has a band gap of about ∼2.09 eV and displays photocatalytic behaviors under visible light irradiation. Display Omitted

  3. Isolation of N-linked glycopeptides by hydrazine-functionalized magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Ganglong; Wang, Ting; Wang, Qinzhe; Chen, Chao; Li, Zheng

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a novel combination of magnetic particles with hydrazine chemistry, dubbed as hydrazine-functionalized magnetic particles (HFMP) for isolation of glycopeptides. Four methods have been developed and compared for the production of HFMP by hydrazine modification of the surface of the carboxyl and epoxy-silanized magnetic particles, respectively. The evaluation of the capability and specificity of HFMP as well as the optimization of the coupling condition for capturing of glycoproteins were systematically investigated. The results showed that HFMP prepared by adipic dihydrazide functionalization from carboxyl-silanized magnetic particles (HFCA) displayed the maximum capture capacity and isolated efficiency for glycoprotein. When measured with glycoproteins, the capacity of the HFCA (1 g) for coupling bovine fetuin was 130 +/- 5.3 mg. The capability of this method was also confirmed by successful isolation of all formerly glycosylated peptides from standard glycoproteins and identification of their glycosylation sites, which demonstrated the feasibility of the HFCA as an alternative solid support for isolation of glycoproteins/glycopeptides.

  4. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  5. Benchmark physics tests in the metallic-fuelled assembly ZPPR-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, H.F.; Brumbach, S.B.; Carpenter, S.G.; Collins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the last two years a shift in emphasis to inherent safety and economic competitiveness has led to a resurgence in US interest in metallic-alloy fuels for LMRs. Argonne National Laboratory initiated an extensive testing program for metallic-fuelled LMR technology that has included benchmark physics as one component. The tests done in the ZPPR-15 Program produced the first physics results in over 20 years for a metal-composition LMR core

  6. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Chasos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibility analysis of the two types of ICE vehicles, namely gasoline and natural gas fuelled vehicles. The technical model uses the physical properties of the two fuels and the performance factors of internal combustion engines including brake thermal efficiency. The resulting exhaust gas emissions are also estimated by the technical model using combustion calculations which provide the expected levels of exhaust gas emissions. Based on the analysis with the technical model, comparisons of the two types of engines are performed. Furthermore, the estimated performance characteristics of the two types of engines, along with local statistical data on annual fuel imports and annual fuel consumption for transportation and data on the vehicles fleet for the case study of Cyprus are used as input in the economical model. For the base year 2013, data of natural gas price is also used in the economical model. The economical model estimates the capital cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance of fines, the net present value and the internal rate of return of the investment of large scale adaptation of natural gas fuelled vehicles for the case study. From the results and comparisons, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for the adaptation of natural gas vehicles which can provide improved performance with reduced pollutant emissions.

  7. Supervision of fuelling stations and pipelines; Ueberwachung von Tankanlagen und Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, W. [Rietschle Thomas Puchheim GmbH (Germany). ASF Leckanzeiger Systeme

    2005-08-01

    Construction of fuelling stations and fuel stores requires deep knowledge in order to ensure uninterrupted operation according to specifications (TRbF 20 Laeger and TRbF 40 Tankstellen). Even after the coming into force of the Operational Safety Ordinance (Betriebssicherheitsverordnung), the current technical rules will remain in force until new technical rules will have been developed by the Experts Committee for Operational Safety (Ausschuss fuer Betriebssicherheit) and published by the Federal Minister of Economy and Labour. (orig.)

  8. Sensitive amperometric determination of hydrazine using a carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    such as the liver, brain, kidney [4] and DNA damages [5], blood abnormalities and irreversible deterioration of nervous system [6]. Wide industrial and ... However, the major barrier to the direct electrochemical. ∗. Author for correspondence ...

  9. Spatial graduation of fuel taxes; consequences for cross-border and domestic fuelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietveld, P.; Bruinsma, F.R.; Vuuren, D.J. van [Vrije University, Amsterdam (Niger). Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics, Department of Spatial Economics and Tinbergen Institute

    2001-07-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes between various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of dealing with this problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher farther away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for The Netherlands. Impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations are analysed. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve in order to prevent fuel-fetching trips is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as The Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to considerable problems, even when the graduation curve is not steep that fuel-fetching trips are prevented. The reason is that - given their activity patterns - car drivers will change the location of their fuelling activity leading to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with high taxes. (author)

  10. An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Erol [Program of Energy Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Cihangir Ozcanli, S.; Ozerdem, Baris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In the present paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional four cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine operated on hydrogen and gasoline are investigated experimentally. The compressed hydrogen at 20 MPa has been introduced to the engine adopted to operate on gaseous hydrogen by external mixing. Two regulators have been used to drop the pressure first to 300 kPa, then to atmospheric pressure. The variations of torque, power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure, exhaust gas temperature, and emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, and O{sub 2} versus engine speed are compared for a carbureted SI engine operating on gasoline and hydrogen. Energy analysis also has studied for comparison purpose. The test results have been demonstrated that power loss occurs at low speed hydrogen operation whereas high speed characteristics compete well with gasoline operation. Fast burning characteristics of hydrogen have permitted high speed engine operation. Less heat loss has occurred for hydrogen than gasoline. NO{sub x} emission of hydrogen fuelled engine is about 10 times lower than gasoline fuelled engine. Finally, both first and second law efficiencies have improved with hydrogen fuelled engine compared to gasoline engine. It has been proved that hydrogen is a very good candidate as an engine fuel. The obtained data are also very useful for operational changes needed to optimize the hydrogen fueled SI engine design. (author)

  11. Particle fuelling for long pulse with standard gas puff and supersonic pulsed gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Martin, G.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the standard gas puff and to the technically complex pellet injection, a novel intermediate method, based on the injection of a supersonic high density cloud of neutrals, has been recently implemented on the Tore Supra tokamak. Fuelling efficiency, in the 30-50% range are found while it lies in the 10-20% range for the gas puff. It is not sensitive to the plasma density and to the additional heating. According to modelling, the increased efficiency is attributed to the very short injection duration compared to the particle confinement time and to the strong cooling of the plasma edge resulting from the massive injection of matter. A feedback loop on the frequency of the injector has been successfully implemented to control the plasma density. In long pulse experiments (>200s), wall saturation has not been reached. Gas puffing rate was typically around 1 Pa.m 3 s -1 while dynamic wall retention around 0.6 Pa.m 3 s -1 . Co-deposited carbon layer could trap such large amounts of gas. A discharge fuelled by supersonic pulsed gas injections exhibits lower wall retention than a gas puff fuelled discharge. (author)

  12. Life-cycle impacts from novel thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, S.F.; Fenner, R.A.; Nuttall, W.J.; Parks, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA performed for three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • LCA for open cycle U-fuelled nuclear energy system (Areva’s EPR) used as benchmark. • U-fuelled EPR had lowest emissions per kWh over all systems studied in this work. • LCA model developed for thorium recovered from monazitic beach sands. • LCA model developed for the production of heavy water. - Abstract: Electricity generated from nuclear power plants is generally associated with low emissions per kWh generated, an aspect that feeds into the wider debate surrounding nuclear power. This paper seeks to investigate how life-cycle emissions would be affected by including thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, and in particular its inclusion in technologies that could prospectively operate open Th–U-based nuclear fuel cycles. Three potential Th–U-based systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles are considered: AREVA’s European Pressurised Reactor; India’s Advanced Heavy Water Reactor; and General Atomics’ Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor. These technologies are compared to a reference U-fuelled European Pressurised Reactor. A life-cycle analysis is performed that considers the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each of the reactor technologies and all of the other associated facilities in the open nuclear fuel cycle. This includes the development of life-cycle analysis models to describe the extraction of thorium from monazitic beach sands and for the production of heavy water. The results of the life-cycle impact analysis highlight that the reference U-fuelled system has the lowest overall emissions per kWh generated, predominantly due to having the second-lowest uranium ore requirement per kWh generated. The results highlight that the requirement for mined or recovered uranium (and thorium) ore is the greatest overall contributor to emissions, with the possible exception of nuclear energy systems that require heavy water. In terms of like

  13. Electroless plating of Ni–B film as a binder-free highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrazine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiao-Ping; Dai, Hong-Bin, E-mail: mshbdai@scut.edu.cn; Wu, Lin-Song; Wang, Ping, E-mail: mspwang@scut.edu.cn

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: A Ni–B film was grown on Ni foam to form a binder-free highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrazine oxidation in alkaline medium. The newly-developed Ni–B/Ni foam electrocatalyst may promote the practical application of hydrazine as a viable energy carrier for fuel cells. - Highlights: • A Ni–B film grown on Ni foam electrocatalyst is prepared by the electrless plating. • The Ni–B film shows high activity and stability for N{sub 2}H{sub 4} electrooxidation reaction. • The improved catalytic property is ascribed to B-tuned electronic structure of Ni. • The resultant catalyst may promote application of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} as a viable energy carrier. - Abstract: Hydrazine is a promising energy carrier for fuel cells owing to its combined advantages of high theoretical cell voltage, high-power density, and no greenhouse gas emission. By using an electroless plating process, we have prepared a robust Ni–B film grown on Ni foam that is highly effective for hydrazine electrooxidation in alkaline media. The effects of reaction temperature, concentrations of hydrous hydrazine and sodium hydroxide in the fuel solution on performance of hydrazine electrooxidation reaction are investigated. The mechanistic reason for the property advantage of as-prepared Ni–B/Ni foam catalyst over the relevant catalysts is discussed based on careful kinetics studies and characterization. The facile synthesis of Ni-based catalyst with high activity and good stability is of clear significance for the development of hydrous hydrazine as a viable energy carrier.

  14. Electroless plating of Ni–B film as a binder-free highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrazine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiao-Ping; Dai, Hong-Bin; Wu, Lin-Song; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Ni–B film was grown on Ni foam to form a binder-free highly efficient electrocatalyst for hydrazine oxidation in alkaline medium. The newly-developed Ni–B/Ni foam electrocatalyst may promote the practical application of hydrazine as a viable energy carrier for fuel cells. - Highlights: • A Ni–B film grown on Ni foam electrocatalyst is prepared by the electrless plating. • The Ni–B film shows high activity and stability for N_2H_4 electrooxidation reaction. • The improved catalytic property is ascribed to B-tuned electronic structure of Ni. • The resultant catalyst may promote application of N_2H_4 as a viable energy carrier. - Abstract: Hydrazine is a promising energy carrier for fuel cells owing to its combined advantages of high theoretical cell voltage, high-power density, and no greenhouse gas emission. By using an electroless plating process, we have prepared a robust Ni–B film grown on Ni foam that is highly effective for hydrazine electrooxidation in alkaline media. The effects of reaction temperature, concentrations of hydrous hydrazine and sodium hydroxide in the fuel solution on performance of hydrazine electrooxidation reaction are investigated. The mechanistic reason for the property advantage of as-prepared Ni–B/Ni foam catalyst over the relevant catalysts is discussed based on careful kinetics studies and characterization. The facile synthesis of Ni-based catalyst with high activity and good stability is of clear significance for the development of hydrous hydrazine as a viable energy carrier.

  15. Synthetic lubrication oil influences on performance and emission characteristic of coated diesel engine fuelled by biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthetic lubricant provides the maximum performance benefits. • Synthetic lubricant is capable of retaining satisfactory viscosity. • Synthetic lubricant is to increase the life of the engine. • Improvement in efficiency of the coated engine with synthetic lubrication. • No significant changes in the coated engine emission with synthetic lubricants. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of using synthetic lubricating oil on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection diesel engine running on Pongamia methyl ester blends and diesel have been investigated experimentally compared to those obtained from a conventional diesel engine with SAE 40 lubrication oil fuelled by diesel. For this purpose, direct injection diesel engine was converted to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated engine. The results showed 5–9% increase in engine efficiency and 8–17% decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NO_X) for all tested fuels (pure diesel, B10 and B20) used in coated engine with synthetic lubricants compared to that of the uncoated engine with SAE 40 lubricant running on diesel fuel.

  16. Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anmesh Kumar; Soni, Shyam Lal; Sharma, Dilip; Jain, Narayan Lal

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of 200 bar for diesel-acetylene dual-fuel mode which was much higher than 23.32% obtained for baseline diesel. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emissions were also measured and found to be lower, while the NO x emissions were higher at 200 bar in dual fuel mode as compared to those in other injection pressures in dual fuel mode and also for baseline diesel mode. Peak cylinder pressure, net heat release rate, and rate of pressure rise were also calculated and were higher at 200 bar injection pressure in dual fuel mode.

  17. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  18. Cost comparison of 4x500 MW coal-fuelled and 4x850 MW CANDU nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetime costs for a 4x850 MW CANDU generating station are compared to those for 4x500 MW bituminous coal-fuelled generating stations. Two types of coal-fuelled stations are considered; one burning U.S. coal which includes flue gas desulfurization and one burning Western Canadian coal. Current estimates for the capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, fuel costs, decommissioning costs and irradiated fuel management costs are shown. The results show: (1) The accumulated discounted costs of nuclear generation, although initially higher, are lower than coal-fuelled generation after two or three years. (2) Fuel costs provide the major contribution to the total lifetime costs for coal-fuelled stations whereas capital costs are the major item for the nuclear station. (3) The break even lifetime capacity factor between nuclear and U.S. coal-fuelled generation is projected to be 5%; that for nuclear and Canadian coal-fuelled generation is projected to be 9%. (4) Large variations in the costs are required before the cost advantage of nuclear generation is lost. (5) Comparison with previous results shows that the nuclear alternative has a greater cost advantage in the current assessment. (6) The total unit energy cost remains approximately constant throughout the station life for nuclear generation while that for coal-fuelled generation increases significantly due to escalating fuel costs. The 1978 and 1979 actual total unit energy cost to the consumer for several Ontario Hydro stations are detailed, and projected total unit energy costs for several Ontario Hydro stations are shown in terms of escalated dollars and in 1980 constant dollars

  19. Ultra-high sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor based on low-temperature grown ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Singh, Kulvinder; Umar, Ahmad; Chaudhary, G.R.; Singh, Sukhjinder

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Systematic representation of the fabricated amperometric hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO NPs/Au modified electrode. Highlights: ► Synthesis of well-crystalline ZnO NPs has been achieved in aqueous solution. ► ZnO NPs act as efficient electron mediators for hydrazine sensor. ► Extremely high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained. - Abstract: Using well-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), an ultra high sensitive hydrazine amperometric sensor has been fabricated and reported in this paper. The ZnO NPs have been synthesized by very simple aqueous solution process at 90 °C and characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties. The detailed investigations reveal that the synthesized products are well-crystalline NPs, possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibit good optical properties. The fabricated amperometric hydrazine sensor exhibits ultra-high sensitivity of ∼97.133 μA cm −2 μM −1 and very low-detection limit of 147.54 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which an ultra-high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained for the hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO nanostructures.

  20. Thionine-Bromate as a New Reaction System for Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Hydrazine in Cooling Tower Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Reza Shishehbore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective, and inexpensive kinetic method was developed for the determination of hydrazine based on its inhibitory effect on the thionine-bromate system in sulfuric acid media. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically at 601 nm by a fixed time method. The effect of different parameters such as concentration of reactants, ionic strength, temperature, and time on the rate of reaction was investigated, and the optimum conditions were obtained. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 0.8–23.0 μg mL−1 of hydrazine, and the detection limit of the method was 0.22 μg mL−1. The relative standard deviation for five replicate determinations of 1.0 μg mL−1 of hydrazine was 0.74%. The potential of interfering effect of foreign species on the hydrazine determination was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of hydrazine in different water samples.

  1. Effect of gold nanoparticle as a novel nanocatalyst on luminol-hydrazine chemiluminescence system and its analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, A.; Absalan, G.; Bamdad, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the catalytic role of unsupported gold nanoparticles on the luminol-hydrazine reaction is investigated. Gold nanoparticles catalyze the reaction of hydrazine and dissolved oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide and also catalyze the oxidation of luminol by the produced hydrogen peroxide. The result is an intense chemiluminescence (CL) due to the excited 3-aminophthalate anion. In the absence of gold nanoparticles no detectable CL was observed by the reaction of luminol and hydrazine unless an external oxidant is present in the system. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the CL intensity was investigated. The most intensive CL signals were obtained with 15-nm gold nanoparticles. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy studies were used to investigate the CL mechanism. The luminol and hydroxide ion concentration, gold nanoparticles size and flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine in boiler feed water samples. Between 0.1 and 30 μM of hydrazine could be determined with a detection limit of 30 nM

  2. Determination of 17-oxosteroid glucuronides and sulfates in urine and serum by fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography using dansyl hydrazine as a prelabeling reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Maeda, M; Tsuji, A

    1982-12-10

    A fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the direct determination of conjugated 17-oxosteroids in biological fluids without hydrolysis. Conjugated 17-oxosteroids are extracted with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, labeled with dansyl hydrazine in trichloroacetic acid--benzene solution and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase muBondapak C18 column using 0.01 M sodium acetate in methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. The eluate is monitored by a fluorophotometer at 365 nm (excitation) and 520 nm (emission). Linearities of fluorescence intensities (peak heights) with the amounts of various conjugated 17-oxosteroids were obtained between 10 pmol and 100 pmol. This method is sensitive, reliable and useful for the simultaneous determination of conjugated 17-oxosteroids in urine and serum.

  3. Ammonia and hydrazine. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydroamination and metal-free catalyzed functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, Guy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-06-29

    The efficient and selective preparation of organic molecules is critical for mankind. For the future, it is of paramount importance to find catalysts able to transform abundant and cheap feedstocks into useful compounds. Acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen-containing derivatives are common components of naturally occurring compounds, agrochemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; they are also useful intermediates in a number of industrial processes. One of the most widely used synthetic strategies, allowing the formation of an N-C bond, is the addition of an N-H bond across a carbon-carbon multiple bond, the so-called hydroamination reaction. This chemical transformation fulfills the principle of “green chemistry” since it ideally occurs with 100% atom economy. Various catalysts have been found to promote this reaction, although many limitations remain; one of the most prominent is the lack of methods that permit the use of NH3 and NH2NH2 as the amine partners. In fact, ammonia and hydrazine have rarely succumbed to homogeneous catalytic transformations. Considering the low cost and abundance of ammonia (136 million metric tons produced in 2011) and hydrazine, catalysts able to improve the reactivity and selectivity of the NH3- and NH2NH2-hydroamination reaction, and more broadly speaking the functionalization of these chemicals, are highly desirable. In the last funded period, we discovered the first homogeneous catalysts able to promote the hydroamination of alkynes and allenes with ammonia and the parent hydrazine. The key feature of our catalytic systems is that the formation of catalytically inactive Werner complexes is reversible, in marked contrast to most of the known ammonia and hydrazine transition metal complexes. This is due to the peculiar electronic properties of our neutral ancillary ligands, especially their strong donating capabilities. However, our catalysts currently require

  4. Characterization of Anammox Hydrazine Dehydrogenase, a Key N2-producing Enzyme in the Global Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalcke, Wouter J; Reimann, Joachim; de Vries, Simon; Butt, Julea N; Dietl, Andreas; Kip, Nardy; Mersdorf, Ulrike; Barends, Thomas R M; Jetten, Mike S M; Keltjens, Jan T; Kartal, Boran

    2016-08-12

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria derive their energy for growth from the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor. N2, the end product of this metabolism, is produced from the oxidation of the intermediate, hydrazine (N2H4). Previously, we identified N2-producing hydrazine dehydrogenase (KsHDH) from the anammox organism Kuenenia stuttgartiensis as the gene product of kustc0694 and determined some of its catalytic properties. In the genome of K. stuttgartiensis, kustc0694 is one of 10 paralogs related to octaheme hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidoreductase (HAO). Here, we characterized KsHDH as a covalently cross-linked homotrimeric octaheme protein as found for HAO and HAO-related hydroxylamine-oxidizing enzyme kustc1061 from K. stuttgartiensis Interestingly, the HDH trimers formed octamers in solution, each octamer harboring an amazing 192 c-type heme moieties. Whereas HAO and kustc1061 are capable of hydrazine oxidation as well, KsHDH was highly specific for this activity. To understand this specificity, we performed detailed amino acid sequence analyses and investigated the catalytic and spectroscopic (electronic absorbance, EPR) properties of KsHDH in comparison with the well defined HAO and kustc1061. We conclude that HDH specificity is most likely derived from structural changes around the catalytic heme 4 (P460) and of the electron-wiring circuit comprising seven His/His-ligated c-type hemes in each subunit. These nuances make HDH a globally prominent N2-producing enzyme, next to nitrous oxide (N2O) reductase from denitrifying microorganisms. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  6. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion paths relevant for different raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Tingting; Chutichai, Bhawasut; Alvfors, Per; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and gasification are viable biomass conversion technologies. • GF-PEMFC system yields a 20% electric efficiency and 57% thermal efficiency. • AD-PEMFC system has a 9% electric efficiency and 13% thermal efficiency. • AD-PEMFC system has an efficient land-use. • GF-PEMFC system has a high CO_2 emissions offset factor. - Abstract: Biomass-fuelled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer a solution for replacing fossil fuel with hydrogen production. This paper uses simulation methods for investigating biomass-fuelled PEMFCs for different raw materials and conversion paths. For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification (GF), respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies. Therefore, the AD-PEMFC system and the GF-PEMFC system are simulated for residential applications in order to evaluate the performance of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems. The results of the evaluation show that renewable hydrogen-rich gas from manure or forest residues is usable for the PEMFCs and makes the fuel cell stack work in a stable manner. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yields an excellent technical performance with a 20% electric efficiency and 57% thermal efficiency, whereas the AD-PEMFC system only has an 9% electric efficiency and 13% thermal efficiency due to the low efficiency of the anaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD and the steam reformer (SR). Additionally, in this study, the environmental performances of the AD-PEMFC and the GF-PEMFC in terms of CO_2 emission offset and land-use efficiency are discussed.

  7. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10 5 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  8. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 105 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  9. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10{sup 5} and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyamides from 1,2-Bis hydrazine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaha, A.; Abdel-Bary, E.M.; Kandilea, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Preparation of polyamides having different chemical structures allows obtaining new materials with different mechanical and physical properties. The difference in the chemical structure depends mainly on the starting reactants used in condensation polymerization of polyamides. In this paper the synthesis of new polyamides based on the condensation polymerization of 1,2- Bis(3-carboxyacryloyl or carboxybenzoyl) hydrazine derivatives and various diamines has been described. The polymers obtained were characterized using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis. Besides thermal stability and electrical conductivity have been evaluated and correlated with the chemical structure of the polyamides obtained

  11. Spectral properties of ultrasmall CdS nanoparticles Stabilized by mercaptoacids and hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonenko, Dmytro I.; Rayevska, Oleksandra Ye.; Stroyuk, Oleksandr L.; Kuchmiy, Stepan Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasmall colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized in water at room temperature by using a combination of two low-molecular-weight stabilizers - hydrazine and a mercaptoacid, particularly, mercaptoacetic and mercaptopropionic-2 acids. The average size of QDs was found to depend on the Cd-to-S ratio at the synthesis and be as small as 2,5 nm at 80% cadmium(II) excess. The CdS QDs emit broadband photoluminescence in the visible spectrum range with a relative quantum yield of around 5% and the radiative life time of around 100 ns. (authors)

  12. Standard and hydrazine water chemistry in primary circuit of VVER 440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burclova, J.

    1992-01-01

    Standard ammonia-potassium-boron water chemistry of 8 units with VVER 440 in CSFR is discussed as well as the corrosion product activity in the coolant during steady state and shut-down period and surface activity, dose rate build-up and occupational radiation exposure. Available data on hydrazine application (USSR, Hungary) indicate the possibility of the radiation field decreasing. Nevertheless the detailed analysis of 55 cycles of operation under standard water chemistry in Czechoslovakia allows to expect the comparable results for both water chemistries. (author)

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine by graphene oxide-Pd nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Daekun; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Yun, Mira; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-12-01

    Pd nanoparticle catalysts supported by thiolated graphene oxide (tGO) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and denoted as tGO-Pd/GCE, are used in this study for the electrochemical determination of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. The physicochemical properties of tGO-Pd were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine and hydrazine by tGO-Pd/GCE were 0.31 and 0.25 microM (s/n = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated.

  14. A modern automatic Carriage-Trolley Position Control System for Dhruva fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Hari Balakrishna; Narvekar, J.P.; Sanadhya, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    A fully automatic absolute encoder based position control system has been designed developed implemented and commissioned for the Dhruva Fuelling Machine A (FM/A). This supports both the coarse and fine positioning modes. Provision for fully manual positioning as a standby system has been retained. This system replaces the ageing peg counting based incremental positioner used briefly during the early period after the Dhruva FM/A was commissioned. The older system suffered from peg detection skipping problems; hence it was not being used. Only full manual positioning was being carried out. This paper describes the automatic Carriage Trolley Position Control System (CTPCS). (author)

  15. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  16. The development of a non-cryogenic nitrogen/oxygen supply system. [using hydrazine/water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.; Mahan, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrazine/water electrolysis process system module design was fabricated and tested to demonstrate component and module performance. This module is capable of providing both the metabolic oxygen for crew needs and the oxygen and nitrogen for spacecraft leak makeup. The component designs evolved through previous R and D efforts, and were fabricated and tested individually and then were assembled into a complete module which was successfully tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate integration of the individual components. A survey was made of hydrazine sensor technology and a cell math model was derived.

  17. Reactivity of nanoaggregations of platinum on supports of different nature in reactions of catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, A.V.; Boltoeva, M.Yu.; Grigor'ev, M.S.; Shilov, V.P.; Sharygin, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Platinized catalysts on the basis of supports of different chemical nature are tested in reactions of catalytic hydrazine decomposition in perchloric and nitric acid solutions. In perchloric acid catalytic activity of catalysts on the basis of ceramic materials of Termoksid brand is higher of activity of catalysts on the basis of amorphous silica gel. In nitric acid solutions opposite dependence is observed. Tendency of ceramic supports to peptization in acid solutions is pointed out. Results obtained are interpreted using conceptions of energetic heterogeneity of surface atoms and hydrazine catalytic decomposition mechanisms in different media [ru

  18. Liquid-Phase Heat-Release Rates of the Systems Hydrazine-Nitric Acid and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine-Nitric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Dezso; Feiler, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    The initial rates of heat release produced by the reactions of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with nitric acid were determined in a bomb calorimeter under conditions of forced mixing. Fuel-oxidant weight ratio and injection velocity were varied. The rate of heat release apparently depended on the interfacial area between the propellants. Above a narrow range of injection velocities representing a critical amount of interfacial area, the rates reached a maximum and were almost constant with injection velocity. The maximum rate for hydrazine was about 70 percent greater than that for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The total heat released did not vary with mixture ratio over the range studied.

  19. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was concluded that long-term price forecasts will help the biofuel industry to mature. 6 figs

  20. Effects of fuelling by using high-pressure supersonic molecular beam in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibin; Feng Zhen; Dong Jiafu; Li Wenzhong; Xu Deming; Hong Wenyu

    2002-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam (SMB), as a new fuelling method, has been successfully developed and used in HL-1M tokamak and HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The hydrogen clusters have been found in the beam produced by high working-gas pressure in recent experiments. With a penetration depth of hydrogen particles greater than 17 cm, the rate of increase of electron density for SMB injection, dn e -bar/dt, approaches that of the small ice pellet injection. The plasma density increases step by step after multi-pulse SMB injection, just as multi-pellet fuelling. Comparison of fuelling effects was made between SMB and ice pellet injection on the same shot of ohmic discharge in HL-1M

  1. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaga, H; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Fujita, T [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: takenaga.hidenobu@jaea.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  2. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, H.; Ide, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujita, T.; JT-60 Team

    2008-07-01

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  3. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  4. Producer gas fuelling of a 20kW output engine by gasification of solid biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingdale, A C; Breag, G R; Pearce, D

    1988-11-01

    Motive power requirements in the range up to 100 kW shaft power are common in developing country processing operations. Producer gas-fuelled systems based upon a relatively cheap and simple manually operated gasifier or reactor using readily available biomass feedstock can offer in some cases an attractive alternative to fossil-fuelled power units. This bulletin outlines research and development work by the Industrial Development Department of the Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute for 20 kW shaft power output from producer gas derived from solid biomass. Biomass materials such as wood or shells can be carbonized to form charcoal or left in the natural uncarbonized state. In this work both carbonized and uncarbonized biomass fuel has been used to provide producer gas to fuel a Ford 2274E engine, an industrial version of a standard vehicle spark-ignition engine. Cross-draught and down-draught reactor designs were evaluated during trials with this engine. Also different gas cleaning and cooling arrangements were tested. Particular emphasis was placed on practical aspects of reactor/engine operation. This work follows earlier work with a 4 kW shaft power output system using charcoal-derived producer gas. (author).

  5. Non-preferential fuelling of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Barros, L Felipe

    2014-06-15

    There is abundant evidence that glycolysis and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump are functionally coupled, and it is thought that the nature of the coupling is energetic, with glycolysis providing the ATP that fuels the pump. This notion has been instrumental to current models of brain energy metabolism. However, structural and biophysical considerations suggest that the pump should also have access to mitochondrial ATP, which is much more abundant. In the present study, we have investigated the source of ATP that fuels the Na(+) pump in astrocytes, taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of recently available FRET nanosensors for glucose, lactate and ATP. The activity of the Na(+) pump was assessed in parallel with the Na(+)-sensitive dye SBFI AM (Na(+)-binding benzofuran isophthalate acetoxymethyl ester). OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) inhibition resulted in bulk ATP depletion and a 5-fold stimulation of glycolytic flux, in spite of which Na(+) pumping was inhibited by 90%. Mathematical modelling of ATP dynamics showed that the observed pump failure is inconsistent with preferential fuelling of the Na(+) pump by glycolytic ATP. We conclude that the nature of the functional coupling between the Na(+) pump and the glycolytic machinery is not energetic and that the pump is mainly fuelled by mitochondrial ATP.

  6. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Teuchert, E.

    1997-01-01

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B 4 C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  7. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, P. Reche; Reyes, N. Ruiz; Gonzalez, M. Gomez; Jurado, F.

    2008-01-01

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  8. Density and impurity profile behaviours in HL-2A tokamak with different gas fuelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Ying, Cui; Yan, Zhou; Wei, Li; Bei-Bin, Feng; Ping, Sun; Chun-Feng, Dong; Yi, Liu; Wen-Yu, Hong; Qing-Wei, Yang; Xuan-Tong, Ding; Xu-Ru, Duan

    2009-01-01

    The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle locations. The density profile becomes more peaked when the line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit n G and, consequently, impurity accumulation is often observed. A linear increase regime in the density range n e G and a saturation regime in n e > 0.6n G are obtained. There is no significant difference in achieved density peaking factor f ne between the supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber. However, the achieved f ne is relatively low, in particular, in the case of density below 0.7n G , when the working gas is puffed into the divertor chamber. A discharge with a density as high as 1.2n G , i.e. n e = 1.2n G , can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall conditioning. The metallic impurities, such as iron and chromium, also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens. The mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density peaking. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  9. Burned gas and unburned mixture composition prediction in biodiesel-fuelled compression igniton engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuepeng, S.; Komintarachati, C.

    2009-01-01

    A prediction of burned gas and unburned mixture composition from a variety of methyl ester based bio diesel combustion in compression ignition engine, in comparison with conventional diesel fuel is presented. A free-energy minimisation scheme was used to determine mixture composition. Firstly, effects of bio diesel type were studied without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion of the higher hydrogen-to-carbon molar ratio (H/C) bio diesel resulted in lower carbon dioxide and oxygen emissions but higher water vapour in the exhaust gases, compared to those of lower H/C ratios. At the same results also show that relative air-to-fuel ratio, that bio diesel combustion gases contain a higher amount of water vapour and a higher level of carbon dioxide compared to those of diesel. Secondly, influences of EGR (burned gas fraction) addition to bio diesel-fuelled engine on unburned mixture were simulated. For both diesel and bio diesel, the increased burned gas fraction addition to the fresh charge increased carbon dioxide and water vapour emissions while lowering oxygen content, especially for the bio diesel case. The prediction was compared with experimental results from literatures; good agreement was found. This can be considered to be a means for explaining some phenomenon occurring in bio diesel-fuelled engines. (author)

  10. A long-term view of fossil-fuelled power generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, Evangelos; Georgakaki, Aliki

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a view into the long term future of fossil-fuelled power generation in the European Union, based on a number of alternative scenarios for the development of the coal, natural gas and CO 2 markets, and the penetration of renewable and nuclear technologies. The new fossil fuelled capacity needed and the likely technology mix are estimated using a cost optimisation model based on the screening curve method, taking into consideration the rate of retirement of the current power plant fleet, the capacity already planned or under construction and the role of carbon capture and storage technologies. This analysis shows that measures to increase both non-fossil-fuel-based power generation and the price of CO 2 are necessary to drive the composition of the European power generation capacity so that the European policy goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is achieved. Meeting this goal will however require a high capital investment for the creation of an optimal fossil fuel power plant technology mix.

  11. Demonstrating the compatibility of Canflex fuel bundles with a CANDU 6 fuelling machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, P; Oldaker, I E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Suk, H C; Choi, C B [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    CANFLEX is a new 43-element fuel bundle, designed for high operating margins. It has many small-diameter elements in its two outer rings, and large-diameter elements in its centre rings. By this means, the linear heat ratings are lower than those of standard 37-element bundles for similar power outputs. A necessary part of the out-reactor qualification program for the CANFLEX fuel bundle design, is a demonstration of the bundle`s compatibility with the mechanical components in a CANDU 6 Fuelling Machine (FM) under typical conditions of pressure, flow and temperature. The diameter of the CANFLEX bundle is the same as that of a 37-element bundle, but the smaller-diameter elements in the outer ring result in a slightly larger end-plate diameter. Therefore, to minimize any risk of unanticipated damage to the CANDU 6 FM sidestops, a series of measurements and static laboratory tests were undertaken prior to the fuelling machine tests. The tests and measurements showed that; a) the CANFLEX bundle end plate is compatible with the FM sidestops, b) all the dimensions of the CANFLEX fuel bundle are within the specified limits. (author). 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Mechanism of crud migration into the fuelling machine and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, T.

    2003-01-01

    'Full text:' The objective of this paper is to summarize the opinion of experts on the mechanism of crud deposit formation and its migration into the fueling machine. Also to point out the negative effects of crud on the performance of the fueling machine head and the head overhaul / maintenance program in general. There are numerous moving/rotating components (ball screws, linear and rotating bearings, mechanical gears, mechanical seals, etc.) inside the fueling machine. By design, all these are lubricated by D2O. Because of the delicate nature of the moving components, crud contaminated D2O is obviously not a good choice of lubricant. Crud causes poor performance of the FM drive systems, premature wear of the mechanical seals, and other internal components. Due to the fuelling machine's role in maintaining reactor power and safety related functions, it is of extreme importance that the performance of the fueling machine is controlled. Major field functional failures must be prevented. In the extreme case the effect of the crud contaminated D2O could lead to a major functional failure while the fueling machine is locked on channel or has irradiated fuel on board. The next worse scenario is intolerably frequent process stops, thus requiring costly and premature fuelling machine overhaul / repairs with its associated negative effects: maintenance cost, radiation exposure, reduced fueling rates, and major upsets to the general head overhaul schedule. (author)

  13. Investigation of compact toroid penetration for fuelling spherical tokamak plasmas on CPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, N.; Hanada, K.; Kawakami, S.

    2008-10-01

    In previous Compact Toroid (CT) injection experiments on several tokamaks, although CT fuelling had been successfully demonstrated, the CT fuelling process has been not clear yet. We have thus conducted CT injection into simple toroidal or vertical vacuum magnetic fields to investigate quantitatively dynamics of CT plasmoid in the penetration process on a spherical tokamak (ST) device. Understanding the process allows us to address appropriately one of the critical issues for practical application of CT injection on reactor-grade tokamaks. In the experiment, the CT shift amount of about 0.26 m in a vertical magnetic field has been observed by using a fast camera. In addition to toroidal magnetic field, vertical one appears to affect CT trajectory in not conventional tokamak but ST devices operated at rather low toroidal fields. We have also observed CT attacks on the target plate with an IR camera. The IR image has indicated that CT shifts 39 mm at the toroidal field of 261 G. From the calorimetric measurement, an input energy due to CT impact in vacuum without magnetic fields is also estimated to be 530 J, which agrees with the initial CT kinetic energy. (author)

  14. Emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, BeemKumar

    2017-05-01

    The present work is intended to investigate the emission characteristics of neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME100) by adding pentanol at two different proportions and compared with the baseline diesel. CNSME100 is prepared by the conventional transesterification process. CNSME100 is chosen due to its non-edible nature. Pentanol is chosen as an additive because of its higher inbuilt oxygen content and surface to volume ratio which reduces the drawbacks of neat CNSME100. Emission characteristics were carried out in single cylinder naturally aspirated CI engine fuelled with neat cashew nut shell methyl ester (CNSME), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 10% volume (CNSME90P10), cashew nut shell methyl ester and pentanol by 20% volume (CNSME80P20), and diesel. This work also aims to investigate the feasibility of operating an engine fuelled with neat methyl ester and alcohol blends. Experimental results showed that by blending higher alcohol to neat cashew nut shell methyl ester reduces the emissions significantly. It is also found that the emission from neat methyl ester and pentanol blends is lesser than diesel at all loads.

  15. Ageing of fibre reinforced polymer composite selected as a bearing material for Rams of 540 MWe fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced-polymer-composite material has been suggested as a bearing material to overcome tribological problems witnessed during the testing of Ram assembly of the 540 MWe fuelling machine at RTD. After successful trials at B-Ram the composite material has been adapted for B-RAM, C-Ram and RDB head at fuelling machines being tested at RTD, Hall 7 and at Tarapur. Laboratory evaluations were also carried out at Tribology Lab RTD to study effect of radiation on the composite. Paper deals with the various aspects of life prediction of this material in term of wear and radiation damage. (author)

  16. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor; Preparation par procede sol-gel et evaluation des performances analytiques d`un capteur chimique specifique de l`hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gojon, C

    1996-12-01

    The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work. The p.dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde has been chosen as reagent for its chemical and optical properties. 186 refs.

  17. Crystal structures of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper and chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Paholnitcaia, A. Yu. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Petrenko, P. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Tsapkov, V. I., E-mail: vtsapkov@gmail.com [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Poirier, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (Canada); Gulea, A. P. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Two crystal modifications of nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper (I and II) and two modifications of chloro-(2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) copper (III and IV) have been synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. In structures I and II, the copper atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated molecule of the organic ligand, nitrate ions, and a water molecule. In crystals of I, the complexes are monomeric, whereas complexes II are linked via nitrate ions to form polymeric chains. In both structures the coordination polyhedron of the copper atom can be described as a distorted tetragonal bipyramid—(4 + 1 + 1) in I and (4 + 2) in II. These coordination polyherdra have different compositions. In structures III and IV, the metal atoms coordinate a monodeprotonated (2-[2-phenyl(pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazole molecule and chloride ions. In III the complex-forming ion has square-planar coordination geometry, whereas structure IV consists of centrosymmetric dimers with two bridging chlorine atoms. It was found that nitrato-(2-[2-(1-pyridine-2-ylethylidene)hydrazine]-1,3-benzothiazolo) aquacopper possesses antitumor activity.

  18. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available good electrochemical stability in the analytical solution, showing limit of detection in the micromolar range and catalytic rate constant of 3.71×106 and 7.56×106 cm3 mol-1 s-1 for DEAET and hydrazine respectively. The adsorption properties...

  19. Homoaromatics as intermediates in the substitution reactions of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines with ammonia and hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counotte-Potman, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes some nucleophilic substitution reactions between the red 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and hydrazine-hydrate or ammonia. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of the Ssub(N) (ANRORC) mechanism in these substitution reactions. This mechanism comprises a sequence of reactions, involving the Addition of a Nucleopile to a heteroaromatic species, followed by a Ring-Opening and Ring Closure reaction to the substitution product. 3-Alkyl(aryl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines were found to undergo a Chichibabin hydrazination into 6-hydrazino-3-alkyl(aryl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines on treatment with hydrazine-hydrate. The first step in this reaction sequence was the formation of a homoaromatic sigma-adduct. Subsequently an open-chain intermediate was observed by NMR, on raising the temperature. Finally the hydrazino compound is formed by ring closure. This reaction sequence can be considered as an Ssub(N)(ANRORC) process. With 15 N-labelled hydrazine, only part of the label was found to be built in the 1,2,4,5-tetrazine ring of the 6-hydrazino compounds. This is the first example of a reaction in which both the hydrazino compound with the 15 N-label in the ring and with the 15 N-label in the exocyclic hydrazino group are formed according to the Ssub(N)(ANRORC) mechanism. (Auth.)

  20. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojon, C.

    1996-12-01

    The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work. The p.dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde has been chosen as reagent for its chemical and optical properties

  1. Scenario of the emerging shift from gasoline to LPG fuelled cars in Ghana: A case study in Ho Municipality, Volta Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscoff, Robert; Akple, Maxwell; Turkson, Richard; Klomegah, Wise

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG as automotive fuel is on the increase worldwide. In developing countries such as Ghana, the rudimental way of operating LPG cars is of a national concern since there is no clear cut framework within which they function. This paper presents a scenario of development from conversion of gasoline to LPG fuelling system in cars in Ho, Ghana. Data were collected through survey (100 questionnaires), in-depth interviews (2), Focus Group Discussions (3) and direct observations. The result shows LPG conversion is carried out by the local informally trained mechanics especially for Taxis because of its low consumption resulting in more profit. Conversion takes 1–2 day with an average estimated cost of GH□ 450 cedis ($300). The LPG policy in Ghana focuses on domestic purposes hence the fuel being heavily subsidised. Challenges' being faced by the autogas market in Ghana includes; no clear cut policy, low number of refuelling stations, lack of standard conversion and installation kits and unprofessional LPG installers. In order for government to benefit from LPG as automotive fuel, coherent autogas policy should be formulated ensuring the availability of the LPG with price affordability as in the case of gasoline and diesel. - Highlights: ► Cars are converted to LPG system locally because of economic gains relative to emission reduction. ► LPG fuelled cars makes twice profit as compared to gasoline cars. ► Conversion to LPG system takes 1–2 day with an average cost of GH 450 cedis ($300). ► LPG policy in Ghana focus on domestic purposes not for commercial hence heavily subsidised. ► Ghana Government should formulate clear policy on LPG use in cars.

  2. Studies of visible impurity radiation from JET plasmas during heating and fuelling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.D.; Hellermann, M. von; Mandl, W.; Stamp, M.F.; Summers, H.P.; Weisen, H.; Forrest, M.J.; Horton, L.; Zinoviev, A.

    1989-01-01

    At JET extensive use is made of visible spectroscopy in the study of plasma impurities. Measurements of absolute line intensities from such species as O II, C III and D I are used to deduce the influxes of light impurities as well as deuterium at the plasma periphery. The absolute continuum emission at 523.5 nm, measured using a 15-telescope poloidal array, is used to determine Z eff (r) and its temporal evolution. Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) has proved to be a powerful technique during NBI to measure, amongst other parameters, the density of C and O at up to 15 separate points on the plasma minor radius. The combination of these diagnostic techniques permits the global impurity behaviour in the plasma to be followed. In this paper, results are reported pertaining to studies of plasmas heated by NBI and ICRF, and fuelled by the injection of D 2 pellets. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  4. A New Concept of Dual Fuelled SI Engines Run on Gasoline and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Zdzisław

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses tests results of dual-fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline, injected in area of inlet valve. Fuelling of the engine was accomplished via prototype inlet system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables feeding of the engine with gasoline only or alcohol only, and simultaneous combustion of a mixture of the both fuels with any fraction of alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinders, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. The paper presents comparative results of dual-fuel engine test when the engine runs on changing fraction of methyl alcohol. The tests have demonstrated an advantageous effect of alcohol additive on efficiency and TCH and NOx emission of the engine, especially in case of bigger shares of the alcohol and higher engine loads.

  5. Performance of on-power fuelling equipment at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabarathan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Natural uranium reactors on account of their intrinsically low reactivity need frequent refuelling. The Rajasthan Atomic Power Station based on natural uranium reactors has, therefore, been provided with on-power fuel handling system which was installed in 1972. Its performance has met the design intent and operational objectives which are enumerated. However, continuous fuelling 7 to 10 days has not been possible because frequent maintenance of refuelling system is needed on account of certain deficiencies major of which is the heavy water leakage. For better performance, installation of a programmable logic controller is suggested. Mention has also been made of inadequate number of skilled man-power required for maintenance which leads to quick depletion of man-rem of all the available personnel trained for maintenance work. (M.G.B.)

  6. Development of non-linear vibration analysis code for CANDU fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hajime; Hirai, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Kiyomi; Mizukoshi, Kaoru; Takenaka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Norio.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-linear, dynamic analysis code for the CANDU 600 fuelling machine (F-M), which includes a number of non-linearities such as gap with or without Coulomb friction, special multi-linear spring connections, etc. The capabilities and features of the code and the mathematical treatment for the non-linearities are explained. The modeling and numerical methodology for the non-linearities employed in the code are verified experimentally. Finally, the simulation analyses for the full-scale F-M vibration testing are carried out, and the applicability of the code to such multi-degree of freedom systems as F-M is demonstrated. (author)

  7. The heater system monitoring and control of the fuelling machines test rig fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorga, C.; Iorga, H.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical hot loop (HL) of the testing rig for the fuelling machines (F/Ms) represents a set of facilities and equipment that perform the pressure, temperature and flow thermo-hydraulic parameters similar to those from the fuel channel for CANDU 600 reactor types. The 2.1 MW electric heater (EH), part of the HL, working under the conditions of a pressure vessel (110 bars) and provides an average temperature of 300°C of the working agent. The monitoring equipment implemented aims to simultaneously control the temperature for each of the 12 modules that compose the EH, without influencing the work logic of the display/recording and protecting existing equipment. This paper presents the structure of the monitoring equipment and its performance obtained after performing the functional tests. (authors)

  8. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  9. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  10. Core concepts for 'zero-sodium-void-worth core' in metal fuelled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Hill, R.N.; Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.; Kumaoka, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    Core design options to reduce the sodium void worth in metal fuelled LMRs are investigated. Two core designs which achieve a zero sodium void worth are analyzed in detail. The first design is a 'pancaked' and annular core with enhanced transuranic burning capabilities; the high leakage in this design yields a low breeding ratio and small void worth. The second design is an axially multilayered annular core which is fissile self-sufficient; in this design, the upper and lower core regions are neutronically decoupled for reduced void worth while fissile self-sufficiency is achieved using internal axial blankets plus external radial and axial blanket-zones. The neutronic performance characteristics of these low void worth designs are assessed here; their passive safety properties are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  11. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine at overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Mir Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: asadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2007-06-20

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (HZ) was studied on an overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) modified glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The OPPy-modified glassy carbon electrode has very high catalytic ability for electrooxidation of HZ, which appeared as a reduced overpotential in a wide operational pH range of 5-10. The overall numbers of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of HZ, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining and diffusion coefficient of HZ were estimated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been shown that using the OPPy-modified electrode, HZ can be determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with limit of detection 36 and 3.7 {mu}M, respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the proposed method promises accurate results and could be employed for the routine determination of HZ.

  13. Loss mechanisms in hydrazine-processed Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K.; Mitzi, David B.

    2010-12-01

    We present a device characterization study for hydrazine-processed kesterite Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with a focus on pinpointing the main loss mechanisms limiting device efficiency. Temperature-dependent study and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy on these cells, in comparison to analogous studies on a reference Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) cell, reveal strong recombination loss at the CZTSSe/CdS interface, very low minority-carrier lifetimes, and high series resistance that diverges at low temperature. These findings help identify the key areas for improvement of these CZTSSe cells in the quest for a high-performance indium- and tellurium-free solar cell.

  14. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Jonas K.; Rothuizen, Erasmus D.; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three concepts of cooling hydrogen were identified. • A numerical heat transfer model of a coaxial-tube evaporator was built. • The cost of exergy destruction and capital investment cost was evaluated for a range of feasible solution. • The exergoeconomic optimum design for all three concepts was identified. • Cooling with a two-stage evaporator reduces total cost 45% compared to a one-stage evaporator. - Abstract: Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to −40 °C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three different concepts of hydrogen cooling, one one-stage and two two-stage processes. An exergoeconomic optimization is imposed to all three concepts to minimize the total cost. A numerical heat transfer model is developed in Engineer Equation Solver, using heat transfer and pressure drop correlations from the open literature. With this model the optimal choice of tube sizes and circuit numbers are found for all three concepts. The results show that cooling with a two-stage evaporator after the pressure reduction valve yields the lowest total cost, 45% lower than the highest, which is with a one-stage evaporator. The main contribution to the total cost was the cost associated with exergy destruction, the capital investment cost contributed with 5–14%. The main contribution to the exergy destruction was found to be thermally driven. The pressure driven exergy destruction accounted for 3–9%

  15. A novel approach for high precision rapid potentiometric titrations: application to hydrazine assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Malathi, N; Ananthanarayanan, R; Praveen, K; Murali, N

    2011-11-01

    We propose a high precision rapid personal computer (PC) based potentiometric titration technique using a specially designed mini-cell to carry out redox titrations for assay of chemicals in quality control laboratories attached to industrial, R&D, and nuclear establishments. Using this technique a few microlitre of sample (50-100 μl) in a total volume of ~2 ml solution can be titrated and the waste generated after titration is extremely low comparing to that obtained from the conventional titration technique. The entire titration including online data acquisition followed by immediate offline analysis of data to get information about concentration of unknown sample is completed within a couple of minutes (about 2 min). This facility has been created using a new class of sensors, viz., pulsating sensors developed in-house. The basic concept in designing such instrument and the salient features of the titration device are presented in this paper. The performance of the titration facility was examined by conducting some of the high resolution redox titrations using dilute solutions--hydrazine against KIO(3) in HCl medium, Fe(II) against Ce(IV) and uranium using Davies-Gray method. The precision of titrations using this innovative approach lies between 0.048% and 1.0% relative standard deviation in different redox titrations. With the evolution of this rapid PC based titrator it was possible to develop a simple but high precision potentiometric titration technique for quick determination of hydrazine in nuclear fuel dissolver solution in the context of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in fast breeder reactors. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  17. The influence of ultrasound on the reduction of plutonium (4) by hydrazine and hydroxylamine in nitric acid and hydrochloric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method was used to study reduction of Pu(4) by hydrazine and hydroxylamine in HNO 3 and HCl solutions under the effect of ultrasonic waves at 18-20 deg C. It is shown that reaction of Pu(4) with hydrazine is accelerated in ultrasonic field approximately 10 times; ultrasound doesn't produce noticeable effect on behaviour of the actinoid in the case of hydroxylamine

  18. New data on the reaction of 1,4-bifunctional derivatives of hydrazine with 1,3-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenin, K.N.; Solod, O.V.; Tomchin, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    As a function of the conditions of the reaction and the structure of the reagents, mono- and bis-adducts of different structure - 5-hydroxy- and 5-hydrazino-2-pyrazolines, mono- and bis(hydrazones), and the corresponding pyrazoles - are formed in the reaction of hydrazine derivatives - aminoguanidine nitrate, 4-phenylsemicarbazide, amidrazonium iodides, and some thiosemicarbazides - with acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane. The conditions of the formation of these products and the features of their structure were examined

  19. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  20. Electrochemical studies on the reduction of uranyl ions in nitric acid-hydrazine media at platinum electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Satyabrata; Sini, K.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Jagadeeswara Rao, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Production of uranous nitrate with good conversion efficiency is one of the major steps in the aqueous reprocessing of spent fuels of nuclear reactors, as U(IV) is used for the separation of Pu from U by the selective reduction of Pu(IV) into practically non-extractable Pu(III) in aqueous streams. Electro-reduction of uranyl ions has the advantage of not introducing corrosive chemicals into the process stream. High current efficiency with maximum conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) can be achieved in continuous as well as batch mode electro-reduction, if the process is voltage-controlled rather than current controlled. As potentiostatic studies reveal the mechanism of reduction of uranyl ions in potential controlled electrolysis, the reduction behavior of uranyl ions (UO 2 2+ ) in nitric acid and nitric acid-hydrazine media were investigated by Cyclic Voltammetric (CV) and Chronopotentiometric (CP) techniques using platinum working electrode at 298 K. Heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) for uranyl reduction was estimated at a very low concentration of nitric acid (0.05 M) using Klinger and Kochi equation. Values of the diffusion coefficients were determined as a function of acidity with and without hydrazine. Reduction of uranyl ions was found to be under kinetic as well as diffusion control when the concentration of nitric acid was 0.05 M and in the absence of hydrazine. However, as the acidity of the supporting electrolyte increased, the reduction was purely under kinetic control. (author)

  1. Increased hydrazine during partial nitritation process in upflow air-lift reactor fed with supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeongdong [University of Alberta, Alberta (Canada); Jung, Sokhee [Samsung SDS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young-Ho [Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The optimal balance of ammonium and nitrite is essential for successful operation of the subsequent anammox process. We conducted a partial nitritation experiment using an upflow air-lift reactor to provide operational parameters for achieving the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrite, by feeding supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent, high-nitrogen containing rejection water. Semi-continuous operation results show that HRT should be set between 15 and 17 hours to achieve the optimum ration of 1.3 of NO{sub 2}-N/NH{sub 4}-N. In the UAR, nitritation was the dominant reaction due to high concentration of ammonia and low biodegradable organics. The influent contained low concentrations of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. However, hydrazine increased during partial nitritation by ⁓60-130% although there was no potential anammox activity in the reactor. The partial nitritation process successfully provided the ratio of nitrogen species for the anammox reaction, and relived the nitrite restraint on the anammox activity by increasing hydrazine concentration.

  2. Derivatization Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Monoethanolamine in Presence of Hydrazine in PHWR Steam-Water Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayushi D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of monoethanolamine (MEA in PHWR steam-water circuits has been developed. MEA is added in the feed water to provide protection against corrosion while hydrazine is added to scavenge dissolved oxygen. The quantitative determination of MEA in presence of hydrazine was accomplished using derivatization ion chromatography with conductometric detection in nonsuppressed mode. A Metrosep cation 1-2 analytical column and a Metrosep cartridge were used for cation separation. A mixture of 4 mM tartaric acid, 20% acetone and 0.05 mM HNO3 was used as eluent. Acetone in the mobile phase leads to the formation of different derivatives with MEA and hydrazine. The interferences due Na+ and NH4 + were eliminated by adopting a simple pretreatment procedure employing OnGuard-H cartridge. The limit of detection limit of MEA was 0.1 μg mL−1 and the relative standard deviation was 2% for the overall method. The recovery of MEA added was in the range 95%–102%. The method was applied to the determination of MEA in steam generator water samples.

  3. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential demand for household alternative fuelled vehicles in Hamilton, Canada : a stated choices experiment and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Earth Science

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuelled vehicle (AFV) technologies are a key strategy towards improved air quality and sustainable development. These fuel-efficient, low- or zero-emission vehicles have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities linked with the transportation sector. They include battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines. This paper discussed AFVs development trends and modelling the demand for AFVs. It was noted that before creating policy measures that promote new vehicle technologies, one should first evaluate the demand for AFVs and the effectiveness of incentives and marketing promotions. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment in which urban level surveys were conducted on the Internet to obtain data and public opinion on the demand for AFVs. A Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS) was designed. This self-administered online questionnaire was used in Hamilton, Ontario. The survey design was described in detail and its implementation and data collection procedures were reviewed. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The purpose was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  6. The influence of gas fuelling location on H-mode access in the MAST spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, A R; Carolan, P G; Conway, N J; Counsell, G F; Cunningham, G; Helander, P; Meyer, H; Taylor, D; Tournianski, M R; Walsh, M J

    2004-01-01

    The observation that high-field side (HFS) gas puff refuelling facilitates access to the improved confinement (H-mode) regime on the COMPASS-D and MAST tokamaks prompted a theoretical investigation of the role of the neutral gas dynamics in controlling the edge plasma rotation and radial E-field, E r . Within the framework of neo-classical theory, higher edge plasma flow, and hence E r , are predicted when fuelling from the HFS-rather than from the more usual low-field side (LFS)-provided neutral viscosity dominates the transport of toroidal angular momentum. Here, these predictions are compared with experiments on MAST, where the influence of the gas-puff location on the edge E r profile is measured spectroscopically. An increase in E r is indeed observed with HFS refuelling in the region where the edge transport barrier forms, provided the neutral density at the LFS is sufficiently low so as not to damp the toroidal flow

  7. Summary of energy and particle confinement in pellet-fuelled auxiliary-heated discharges on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Bartlett, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    A transient improvement in plasma performance and central confinement has been observed in auxiliary heated JET limiter plasmas associated with a peaking of the plasma density profile and strong centralized heating. Suitable target plasmas for ICRF and NBI heating experiments are created by deuterium pellet injection with a multi pellet injector system developed jointly by ORNL and JETZ . Two types of discharge conditions have been observed. In the first (type A), the density profiles decay gradually during the first 1.3s of the heating pulse while maintaining an elevated density core plasma inside r/a < 0.6 superimposed on a flat density pedestal. During this phase the central electron and ion temperatures increase rapidly (up to 12 keV and 10 keV respectively in the best discharges). This results in an increase in the central plasma pressure by approximately a factor of three (β(0) 5%) above gas fuelled discharges and gives rise to sharply increased pressure gradients in the plasma. An abrupt collapse of the central electron and ion temperatures terminates the enhanced phase at 1.3 s and leads eventually to a 20% decrease in plasma stored energy. While these discharges are predicted to be stable to kink modes, they approach the first stability boundary for ballooning modes in the region of steepest pressure gradient. The pressure and q profiles inferred from transport analysis are also close to those for which intermediate-n mode instability is predicted. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  9. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  10. THE HYDROGEN-FUELLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern marine power plants have been designed to improve the overall ship’s efficiency. This pushed the designers of marine machinery to search for unconventional fuels for these plants. During the previous years, diesel oil has been extensively used on-board ships. Due to the high price of light diesel oil and the environmental problems resulting from the use of heavy fuel oil, it has become necessary to search for an alternative to traditional fuels. As a result, natural gas fuel has been used on-board some types of ships, especially short-voyage cruise ships. Unfortunately, there are still some technical and logistic problems related to the use of natural gas as a fuel, especially as it is considered a non-renewable energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel on-board ships, particularly in modern power plants may contribute to overcoming the above problems. The present paper considers the possibility of the use of hydrogen fuel for marine applications and discusses different stages of hydrogen gas cycle beginning with hydrogen generation process from clean energy until using it as fuel for internal combustion engines on-board one RO/RO ship, named Taba, operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Compared to the diesel engine, the hydrogen fuelled engine is found to be lower in thermal efficiency and fuel consumption, however, some adjustments are needed.

  11. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  12. Theory and MHD simulation of fuelling process by Compact Toroid (CT) injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The fuelling process by a spheromak-like compact toroid (SCT) injection is investigated by using MHD numerical simulations, where the SCT is injected into a magnetized target plasma region corresponding to a fusion device. In our previous study, the theoretical model to determine the penetration depth of the SCT into the target region has been proposed based on the simulation results, in which the SCT is decelerated not only by the magnetic pressure force but also by the magnetic tension force. However, since both ends of the target magnetic field are fixed on the boundary wall in the simulation, the deceleration caused by the magnetic tension force would be overestimated. In this study, the dependence of the boundary condition of the target magnetic field on the SCT penetration process is examined. From these results, the theoretical model we have proposed is improved to include the effect that the wave length of the target magnetic field bent by the SCT penetration expands with the Alfven velocity. In addition, by carrying out the simulation with the torus domain, it is confirmed that the theoretical model is applicable to estimate the penetration depth of the SCT under such conditions. Furthermore, the dependence of the injection position (the side injection and the top/bottom injection) on the penetration process is examined. (author)

  13. Improved plasma confinement characteristics and central magnetohydrodynamic activity in pellet fuelled HL-1M experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Guo Gancheng; Zhong Yunze; Xiao Zhenggui

    1998-11-01

    In HL-1M experiment, multiple pellets were injected into Ohmic discharge, good results for plasma confinement have been achieved. The energy confinement is enhanced by up to 30% over that of usual gas fuelled discharges after a series of pellet injections. The improvement is characterized by a pressure profile that peaks strongly around the central region. It was found that the peakedness depends strongly on penetration length of the pellets, and the characteristics of MHD activity changes with peakedness of pressure profile produced by pellet injection. On the other hand, the central MHD activity plays a key role in limiting the available peaking degree. The improved discharges characterized by a highly peaked pressure profile inside q =1 surface degrade suddenly by a large sawtooth collapse. For deep penetration case, the pressure gradient in the central area becomes steep, the central magnetohydrodynamics activities are strongly affected by pellet injection. The large sawtooth crash tends to have more ideal-like characteristics in magnetic structure, which is usually observed in discharges of higher density and pressure values. The most conspicuous feature is that just at the early stage of the crash, the m = 1 continuous oscillation merges into a very localized pressure perturbation

  14. An assessment of methods of calculating Doppler effects in plutonium fuelled sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.; Reddell, G.

    1979-01-01

    After a survey of the requirements, an assessment of UK methods and data is made on the basis of the following work. First, the analysis of the SEFOR Doppler experiments, carried out using the UK FGL5 fine group nuclear data library, the MURAL cell code and whole reactor diffusion theory calculations of the neutron flux. Second, the analysis of some Japanese FCA central sample perturbation measurements of structural material Doppler effects. Third, an assessment of the accuracy of Doppler predictions in a sodium voided core using results from Zebra 5 and BIZET, and theoretical studies of additional effects relevant to power reactors and not covered by the above analyses, including the following, the calculation of Doppler effects at high temperature, fuel cycle and burn-up effects, and the heterogeneity effects of large fuelled subassemblies in pin geometry. The importance of crystalline binding effects in the fuel are discussed as is the importance of reactor material boundaries in the calculation of resonance shielding effects. Some suggestions for further Doppler studies are made. (U.K.)

  15. Experimental investigation of a single cylinder S.I engine fuelled with gasolinebutanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there is an increasing interest in alcohol based fuels around the world due to the ease of handling, blending and the potential of production using renewable resources. Butanol is one of the suitable alternative candidate for IC engines due to its lower heating value (32 MJ/kg in comparison to other alcohol based fuels such as ethanol (26.8 MJ/kg and methanol (20 MJ/kg. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder carbureted engine fuelled with the following gasoline-butanol blends ranging from 5%, 10%,15% and 20% of butanol by volume. During the tests negligible reduction in the performance characteristics were observed for gasoline-butanol blends in comparison to conventional gasoline. The emission characteristics of gasoline-butanol blends were observed to be superior to that of conventional gasoline. In the overall picture, the performance of gasoline-butanol blends indicated promising results as a substitute to conventional gasoline.

  16. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  17. An assessment of methods of calculating sodium voiding reactivity in plutonium fuelled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.; Simmons, W.N.; Stevenson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    After a survey of the requirements an assessment of the accuracy of calculations of the sodium void effect using UK methods and data is made on the basis of the following work. First, the analysis of small and large sodium voids in the MOZART and Zebra 13 small (300 MW(E)) fast reactor mock-ups and the BIZET large fast reactor mock-ups, all of conventional design. The analysis was carried out using the UK FGL5 fine group nuclear data library, the MURAL cell code, whole reactor diffusion theory calculations of the neutron flux and perturbation theory methods. Exact perturbation theory was used in many cases, otherwise first order perturbation theory calculations were adjusted to give results equivalent to exact perturbation theory. Second, theoretical studies of some effects, including, the effects of extrapolating to fuel operating temperatures, fuel cycle and burn-up effects, and the heterogeneity effects of large fuelled subassemblies in pin geometry. Third, theoretical studies of approximations in the calculational methods including, the importance in the whole reactor calculation of the energy group structure and the spatial mesh, the importance of reactor material boundaries in the calculation of resonance shielding effects, and the use of neutron fluxes calculated using neutron diffusion theory rather than transport theory. (U.K.)

  18. Probing the gas fuelling and outflows in nearby AGN with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, Anelise; Combes, Françoise; García-Burillo, Santiago; Salomé, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fuelling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g. the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5-1”) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  19. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzi, David B.; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei; Kellock, Andrew J.; Chey, S. Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G.

    2009-01-01

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C

  20. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzi, David B. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)], E-mail: dmitzi@us.ibm.com; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kellock, Andrew J [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Rd, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States); Chey, S Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2009-02-02

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C.

  1. Hydrogen generation from decomposition of hydrous hydrazine over Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of highly active and selective catalysts is the central issue in the development of hydrous hydrazine (N2H4·H2O as a viable hydrogen carrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of bimetallic Ni-Ir nanocatalyts supported on CeO2 using a one-pot coprecipitation method. A combination of XRD, HRTEM and XPS analyses indicate that the Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst is composed of tiny Ni-Ir alloy nanoparticles with an average size of around 4 nm and crystalline CeO2 matrix. The Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent selectivity towards hydrogen generation from N2H4·H2O at mild temperatures. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported Ni-Pt catalysts, the Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst shows an alleviated requirement on alkali promoter to achieve its optimal catalytic performance.

  2. Synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by hydrazine reduction: mechanistic study and continuous flow synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eluri, Ravi; Paul, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) in a static microchannel T-mixer by the reduction of NiCl 2 ·6H 2 O in the presence of ethylene glycol without a stabilizing/capping agent was investigated. The nanoparticles were formed in accordance with the modified polyol process with hydrazine used as a reducing agent and NaOH as a catalyst for nanoparticle formation. The reaction mechanism for NiNP formation was investigated in batch with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Parameters were found for reducing reaction times from 60 to 1 min. The effects of temperature (60–120 °C) and NaOH concentration (0.1 and 0.5 M) on batch-processed particle characteristics were also studied using XRD, transmission electron microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Average particle size was reduced from 9.2 ± 2.9 to 5.4 ± 0.9 nm at higher temperature and NaOH concentration. Adaptation of this chemistry to a static microchannel T-mixer for continuous synthesis resulted in smooth, spherical particles. Increases in the reaction temperature from 120 to 130 °C resulted in a narrow size distribution of 5.3 ± 1 nm and also resulted in magnetic properties of 5.1 emu/g (saturation magnetization), 1.1 emu/g (remanent magnetization), and 62 Oe (coercivity).

  3. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  4. Determination of hydrazine in drinking water: Development and multivariate optimization of a rapid and simple solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-07-04

    In this work, the capabilities of solid phase microextraction were exploited in a fully optimized SPME-GC-QqQ-MS analytical approach for hydrazine assay. A rapid and easy method was obtained by a simple derivatization reaction with propyl chloroformate and pyridine carried out directly in water samples, followed by automated SPME analysis in the same vial without further sample handling. The affinity of the different derivatized compounds obtained towards five commercially available SPME coatings was evaluated, in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. GC analyses were carried out using a GC-QqQ-MS instrument in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode which has allowed the achievement of high specificity by selecting appropriate precursor-product ion couples improving the capability in analyte identification. The multivariate approach of experimental design was crucial in order to optimize derivatization reaction, SPME process and tandem mass spectrometry parameters. Accuracy of the proposed protocol, tested at 60, 200 and 800 ng L(-1), provided satisfactory values (114.2%, 83.6% and 98.6%, respectively), whereas precision (RSD%) at the same concentration levels were of 10.9%, 7.9% and 7.7% respectively. Limit of detection and quantification of 4.4 and 8.3 ng L(-1) were obtained. The reliable application of the proposed protocol to real drinking water samples confirmed its capability to be used as analytical tool for routine analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coal-fuelled systems for peaking power with 100% CO2 capture through integration of solid oxide fuel cells with compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Jake; Adams, Thomas A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a coal-fuelled integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) system in a load-following power production scenario is discussed. Sixteen SOFC-based plants with optional carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and syngas shifting steps are simulated and compared to a state-of-the-art supercritical pulverised coal (SCPC) plant. Simulations are performed using a combination of MATLAB and Aspen Plus v7.3. It was found that adding CAES to a SOFC-based plant can provide load-following capabilities with relatively small effects on efficiencies (1-2% HHV depending on the system configuration) and levelized costs of electricity (∼0.35 ¢ kW-1 h-1). The load-following capabilities, as measured by least-squares metrics, show that this system may utilize coal and achieve excellent load-tracking that is not adversely affected by the inclusion of CCS. Adding CCS to the SOFC/CAES system reduces measurable direct CO2 emission to zero. A seasonal partial plant shutdown schedule is found to reduce fuel consumption by 9.5% while allowing for cleaning and maintenance windows for the SOFC stacks without significantly affecting the performance of the system (∼1% HHV reduction in efficiency). The SOFC-based systems with CCS are found to become economically attractive relative to SCPC above carbon taxes of 22 ton-1.

  6. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  7. Fuelling expectations: A policy-promise lock-in of UK biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, Pietro; Levidow, Les

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK, fuelling policy disagreements among UK public authorities. They disagreed over how to protect a space for future second-generation biofuels, which were expected to overcome harm from first-generation biofuels. The UK government defended rising targets for available biofuels as a necessary stimulus for industry to help fulfil the UK's EU obligations and eventually develop second-generation biofuels. By contrast, Parliamentary Select Committees opposed biofuel targets on grounds that these would instead lock-in first-generation biofuels, thus delaying or pre-empting second-generation biofuels. Those disagreements can be explained by different institutional responsibilities and reputational stakes towards ‘promise-requirement cycles’, whereby techno-optimistic promises generate future requirements for the actors involved. The UK government's stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’, a dilemma whereby promised support is a requirement for credibility towards technology innovators and thus technoscientific development – but may delay the redirection of support from incumbent to preferable emerging technologies. Thus the sociology of expectations – previously applied to technological expectations from technology innovators – can be extended to analyse public authorities. - Highlights: • Controversy over EU-wide biofuel policy resonated within the UK. • At issue was how to stimulate future 2nd-generation biofuels. • The government defended targets for 1st-generation as necessary to stimulate industry. • Parliamentary Committees opposed biofuel targets as locking in 1st-generation. • The UK government′s stance illustrates a ‘policy-promise lock-in’

  8. COMBUSTION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH HCNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SONTHALIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns and fossil fuel depletion, large scale researches were carried out involving the use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is a clean burning fuel that is available from large domestic natural reserve. When it is used as a fuel in SI engines, it reduces emissions to meet EURO-III norms with carburettors and EURO-IV norms with manifold injection. Countries like India with fewer natural fossil fuel reserves depend heavily on oil imported from Middle East Asian countries and on the other hand combustion of fossil fuel has negative impact on air quality in urban areas. Use of CNG as a fuel in internal combustion engines can reduce the intensiveness of these pervasive problems. The performance of CNG can further be improved by addition of small percentages of hydrogen to it to overcome the drawbacks like lower energy density of the fuel, drop in engine power and engine out exhaust emissions. When hydrogen is added to CNG it is called as Hythane or Hydrogen enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG. This can be considered as a first step towards promotion of hydrogen in automobiles. In this study, the effects of mixing hydrogen with CNG on a small air cooled four stroke SI engine’s performance, emissions and heat release rate was analyzed. A comparison of performance and emission by running engine separately on gasoline, hydrogen, CNG and HCNG was done. The results show a significant decrease in HC, CO and NOx emissions and marginal increase in specific energy consumption when fuelled with HCNG.

  9. Post-irradiation examination of CANDU fuel bundles fuelled with (Th, Pu)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, M.; Dimayuga, F.C.; Montin, J.

    2010-01-01

    AECL has extensive experience with thoria-based fuel irradiations as part of an ongoing R&D program on thorium within the Advanced Fuel Cycles Program. The BDL-422 experiment was one component of the thorium program that involved the fabrication and irradiation testing of six Bruce-type bundles fuelled with (Th, Pu)O 2 pellets. The fuel was manufactured in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories (RFFL) at Chalk River allowing AECL to gain valuable experience in fabrication and handling of thoria fuel. The fuel pellets contained 86.05 wt.% Th and 1.53 wt.% Pu in (Th, Pu)O 2 . The objectives of the BDL-422 experiment were to demonstrate the ability of 37-element geometry (Th, Pu)O 2 fuel bundles to operate to high burnups up to 1000 MWh/kgHE (42 MWd/kgHE), and to examine the (Th, Pu)O 2 fuel performance. This paper describes the post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of BDL-422 fuel bundles irradiated to burnups up to 856 MWh/kgHE (36 MWd/kgHE), with power ratings ranging from 52 to 67 kW/m. PIE results for the high burnup bundles (>1000 MWh/kgHE) are being analyzed and will be reported at a later date. The (Th, Pu)O 2 fuel performance characteristics were superior to UO 2 fuel irradiated under similar conditions. Minimal grain growth was observed and was accompanied by benign fission gas release and sheath strain. Other fuel performance parameters, such as sheath oxidation and hydrogen distribution, are also discussed. (author)

  10. The radiological risks associated with the thorium fuelled HTGR fuel cycle. A comparative risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.; Hienen, J.F.A. van.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the results of task B.3 of the 'Technology Assessment of the High Temperature Reactor' project. The objective of task B.3 was to evaluate the radiological risks to the general public associated with the sustainable HTGR cycle. Since the technologies to be used at several stages of this fuel cycle are still in the design phase and since a detailed specification of this fuel cycle has not yet been developed, the emphasis was on obtaining a global impression of the risk associated with a generic thorium-based HTGR fuel cycle. This impression was obtained by performing a comparative risk analysis on the basis of data given in the literature. As reference for the comparison a generic uranium fuelled LWR cycle was used. The major benefit with respect to the radiological rsiks of basing the fuel cycle around modular HTGR technology instead of the LWR technology is the increase in reactor safety. The design of the modular HTGR is expected to prevent the release of a significant amount of radioactive material to the environment, and hence early deaths in the surrounding population, during accident conditions. This implies that there is no group risk as defined in the Dutch risk management policy. The major benefit of thorium based fuel cycles over uranium based fuel cycles is the reduction in the radiological risks from unraium mining and milling. The other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle which make a significant contribution to the radiological risks are electricity generation, reprocessing and final disposal. The risks associated with the electricity generation stage are dominated by the risks from fission products, activated corrosion products and the activation products tritium and carbon-14. The risks associated with the reprocessing stage are determined by fission and activation products (including actinides). (orig./WL)

  11. The radiological risks associated with the thorium fuelled HTGR fuel cycle. A comparative risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.H.; Hienen, J.F.A. van

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the results of task B.3 of the `Technology Assessment of the High Temperature Reactor` project. The objective of task B.3 was to evaluate the radiological risks to the general public associated with the sustainable HTGR cycle. Since the technologies to be used at several stages of this fuel cycle are still in the design phase and since a detailed specification of this fuel cycle has not yet been developed, the emphasis was on obtaining a global impression of the risk associated with a generic thorium-based HTGR fuel cycle. This impression was obtained by performing a comparative risk analysis on the basis of data given in the literature. As reference for the comparison a generic uranium fuelled LWR cycle was used. The major benefit with respect to the radiological rsiks of basing the fuel cycle around modular HTGR technology instead of the LWR technology is the increase in reactor safety. The design of the modular HTGR is expected to prevent the release of a significant amount of radioactive material to the environment, and hence early deaths in the surrounding population, during accident conditions. This implies that there is no group risk as defined in the Dutch risk management policy. The major benefit of thorium based fuel cycles over uranium based fuel cycles is the reduction in the radiological risks from unraium mining and milling. The other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle which make a significant contribution to the radiological risks are electricity generation, reprocessing and final disposal. The risks associated with the electricity generation stage are dominated by the risks from fission products, activated corrosion products and the activation products tritium and carbon-14. The risks associated with the reprocessing stage are determined by fission and activation products (including actinides). (orig./WL).

  12. Effect of swirl on the performance and combustion of a biogas fuelled spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porpatham, E.; Ramesh, A.; Nagalingam, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Tests were conducted on a biogas fuelled SI engine with normal and masked valve. • Improvement in brake power and brake thermal efficiency with masked valve. • Lean misfire limit is extended with enhanced swirl from 0.68 to 0.65. • Enhanced swirl decreases HC level from1530 ppm to 1340 ppm and increases NO emission from 2250 ppm to 3440 ppm. • The reduction in ignition delay and higher heat release rate with enhanced swirl. - Abstract: The influence of swirl on the performance, emissions and combustion in a constant speed Spark Ignition (SI) engine was studied experimentally. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to operate as a biogas operated spark ignition engine. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm at throttle opening of 25% and 100% at various equivalence ratios. The tests covered a range of equivalence ratios from rich to lean operating limits and also at an optimum compression ratio of 13:1 with normal and masked intake valve to enhance swirl. The spark timing was set to MBT (Minimum advance for Best Torque). It was found that masked valve configuration enhanced the power output and brake thermal efficiency at full throttle. The lean limit of combustion also got extended. Heat release rates indicated enhanced combustion rates with masked valve, which are mainly responsible for the improvement in thermal efficiency. NO level increased with masked valve as compared to normal configuration. The spark timings were to be retarded by about 6 °CA and 4 °CA when compared to normal configuration at 25% and 100% throttle respectively

  13. Gyrokinetic modelling of the quasilinear particle flux for plasmas with neutral-beam fuelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Nakata, M.; Yoshida, M.; Takenaga, H.; Hayashi, N.

    2018-02-01

    A quasilinear particle flux is modelled based on gyrokinetic calculations. The particle flux is estimated by determining factors, namely, coefficients of off-diagonal terms and a particle diffusivity. In this paper, the methodology to estimate the factors is presented using a subset of JT-60U plasmas. First, the coefficients of off-diagonal terms are estimated by linear gyrokinetic calculations. Next, to obtain the particle diffusivity, a semi-empirical approach is taken. Most experimental analyses for particle transport have assumed that turbulent particle fluxes are zero in the core region. On the other hand, even in the stationary state, the plasmas in question have a finite turbulent particle flux due to neutral-beam fuelling. By combining estimates of the experimental turbulent particle flux and the coefficients of off-diagonal terms calculated earlier, the particle diffusivity is obtained. The particle diffusivity should reflect a saturation amplitude of instabilities. The particle diffusivity is investigated in terms of the effects of the linear instability and linear zonal flow response, and it is found that a formula including these effects roughly reproduces the particle diffusivity. The developed framework for prediction of the particle flux is flexible to add terms neglected in the current model. The methodology to estimate the quasilinear particle flux requires so low computational cost that a database consisting of the resultant coefficients of off-diagonal terms and particle diffusivity can be constructed to train a neural network. The development of the methodology is the first step towards a neural-network-based particle transport model for fast prediction of the particle flux.

  14. An assessment of calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel fuelled diesel engine characteristics using novel antioxidant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Jeevanantham, A.K.; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Malhotra, Dhruv; Agarwal, Pranjal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel antioxidant Ethanox was used for the present investigation. • Effect of two antioxidants on biodiesel fuelled engine characteristics were studied. • Brake thermal efficiency increased by 5.3% for Ethanox 1000 ppm with biodiesel. • 21% reduction in oxides of nitrogen for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm addition. • Higher hydrocarbon and smoke emissions were observed for all treated fuels. - Abstract: In this present study, the effect of antioxidant additives with pure Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics has been investigated. New antioxidant additive namely Ethanox was added to the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm for oxides of nitrogen reductions and the experimental results were compared to Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant at same concentrations. An experimental study was done on a twin cylinder, four stroke diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with two different antioxidants, Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene individually mixed with pure Calophyllum inophyllum at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm by weight. The experimental results showed that the addition of antioxidants with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel produced higher brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency compared to pure biodiesel. Significant reductions in oxides of nitrogen emissions were observed with Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene addition with biodiesel at all concentrations compared to neat biodiesel. The reduction oxides of nitrogen emission was 12.6% for Ethanox 1000 ppm and 21% for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm compared to neat biodiesel. Comparable combustion characteristics were obtained by addition of Ethanox with biodiesel than Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant. Moreover, the addition of Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidants with neat biodiesel increase the carbon

  15. ALMA observations of AGN fuelling. The case of PKS B1718-649

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present ALMA observations of the 12CO (2-1) line of the newly born (tradio 102 years) active galactic nucleus (AGN), PKS B1718-649. These observations reveal that the carbon monoxide in the innermost 15 kpc of the galaxy is distributed in a complex warped disk. In the outer parts of this disk, the CO gas follows the rotation of the dust lane and of the stellar body of the galaxy hosting the radio source. In the innermost kiloparsec, the gas abruptly changes orientation and forms a circumnuclear disk (r ≲ 700 pc) with its major axis perpendicular to that of the outer disk. Against the compact radio emission of PKS B1718-649 (r 2 pc), we detect an absorption line at red-shifted velocities with respect to the systemic velocity (Δv = +365 ± 22 km s-1). This absorbing CO gas could trace molecular clouds falling onto the central super-massive black hole. A comparison with the near-infrared H2 1-0 S(1) observations shows that the clouds must be close to the black hole (r ≲ 75 pc). The physical conditions of these clouds are different from the gas at larger radii, and are in good agreement with the predictions for the conditions of the gas when cold chaotic accretion triggers an active galactic nucleus. These observations on the centre of PKS B1718-649 provide one of the best indications that a population of cold clouds is falling towards a radio AGN, likely fuelling its activity. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A42

  16. An assessment of methods of calculating sodium-voiding reactivity in plutonium-fuelled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butland, A.T.D.; Simmons, W.N.; Stevenson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    After a survey of the requirements an assessment of the accuracy of calculations of the sodium-void effect using UK methods and data is made on the basis of the following work: (a) The analysis of small and large sodium voids in the MOZART and Zebra 13 small (300 MW(e)) fast reactor mock-ups and the BIZET large fast reactor mock-ups, all of conventional design. The analysis was carried out using the UK FGL5 fine group nuclear data library, the MURAL cell code, whole reactor diffusion theory calculations of the neutron flux and perturbation theory methods. Exact perturbation theory was used in many cases, otherwise first-order perturbation theory calculations were adjusted to give results equivalent to exact perturbation theory. (b) Theoretical studies of some effects, including the following: (i) The effects of extrapolating to fuel operating temperature; (ii) Fuel-cycle and burnup effects, including the gradual replacement through a fuel cycle of control-rod absorption by fission product absorption, the loss of fissile material and the change in fuel nuclide relative composition; (iii) The heterogeneity effects of large fuelled subassemblies in pin geometry. (c) Theoretical studies of approximations in the calculational methods, including the following: (i) The importance in the whole reactor calculation of the energy group structure and the spatial mesh, including comparisons of calculations in two (RZ) and three-dimensional geometry; (ii) The importance of reactor material boundaries in the calculation of resonance shielding effects; (iii) The use of neutron fluxes calculated using neutron diffusion theory rather than transport theory. (author)

  17. Chemical synthesis, characterization and electro-oxidation of hydrazine via a carbon paste electrode modified with poly (P-phenylendiamine/Al2O3) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamgholizadeh, Abbas; Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel nanocomposite based on poly (P-phenylendiamine)/alumina was synthesized. ► It was observed that the nanocomposite increased the surface catalytic activity of CPE toward oxidation of hydrazine. ► The EIS measurements showed that the values of R ct decreases by the nanoalumina presence. - Abstract: In this article, the chemical synthesis and characterization of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed into poly (P-phenylendiamine) (PpDP) was reported. The morphology, conductivity and structure of the nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four probe testing and XRD experiment, respectively. Catalytic activity and stability for the oxidation of hydrazine were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the nanocomposite significantly enhances the effective surface area and the catalytic activity of the CPE (carbon paste electrode) for oxidation of hydrazine. The results obtained confirmed that the dispersion of the Al 2 O 3 particles is connected with catalytic response to a higher activity. The nanotubular morphology of poly (P-phenylendiamine) helps in the effective dispersion of Al 2 O 3 particles facilitating the easier access of hydrazine to the catalytic sites. The poly (P-phenylendiamine) nanotubes modified with Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles cause a great increase in electroactivity and the electro-catalytic properties of CPE for hydrazine oxidation.

  18. Hydrazine reduction of metal ions to porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yue; Shi Yongfang; Chen Yubiao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wu Liming, E-mail: liming_wu@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area have been prepared by the reduction of hydrazine in glycerol-ethanol solution at room temperature or 120-180 Degree-Sign C. Phase purity, morphology, and specific surface area have been characterized. The reactions probably undergo three different mechanisms: simple reduction for Ag and Pd, coordination-then-reduction for Cu and Ni, and hydrolysis-then-reduction for Bi. The reductant hydrazine also plays an important role to the formation of the porous submicro-structure. The reaction temperature influences the size of the constituent particles and the overall architecture of the submicro-structure so as to influence the surface area value. The as-prepared porous metals have shown the second largest surface area ever reported, which are smaller than those made by the reduction of NaBH{sub 4}, but larger than those made by hard or soft template methods. - Graphical abstract: Porous submicro-structures of Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area have been prepared by the reduction of hydrazine in the glycerol-ethanol solution at room temperature or 120-180 Degree-Sign C. The reactions undergo different mechanisms: simple reduction for Ag and Pd, coordination-then-reduction for Cu and Ni, and hydrolysis-then-reduction for Bi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Syntheses of porous Ag, Pd, Cu, Ni, and Bi with high surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag and Pd undergo simple reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu and Ni undergo coordination-then-reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi undergoes hydrolysis-then-reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-prepared metals have shown the second largest surface area ever reported.

  19. Study of the relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity in a series of hydrazine-based coordination compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, B N; Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M

    2000-08-01

    The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the structure of compounds is studied in a series of compounds based on hydrazine coordinated with ions of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II). The study has been carried out by means of the original electron-topological method developed earlier. A molecular fragment has been found that is only characteristic of biologically active compounds. Its spatial and electron parameters have been used for the quantitative assessment of the activity in view. The results obtained can be used for the antimicrobial activity prediction in a series of compounds with similar structures.

  20. Reaction of 1-bromo-3-chloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russavskaya, N.V.; Levanova, E.P.; Sukhomazova, Eh.N.; Grabel'nykh, V.A.; Elaev, A.V.; Klyba, L.V.; Zhanchipova, E.R.; Albanov, A.I.; Korotaeva, I.M.; Toryashinova, D.S.D.; Korchevin, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly(trimethyleneditelluride), from 1-bromo-3-chloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Reductive splitting of the tellurocol followed by alkylation with methyl iodide give rise to preparation of bis(methyltelluro)propane, which was synthesized also from dimethyl telluride and 1,3-dihalopropanes using the N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O/KOH system. The reaction products were characterized by elementary analysis, NMR, and IR spectra. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered [ru

  1. Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnou, Panagiota; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Cooper, Carl S; Malkov, Andrei V; Walls, John M; Bowers, Jake W

    2016-05-18

    Solution processing of semiconductors, such as CuInSe2 and its alloys (CIGS), can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of thin film solar cells. Despite the recent success of solution deposition approaches for CIGS, toxic reagents such as hydrazine are usually involved, which introduce health and safety concerns. Here, we present a simple and safer methodology for the preparation of high-quality CuIn(S, Se)2 absorbers from metal sulfide solutions in a diamine/dithiol mixture. The solutions are sprayed in air, using a chromatography atomizer, followed by a postdeposition selenization step. Two different selenization methods are explored resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 8%.

  2. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 4: The chemistry of hydrazine fuels and nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various chemical reactions that occur and that could possibly occur in the RCS engines utilizing hydrazine-type fuel/nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems, prior to ignition (preignition), during combustion, and after combustion (postcombustion), and endeavors to relate the hard-start phenomenon to some of these reactions are discussed. The discussion is based on studies utilizing a variety of experimental techniques and apparatus as well as current theories of chemical reactions and reaction kinetics. The chemical reactions were studied in low pressure gas flow reactors, low temperature homogeneous- and heterogeneous-phase reactors, simulated two-dimensional (2-D) engines, and scaled and full size engines.

  3. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Aparicio, S., E-mail: sla@nilu.no; Hak, C.

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality.

  4. Investigations of impurity control in JET using fuelling, and interpretation of experiments using the LIM impurity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of contamination of the plasma core in JET by edge impurities during high power heating of deuterium plasmas in limiter configuration using fuelling is demonstrated. By injecting deuterium gas during heating, in the presence of a much larger recycling deuterium flux, a reduction of more than a factor of 2 was effected in n z (0)/Φ z , the ratio of central impurity density to impurity influx at the plasma edge. The reduction in n z (0) was obtained without much effect on peak electron temperature and density. Reduction of plasma contamination by gas fuelling was observed also when hot spots formed on the limiter, a condition that without simultaneous gas fuelling culminated in runaway plasma contamination. Detailed analysis of the experiments is undertaken with the purpose of identifying the processes by which plasma contamination was inhibited, employing standard limiter plasma contamination modelling. Processes which might produce the observed impurity inhibiting effects of gas injection include: (a) reduction in impurity production at the limiter; (b) increase in impurity screening in the scrape-off layer; (c) increase in radial impurity transport at the plasma edge; (d) increase in average deuteron flow velocity to the limiter along the scrape-off layer. These are examined in detail using the Monte Carlo limiter impurity transport code LIM. Bearing in mind that uncertainties exist both in the choice of appropriate modelling assumptions to be used and in the measurement of required edge plasma parameters, changes in n z (0)/Φ z by a factor of 2 are at the limit of the present modelling capability. However, comparison between LIM code simulations and measurements of plasma impurity content indicate that the standard limiter plasma contamination model may not be adequate and that other processes need to be added in order to be able to describe the experiments in JET. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Aparicio, S.; Hak, C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO 2 , O 3 , acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality

  6. Role of oxides and porosity on high temperature oxidation of liquid fuelled HVOF thermal sprayed Ni50Cr coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K.T.; Hussain, Tanvir

    2017-01-01

    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid fuelled high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using...

  7. Chapter 3: Exponential experiments on graphite-moderated lattices fuelled with near-natural uranium metal rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.; Clarke, W.G.; Ashworth, F.P.O.; Hoskins, T.A.

    1963-01-01

    Exponential experiments have been carried out on graphite lattices fuelled by 1.2 in. diameter uranium metal rods at three near-natural U 235 compositions, 0.6 Co, 1.3 Co and 1.6 Co. The results, together with those already existing from earlier exponential or critical measurements on these and similar natural uranium rods, have been correlated with the theory of Syrett (1961) and also with the modified form of this theory given in Vol.1, Ch. 7. (author)

  8. SHE’S NOT A VICTIM! SHE’S MY WIFE! INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: FUELLED BY DANGEROUS PERPETRATOR ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londt, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used mixed methodology research; chose 53 male and 47 female respondents through purposive sampling, selected intervention research: design and development methodological framework to develop guidelines, used a Canadian Risk Assessment Tool to “assess risk”/“predict dangerousness”. The findings highlighted the need for “risk factor assessment”, showing specific risk factors predicted violence, with sexual violence playing a role. Perpetrators disregard their partners as victims when sexual violence was employed. Qualitative data from female respondents showed that perpetrators use physical assault and sexual violence in their attacks, and their behaviours were fuelled by attitudes that supported/condoned intimate partner violence (IPV.

  9. Optimization of performance and emission characteristics of PPCCI engine fuelled with ethanol and diesel blends using grey-Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, S.; Pitchandi, K.; Mahalakshmi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    The performance and emission characteristics of a PPCCI engine fuelled with ethanol and diesel blends were carried out on a single cylinder air cooled CI engine. In order to achieve the optimal process response with a limited number of experimental cycles, multi objective grey relational analysis had been applied for solving a multiple response optimization problem. Using grey relational grade and signal-to-noise ratio as a performance index, a combination of input parameters was prefigured so as to achieve optimum response characteristics. It was observed that 20% premixed ratio of blend was most suitable for use in a PPCCI engine without significantly affecting the engine performance and emissions characteristics.

  10. Simultaneous quantitation of hydrazine and acetylhydrazine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with p-tolualdehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu; Gao, Dan; Li, Shangfu; Wang, Yanwei; Liu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yuyang

    2017-09-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of hydrazine and acetylhydrazine in human plasma based on the strategy of p-tolualdehyde derivatization. The derivatization reactions were easily realized by ultrasonic manipulation for 40min. Good separation of the derivatization products was achieved using a C 18 column by gradient elution. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) monitored for the two hydrazine derivatives were m/z 237.1≫>119.9 and m/z 176.9≫>117.8, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for hydrazine were 0.002 and 0.005ngmL -1 separately. And they were 0.03 and 0.05ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine, respectively. The linear range was 0.005-50ngmL -1 for hydrazine and 0.05-500ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine with R 2 greater than 0.999. The recovery range was determined to be 95.38-108.12% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 1.24-14.89%. The method was successfully applied to detect 30 clinical plasma samples of pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated with isoniazid. The concentrations were from 0.04-1.99ngmL -1 for hydrazine and 0.06-142.43ngmL -1 for acetylhydrazine. The results indicated that our developed method had the potential for the detection of hydrazine toxicology in complex biological samples. Furthermore, the method has an important significance to clinical treatment with drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and anti-bacterial activity of divalent transition metal complexes of hydrazine and trimesic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal complexes of trimesic acid and hydrazine mixed-ligands with a general formula M(Htma(N2H42, where, M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn; H3tma = trimesic acid, have been prepared and characterized by elemental, structural, spectral and thermal analyses. For the complexes, the carboxylate νasym and νsym stretchings are observed at about 1626 and 1367 cm−1 respectively, with Δν between them of ∼260 cm−1, showing the unidentate coordination of each carboxylate group. The hydrazine moieties are present as bridging bidentates. Electronic and EPR spectral studies suggest an octahedral geometry for the complexes. All these complexes show three steps of decomposition in TGA/DTA. SEM images of CuO and MnO residues obtained from the complexes show nano-sized clusters suggesting that the complexes may be used as precursors for nano-CuO and nano-MnO preparation. The antimicrobial activities of the prepared complexes, against four bacteria have been evaluated.

  12. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszak, R.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports (γ-Al 2 O 3 , amorphous or crystallized SiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , CeO 2 and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N 2 , FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H 2 -TPR, H 2 -adsorption, H 2 -TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO 2 or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of AuNPs/CNTs-ErGO electrochemical sensors for highly sensitive detection of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenting; Sun, Yongjiao; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun; Hu, Jie; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor of hydrazine has been fabricated by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) coating of carbon nanotubes-electrochemical reduced graphene oxide composite film (CNTs-ErGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Cyclic voltammetry and potential amperometry have been used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensors for hydrazine detection. The performances of the sensors were optimized by varying the CNTs to ErGO ratio and the quantity of Au nanoparticles. The results show that under optimal conditions, a sensitivity of 9.73μAμM(-1)cm(-2), a short response time of 3s, and a low detection limit of 0.065μM could be achieved with a linear concentration response range from 0.3μM to 319μM. The enhanced electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect between AuNPs and CNTs-ErGO film and the outstanding catalytic effect of the Au nanoparticles. Finally, the sensor was successfully used to analyse the tap water, showing high potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A first-principles study on adsorption behaviors of pristine and Li-decorated graphene sheets toward hydrazine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huadong; Cheng, Xinlu; Wang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The adsorption behaviors and properties of hydrazine (N2H4) molecules on pristine and Li-decorated graphene sheets were investigated by means of first-principles based on density functional theory. We systematically analyzed the optimal geometry, average binding energy, charge transfer, charge density difference and density of states of N2H4 molecules adsorbed on pristine and Li-decorated graphene sheets. It is found that the interaction between single N2H4 molecule and pristine graphene is weak physisorption with the low binding energy of -0.026 eV, suggesting that the pristine graphene sheet is insensitive to the presence of N2H4 molecule. However, it is markedly enhanced after lithium decoration with the high binding energy of -1.004 eV, verifying that the Li-decorated graphene sheet is significantly sensitive to detect N2H4 molecule. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of N2H4 molecules on two different substrates were studied detailedly. For pristine graphene substrate, the average binding energy augments apparently with increasing the number of N2H4 molecules, which is mainly attributed to the van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds among N2H4 clusters. Li-decorated graphene sheet has still a strong affinity to N2H4 molecules despite the corresponding average binding energy emerges a contrary tendency. Overall, Li-decorated graphene sheet could be considered as a potential gas sensor in field of hydrazine molecules.

  15. Influence of cooled exhaust gas recirculation on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Alexander, Jim; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    On fuel perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) provides cleaner emissions and also facilitates lean burn signifying less fuel consumption and emissions. Lean burn technology can attain better efficiencies and lesser combustion temperatures but this temperature is quite sufficient to facilitate formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for NOx reduction has been considered allover but extremely little literatures exist on the consequence of EGR on lean burn LPG fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine. The following research is carried out to find the optimal rate of EGR addition to reduce NOx emissions without settling on performance and combustion characteristics. A single cylinder diesel engine is altered to operate as LPG fuelled SI engine at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and arrangements to provide different ratios of cooled EGR in the intake manifold. Investigations are done to arrive at optimum ratio of the EGR to reduce emissions without compromising on performance. Significant reductions in NOx emissions alongside HC and CO emissions were seen. Higher percentages of EGR further diluted the charge and lead to improper combustion and thus increased hydrocarbon emissions. Cooled EGR reduced the peak in-cylinder temperature which reduced NOx emissions but lead to misfire at lower lean limits.

  16. Reactivity feedback coefficients of a low enriched uranium fuelled material test research reactor at end-of-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Farhan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The isotopic concentration in the fuel changes as soon as it starts its operation. → The neutronic properties of a reactor also change with fuel burnup. → The reactivity feedbacks at end-of-life of a material test reactor fuelled with low enriched uranium fuel are calculated. → Codes used include WIMS-D4 and CITATION. - Abstract: The reactivity feedback coefficients at end-of-life of a material test reactor fuelled with low enriched uranium fuel were calculated. The reactor used for the study was the IAEA's 10 MW benchmark reactor. Simulations were carried out to calculate the different reactivity feedback coefficients including Doppler feedback coefficient, reactivity coefficient for change of water temperature and reactivity coefficient for change of water density. Nuclear reactor analysis codes including WIMS-D4 and CITATION were employed to carry out these calculations. It was observed that the magnitude of all the reactivity feedback coefficients increased at end of life of the reactor by almost 2-5%.

  17. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  18. A QSAR/QSTR Study on the Environmental Health Impact by the Rocket Fuel 1,1-Dimethyl Hydrazine and its Transformation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available QSAR/QSTR modelling constitutes an attractive approach to preliminary assessment of the impact on environmental health by a primary pollutant and the suite of transformation products that may be persistent in and toxic to the environment. The present paper studies the impact on environmental health by residuals of the rocket fuel 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine (heptyl and its transformation products. The transformation products, comprising a variety of nitrogen containing compounds are suggested all to possess a significant migration potential. In all cases the compounds were found being rapidly biodegradable. However, unexpected low microbial activity may cause significant changes. None of the studied compounds appear to be bioaccumulating. Apart from substances with an intact hydrazine structure or hydrazone structure the transformation products in general display rather low environmental toxicities. Thus, it is concluded that apparently further attention should be given to tri- and tetramethyl hydrazine and 1-formyl 2,2-dimethyl hydrazine as well as to the hydrazones of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as these five compounds may contribute to the overall environmental toxicity of residual rocket fuel and its transformation products.

  19. Development of Quality Management System Under ISO 9001:2015 and Joint Inspection Group (JIG for Aviation Fuelling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruamchat Kanon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Inspection Group (JIG standard for aviation fuel quality management assists in the operational process and maintenance of aviation fuel from its point of origin and through distribution systems to airports. Currently, problems arise as the JIG standard and quality management in aviation fuel are isolated and have independent procedures. Merging the JIG standards with ISO 9001:2015 can override original JIG’s philosophy by connecting all quality assessment, and management parties involved, throughout the supply chain. This integration can harmonize auditing tasks, focusing on risk/opportunity, and continue quality improvement focus. This paper proposes a development of quality management system (QMS under ISO 9001:2015 for aviation fuelling service in a systematic way. The content and critical success factors of ISO 9001:2015 and JIG standards were studied. The beneficial synergies, similarities, and logical linkages between both standards are identified. This QMS was developed in the largest petroleum company in Thailand and 60 selected experts were surveyed, with a response rate of 88.3%, for their agreement on integrated criteria. Two external quality auditors, who have ISO 9001 and JIG expertise, were interviewed to modify our initial proposed QMS. The final QMS was implemented in the into-plane fuelling services as the first phase of this implementation. Results of framework implementation are discussed in a case study. There are mutual benefits resulting from the integration of JIG and ISO 9001:2015 standards. This QMS provides a unified process for quality management practices, and enhances the effectiveness of risk evaluation as well as the opportunity for continued quality improvement. It facilitates the identification of ISO 9001:2015 requirements and establishes relationships between the roles of JIG standard and the clauses of ISO 9001:2015. The first experience from five airports as the pilot study of proposed QMS

  20. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  1. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H P; Bierbaum, K; Adlhoch, W; Thomas, G [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  2. Exhaust of plant oil fuelled cogeneration unit drives a two-stage refrigerating absorber; Abgas aus Pflanzenoel-BHKW treibt zweistufige Absorptionskaeltemaschine an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2008-05-15

    Skating rinks are expensive to operate. In view of exploding energy prices, energetic optimisation is economically favourable even in more recent buildings. In the Hacker-Pschorr-Arena building at Bad Toelz, which was commissioned in 2004, the space HVAC system was modernized. A plant oil fuelled cogeneration unit and an exhaust-driven two-stage refrigerating absorber were installed. (orig.)

  3. The indigenisation of Lubriplate 630-2 and development of Servo-Nuclease-2 grease for the fuelling machine of pressurised heavy water power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.B.; Thomas, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    A new grease of NLGI-2 consistency was developed for application in nuclear environments. The evaluation consisted of both static tests employing a cobalt-60 γ-ray source and dynamic tests carried out on specially designed rigs in Fuelling Machine Vaults of RAPS. (auth.)

  4. An experimental study on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a spark ignition car fuelled on liquefied petroleum gas and Gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Yun-shan, G.E.; Jun-fang, W.; Jian-wei, T.; Gardezi, S.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study conducted on a spark ignition (SI) car running on a chassis dynamometer, fuelled on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (HC) decreased by 37.3% and 46.8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) increased by 59.7% due to higher compression ratio with LPG, compared with gasoline. In case of LPG fuel, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 2-butanone, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde and valeraldehyde decreased, leading to an over all decrease of about 35% and 26% in carbonyls and their ozone forming potential (OFP), respectively, compared with gasoline. Furthermore, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene and styrene decreased, resulting in an overall decrease of 38.8% in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 39.2% in BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene) species due to more complete combustion with LPG, compared with gasoline. Further, the OFP of VOCs with LPG was 6% lower than that with gasoline fuel. (author)

  5. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO 2 emissions while causing slightly higher NO x emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  6. Mechanism of hydrocarbon reduction using multiple injection in a natural gas fuelled/micro-pilot diesel ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklow, G.J.; Gong, W. [University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Research has shown that a large amount of natural gas (NG) is unburned at light loads in an NG fuelled/micro-pilot diesel compression ignition engine. A mechanism of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) reduction using multiple injections of micro-pilot diesel has been proposed in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for a dual-fuel engine based on a modified CAT3401 engine configuration. The computations show that a split injection with a small percentage (e.g. 30 per cent of diesel in the second injection pulse) can significantly reduce HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. Based on parax metric studies to optimize the timing of both of the injection pulses, HC emissions could be reduced by 90 per cent, with a reduction in CO emissions of 50 per cent and NO{sub x} emissions of 70 per cent in comparison to a singlex injection pulse-base case configuration. (author)

  7. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  8. Experience with vertical down-fired, coal-fuelled, low emissions air heaters incorporating automatic ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Noble, R.K.; Keller, J. [Tulsa Combustion LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the conversion of a horizontally-oriented air heater system with a vertically-oriented pulverized coal-fuelled air heater system. The vertically-oriented heater was used for automatic de-ashing and avoiding the ash accumulation often seen in horizontally-oriented systems. The study showed that the use of the vertical system significantly reduced emissions of nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Slag and salt attacks on the refractory were also reduced. The vertical systems provided automatic ash removal and eliminated hot spots on the refractory. The potential for variations in composition was also reduced. It was concluded that the system's smaller footprint means that it can be used in retrofits and can be installed in small spaces. 12 figs.

  9. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction.

  10. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Particulates emitted from combustion engines have been a great concern in past years due to their adverse health effects, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. The source of particulates can be stationary and transient, such as gas and oil fuelled engines, turbines and boilers. Particulate matter (PM) dispersed into ambient air can be classified in many ways: the mechanism of the formation, the size and the composition. Fine particles (PM2.5) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum and particles, greater than 2.5 mum in diameter are generally referred to as coarse particles (PM10). PM2.5 is also called the respirable fraction, because they can penetrate to the unciliated regions of the lung. Fine particles consist of so called ultrafine particles (an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 mum). The sizes of particulates emitted from combustion processes range between 10 nm and 100 mum, and are usually a mixture of unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust particles have a mass median diameter of 0.05-1.0 mum. They are a complex mixture of elemental carbon, a variety of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, and other species. They consist of a numerous spherical primary particles, which are agglomerated into aggregates. Particles from natural gas engine emissions range from 0.01-0.7 mum. Increase in PM10 pollution has been found to be associated with a range of adverse health effects, such as increased use of medication for asthma, attacks of asthma in patients with pre-existing asthma, attacks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deaths from respiratory causes, admission to hospital for cardiovascular causes, deaths from heart attacks and deaths from strokes. While it is unknown, which particulate matter component is the most hazardous for humans, a number of factors suggest that ultrafine particles may be more toxic than larger particles. Ultrafine particles have a large surface area per

  11. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2CdSnSe4 nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung; Fu, Yaw-Shyan; Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Lin, Wen-Tai

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) and Cu 2 CdSnSe 4 (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu 2 Se, and Cu 2 SnSe 3 , and Cu 2 SnSe 3 and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 and Cu 2 CdSnSe 4 nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices

  12. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan, E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 (China); Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu{sub 2}Se, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices.

  13. Contributions of nonextracting Pu reductants (ferrous sulphamate and hydroxylamine nitrate) and holding reductant (hydrazine nitrate) to the aqueous density in U-Pu partitioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Rajnish Kumar; Koganti, S.B.

    2005-08-01

    As nonextracting Pu reductants and holding reductants contribute to the density of aqueous phase sub-system considerably, to account their contributions in aqueous phase in solvent extraction simulation code is essential. In this regard, in-house generated precise density data on aqueous ferrous sulphamate solutions as well as aqueous density data, reported in the literature, for HAN, hydrazine nitrate and HAN-HNO 3 systems were analyzed and density equation earlier proposed by authors was extended to it. It was observed that the equation earlier proposed by the authors were simple and were easy to extend for multicomponent system. The contributions of ferrous sulphamate, HAN and hydrazine nitrate to the aqueous density were quantified. It was also observed that the classical value of contribution for nonextractible solute to the aqueous density was quite different from the results reported in this work. (author)

  14. Surface modification of g-C3N4 by hydrazine: Simple way for noble-metal free hydrogen evolution catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2015-11-02

    The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) usually is thought to be an inert material and it’s difficult to have the surface terminated NH2 groups functionalized. By modifying the g-C3N4 surface with hydrazine, the diazanyl group was successfully introduced onto the g-C3N4 surface, which allows the introduction with many other function groups. Here we illustrated that by reaction of surface hydrazine group modified g-C3N4 with CS2 under basic condition, a water electrolysis active group C(=S)SNi can be implanted on the g-C3N4 surface, and leads to a noble metal free hydrogen evolution catalyst. This catalyst has 40% hydrogen evolution efficiency compare to the 3 wt% Pt photo precipitated g-C3N4, with only less than 0.2 wt% nickel.

  15. Cobalt nanoparticles as sacrificial templates for the electrodeposition of palladium nanomaterials in an ionic liquid, and its application to electrochemical sensing of hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Q.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the electrodeposition of palladium nanomaterials in choline chloride-based ionic liquid ethaline. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with cobalt nanoparticles (acting as sacrificial templates) and a GCE modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were fabricated and used to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the PdNP modified GCE has a uniform morphology. Zero current potentiometry was used for in-situ probing the changes in interfacial potential of the oxidation of hydrazine. An amperometric study showed that the PdNP modified GCE possesses excellent electrocatalytic activity towards N 2 H 4 . The modified electrode displays a fast response ( -1 ) -1 cm -2 ) and broad linearity in the range from 0.1 to 800 μmol L -1 with a detection limit of 0.03 μmol L -1 (S/N = 3). (author)

  16. Surface modification of g-C3N4 by hydrazine: Simple way for noble-metal free hydrogen evolution catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Wang, Hong; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Haibo; Yu, Weili; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) usually is thought to be an inert material and it’s difficult to have the surface terminated NH2 groups functionalized. By modifying the g-C3N4 surface with hydrazine, the diazanyl group was successfully introduced onto the g-C3N4 surface, which allows the introduction with many other function groups. Here we illustrated that by reaction of surface hydrazine group modified g-C3N4 with CS2 under basic condition, a water electrolysis active group C(=S)SNi can be implanted on the g-C3N4 surface, and leads to a noble metal free hydrogen evolution catalyst. This catalyst has 40% hydrogen evolution efficiency compare to the 3 wt% Pt photo precipitated g-C3N4, with only less than 0.2 wt% nickel.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of certain 6-methyl-2(3H)-benzo-1, 3-thiazolyl-1'-ethylidene-2-(o, p- Substituted Acetophenones) Hydrazine Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, G; Kaur, G; Kaur, R; Singh, A; Tiwari, R

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, five new derivatives (GG4 to GG8) of benzothiazoles were synthesized and evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), and yeast-like fungi Candida tropicalis. p-Toluidine on treatment with ammonium thiocynate formed 2-benzothiazolamines (II), which on reaction with hydrazine hydrate formed a hydrazino derivative (III). Compounds GG4 to GG8 were synthesized by reacting the hydrazine derivative with different acetophenones. All the synthesized compounds were identified by IR and (1)H-NMR, and antimicrobial activity was performed on the synthesized compounds. Presence of NO(2), Br, OCH(3), and Cl groups to the substituted benzothiazole enhanced the antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  18. Update of the water chemistry effect on the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of carbon steel: influence of hydrazine, boric acid, ammonia, morpholine and ethanolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavageau, E.-M.; De Bouvier, O.; Trevin, S.; Bretelle, J.-L.; Dejoux, L.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the water chemistry on Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) affecting carbon steel components has been studied for many years and is relatively well known and taken into account by the models. Nonetheless, experimental studies were conducted in the last few years at EDF on the CIROCO loop in order to check the influence of the water chemistry parameters (hydrazine, boric acid, ammonia, morpholine and ethanolamine) on the FAC rate of carbon steel in one phase flow conditions. The hydrazine impact on the FAC rate was shown to be minor in EDF's chemistry recommendation range, compared to other parameters' effects such as the pH effect. The presence of boric acid in the nominal secondary circuit conditions was negligible. Finally, as expected, the nature of the chemical conditioning (ammonia, morpholine or ethanolamine) did not modify the FAC rate, the influencing chemical variable being the at-temperature pH in one-phase flow conditions. (author)

  19. The gamma-ray induced chemisorption of oxygen on perovskite type catalysts: determination by reduction with hydrazine sulphate/hydroxylamine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, B.; Rao, V.R.S.; Kuriacose, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Chemisorbed oxygen can be determined quantitatively by the measurement of gaseous N 2 /N 2 O liberated by treatment with hydrazine sulfate/hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The amount of chemisorbed oxygen depends on the degree of dispersion during irradiation and also on the γ-dose. The chemisorption is enhanced in the presence of moisture. The partial reduction of the transition metal ion favours the formation of chemisorbed oxygen. (author)

  20. Simple assembly of polysubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles via ring closure-ring opening domino reaction of 3-acyl-4,5-dihydrofurans with hydrazines and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagarovskiy, Alexey O; Budynina, Ekaterina M; Ivanova, Olga A; Rybakov, Victor B; Trushkov, Igor V; Melnikov, Mikhail Ya

    2016-03-14

    A convenient general approach to 2-(pyrazol-4-yl)- and 2-(isoxazol-4-yl)ethanols based on the Brønsted acid-initiated reaction of 3-acyl-4,5-dihydrofurans with hydrazines or hydroxylamine was developed. Further transformation of the alcohol moiety in 2-(pyrazolyl)ethanols affording 2-(pyrazolyl)ethylamine as potent bioactive compounds as well as pyrazole-substituted derivatives of antitumor alkaloid crispine A was elaborated.

  1. Integrated simulations of H-mode operation in ITER including core fuelling, divertor detachment and ELM control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoi, A. R.; Loarte, A.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Fable, E.; Coster, D.; Maruyama, S.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Köchl, F.; Zhogolev, V. E.

    2018-05-01

    ELM mitigation to avoid melting of the tungsten (W) divertor is one of the main factors affecting plasma fuelling and detachment control at full current for high Q operation in ITER. Here we derive the ITER operational space, where ELM mitigation to avoid melting of the W divertor monoblocks top surface is not required and appropriate control of W sources and radiation in the main plasma can be ensured through ELM control by pellet pacing. We apply the experimental scaling that relates the maximum ELM energy density deposited at the divertor with the pedestal parameters and this eliminates the uncertainty related with the ELM wetted area for energy deposition at the divertor and enables the definition of the ITER operating space through global plasma parameters. Our evaluation is thus based on this empirical scaling for ELM power loads together with the scaling for the pedestal pressure limit based on predictions from stability codes. In particular, our analysis has revealed that for the pedestal pressure predicted by the EPED1  +  SOLPS scaling, ELM mitigation to avoid melting of the W divertor monoblocks top surface may not be required for 2.65 T H-modes with normalized pedestal densities (to the Greenwald limit) larger than 0.5 to a level of current of 6.5–7.5 MA, which depends on assumptions on the divertor power flux during ELMs and between ELMs that expand the range of experimental uncertainties. The pellet and gas fuelling requirements compatible with control of plasma detachment, core plasma tungsten accumulation and H-mode operation (including post-ELM W transient radiation) have been assessed by 1.5D transport simulations for a range of assumptions regarding W re-deposition at the divertor including the most conservative assumption of zero prompt re-deposition. With such conservative assumptions, the post-ELM W transient radiation imposes a very stringent limit on ELM energy losses and the associated minimum required ELM frequency. Depending on

  2. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  3. INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH BUTHANOL – GASOLINE MIXTURE AND A HYDROGEN ENRICHED AIR

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredas Rimkus; Mindaugas Melaika; Jonas Matijošius; Šarūnas Mikaliūnas; Saugirdas Pukalskas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, spark ignition engine fuelled with buthanol-gasoline mixture and a hydrogen-enriched air was investigated. Engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics were investigated with different buthanol (10% and 20% by volume) gasoline mixtures and additionally supplied oxygen and hydrogen (HHO) gas mixture (3.6 l/min) in the sucked air. Hydrogen, which is in the HHO gas, improves gasoline and gasoline-buthanol mixture combustion, increases indicated pressure during comb...

  4. Fuelling the future: microbial engineering for the production of sustainable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C; Mi, Luo; Pontrelli, Sammy; Luo, Shanshan

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change linked to the accumulation of greenhouse gases has caused concerns regarding the use of fossil fuels as the major energy source. To mitigate climate change while keeping energy supply sustainable, one solution is to rely on the ability of microorganisms to use renewable resources for biofuel synthesis. In this Review, we discuss how microorganisms can be explored for the production of next-generation biofuels, based on the ability of bacteria and fungi to use lignocellulose; through direct CO2 conversion by microalgae; using lithoautotrophs driven by solar electricity; or through the capacity of microorganisms to use methane generated from landfill. Furthermore, we discuss how to direct these substrates to the biosynthetic pathways of various fuel compounds and how to optimize biofuel production by engineering fuel pathways and central metabolism.

  5. A Comparative study on VOCs and aldehyde-ketone emissions from a spark Ignition vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study was conducted on a spark ignition (SI) vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas (CNG), and gasoline to compare the unregulated emissions such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehyde-ketones or carbonyls. In the meantime, ozone forming potential (OFP) of pollutants was also calculated on the basis of their specific reactivity (SR). The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer following the Chinese National Standards test scheduled for light duty vehicle (LDV) emissions. According to the results, total aldehyde-ketones were increased by 39.4% due to the substantial increase in formaldehyde and acrolein + acetone emissions, while VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) reduced by 85.2 and 86% respectively, in case of CNG fuelled vehicle as compared to gasoline vehicle. Although total aldehyde-ketones were higher with CNG relative to gasoline, their SR was lower due decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and methacrolein species having higher maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values. The SR of VOCs and aldehyde-ketones emitted from CNG fuelled vehicle was decreased by above 10% and 32% respectively, owing to better physicochemical properties and more complete burning of CNG as compared to gasoline. (author)

  6. Development and validation of a quasi-dimensional combustion model for SI engines fuelled by HCNG with variable hydrogen fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fanhua; Wang, Yu; Wang, Mingyue; Liu, Haiquan; Wang, Junjun; Ding, Shangfen; Zhao, Shuli [State Key Laboratory of Automobile Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Spark ignition engines fuelled by hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) have many advantages compared to traditional gasoline, diesel and natural gas engines, especially in emission control. Experimental researches have been continuously conducted to improve HCNG engine's configuration and control strategy aimed at making full use of this new fuel. With the same target, this work presents a predictive model used to simulate the working cycle of HCNG engines which is applicable for variable hydrogen blending ratios. The fundamentals of the thermodynamic model, the turbulent flame propagation model and related equation were introduced. Considering that the most important factor influencing the applicability of the model for variable hydrogen blending ratio is the laminar flame speed, the methods of how to deal with the laminar burning velocity in the model were then described in some more detail. After the determination of model constants by calibration, simulation results were compared with experimental cylinder pressure data for various hydrogen blending ratios, spark timings and equivalence ratios. The results show that simulation and experimental results match quite well except for extremely fuel lean conditions where problems of incomplete combustion become severe. (author)

  7. Experience with a biomass-fuelled power plant in Peru. Peru kokunai no biomass nenryoka no hatsuden plant no keiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the result of operating a 25-kW biomass-fuelled power plant for 500 hours installed for people in a small village in jungle along the Amazon basin in Peru. The gasifier plant consists of two invert type gas combustors combined with series cyclone dryer filters. Filtration used activated carbons and cotton cloths. The fuel for the plant is wood chips containing water at 5.5% to 11% with calorific power of 20 mJ/kg, consumed at 2.0 kg of lumber per kWh (25 kWh). A gas analysis showed values of CO2 at 13%, CO at 14%, H2 at 18%, CH4 at 3%, and N2 at 52%. Because the fuel of wood chips may cause problems if the size is too large, a size of about 10[times]20[times]30 mm was selected finally. Pressure drop in the gas purifying system was measured using a manometer, which verified that a textile filtering material can be used. The gasoline engine rotation was fixed at 2700 rpm upon discussions. The gasoline engine had no need of modification except at a pipe to the carburetor. This system can be installed at any small village. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Effect of antioxidants on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by waste cooking sunflower methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V. Puneeth Kumar; Senthil Kumar, D.; Thirumalini, S.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable fuel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. Nonetheless, its extensive utilization is impeded by the auto-oxidation resulting in degradation of the fuel. Adding antioxidants to the biodiesel is a potential solution, but it might have an effect on the clean-burning characteristics of the fuel. This paper investigates the effect of antioxidants on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by the waste cooking sunflower methyl ester. The fuel samples tested include B10, B20, B30 and B40, among which B20 produced the best possible results. Antioxidants 2, 6-ditert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHA) and 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHT) of two concentrations 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm were added to B20 to evaluate the effectiveness. B20BHA1000 had the best effect with an average decrease of 5.035%, 2.02% in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) compared to B20. Regarding the emission characteristics it was observed that B20BHA1000 had produced an increase of 7.21%, 27.79% in NOx and smoke emissions and a decrease of 33.33% in HC emissions when compared to B20. On the whole, without any requirement of alteration in the diesel engines, B20 blends with antioxidant can be utilized as fuel.

  9. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  10. Straight methanol and vehicle evaluation. Phase 4: durability of a fleet of methanol-fuelled vehicles in normal service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The work described in this report is part of a long-term program to evaluate the performance of methanol-fuelled vehicles. Six Ford Escorts which were modified by the manufacturer to run on fuel-methanol have now been operated for 1 year in normal long-distance service using 3 different test oils. The oils were formulated with proprietary additive packages, one supplied by Shell and 2 others from outside companies. The formulations had been identified from earlier phases of the study as promising a level of protection for the special needs of methanol engines. The results indicate that the 3 test oils are equivalent in performance and better than the Phase 2 oil, over the duration of the study in their effect on cam and lifter wear, ring wear, and, to lesser extent, cylinder bore wear, engine durability, and cleanliness in a mainly highway-style, long-trip distance accumulation mode. In contrast to the more severe short-trip distance accumulation test performed in Phase 3, the results for the present test were not significantly worse than expected for an equivalent gasoline engine, but with an oil drain period reduced by approximately 58%.

  11. Potential of renewable energy in large fossil-fuelled boilers; Potential erneuerbarer Energien in groesseren fossilen Feuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kernen, M. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined large heat generation systems used in Switzerland for the supply of heating services to several buildings via small and large district heating systems. Focus is placed on those using fossil fuels and the potential of using combined heat and power plants and renewable forms of energy such as heat-pumps and boilers fired with wood-chippings. The study was also extended to other large-scale, fossil-fuelled heating installations. The report discusses the setting up of a data base, the assessment of the potentials for fuel substitution, the economic viability of wood-fired systems and heat-pumps and the analysis of various factors that can obstruct the use of systems employing renewable forms of energy. Around 20 owners of large installations were interviewed on the subject. Strategic planning, studies, putting to tender, realisation and operation aspects are reviewed.

  12. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems; Il gas naturale in autotrazione, aspetti energetici ed ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A; Pede, G [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt.Energia

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology. [Italiano] Il rapporto e` dedicato all`esposizione ed all`analisi delle principali tematiche afferenti all`introduzione del metano nel settore dell`autotrazione. Vengono quindi esaminati nell`ordine la situazione del mercato della domanda e dell`offerta di metano, le realizzazioni veicolari oggi disponibili, la tecnologia e le prestazioni dei motori alimentati a metano e quelle dei sistemi di accumulo a bordo, l`impatto ambientale di questi veicoli. Vengono infine trattati i temi dello sviluppo del mercato e degli attori di questo sviluppo, evidenziandone i possibili sbocchi insieme agli ostacoli che ne limitano la diffusione.

  13. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol fuelled port injected homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion concept for in reciprocating engines. The HCCI combustion engine offers significant benefits in terms of its high efficiency and ultra low emissions. In this investigation, port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge. The combustion and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder, four-stroke engine. The experiment is conducted with varying intake air temperature (120-150 C) and at different air-fuel ratios, for which stable HCCI combustion is achieved. In-cylinder pressure, heat release analysis and exhaust emission measurements were employed for combustion diagnostics. In this study, effect of intake air temperature on combustion parameters, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions in HCCI combustion engine is analyzed and discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the air-fuel ratio and intake air temperature have significant effect on the maximum in-cylinder pressure and its position, gas exchange efficiency, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency, maximum rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. Results show that for all stable operation points, NO{sub x} emissions are lower than 10 ppm however HC and CO emissions are higher. (author)

  14. Key study on the potential of hydrazine bisborane for solid- and liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypko, Sergii; Petit, Eddy; Yot, Pascal G; Salles, Fabrice; Cretin, Marc; Miele, Philippe; Demirci, Umit B

    2015-05-04

    Hydrazine bisborane N2H4(BH3)2 (HBB; 16.8 wt %) recently re-emerged as a potential hydrogen storage material. However, such potential is controversial: HBB was seen as a hazardous compound up to 2010, but now it would be suitable for hydrogen storage. In this context, we focused on fundamentals of HBB because they are missing in the literature and should help to shed light on its effective potential while taking into consideration any risk. Experimental/computational methods were used to get a complete characterization data sheet, including, e.g., XRD, NMR, FTIR, Raman, TGA, and DSC. From the reported results and discussion, it is concluded that HBB has potential in the field of chemical hydrogen storage given that both thermolytic and hydrolytic dehydrogenations were analyzed. In solid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it cannot be used in the pristine state (risk of explosion during dehydrogenation) but can be used for the synthesis of derivatives with improved dehydrogenation properties. In liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it can be studied for room-temperature dehydrogenation, but this requires the development of an active and selective metal-based catalyst. HBB is a thus a candidate for chemical hydrogen storage.

  15. Removal of Lead from Water Using Calcium Alginate Beads Doped with Hydrazine Sulphate-Activated Red Mud as Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naga Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate beads doped with hydrazine sulphate-treated red mud are investigated as adsorbent for extracting lead ions from water using batch methods of extraction. Different extraction conditions are optimised for maximum lead extraction. Substantial amount of lead is removed, and the adsorption ability is found to be 138.6 mg/g. Surface characterization using FTIR, EDX, and FESEM confirms that lead is “onto” the surface of the adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics of adsorption are analysed. Adsorption is “physisorption” in nature and spontaneous. The adsorbent developed can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl. Thus regenerated adsorbent can be used as the adsorbent for further removal of lead at least 10 times, and this enables the complete removal of lead from water by repetitive use of the regenerated adsorbent. The beads facilitate the easy filtration. The methodology developed is successfully applied for removing lead from industrial waste waters.

  16. Hydrazine-Assisted Formation of Indium Phosphide (InP)-Based Nanowires and Core-Shell Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzke, Greta R; Kontic, Roman; Shiolashvili, Zeinab; Makhatadze, Nino; Jishiashvili, David

    2012-12-27

    Indium phosphide nanowires (InP NWs) are accessible at 440 °C from a novel vapor phase deposition approach from crystalline InP sources in hydrazine atmospheres containing 3 mol % H₂O. Uniform zinc blende (ZB) InP NWs with diameters around 20 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers are preferably deposited on Si substrates. InP particle sizes further increase with the deposition temperature. The straightforward protocol was extended on the one-step formation of new core-shell InP-Ga NWs from mixed InP/Ga source materials. Composite nanocables with diameters below 20 nm and shells of amorphous gallium oxide are obtained at low deposition temperatures around 350 °C. Furthermore, InP/Zn sources afford InP NWs with amorphous Zn/P/O-coatings at slightly higher temperatures (400 °C) from analogous setups. At 450 °C, the smooth outer layer of InP-Zn NWs is transformed into bead-shaped coatings. The novel combinations of the key semiconductor InP with isotropic insulator shell materials open up interesting application perspectives in nanoelectronics.

  17. Hydrazine functionalized probes for chromogenic and fluorescent ratiometric sensing of pH and F-: experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Additi; Mondal, Amita; Roy, Biswajit Gopal; K, Jagadeesh C Bose; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit; Banerjee, Priyabrata

    2017-11-08

    Two novel hydrazine based sensors, BPPIH (N 1 ,N 3 -bis(perfluorophenyl)isophthalohydrazide) and BPBIH (N 1' ,N 3' -bis(perfluorobenzylidene)isophthalohydrazide), are presented here. BPPIH is found to be a highly sensitive pH sensor in the pH range 5.0 to 10.0 in a DMSO-water solvent mixture with a pK a value of 9.22. Interesting optical responses have been observed for BPPIH in the above mentioned pH range. BPBIH on the other hand turns out to be a less effective pH sensor in the above mentioned pH range. The increase in fluorescence intensity at a lower pH for BPPIH was explained by using density functional theory. The ability of BPPIH to monitor the pH changes inside cancer cells is a useful application of the sensor as a functional material. In addition fluoride (F - ) selectivity studies of these two chemosensors have been performed and show that between them, BPBIH shows greater selectivity towards F - . The interaction energy calculated from the DFT-D3 supports the experimental findings. The pH sensor (BPPIH) can be further interfaced with suitable circuitry interfaced with desired programming for ease of access and enhancement of practical applications.

  18. Corrosion of carbon steel and low-alloy steel in diluted seawater containing hydrazine under gamma-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Seawater was injected into reactor cores of Units 1, 2, and 3 in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station as an urgent coolant. It is considered that the injected seawater causes corrosion of steels of the reactor pressure vessel and primary containment vessel. To investigate the effects of gamma-rays irradiation on weight loss in carbon steel and low-alloy steel, corrosion tests were performed in diluted seawater at 50°C under gamma-rays irradiation. Specimens were irradiated with dose rates of 4.4 kGy/h and 0.2 kGy/h. To evaluate the effects of hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ) on the reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, N 2 H 4 was added to the diluted seawater. In the diluted seawater without N 2 H 4 , weight loss in the steels irradiated with 0.2 kGy/h was similar to that in the unirradiated steels, and weight loss in the steels irradiated with 4.4 kGy/h increased to approximate 1.7 times of those in the unirradiated steels. Weight loss in the steels irradiated in the diluted seawater containing N 2 H 4 was similar to that in the diluted seawater without N 2 H 4 . When N 2 was introduced into the gas phase in the flasks during gamma-rays irradiation, weight loss in the steels decreased. (author)

  19. Physics characteristics of a CANDU-600 with repositional adjuster rods fuelled with MOX or natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.

    1985-06-01

    Repositioning the adjuster rods in 4 axial banks in future CANDU-600 reactors would permit the flexibility of grading the inner and outer banks to achieve optimal flattening of the axial power distribution for any particular fuel. With the 4 banks identical, acceptable axial power profiles can be achieved for both MOX and natural uranium fuels. Future work is to be directed at assessing the impact of lower zone controller and shutoff rod worth in the configuration of reactivity devices considered here, and if necessary, in identifying means of increasing their worth

  20. Numerical parametric investigations of a gasoline fuelled partially-premixed compression-ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Arash [Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch, Miyaneh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad; Khatamenjhad, Hassan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Vahid [Islamic Azad University, Ajagshir Branch, Ajabshir (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Parametric studies of a heavy duty direct injection (DI) gasoline fueled compression ignition (CI) engine combustion are presented. Gasoline because of its higher ignition delay has much lower soot emission in comparison with diesel fuel. Using double injection strategy reduces the maximum heat release rate that leads to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction. A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was employed and compared with experimental data. The model results show a good agreement with experimental data. The effect of injection characteristics such as, injection duration, main SOI timing, and nozzle hole size investigated on combustion and emissions.

  1. Impact of cell design and operating conditions on the performances of SOFC fuelled with methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, J.; Lefebvre-Joud, F.; Delette, G.

    An in-house-model has been developed to study the thermal and electrochemical behaviour of a planar SOFC fed directly with methane and incorporated in a boiler. The usual Ni-YSZ cermet has been considered for the anode material. It has been found that methane reforming into hydrogen occurs only at the cell inlet in a limited depth within the anode. A sensitivity analysis has allowed establishing that anode thicknesses higher than ∼400-500 μm are required to achieve both the optimal methane conversion and electrochemical performances. The direct internal reforming (DIR) mechanisms and the impact of operating conditions on temperature gradients and SOFC electrical efficiencies have been investigated considering the anode supported cell configuration. It has been shown that the temperature gradient is minimised in the autothermal mode of cell operation. Thermal equilibrium in the stack has been found to be strongly dependent on radiative heat losses with the stack envelope. Electrochemical performance and cell temperature maps have been established as a function of methane flow rates and cell voltages.

  2. Performance and emissions of an engine fuelled with a biodiesel fuel produced from animal fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil reserves which are located around the world are declining day by day, so new alternative energy sources must be invented for engines of internal combustion and compression ignition, so biodiesel that is an alternative fuel source for diesel engines and it is a renewable energy resource. Biodiesel is a fuel made from vegetable oils, animals’ fats and waste oils. In this study, physical and chemical properties of biodiesel were analyzed and matched to the diesel fuel. In the experimental study, biodiesel was made from animal fats and compared to diesel fuel. Its effects on engine performance and emissions are studied. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injected diesel engine with air cooling system are used as test equipment in different cycles. After the experimental study, it is concluded that the reduction of the emissions of CO and HC as biodiesel has the advantage of emission output. Environmentalist property of biodiesel is the most important characteristic of it. But the sight of engine performance diesel fuel has more advantage to biodiesel fuel.

  3. Emissions Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine Fuelled by Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative, decomposable and biological-processed fuel that has similar characteristics with mineral diesel which can be used directly into diesel engines. However, biodiesel has oxygenated, more density and viscosity compared to mineral diesel. Despite years of improvement attempts, the key issue in using waste cooking oil-based fuels is oxidation stability, stoichiometric point, bio-fuel composition, antioxidants on the degradation and much oxygen with comparing to diesel gas oil. Thus, the improvement of emission exhausted from diesel engines fueled by biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO is urgently required to meet the future stringent emission regulations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences of WCO blended fuel and combustion reliability in small engine on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The engine speed was varied from 1500-2500 rpm and WCO blending ratio from 5-15 vol% (W5-W15. Increased blends of WCO ratio is found to influences to the combustion process, resulting in decreased the HC emissions and also other exhaust emission element. The improvement of combustion process is expected to be strongly influenced by oxygenated fuel in biodiesel content.

  4. Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Syed Aalam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, common rail direct injection (CRDI system assisted diesel engine using diesel with 25 percentage of zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25. Along with this ZJME25 aluminium oxide nanoparticles were added as additive in mass fractions of 25 ppm (AONP 25 and 50 ppm (AONP 50 with the help of a mechanical Homogenizer and an ultrasonicator. It was observed that aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions at all operating loads. At the full load, the magnitude of HC and smoke emission for the ZJME25 before the addition of aluminium oxide nanoparticles was 13.459 g/kW h and 79 HSU, whereas it was 8.599 g/kW h and 49 HSU for the AONP 50 blended ZJME25 fuel respectively. The results also showed a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency and heat release rate due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in biodiesel–diesel blend.

  5. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  6. Engine performance and emission of compression ignition engine fuelled with emulsified biodiesel-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawa, W. N.; Mamat, R.; Najafi, G.; Majeed Ali, O.; Aziz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution has become world crucial issues in current era. Biodiesel-water emulsion is one of many possible approaches to reduce emissions. In this study, emulsified biodiesel with 4%, 6% and 8% of water contents were prepared to be used as fuel in a direct injection compression ignition engine. The performance indicator such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) were investigated. The engine was set at constant speed of 2500 rpm and load from 20% to 60%. All the results were compared to B5 (blend of 95% petroleum diesel and 5% palm oil biodiesel) biodiesel. At low load, the BSFC decrease by 12.75% at 4% water ratio and decreased by 1.5% at 6% water ratio. However, the BSFC increases by 17.19% with increasing water ratio to 8% compared to B5. Furthermore, there was no significant decrease in brake power and BTE at 60% load. For 20% and 40% load there was some variance regarding to brake power and BTE. Significant reduction in NOx and PM emissions by 73.87% and 20.00% respectively were achieved with increasing water ratio to 8%. Overall, it is observed that the emulsified of biodiesel-water is an appropriate alternative fuel method to reduce emissions.

  7. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Dong; Wang, Tie; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation.

  8. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Dong; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew; Wang, Tie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation. (paper)

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN INDUCTION ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION BEHAVIOUR OF A SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL METHYL ESTER AND ITS BLEND WITH DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOOPATHI D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are an integral part of our daily lives, especially in the agricultural and transportation sector. With depleting fossil fuel and increasing environmental pollution, the researchers are foraying into alternate sources for fuelling the internal combustion engine. Vegetable oils derived from plant seeds is one such solution, but using them in unmodified diesel engine leads to reduced thermal efficiency and increased smoke emissions. Hydrogen if induced in small quantities in the air intake manifold can enhance the engine performance running on biodiesel. In this work, experiments were performed to evaluate the engine performance when hydrogen was inducted in small quantities and blends of esterified palm oil and diesel was injected as pilot fuel in the conventional manner. Tests were performed on a single cylinder, 4 - stroke, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine running at constant speed of 1500 rpm under variable load conditions and varying hydrogen flow. At full load for 75D25POME (a blend of 75% diesel and 25% palm oil methyl ester by volume, the results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency from 29.75% with zero hydrogen flow to a maximum of 30.17% at 5lpm hydrogen flow rate. HC emission reduced from 34 to 31.5 ppm, by volume at maximum load. Whereas, CO emission reduced from 0.09 to 0.045 % by volume at maximum load. Due to higher combustion rates with hydrogen induction, NOx emission increased from 756 to 926 ppm, at maximum load.

  10. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  11. The effect of additives on properties, performance and emission of biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashedul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Ashraful, A.M.; Ashrafur Rahman, S.M.; Shahir, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel additives significantly improve the quality of biodiesel and its blends. • Fuel additives used to enhance biodiesel properties. • Fuel saving from optimized vehicle performance and economy with the use of additives. • Emission reduction from fuel system cleanliness and combustion optimization. - Abstract: With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO 2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselization of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO 2 emissions. To reserve this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO 2 neutral. As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel is widely accepted as comparable fuel to diesel in diesel engines. This is due to several factors like decreasing the dependence on imported petroleum, reducing global warming, increasing lubricity, and reducing substantially the exhaust emissions from diesel engine. However, there is a major disadvantage in the use of biodiesel as it has lower heating value, higher density and higher viscosity, higher fuel consumption and higher NO X emission, which limits its application. Here fuel additives become essential and indispensable tools not only to minimize these drawbacks but also generate specified products to meet the regional and international standards. Fuel additives can contribute towards fuel economy and emission reduction either directly or indirectly. Their use enable vehicle performance to be maintained at, or near, optimum over the lifetime of the vehicle. A variety of additives are used in automotive biodiesel fuel to meet specification limits and to enhance quality. For example, metal based additives, oxygenated additives, antioxidants, cetane number improvers, lubricity improvers and cold flow improvers are used to meet specifications and quality. This article is a literature review of the effect

  12. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  13. Hydrazine-based synergistic Ti(III)/N doping of surfactant-templated TiO{sub 2} thin films for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Rankin, Stephen E., E-mail: srankin@engr.uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the preparation of titanium (Ti{sup 3+}) and nitrogen co-doped cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films using N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment. The resulting co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2}) thin films show significant enhancements in visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity. Cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared via a sol-gel method with Pluronic F127 as the pore template. After brief calcination, the TiO{sub 2} films were dipped into hydrazine hydrate which acts both as a nitrogen source and as a reducing agent, followed by heating at low temperature (90 °C). The hydrazine treatment period was varied from 5 to 20 h to obtain different degrees of reduction and nitrogen doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses and UV–vis absorbance spectra of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films indicate that the incorporated N atoms and Ti{sup 3+} reduce the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and thus enhance the absorption of visible light. The corresponding visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films was determined from the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination (at 455 nm). The Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of treatment show the optimum photocatalytic activity, with a pseudo-first order rate coefficient of 0.12 h{sup −1}, which is 3 times greater than that of undoped TiO{sub 2} films. Calcination temperature and time were varied prior to hydrazine treatment to confirm that a brief calcination at low temperature (10 min at 350 °C) gave the best photochemical activity. In photoelectrochemical water oxidation using a 455 nm LED, the Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment show about 4 times the photocurrent compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} films. The present study suggests that hydrazine induced doping is a promising approach to enable synergistic incorporation of N and Ti{sup 3+} into the

  14. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Domnik Bayer; Florina Jung; Birgit Kintzel; Martin Joos; Carsten Cremers; Dierk Martin; Jörg Bernard; Jens Tübke

    2011-01-01

    Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution...

  15. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  16. Buckling and reaction rate experiments in plutonium/uranium metal fuelled, graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 400 deg. C. Part I: Experimental techniques and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D H; Clarke, W G; Gibson, M; Hobday, R; Hunt, C; Marshall, J; Puckett, B J; Symons, C R; Wass, T [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-07-15

    This report presents experimental measurements of bucklings, flux fine structure and fission rate distributions in graphite moderated lattices fuelled with plutonium/uranium metal at temperatures up to 400 deg. C in the sub-critical assemblies SCORPIO I and SCORPIO II. The experimental techniques employed are described in some detail. The accuracy of the experimental measurements appears to be adequate for testing methods of calculation being developed for the calculation of reactivity and temperature coefficient of reactivity for power reactors containing plutonium and uranium. (author) 26 refs, 17 tabs, 17 figs

  17. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    heat-to-power load ratio. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70m2...... demand. Numerical simulations are conducted in Matlab environment. System design trade-offs are discussed to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria...

  18. Combustion and emission characteristics of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) fuelled with naphtha and gasoline in wide load range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Wang, Zhi; Shuai, Shijin; Yang, Hongqiang; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Naphtha MPCI can operate stably in wide load range from 0.4 MPa to 1.4 MPa of IMEP. • Naphtha MPCI can achieve high thermal efficiency due to low exhaust loss. • Gasoline MPCI has low heat transfer loss than CDC and naphtha MPCI. • MPCI can produce low NO x emissions (<0.4 g/kW h) with the EGR ratio less than 30%. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of naphtha (RON = 65.6) and commercial gasoline (RON = 94.0) on Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) mode. The experiment is conducted on a single cylinder research diesel engine with compression ratio of 16.7. The engine is operated at an engine speed of 1600 rpm for the IMEP from 0.4 to 1.4 MPa. Commercial diesel (CN = 56.5) is also tested in Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) mode as a baseline. At each operating point, the injection strategy and intake conditions are adjusted to meet with the criteria (NO x < 0.4 g/kW h, soot < 0.06 m −1 , MPRR < 1 MPa/deg and CA50 < 20 CAD ATDC). The typical two-stage combustion characteristics of MPCI are obtained in both naphtha and gasoline. Stable combustion is achieved by naphtha in wide load range, while the engine fuelled with gasoline cannot operate stably at 0.4 MPa IMEP. The COV of IMEP of gasoline MPCI is higher than that of naphtha and diesel. However, gasoline has the low MPRR and the retarded CA50 at medium and high loads due to its longest ignition delay. As a result of low exhaust loss for naphtha and low heat transfer loss for gasoline, the thermal efficiencies are higher for both naphtha and gasoline in MPCI mode than diesel in CDC mode, even though diesel has the highest combustion efficiency. The separated combustion in MPCI leads to low cylinder temperature, and moderate EGR ratio (less than 30%) is needed to control NO x emissions under the limit of EURO VI

  19. Fuelling the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    New routes to hydrogen storage materials, which could offer alternative fuel for cars, have been developed by two teams of the scientists in the US and in Singapore. Ammonia borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) has a high hydrogen content and is stable at room temperature, but has, in the past, proven difficult to prepare in high yield. Now, Tom Autrey and co-workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, US, have developed a new one-pot synthetic method to this solid material. Autrey's method requires in situ production of ammonium borohydride (NH 4 BH 4 ) by the addition of NH 4 X and MBH 4 salts (X= Cl, F, M=Na, Li) in liquid ammonia, followed by removal of the majority of the ammonia, then addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) which causes the NH 4 BH 4 to decompose to ammonia borane in high yield. But at the moment hydrogen release from ammonia borane is not reversible, therefore Autrey says the 'long-term challenge is to regenerate ammonia borane from the spent storage material'. Another problem with ammonia borane is that its decomposition leads to the production of the volatile compound borazine as a by-product. Borazine can poison proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This issue has been addressed by another team, led by Ping Chen at the National University of Singapore. Chen proposes the use of sodium amino-borane (NaNH 2 BH 3 ) as an alternative to ammonia borane as it does not release borazine on decomposition. Chen's wet chemical method allows pure sodium amino-borane to be made. He proposes two routes, the faster of which involves adding sodium hydride (NaH) to a solution of ammonia borane in THF. The reaction occurs within 10 minutes at -3C, giving solid sodium amino-borane which can be filtered off. Xiong Zhitao, a member of Chen's team, says the most important aspect of this work is that 'it opened the road to a new class of materials comprising alkali or alkaline earth metal cation and (NH 2 BH 3 ) - anion for storing hydrogen. (O.M.)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peberdy, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The refuelling machine described comprises a rotatable support structure having a guide tube attached to it by a parellel linkage mechanism, whereby the guide tube can be displaced sideways from the support structure. A gripper unit is housed within the guide tube for gripping the end of a fuel assembly or other reactor component and has means for maintenance in the engaging condition during travel of the unit along the guide tube, except for a small portion of the travel at one end of the guide tube, where the inner surface of the guide tube is shaped so as to maintain the gripper unit in a disengaging condition. The gripper unit has a rotatable head, means for moving it linearly within the guide tube so that a component carried by the unit can be housed in the guide tube, and means for rotating the head of the unit through 180 0 relative to its body, to effect rotation of a component carried by the unit. The means for rotating the head of the gripper unit comprises ring and pinion gearing, operable through a series of rotatable shafts interconnected by universal couplings. The reason for provision for 180 0 rotation is that due to the variation in the neutron flux across the reactor core the side of a fuel assembly towards the outside of the core will be subjected to a lower neutron flux and therefore will grow less than the side of the fuel assembly towards the inside of the core. This can lead to bowing and possible jamming of the fuel assemblies. Full constructional details are given. See also BP 1112384. (U.K.)

  1. Fuelling a US reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1989-01-01

    Within half a dozen years, US operators of nuclear power stations are likely to begin turning their backs on their own government's ideas about how they should get their nuclear fuel. Instead, they will sign up with private companies which want to supply them with uranium enrichment, the key service needed to turn natural uranium into the more potent types used in modern nuclear reactors. This change will be good news in particular for Urenco, the European nuclear fuel enrichment company one third owned by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The prospects for Urenco are assessed. (author)

  2. Fuelling the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Paul; De Simone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Questions regarding exhaustible resource supply are best posed in terms of how extraction costs and prices will evolve as lower quality resources are exploited. To address such questions in the context of uranium the authors develop a model of long-run cost dynamics which (1) builds on a classic model of declining uranium ore grades, (2) includes both new and existing parameterizations of extraction cost structures, (3) incorporates the extraction cost impacts of learning and productivity growth, and (4) is driven by the IAEA's most recent uranium demand projection. The authors emphasize the importance of allowing interaction between temporal versus cumulative cost mitigating processes (productivity growth and learning respectively) and such processes' interaction with demand growth profiles. It is demonstrated that – under rather conservative assumptions on the dynamics of these processes – the rate of increase of uranium extraction costs is significantly attenuated relative to that which might otherwise occur. Indeed in some cases – again, for rather conservative assumptions on productivity growth and learning – it may not be unreasonable to anticipate that such costs may decline (as have those of several commodities over the past century). The policy implications of such attenuated – or even declining – uranium costs are significant. - Highlights: • We develop a model of uranium cost dynamics with productivity growth and learning. • Productivity growth/learning will tend to reduce uranium extraction costs. • Under some productivity growth/learning assumptions uranium costs may decline. • Extraction cost declines have been observed in other commodities over the long-run

  3. Fuelling doubts over BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1989-01-01

    The House of Commons Select Committee on Energy has recently questioned the whole philosophy behind one of Britain's largest process plant operators, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The committee's criticisms and recommendations are of significance to more than just BNFL, whose 1988 turnover of Pound 839 million produced a Pound 100 million pretax profit for its owner, the government. For BNFL's fortunes are linked intimately with those of its customers, the nuclear power station operators. The members of Parliament are especially critical of BNFL's right to pass most of its cost increases on to its customers, which will make the nuclear power stations less attractive to investors when they are privatised. The committee also voices other serious concerns about BNFL's operations. These include worry about the future ownership of plutonium produced by BNFL from its customers' spent nuclear fuel; whether resultant nuclear waste is sent back to overseas customers; and the fate of the vast sums being put aside for future decommissioning of BNFL plant. (author)

  4. Determination of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by combining precolumn derivatization with 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangpeng; Tong, Tong; Wang, Lianrong; Liu, Hanxia; Chan, Wan

    2016-05-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are uniquely formed when triglycerides-containing food products are exposed to ionizing radiation. Thus, 2-ACBs have been used as marker molecules to identify irradiated food. Most methods to determine 2-ACBs involve mass spectrometric detection after chromatographic separation. The spectrofluorometer is rarely used to determine 2-ACBs because these molecules do not fluoresce. In this study, we developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method to determine 2-ACBs. 2-ACBs were converted into fluorophores after reacting with 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine to facilitate their sensitive and selective detection using a fluorescence detector (FLD). Analysis of 2-ACBs using our developed UPLC-FLD method allows sensitive determination of 2-ACBs at a detection limit of 2 ng 2-ACBs per g of fat (30 pg/injection), which is significantly lower than that of existing analytical methods. After validation for trueness and precision, the method was applied to γ-irradiated chicken samples to determine their 2-ACB content. Comparative studies employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method revealed no systematic difference between the two methods, thereby demonstrating that the proposed UPLC-FLD method can be suitably used to determine 2-ACBs in irradiated foodstuffs. Graphical Abstract Determination of radiation-induced food-borne 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone by combining 1-naphthalenyl hydrazine derivatization and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

  5. Synthesis, Structure, and Cyclocondensation of the 4,4,4-Trifluoro-3,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-1-(thien-2-yl-1-butanone with Hydroxylamine and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex F. C. Flores

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-1-(thien-2-ylbutan-1-one (3 through acylation of 1,1-dimethoxy-1-(thien-2-ylpropane (1 with trifluoroacetic anhydride and its reactions with hydroxylamine and hydrazine was investigated. X-ray structural analysis of new trifluoromethyl-substituted dielectrophile 3 revealed that this hydrate exists as a racemate with inter- and intramolecular O-H·O bonds. The crystal structure shows alignment along axis b of pair molecules with the same configuration of the O2-H·O1 bond. For 5(3-trifluoromethyl-4-methyl-3(5-(thien-2-yl-1H-pyrazole (4, obtained via cyclocondensation of precursor 2 and hydrazine hydrochloride, X-ray structural analysis indicated that its rings are almost planar (torsion angle N2-C5-C6-C7–5.4° and that S1 at the thienyl moiety is anti-periplanar to N2 (torsion angle N2-C5-C6-S1 176.01; no disorder effect was observed for the thienyl ring.

  6. Hydrazine-hydrothermal syntheses, characterizations and photoelectrochemical properties of two quaternary chalcogenidoantimonates(III) BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Hou, Peipei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chai, Wenxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Tian, Jiawei; Zheng, Xuerong; Shen, Yaying; Zhi, Mingjia; Zhou, Chunmei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyimse@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Two isostructural quaternary chalcogenidoantimonates(III) BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se): BaCuSbS{sub 3} (1) and BaCuSbSe{sub 3} (2) have been successfully synthesized through a facile hydrazine-hydrothermal method. Both two compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group and feature a three-dimensional (3D) channeled [Cu{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Q{sub 6}]{sup 4-} framework, which is constructed by the distorted tetrahedral CuQ{sub 4} and pyramid SbQ{sub 3} units via vertex sharing. Both optical properties and theoretical studies show 1 and 2 are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. In addition, their photoelectrochemical properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se) were synthesized through a hydrazine-hydrothermal method. • BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se) feature a 3D framework by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • Experimental and theoretical studies confirm BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se) are semiconductors. • Photoelectrochemical properties of BaCuSbQ{sub 3} (Q = S, Se) have been investigated.

  7. Preparation of FeO(OH Modified with Polyethylene Glycol and Its Catalytic Activity on the Reduction of Nitrobenzene with Hydrazine Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ying Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxyhydroxide was prepared by dropping ammonia water to Fe(NO33.9H2O dispersed in polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser particle size analyzer. The results showed the catalyst modified with polyethylene glycol was amorphous. The addition of PEG during the preparation make the particle size of the catalyst was smaller and more uniform. The catalytic performance was tested in the reduction of nitroarenes to corresponding amines with hydrazine hydrate, and the catalyst showed excellent activity and stability. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 2nd February 2016; Revised: 26th April 2016; Accepted: 7th June 2016 How to Cite: Cai, K.Y., Liu, Y.S., Song, M., Zhou, Y.M., Liu, Q., Wang, X.H. (2016. Preparation of FeO(OH Modified with Polyethylene Glycol and Its Catalytic Activity on the Reduction of Nitrobenzene with Hydrazine Hydrate. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 363-368 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.576.363-368 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.576.363-368

  8. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  9. A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for long-term and long-distance manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Pallud, Céline; Gu, Chuanhui

    2018-05-01

    A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.

  10. Benchmark Specification for an HTR Fuelled with Reactor-grade Plutonium (or Reactor-grade Pu/Th and U/Th). Proposal version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, J.G.; Newton, T.D.; Morris, P.

    2007-01-01

    This benchmark proposal builds upon that specified in NEA/NSC/DOC(2003)22 report. In addition to the three phases described in that report, another two phases have now been defined. Additional items for calculation have also been added to the existing phases. It is intended that further items may be added to the benchmark after consultation with its participants. Although the benchmark is specifically designed to provide inter-comparisons for plutonium- and thorium-containing fuels, it is proposed that phases considering simple calculations for a uranium fuel cell and uranium core be included. The purpose of these is to identify any increased uncertainties, relative to uranium fuel, associated with the lesser-known fuels to be investigated in different phases of this benchmark. The first phase considers an infinite array of fuel pebbles fuelled with uranium fuel. Phase 2 considers a similar array of pebbles but for plutonium fuel. Phase 3 continues the plutonium fuel inter-comparisons within the context of whole core calculations. Calculations for Phase 4 are for a uranium-fuelled core. Phase 5 considers an infinite array of pebbles containing thorium. In setting the benchmark the requirements in the definition of the LEUPRO-12 PROTEUS benchmark have been considered. Participants were invited to submit both deterministic results as well as, where appropriate, results from Monte Carlo calculations. Fundamental nuclear data, Avogadro's number, natural abundance data and atomic weights have been taken from the references indicated in the document

  11. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  12. Hydrazine APU Starter Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    electrical solenoid valve is energized. Flywheel speed is monitored independently of the drive shaft speed (rotor speed) via a photo cell mounted in the...center of the top plate. The photocell detects the passage of a black stripe that is painted on the flywheel. Stall torque is monitored with a load cell ...zi Nt1 0m < -C3C C=, * r C ~ L 13 *36 *Si 0 IP *45 a T a *z a oz *it a *t a i a-a 1381 C,3( ( C ( C rcr ~ (C~rrC .C 6v 20 c, f4- 0 *0 0 04 *0 El 06 *0b

  13. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent ... NCCIH) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to test CAM therapies for use in cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer ...

  14. Investigation of tritium and 233U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, K.; Sahin, S.; Sahin, H. M.; Acir, A.; Yalcin, S.; Altinok, T.; Bayrak, M.; Alkan, M.; Durukan, O.

    2007-01-01

    In the world, thorium reserves are three times more than natural Uranium reserves. It is planned in the near future that nuclear reactors will use thorium as a fuel. Thorium is not a fissile isotope because it doesn't make fission with thermal neutrons so it could be converted to 2 33U isotope which has very high quality fission cross-section with thermal neutrons. 2 33U isotope can be used in present LWRs as an enrichment fuel. In the fusion reactors, tritium is the most important fossil fuel. Because tritium is not natural isotope, it has to be produced in the reactor. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tritium and 2 33U breeding in a fission-fusion hybrid reactor fuelling with ThO 2 for Δt=10 days during a reactor operation period in five years. The neutronic analysis is performed on an experimental hybrid blanket geometry. In the center of the hybrid blanket, there is a line neutron source in a cylindrical cavity, which simulates the fusion plasma chamber where high energy neutrons (14.1 MeV) are produced. The conventional fusion reaction delivers the external neutron source for blankets following, 2 D + 3 T →? 4 He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV). (1) The fuel zone made up of natural-ThO 2 fuel and it is cooled with different coolants. In this work, five different moderator materials, which are Li 2 BeF 4 , LiF-NaF-BeF 2 , Li 2 0Sn 8 0, natural Lithium and Li 1 7Pb 8 3, are used as coolants. The radial reflector, called tritium breeding zones, is made of different Lithium compounds and graphite in sandwich structure. In the work, eight different Lithium compounds were used as tritium breeders in the tritium breeding zones, which are Li 3 N, Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , LiBr and LiH. Neutron transport calculations are conducted in spherical geometry with the help of SCALE4.4A SYSTEM by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code CSAS and XSDRNPM, under consideration of unresolved and resolved resonances, in S 8 -P 3

  15. 分子动力学模拟压水反应堆中联氨对水的影响%Molecular dynamics simulation for the impact of hydrazine on the water of pressurized water reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永胜; 陈旭; 周维; 史顺平; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    本文采用分子动力学方法模拟在常温常压下(1 atm,298 K)和在压水堆环境下(155 atm,626 K),水分子数为256,联氨(N2H4)分子数为0,25,50,75等不同数目时,水和联氨粒子系统的动力性质和微观结构.同时探讨了联氨分子的引入对水中溶解氧的影响.从模拟结果可知,在常温常压下,当联氨的分子数为0,25,50,75时,粒子系统的均方位移会随联氨分子数的增加而增加;联氨分子数为0与为25,50,75比较时会少一个数量级;压水堆环境下,联氨分子数为50时的均方位移比常温常压下高出约4倍,但粒子系统的均方位移不随联氨的分子数增加而增加;联氨分子数为50时的均方位移高于分子数为25和75时的均方位移.此外,粒子系统的微观结构,从径向分布函数看,在常温常压下也会随着联氨分子浓度的增加而增加,这与联氨容易和水反应生成水合联氨的实际情况相符,而在压水堆环境下,联氨分子数为25,50与为0的水比较,径向分布均不会有大的变化,而分子数为75时会出现明显的增加.模拟数据表明,加入压水堆中的联氨对水中的溶解氧有明显的抑制作用,但并不是联氨的浓度越浓抑制作用就越强.对这种现象及其原因进行了较为全面的揭示.%In this paper, we used molecular dynamics to simulate dynamic properties and micro-structure of the water-hydrazine particle system under various conditions: chamber condition of 1 atm, 298 K; pressurized water reactor (PWR)environment of 155 atm, 626 K; with number of water molecules of 256, numbers of hydrazine ( N2H4) molecules of 0,25, 50 and 75. And we have also explored the impact on the dissolved oxygen in water when hydrazine molecule is added to the system. The simulation results show that in the chamber ambient, when the number of molecules of hydrazine varies from 0 to 25, 50 and 75, the mean square displacement (MSD) in the particle system will increase with the number of

  16. Gold-copper bimetallic nanoparticles supported on nano P zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as an efficient electrocatalyst and sensitive sensor for determination of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiripour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Seyed Naser; Ghasemi, Shahram

    2018-06-01

    In this report, a facile, efficient and low cost electrochemical sensor based on bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles supported on P nanozeolite modified carbon paste electrode (Au-Cu/NPZ/CPE) was constructed and its efficiency for determination of hydrazine in trace level was studied. For this purpose, agro waste material, stem sweep ash (SSA) was employed as the starting material (silica source) for the synthesis of nano P zeolite (NPZ). After characterization of the synthesized NPZ by analytical instruments (scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy), construction of Au-Cu/NPZ/CPE was performed by three steps procedure involving preparation of nano P zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (NPZ/CPE), introducing Cu +2 ions into nano zeolite structure by ion exchange and electrochemical reduction of Cu +2 ions upon applying constant potential. This procedure is followed by partial replacement of Cu by Au due to galvanic replacement reaction (GRR). The electrochemical properties of hydrazine at the surface of Au-Cu/NPZ/CPE was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometry, and chronoamperometry methods in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). It was found that the prepared sensor has higher electrocatalytic activity at a relatively lower potential compared to other modified electrodes including Au/NPZ/CPE, Cu/NPZ/CPE, Au-Cu/CPE and etc. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor presented the favorable analytical properties for determination of hydrazine such as low detection limit (0.04 µM), rapid response time (3 s), wide linear range (0.01-150 mM), and high sensitivity (99.53 µA mM -1 ) that are related to the synergic effect of bimetallic of Au-Cu, porous structure and enough surface area of NPZ. In addition, capability of Au-Cu/NPZ/CPE sensor was successfully tested in real samples with good accuracy and precision. Copyright

  17. A dynamic model of a 100 kW micro gas turbine fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends and its application in a hybrid energy grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Reale, Fabrizio; Chiariello, Fabio; Massoli, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) fuelled with mixtures of standard (i.e. natural gas or methane) and alternative fuels (i.e. hydrogen). The model consists of a first-order differential equation (ODE) describing the dominant dynamics of the MGT imposed by its own control system during production electrical power. The differential equation is coupled to a set of nonlinear maps derived numerically from a detailed 0D thermodynamic matching model of the MGT evaluated over a wide range of operating conditions (i.e. mechanical power, fraction of hydrogen and ambient temperature). The efficiency of the electrical machine with power inverter and power absorbed by auxiliary devices is also taken into account. The resulting model is experimentally validated for a sequence of power step responses of the MGT at different ambient conditions and with different fuel mixtures. The model is suited for simulation and control of hybrid energy grids (HEGs) which rely on advanced use of MGT and hydrogen as energy carrier. In this regard, the MGT model is used in the simulation of an HEG based on an appropriate mix of renewable (non-programmable) and non-renewable (programmable) energy sources with hydrogen storage and its reuse in the MGT. Here, the MGT is used as a programmable energy vector for compensating the deficits of renewable energies (such as solar and wind) with respect to user demand, while excess renewable energy is used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis of water. The simulated HEG comprises a solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) plant (300 kW), an MGT (100 kW) fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends, a water electrolyzer (WE) system (8 bar, 56 Nm 3 /h), a hydrogen tank (54 m 3 ), and an Energy Management Control System (EMCS). - Highlights: • A dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW MGT fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends is developed. • The model reproduces the electrical power generated by

  18. Employing a hydrazine linked asymmetric double naphthalene hybrid for efficient naked eye detection of F-: Crystal structure with real application for F-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arghyadeep; Makhal, Subhash Chandra; Ghosh, Soumen; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2018-06-01

    An asymmetric hydrazide, (12E, 13E)-2-((naphthalen-1-yl) methylene)-1-(1-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-6-yl) ethylidene) hydrazine (abbreviated as AH) is synthesized and characterized by standard techniques and crystal structure of AH has been obtained. The naked eye detection of F- in aqueous acetonitrile (acetonitrile: water = 7:3/v:v) by AH has been investigated by UV-Visible titration and in presence of other anions, the limit of detection being 1.31 × 10-6(M). The mechanism of F- sensing has been explored by 1H NMR titration. AH undergoes hydrogen bonding with F- followed by deprotonation. The practical utility of AH has been explored by successful test kit response and color change in toothpaste solution.

  19. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  20. Prolinimines: N-Amino-l-Pro-methyl Ester (Hydrazine) Schiff Bases from a Fish Gastrointestinal Tract-Derived Fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama G; Khalil, Zeinab G; Capon, Robert J

    2018-01-19

    A rice cultivation of a fish gastrointestinal tract-derived fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563, yielded natural products incorporating a rare hydrazine moiety, embedded within a Schiff base. Structures inclusive of absolute configurations were assigned to prolinimines A-D (1-4) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic and C 3 Marfey's analysis, as well as biosynthetic considerations, biomimetic total synthesis, and chemical transformations. Of note, monomeric 1 proved to be acid labile and, during isolation, underwent quantitative transformation to dimeric 3 and trimeric 4. Prolinimines are only the second reported natural products incorporating an N-amino-Pro residue, the first to include l-Pro, the first to occur as Schiff bases, and the first to be isolated from a microorganism.

  1. Simple determination of hydrazine in waste water by headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with trifluoro pentanedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2017-01-15

    A headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) method is described to detect hydrazine after derivatization with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione (1,1,1-TFPD) to 3-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl) pyrazole in industrial waste water. The following optimal HS-SPME conditions were used: 85 μm-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fibre, 100 mg L -1 TFPD, saturated NaCl, an extraction/derivatization temperature of 80 °C, a heating time of 40 min, and a pH of 9.5. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 0.002 μg L -1 and 0.007 μg L -1  by using 5 mL of waste water and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 10.2% at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg L -1 . The calibration curve showed good linearity, with r 2  = 0.998; the accuracy was in the range of 98.0-103%; and the precision of the assay was less than 10.2% in industrial waste water. Hydrazine was detected over a concentration range of 0.011-0.074 μg L -1 in 5 of 20 waste water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Buckling and reaction rate measurements in graphite moderated lattices fuelled with plutonium-uranium oxide clusters at temperatures up to 400 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.H.; Gibson, M.; King, D.C.; Marshall, J.; Puckett, B.J.; Richards, A.E.; Wass, T.; Wilson, D.J.

    1965-07-01

    The Report describes a series of experiments carried out in SCORPIO I and II on sub-critical graphite moderated lattices fuelled with 21-rod clusters of PuO 2 /UO 2 fuel. Three fuel batches with nominal plutonium: uranium ratios of 0.25%, 0.8% and 1.2% were investigated at temperatures between 20 deg. C and 400 deg. C. Because of the limited amounts of the three fuels, exponential measurements were made in 2-zone stacks, the outer regions of which were loaded with suitably matched 'reference fuel'. Fine structure distributions in the lattice cell were obtained with manganese and indium foils. Pu239/U235 fission ratios were determined both by fission chambers and by fission-product counting techniques. (author)

  3. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...... of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70 m2 single-family apartment with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. A detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. System design trade-offs are discussed...

  4. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.

  5. Buckling and reaction rate measurements in graphite moderated lattices fuelled with plutonium-uranium oxide clusters at temperatures up to 400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D H; Gibson, M; King, D C; Marshall, J; Puckett, B J; Richards, A E; Wass, T; Wilson, D J [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-07-15

    The Report describes a series of experiments carried out in SCORPIO I and II on sub-critical graphite moderated lattices fuelled with 21-rod clusters of PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} fuel. Three fuel batches with nominal plutonium: uranium ratios of 0.25%, 0.8% and 1.2% were investigated at temperatures between 20 deg. C and 400 deg. C. Because of the limited amounts of the three fuels, exponential measurements were made in 2-zone stacks, the outer regions of which were loaded with suitably matched 'reference fuel'. Fine structure distributions in the lattice cell were obtained with manganese and indium foils. Pu239/U235 fission ratios were determined both by fission chambers and by fission-product counting techniques. (author) 14 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs

  6. First status seminar `Druckflamm`. Development of a coal-fuelled combined cycle process with liquid ash separation. Conference report; Erstes Statusseminar `Druckflamm`. Entwicklung eines kohlegefeuerten Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses mit Fluessigascheabscheidung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannes, K. [ed.

    1999-09-01

    Six industrial enterprises in the Ruhr, plus several universities and national rsearch centers are working on the `Druckflamm` process of pressurized coal dust combustion, which is described in this status report and is scheduled to be implementable within the next 20 years. To this end, an experimental facility (DKSF) was constructed at Dorsten. The plant works by a coal-fuelled combined cycle process in which the flue gas can be led directly onto a gas turbine after purification. This means that the flue gas must be free of particulate materials and noxious vapours, i.e. a particle size of less than 3 mg/m{sup 3}, a particle diameter of less than 3 {mu}m and an alkali concentration of less than 1 ppm. The Dorsten plant is fuelled with coal; it has a thermal capacity of 1 MW and can be operated at pressures up to 20 bar. The contribution presents an outline drawing of the plant and a survey of the results and information obtained so far. Material problems and methods of measurement are reported separately. The fuel coals were of different composition, with slag flow points between 1200 and 1400 degrees centigrade. [Deutsch] Im Ruhrgebiet wird an einem neuen Verfahren zur Verstromung von Steinkohle gearbeitet. Es soll in etwa 20 Jahren mit einem neuen Kraftwerkstyp einsetzbar sein. Kennzeichen dieses Verfahrens sind ein hoher Wirkungsgrad von mehr als 50% und eine geringe CO{sub 2}-Emission. Entwickelt wird das ``Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung`` genannte Projekt von sechs Industrieunternehmen. Zusaetzlich arbeiten an diesem Thema weitere Unternehmen sowie Universitaeten und Grossforschungseinrichtungen unter dem Arbeitstitel ``Druckflamm``. Bisherige Ergebnisse der grundlegenden Entwicklungsarbeiten sind in diesem Statusbericht zusammengefasst. Ziel des Verbundprojektes Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung (DKSF) in Dorsten ist, einen GUD-Prozess auf Kohlebasis zu entwickeln, der dadurch charakterisiert ist, dass das Rauchgas nach Reinigung unmittelbar auf eine Gasturbine geleitet

  7. From kitchen to classroom: Assessing the impact of cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves on primary school attendance in Karonga district, northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christine A; Crampin, Amelia C; Mortimer, Kevin; Dube, Albert; Malava, Jullita; Johnston, Deborah; Unterhalter, Elaine; Glynn, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains. The present paper capitalises on opportunities offered by the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest randomised trial of biomass-fuelled cookstoves on health outcomes conducted to date, the design of which allows for the evaluation of additional outcomes at scale. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of cookstoves on primary school absenteeism in Karonga district, northern Malawi, in particular by conferring health and time and resource gains on young people aged 5-18. The analysis combines quantitative data from 6168 primary school students with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions carried out among 48 students in the same catchment area in 2016. Negative binomial regression models find no evidence that the cookstoves affected primary school absenteeism overall [IRR 0.92 (0.71-1.18), p = 0.51]. Qualitative analysis suggests that the cookstoves did not sufficiently improve household health to influence school attendance, while the time and resource burdens associated with cooking activities-although reduced in intervention households-were considered to be compatible with school attendance in both trial arms. More research is needed to assess whether the cookstoves influenced educational outcomes not captured by the attendance measure available, such as timely arrival to school or hours spent on homework.

  8. Numerical investigation of ethanol fuelled HCCI engine using stochastic reactor model. Part 2: Parametric study of performance and emissions characteristics using new reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Akhil, Nekkanti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly developed reduced ethanol mechanism (47 species and 272 reactions) used. • Engine maps over wide range are developed for performance and emissions parameters. • HCCI operating range increases with compression ratio & decreases with engine speed. • Maximum combustion efficiency up to 99% and thermal efficiency up to 50% is achieved. • Maximum N_2O emission found up to 2.7 ppm and lower load have higher N_2O emission. - Abstract: Ethanol fuelled homogenous charge compression ignition engine offers a better alternative to tackle the problems of achieving higher engine efficiency and lower emissions using renewable fuel. Present study computationally investigates the HCCI operating range of ethanol at different compression ratios by varying inlet air temperature and engine speed using stochastic reactor model. A newly developed reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism with NO_x having 47 species and 272 reactions is used for simulation. HCCI operating range for compression ratios 17, 19 and 21 are investigated and found to be increasing with compression ratio. Simulations are conducted for engine speeds ranging from 1000 to 3000 rpm at different intake temperatures (range 365–465 K). Parametric study of combustion and emission characteristics is conducted and engine maps are developed at most efficient inlet temperatures. HCCI operating range is defined using combustion efficiency (>85%) and maximum pressure rise rate (<5 MPa/ms). In HCCI operating range, higher efficiency is found at higher engine loads and lower engine speeds. Emission characteristics of species (NO_x, N_2O, CO, CH_4, C_2H_4, C_2H_6, CH_3CHO, and HCHO) found in significant amount is also analysed for ethanol fulled HCCI engine. Emission maps for different species are presented and discussed for wide range of speed and load conditions. Some of unregulated species such as aldehydes are emitted in significantly higher quantities from ethanol fuelled HCCI engine at higher load

  9. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect; Catalyseurs de nickel supportes prepares par la methode de l'hydrazine aqueuse. Proprietes hydrogenantes et stockage d'hydrogene. Effet du support. Effet de l'ajout d'argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, R

    2006-06-15

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, amorphous or crystallized SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, CeO{sub 2} and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N{sub 2}, FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H{sub 2}-TPR, H{sub 2}-adsorption, H{sub 2}-TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO{sub 2} or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  10. A two-dimensional ZnII coordination polymer constructed from benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid and N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methylidene]hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangfei; Yang, Fang; Tang, Meng; Yuan, Limin; Liu, Wenlong

    2015-07-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of the novel complex poly[aqua(μ4-benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylato)[μ2-4,4'-(hydrazine-1,2-diylidenedimethanylylidene)dipyridine](μ3-hydroxido)dizinc(II)], [Zn(C9H3O6)(OH)(C12H10N4)(H2O)]n, is described. The benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate ligand connects neighbouring Zn4(OH)2 secondary building units (SBUs) producing an infinite one-dimensional chain. Adjacent one-dimensional chains are connected by the N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methylidene]hydrazine ligand, forming a two-dimensional layered structure. Adjacent layers are stacked to generate a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via O-H...O hydrogen-bond interactions. The thermal stability of this complex is described and the complex also appears to have potential for application as a luminescent material.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of certain 6-methyl-2(3H)-benzo-1, 3-thiazolyl-1’-ethylidene-2-(o, p- Substituted Acetophenones) Hydrazine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, G; Kaur, G; Kaur, R; Singh, A; Tiwari, R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, five new derivatives (GG4 to GG8) of benzothiazoles were synthesized and evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), and yeast-like fungi Candida tropicalis. p-Toluidine on treatment with ammonium thiocynate formed 2-benzothiazolamines (II), which on reaction with hydrazine hydrate formed a hydrazino derivative (III). Compounds GG4 to GG8 were synthesized by reacting the hydrazine derivative with different acetophenones. All the synthesized compounds were identified by IR and 1H-NMR, and antimicrobial activity was performed on the synthesized compounds. Presence of NO2, Br, OCH3, and Cl groups to the substituted benzothiazole enhanced the antibacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:21264101

  12. Influence of intake manifold design on in-cylinder flow and engine performances in a bus diesel engine converted to LPG gas fuelled, using CFD analyses and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemni, Mohamed Ali; Kantchev, Gueorgui; Abid, Mohamed Salah

    2011-01-01

    Diesel engines, especially for trucks and buses, cause many economical and ecological problems. Diesel exhaust emissions are a major source of pollution in most urban centers around the world. Furthermore, the price of crude oil continues to increase rapidly. The use of alternative fuels (liquified petroleum gas, LPG and compressed natural gas, CNG) and the optimization of combustion present effective solutions. Improving combustion is directly related to improving the intake aerodynamic movements which is influenced by the inlet system, especially the intake manifold. In this paper we have studied the geometry effects of two intake manifolds on the in-cylinder flows by two methods, numerically and experimentally. These two manifolds are mounted on a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, 13.8 l displacement, heavy duty, IVECO engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the urban bus diesel engines in Sfax. This engine was modified to bi-fuel spark ignition engine gasoline and gas fuelling. The 1st manifold presents an unspecified geometry whereas the 2nd presents an optimal filling geometry. A three-dimensional numerical modeling of the turbulent in-cylinder flow through the two manifolds was undertaken. The model is based on solving Navier-Stokes and energy equations in conjunction with the standard k-ε turbulence model, using the 3D CFD code FloWorks. This modeling made it possible to provide a fine knowledge of in-flow structures, in order to examine the adequate manifold. Experimental measurements are also carried out to validate this manifold by measuring the important engine performances. Brake power (BP), brake torque (BT) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE), are increased by 16%, 13.9%, and 12.5%, respectively, using optimal manifold. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is reduced by 28%. Simulation and experiments results confirmed the benefits of the optimized manifold geometry on the in-cylinder flow and engine performances

  13. INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH BUTHANOL – GASOLINE MIXTURE AND A HYDROGEN ENRICHED AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredas Rimkus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spark ignition engine fuelled with buthanol-gasoline mixture and a hydrogen-enriched air was investigated. Engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics were investigated with different buthanol (10% and 20% by volume gasoline mixtures and additionally supplied oxygen and hydrogen (HHO gas mixture (3.6 l/min in the sucked air. Hydrogen, which is in the HHO gas, improves gasoline and gasoline-buthanol mixture combustion, increases indicated pressure during combustion phase and decreases effective specific fuel consumption. Buthanol addition decreases the rate of heat release, the combustion temperature and pressure are lower which have an influence on lower nitrous oxide (NOx emission in exhaust gases. Buthanol lowers hydrocarbon (HC formation, but it increases carbon monoxide (CO concentration and fuel consumption. Combustion process analysis was carried out using AVL BOOST software. Experimental research and combustion process numerical simulation showed that using balanced buthanol and hydrogen addition, optimal efficient and ecological parameters could be achieved when engine is working with optimal spark timing, as it would work on gasoline fuel.

  14. Evaluation of the subsidy scheme for heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and control systems; Evaluering av tilskuddsordningen til varmepumper, pelletskaminer og styringssystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Even; Grande, Jorunn; Sand, Roar; Wendelborg, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Enova's subsidy scheme for energy economising in households was carried out in 2003. Subsidies were given to investments in heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and electric energy management systems. The primary objective for this evaluation is to build knowledge about the effect of such subsidy schemes, and determine if they contribute to the reduction of electricity consumption in households. Questions that are addressed include Enova's administration of the subsidy scheme, the effects on households, the effects on the energy market, prices and technology. It is concluded that the scheme had a varied effect for the three technologies entitled to subsidies, and heat pump applications got 92,5 percent of the total sum. The households that received subsidies are in general positive, and the households that did not are in general not so satisfied with the service. It is concluded Enova has administered the subsidy scheme well, especially considering the time-frame and the changed economical conditions given (ml)

  15. Active particle control experiments and critical particle flux discriminating between the wall pumping and fuelling in the compact plasma wall interaction device CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Higashizono, Y.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Sato, K. N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Okamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Honma, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Nishino, N.; Kado, S.; Shikama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches associated with wall recycling have been performed in a small spherical tokamak device CPD (compact plasma wall interaction experimental device), that is, (1) demonstration of active particle recycling control, namely, 'active wall pumping' using a rotating poloidal limiter whose surface is continuously gettered by lithium and (2) a basic study of the key parameters which discriminates between 'wall pumping and fuelling'. For the former, active control of 'wall pumping' has been demonstrated during 50 kW RF current drive discharges whose pulse length is typically ∼300 ms. Although the rotating limiter is located at the outer board, as soon as the rotating drum is gettered with lithium, hydrogen recycling measured with H α spectroscopy decreases by about a factor of 3 not only near the limiter but also in the centre stack region. Also, the oxygen impurity level measured with O II spectroscopy is reduced by about a factor of 3. As a consequence of the reduced recycling and impurity level, RF driven current has nearly doubled at the same vertical magnetic field. For the latter, global plasma wall interaction with plasma facing components in the vessel is studied in a simple torus produced by electron cyclotron waves with I p -4 to ∼0.1 x 10 -4 Torr during the experimental campaign (∼3000 shots). In the wall pumping pressure range the wall pumping fraction is reduced with increasing surface temperature up to 150 deg. C.

  16. A wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Preliminay engineering and financial evaluation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for Canadian sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. The first phase consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system and is the subject of this report. This analysis focuses on British Columbia since it is the largest potential market for the sawmill cogeneration system. In order to provide design parameters for the cogeneration system, operational characteristics were compiled for a typical sawmill in the interior of British Columbia. A number of alternative design concepts were reviewed before arriving at the indirect-fired turbine concept selected for development in this project. The general concept involves the use of an open Brayton-cycle gas turbine as the prime mover to generate electrical power, while process heat for the dry-kiln is obtained by waste heat recovery from the turbine exhaust gas. The proposed system has many advantages over a conventional steam based cogeneration system and economic analysis indicates that the system generates very attractive financial returns over a variety of conditions. 7 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. A wood-waste fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Phase 1. Preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Most sawmills generate more than enough wood waste to be potentially self-sufficient in both dry-kiln heat and electricity requirements. It is not generally economically viable to use conventional steam/electricty cogeneration systems at the sawmill scale of operation. As a result, Canadian sawmills are still large consumers of purchased fuels and electricity. The overall objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design, and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. Phase 1 consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system, the subjects of this report. The results indicate that the proposed indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration system is both technically and financially feasible under a variety of conditions. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of lignite fuelled IGCC with CO{sub 2} capture. Comparing fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guangjian; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} represent one of the most promising options for generating low-cost decarbonized power using bituminous coals. This work systematically quantify the effect of coal rank on the efficiency and economics of IGCC systems with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), with a special focus on comparison of systems using fluidized-bed gasifier (U-GAS) and entrained flow gasifier (Shell). It was found that the Shell IGCCs are little affect by low rank coal after pre-drying in terms of thermal efficiency and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is only increase by 2-6% for lignite cases with and without CCS compared with bituminous coal cases. The specific CO{sub 2} emissions of U-GAS gasifier based lignite fuelled IGCC with CCS is 198 g/kWhe, almost two times of shell gasifier cases, mainly due to lower carbon conversion in the gasifier and the higher methane in the raw gas of gasifier. However, the total capital cost and COE of U-Gas IGCCs are 15-20% less than that of Shell IGCCs because of lower capital cost of gasifier, coal drying units and air separate units per kWe.

  19. Effect of fuel oxygen on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a compression ignition engine fuelled separately with palm and karanja biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Jibanananda; Misra, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    Exergy analysis of any thermodynamic system can take care of the limitations of energy analysis such as irreversible losses, their magnitude and the source of thermodynamic inefficiencies apart from energy losses. In the present study, both the analyses along with heat release analysis are conducted on a natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled separately with palm biodiesel (PB), karanja biodiesel (KB), and petrodiesel (PD) using the experimental data. Since the engine performs best at about 85% loading condition, the energetic and exergetic performance parameters of the engine are evaluated at 85% loading condition for each type of fuel. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of fuel oxygen on energy and exergy efficiencies of a CI (compression ignition) engine. Various exergy losses, exergy destruction and their ratios associated with the heat transfer through cooling water, radiation, exhaust gas, friction, and some uncounted exergy destruction are investigated. Apart from exergy loss due to heat transfer; the uncounted exergy destruction (due to combustion) also plays a major role in the system inefficiency. Based on the comparative assessment of the obtained results, it is concluded that a better combustion with less irreversibility is possible with the increase in O 2 content in the fuel. - Highlights: • Efficiency of a CI engine increases with the increase in oxygen quantity in the fuel. • Irreversibility of a CI engine decreases with increase in oxygen content in the fuel. • Palm biodiesel performs better than karanja biodiesel and petrodiesel for a CI engine

  20. Analysis of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends using kernel-based extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Arridina Susan; Hassan, Masjuki Haji; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Kusumo, Fitranto

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a four-cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends. A kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM) model is developed in this study using MATLAB software in order to predict the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. To acquire the data for training and testing the KELM model, the engine speed was selected as the input parameter, whereas the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were chosen as the output parameters of the KELM model. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics predicted by the KELM model were validated by comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The results show that the coefficient of determination of the parameters is within a range of 0.9805-0.9991 for both the KELM model and the experimental data. The mean absolute percentage error is within a range of 0.1259-2.3838. This study shows that KELM modelling is a useful technique in biodiesel production since it facilitates scientists and researchers to predict the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of internal combustion engines with high accuracy.

  1. Experimental investigation into the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of particulate matter from diesel engine fuelled with diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Xinghu; Wang, Yan; Mu, Mingfei; Li, Xuehao; Kou, Guiyue

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on oxidation reactivity and nanostructural characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engine fuelled with different volume proportions of diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) blends (P0, P10 and P20). PM was collected using a metal filter from the exhaust manifold. The collected PM samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The TGA results indicated that the PM produced by P20 had the highest moisture and volatility contents and the fastest oxidation rate of solid carbon followed by P10 and P0 derived PM. SEM analysis showed that PM generated from P20 was looser with a lower mean value than PM emitted from P10 and P0. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution TEM images presented that fringe length was reduced along with increased separation distance and tortuosity with an increase in PODEn concentration. These trends improved the oxidation reactivity. According to Raman spectroscopy data, the intensity, full width at half-maximum and intensity ratio of the bands also changed demonstrating that PM nanostructure disorder was correlated with a faster oxidation rate. The results show the use of PODEn affects the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of PM that is easier to oxidize.

  2. In-Doped ZnO Hexagonal Stepped Nanorods and Nanodisks as Potential Scaffold for Highly-Sensitive Phenyl Hydrazine Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Ahmad; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kumar, Rajesh; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S; Al-Salami, A E; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2017-11-21

    Herein, we report the growth of In-doped ZnO (IZO) nanomaterials, i.e., stepped hexagonal nanorods and nanodisks by the thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc and indium powders in the presence of oxygen. The as-grown IZO nanomaterials were investigated by several techniques in order to examine their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. The detailed investigations confirmed that the grown nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks possess well-crystallinity with wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown in high density. The room-temperature PL spectra exhibited a suppressed UV emissions with strong green emissions for both In-doped ZnO nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks. From an application point of view, the grown IZO nanomaterials were used as a potential scaffold to fabricate sensitive phenyl hydrazine chemical sensors based on the I-V technique. The observed sensitivities of the fabricated sensors based on IZO nanorods and nanodisks were 70.43 μA·mM -1 cm -2 and 130.18 μA·mM -1 cm -2 , respectively. For both the fabricated sensors, the experimental detection limit was 0.5 μM, while the linear range was 0.5 μM-5.0 mM. The observed results revealed that the simply grown IZO nanomaterials could efficiently be used to fabricate highly sensitive chemical sensors.

  3. A combined experimental and DFT study of a novel unsymmetrical azine 2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethylidene) hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, P.; Sankaran, K. R.

    2015-03-01

    A novel unsymmetrical azine 2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethylidene) hydrazine (UA) was prepared and characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. A 2D - potential energy scan (PES) of p-isobutylacetophenone (IBAP) was the portal to the conformational analysis of UA by density functional theory (DFT) methods using 6-31G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 program. The theoretical IR frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The IR frequencies of UA were analyzed by means of Potential energy Distribution (PED %) calculation using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA 4) program. The experimental NMR chemical shift values of UA were compared with the theoretical values obtained by DFT method. Nonlinear optical behavior of the unsymmetrical azine is also examined by the theoretically predicted values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α0) and first hyperpolarizability (βtot). Stability of the UA molecule has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The electrochemistry of UA studied experimentally by cyclic voltammetry is complemented by the computational analysis of the anionic form of the molecule UA. The determination of various global and local reactivity descriptors in the context of chemical reactivity is also performed and the electrophilicity at the vital atomic sites in UA is revealed. Bader's Atoms in molecules (AIM) theory of UA indicated the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO orbital analysis are also performed for the molecule UA.

  4. Hydrazine and hydrogen coinjection to mitigate stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in boiling water reactors (7). Effects of bulk water chemistry on ECP distribution inside a crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoichi; Ishida, Kazushige; Tachibana, Masahiko; Aizawa, Motohiro; Fuse, Motomasa

    2007-01-01

    Water chemistry in a simulated crack (crack) has been studied to understand the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking in a boiling water reactor environment. Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in a crack made in an austenite type 304 stainless steel specimen was measured. The ECP distribution along the simulated crack was strongly affected by bulk water chemistry and bulk flow. When oxygen concentration was high in the bulk water, the potential difference between the crack tip and the outside of the crack (ΔE), which must be one motive force for crack growth, was about 0.3V under a stagnant condition. When oxygen was removed from the bulk water, ECP inside and outside the crack became low and uniform and ΔE became small. The outside ECP was also lowered by depositing platinum on the steel specimen surface and adding stoichiometrically excess hydrogen to oxygen to lower ΔE. This was effective only when bulk water did not flow. Under the bulk water flow condition, water-borne oxygen caused an increase in ECP on the untreated surface inside the crack. This also caused a large ΔE. The ΔE effect was confirmed by crack growth rate measurements with a catalyst-treated specimen. Therefore, lowering the bulk oxidant concentration by such measures as hydrazine hydrogen coinjection, which is currently under development, is important for suppressing the crack growth. (author)

  5. SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A NA(I COMPLEX WITH 4,4’-BIPYRIDINE AND 2-FORMYL- BENZENESULFONATE-HYDRAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAI XI-SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Na(I complex, [Na(4,4’-bipyridine2·(H2O4]·L·OH·2H2O (L = 2-formyl-benzenesulfonate-hydrazine, has been synthesized. And its structure was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The Na(I complex belongs to orthorhombic, space group C2221 with a = 7.9162(16 Å, b = 18.451(4 Å, c = 26.397(5 Å, V= 3855.7(13 Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.394 mg·m-3, μ = 0.218 mm-1, F(000 =1689, and final R1 = 0.0683, ωR2 = 0.2017. The result shows that the Na(I center is six-coordination with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The Na(I complex forms 1D chain structure by the π-π stacking interaction.

  6. ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(1,6-hexanediamine)(0.5) hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-03-07

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.

  7. Ni-Pt nanoparticles growing on metal organic frameworks (MIL-96) with enhanced catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from hydrazine at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lan; Du, Xiaoqiong; Su, Jun; Luo, Wei; Cai, Ping; Cheng, Gongzhen

    2015-04-07

    Well-dispersed bimetallic Ni-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with different compositions have been successfully grown on the MIL-96 by a simple liquid impregnation method using NaBH4 as the reducing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy measurements were employed to characterize the NiPt/MIL-96. Catalytic activity of NiPt/MIL-96 catalysts was tested in the hydrogen generation from the aqueous alkaline solution of hydrazine at room temperature. These catalysts are composition dependent on their catalytic activity, while Ni64Pt36/MIL-96 exhibits the highest catalytic activity among all the catalysts tested, with a turnover frequency value of 114.3 h(-1) and 100% hydrogen selectivity. This excellent catalytic performance might be due to the synergistic effect of the MIL-96 support and NiPt NPs, while NiPt NPs supported on other conventional supports, such as SiO2, carbon black, γ-Al2O3, poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), and the physical mixture of NiPt and MIL-96, all of them exhibit inferior catalytic activity compared to that of NiPt/MIL-96.

  8. Effect of Fuel Injection Strategy on the Carbonaceous Structure Formation and Nanoparticle Emission in a DISI Engine Fuelled with Butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of ever wider expansion of direct injection in spark ignition engines, this investigation was aimed at improved understanding of the correlation between fuel injection strategy and emission of nanoparticles. Measurements performed on a wall guided engine allowed identifying the mechanisms involved in the formation of carbonaceous structures during combustion and their evolution in the exhaust line. In-cylinder pressure was recorded in combination with cycle-resolved flame imaging, gaseous emissions and particle size distribution. This complete characterization was performed at three injection phasing settings, with butanol and commercial gasoline. Optical accessibility from below the combustion chamber allowed visualization of diffusive flames induced by fuel deposits; these localized phenomena were correlated to observed changes in engine performance and pollutant species. With gasoline fueling, minor modifications were observed with respect to combustion parameters, when varying the start of injection. The alcohol, on the other hand, featured marked sensitivity to the fuel delivery strategy. Even though the start of injection was varied in a relatively narrow crank angle range during the intake stroke, significant differences were recorded, especially in the values of particle emissions. This was correlated to the fuel jet-wall interactions; the analysis of diffusive flames, their location and size confirmed the importance of liquid film formation in direct injection engines, especially at medium and high load.

  9. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  10. An experimental investigation of PAH emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. N.; Shan, G.E.Y.; Wei, T.J.; Hua, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    For the comparison of emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel biodiesel and its 20% blend with diesel, and their carcinogenic potencies, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged, intercooled and direct injection diesel engine. Total PAHs (solid and gas) from diesel, B20 and B100 at low load were more than those at high loads. Total PAH emissions from the test fuels at the rated speed were more than those at maximum torque speed. Benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) brake specific emission of biodiesel is less than that of diesel. LMW-PAH emissions for the test fuels are all higher than those of MMW and HMW PAH. Biodiesel and B20 reduce both the total Benzo[a] pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP/sub eq/) and the total mean-PAHs as compared to commercial diesel fuel. BSFC of the engine increased but its brake power decreased in the cases of B20 and biodiesel. (author)

  11. NOx emissions and thermal efficiencies of small scale biomass-fuelled combustion plant with reference to process industries in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, A.S.; Purvis, M.R.I.

    1996-01-01

    Solid biomass materials are an important industrial fuel in many developing countries and also show good potential for usage in Europe within a future mix of renewable energy resources. The sustainable use of wood fuels for combustion relies on operation of plant with acceptable thermal efficiency. There is a clear link between plant efficiency and environmental impacts due to air pollution and deforestation. To supplement a somewhat sparse literature on thermal efficiencies and nitrogen oxide emissions from biomass-fuelled plants in developing countries, this paper presents results for tests carried out on 14 combustion units obtained during field trials in Sri Lanka. The plants tested comprised steam boilers and process air heaters. Biomass fuels included: rubber-wood, fuelwood from natural forests; coconut shells; rice husks; and sugar can bagasse. Average NO x (NO and NO 2 ) emissions for the plants were found to be 47 gNO 2 GJ -1 with 18% conversion of fuel nitrogen. The former value is the range of NO x emission values quoted for combustion of coal in grate-fired systems; some oil-fired systems and systems operating on natural gas, but is less than the emission levels for the combustion of pulverized fuel and heavy fuel oil. This value is significantly within current European standards for NO x emission from large combustion plants. Average thermal efficiency of the plants was found to be 50%. Observations made on operational practices demonstrated that there is considerable scope for the improvement of this thermal efficiency value by plant supervisor training, drying of fuelwood and the use of simple instruments for monitoring plant performance. (Author)

  12. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with microalga Chlorella variabilis and Jatropha curcas biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devendra; Singal, S.K.; Garg, M.O.; Maiti, Pratyush; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Pushpito K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B100 biodiesels from Jatropha (BJ) and marine microalga (BA) compared. • 17% lower NOx and 6% lower specific fuel consumption of BA over BJ. • Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) highest in urban mode in all cases. • NOx, HC and CO highest in rural-, motorway-and urban modes, respectively. • Microalga Chlorella variabilis is a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petro-diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. Two B100 biodiesel samples were prepared by patented routes from the lipids extracted from marine microalga Chlorella variabilis (BA) cultivated in salt pans and wasteland-compatible Jatropha curcas (BJ). The fuels complied with ASTM D-6751 and European Standard EN-14214 specifications. Standard Petro-diesel served as a control. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with these B100 fuels (BJ and BA) were studied over European Transient Cycle. Test results showed that both B100 biodiesels outperformed petro-diesel in terms of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, with slight penalty on NOx emissions. Among the two biodiesels, merits of BA were established over BJ in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions and specific fuel consumption. Mode-wise transient emission analysis revealed that NOx was highest in rural mode, CO was highest in urban and HC was highest in motorway mode for all fuels. BA may be considered as a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine which can be produced sustainably through cultivation of the marine microalga in coastal locations using seawater as culture medium, obviating thereby concerns around land use competition for food and fuel.

  13. Comparison of Carbonyls and BTEX Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend, and Operated without 3-Way Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Naeem Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unregulated emissions such as carbonyls and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes species emanated from a light duty SI (Spark Ignition vehicle E-0 (fuelled on gasoline and E-10 (ethanol-gasoline blend. Meanwhile, the ozone forming potential of these pollutants based on their ozone SR (Specific Reactivity has also been addressed in this study. The experiments were performed on transient as well as steady-state modes in accordance with the standard protocols recommended for light duty vehicle emissions. Carbonyls and BTEX were analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detector and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the predominant components of the carbonyls for E-0 and E-10, respectively. During transient mode, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone, and tolualdehyde pollutants were decreased but, acetaldehyde emissions increased with E-10 as compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were also decreased with E-10, relative to E-0. During the steady-state modes, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone and propionaldehyde were lower, aromatic aldehydes were absent, but acetaldehyde pollutants were higher with E-10 compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were decreased at medium and higher speed modes however, increased at lower speed mode with E-10 as compared to E-0. Total BTEX emissions were maximal at lower speed mode but, least at medium speed mode for both the fuels. SR of the pollutants was higher over transient cycle of operation, compared with steady-state mode. Relative to E-0, E-10 displayed lower SR during both transient as well as steady-state mode.

  14. Wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill applications. Phase 2. Site-specific preliminary engineering and financial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    The use of conventional steam/electricity cogeneration systems is not generally economical at the sawmill scale of operation. This paper describes an evaluation of a wood-waste fueled and, indirectly, gas fired turbine cogeneration plant aimed at developing a cost-effective wood-waste fired power generation and dry kiln heating system for sawmill applications. A preliminary engineering design and financial analysis of the system was prepared for a demonstration site in British Columbia. A number of alternative system configurations were identified and preliminary engineering designs prepared for each. In the first option , wood wastes combusted in a wet cell hot gas generator powered a 600 kW turbine, and produced 7,000 kW for the drying kilns. The second option provided the same electrical and heat output but used a down-fired suspension burner unit fuelled by clean, dried sawdust, together with an integral air heater heat exchanger. The third option represented a commercial-scale configuration with an electrical output of 1,800 kW, and sufficient heat output for the dry kilns. A financial analyis based on a computerized feasibility model was carried out on the last two options. Low electricity rates in British Columbia combined with the small scale of a demonstration project provide an inadequate rate of return at the site without substantial outside support. At a commercial scale of operation and with the higher electricity prices that exist outside of British Columbia the financial analysis indicates that the incremental investment in the electric generation portion of the system provides very attractive rates of return for the 3 options. 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  16. ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(1,6-hexanediamine)0.5 hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-02-01

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the

  17. Consumers' risk elimination in fuel supply chain. The Attica's Marinas yacht fuelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Nikolaos [ELINOIL-HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY, S.A., Kifisia (Greece); Zannikos, Fanourios [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    Oil products distribution system is a complicated supply chain and includes a lot of uncertainties. A limited but quite interesting part of this system is yachting supply in marinas. Yachts usually are equipped with high efficiency and big horsepower modem engines; sea travelling is risky itself so fuel quality contributes significant in safety; many of the yachts are chartered for hired cruises and so operators have the right to purchase tax-free marine diesel, which creates conditions for smuggling and adulteration. All above create a great need for quality control in these fuels, as Greek oil companies do not apply at the moment Total Quality Management (TQM) for securing both quality specifications and quantity paid by the end user. In this research project the Laboratory of Fuel Technology and Lubricants of NTUA collected samples and analysed fuels delivered by tank trucks to yachts in six marinas in the district of Attica. These fuels were marketed by ELINOIL SA, a medium size oil distribution company, operating in Greece. ELINOIL has a market share of 6% of the Greek fuel market but is a market leader in yachting supply in Attica, having more than 50% of the specific market. Problems concerning fuel quality were analysed, direct or indirect causes were tracked, recorded and analysed, always in comparison with data from other Quality Control procedures applied from the company. A specially developed database was updated with facts and figures from incidents and quality issues covering this activity of the company during this period. The project, as it was targeted, detected the quality problems of the specific supply chain and ended to suggestions concerning the building of Quality Assurance System in yachting fuel supply. (orig.)

  18. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gottekere, Kumar Narayanappa

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NO x , and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

  19. Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif; Truong, Nguyen Le

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the climate implications of producing electricity in large-scale conversion plants using coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS). We calculate the primary energy, carbon dioxide (CO_2) and methane (CH_4) emission profiles, and the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of different systems that produce the same amount of electricity. We find that using slash or waste for electricity production instead of coal somewhat increases the instantaneous CO_2 emission from the power plant, but avoids significant subsequent emissions from decaying slash in forests or waste in landfills. For slash used instead of coal, we find robust near- and long-term reductions in total emissions and CRF. Climate effects of using waste instead of coal are more ambiguous: CRF is reduced when CCS is used, but without CCS there is little or no climate benefits of using waste directly for energy, assuming that landfill gas is recovered and used for electricity production. The application of CCS requires more fuel, but strongly reduces the CO_2 emissions. The use of slash or waste together with CCS results in negative net emissions and CRF, i.e. global cooling. - Highlights: • Using slash or waste for energy emits CO_2 from power plants, but avoids CO_2 and CH_4 emissions from forests or landfills. • Using forest slash for energy instead of coal gives robust short- and long-term climate benefits. • Using waste instead of coal gives questionable climate benefits, if the waste would otherwise be landfilled properly.

  20. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-05-27

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  1. Design and construction of new potentiometric sensors for determination of Al3+ ion based on (Z)-2-(2-methyl benzylidene)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizani, F; Salmanzadeh Ardabili, S; Ganjaliab, M R; Faridbod, F; Payehghadr, M; Azmoodeh, M

    2015-04-01

    (Z)-2-(2-methyl benzylidene)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazine (L) was used as an active component of PVC membrane electrode (PME), coated graphite electrode (CGE) and coated silver wire electrode (CWE) for sensing Al(3+) ion. The electrodes exhibited linear Nernstian responses to Al(3+) ion in the concentration range of 1.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-1)M (for PME, LOD=8.8×10(-7)M), 5.5×10(-7) to 2.0×10(-1)M (for CWE, LOD=3.3×10(-7)M) and 1.5×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1)M (for CGE, LOD=9.2×10(-8)M). The best performances were observed with the membranes having the composition of L:PVC:NPOE:NaTPB in the ratio of 5:35:57:3 (w/w; mg). The electrodes have a response time of 6s and an applicable pH range of 3.5-9.1. The sensors have a lifetime of about 15weeks and exhibited excellent selectivity over a number of mono-, bi-, and tri-valent cations including alkali, alkaline earth metal, heavy and transition metal ions. Analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been further tested by using it as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Al(3+) with EDTA. The electrode was also successfully applied for the determination of Al(3+) ion in real and pharmaceutical samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fuelling a BioMess. Why Burning Trees for Energy Will Harm People,the Climate and Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainville, N.

    2011-10-01

    impacts on forest health and biodiversity are expected if the 'green gold rush' continues along its current trajectory. This report shows that forest biomass cannot and should not replace fossil fuels on a large-scale. Electricity production from forest biomass is inefficient, while transforming trees into biofuels for transportation will mean impacting vast areas of forests. There is an urgent need for provincial policy makers to reassess the perceived environmental benefits of forest-based bioenergy and its role within Canada's energy portfolio. In a series of recommendations, Greenpeace aims to set the forest bioenergy sector back on track by highlighting the importance of focusing on industrial leftovers rather than relying directly on forests. This report can help policymakers realign forest bioenergy development in Canada and elsewhere before plunging the forest industry into a new environmental controversy.

  3. Effects of low temperature on the cold start gaseous emissions from light duty vehicles fuelled by ethanol-blended gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T.W.; Zardini, A.A.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Vicet, A.; Tournié, E.; Astorga, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most of the pollutants studied were emitted during the cold start of the vehicle. ► More carbonyls were associated with oxygenated fuel (E85–E75) than with E5. ► Acetaldehyde emissions were found particularly enhanced at −7 °C with E75. ► Elevated methane and ozone precursor emissions were measured at −7 °C with E75. ► Ammonia and toluene emissions associated to E75–E85 were lower than with E5. -- Abstract: According to directives 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, since 2011 all fuels on the market used for transport purpose must contain a fraction of 5.75% renewable energy sources. Ethanol in gasoline is a promising solution to reach this objective. In addition to decrease the dependence on fossil fuel, ethanol contributes to reducing air pollutant emissions during combustion (carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons), and has a positive effect on greenhouse gas emissions. These considerations rely on numerous emission studies performed in standard conditions (20–30 °C), however, very few emission data are available for cold ambient temperatures, as they prevail in winter times in e.g., Northern Europe. This paper presents a chassis dynamometer study examining the effect of ethanol (E75–E85) versus gasoline (E5) at standard and low ambient temperatures (22 °C and −7 °C, respectively). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standards (Euro4 and Euro5a) were recorded over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). Unregulated compounds such as methane, ammonia, and small chain hydrocarbons were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected and analyzed offline by liquid and gas chromatography in order to evaluate the ozone formation

  4. Reaction of 1-bromo-3-chloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali; Reaktsiya 1-brom-3-khlorpropana s tellurom i dimetilditelluridom v sisteme gidrazin-gidrat-shcheloch'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russavskaya, N V; Levanova, E P; Sukhomazova, Eh N; Grabel' nykh, V A; Elaev, A V; Klyba, L V; Zhanchipova, E R; Albanov, A I; Korotaeva, I M; Toryashinova, D S.D.; Korchevin, N A [SO RAN, Irkutskij Inst. Khimii imeni A.E. Favorskogo, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly(trimethyleneditelluride), from 1-bromo-3-chloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Reductive splitting of the tellurocol followed by alkylation with methyl iodide give rise to preparation of bis(methyltelluro)propane, which was synthesized also from dimethyl telluride and 1,3-dihalopropanes using the N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O/KOH system. The reaction products were characterized by elementary analysis, NMR, and IR spectra. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered.

  5. Deposition and effects on some aquatic organisms of particulate matter emitted from some peat fuelled power plants in Finland. Deposition och effekter paa naagra vattenlevande organismer av emitterat stoft fraan naagra torveldade kraftverk i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, C; Fischer, S; Hellstroem, T; Notini, M; Steen, B; Waltersson, E; Landner, L

    1982-01-01

    At three different peat fuelled plants in Finland, environmental studies have been carried out with the aim of obtaining part of the background data necessary for the formulation of environmental guidelines in relation to the future use of peat for energy and heat production in Sweden. The present project was comprised of (a) field studies of the composition pattern of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of heavy metals in the surroundings of some existing peat fuelled power plants, and (b) laboratory tests with a few aquatic organisms to check the possible biological effects induced by emitted particles. The results of these studies indicate that the deposition of (PAH) in the surroundings of three power plants (measured by snow sampling and by analysis of kale grown in the area) did not exceed the background level, whereas the deposition of heavy metals emitted from one power plant resulted in increased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and possibly of Hg, compared to the assumed background level. Biological tests with particles originating from two different peat fuelled power plants showed that only weak, but obvious, effects could be detected at concentrations corresponding to realistic deposition levels. These effects are supposed to be due to the metal content of the particles rather than to the PAH content. When evaluating the lab results, it should be considered that a certain fixation of metals dissolved in the snow melting water may take place in the soil surface. Therefore, the biological effect studies, carried out so far, do not indicate that peat combustion at the investigated power plants, using efficient flue gas cleaning systems, cause any considerable biological effects in the surroundings of the plants. However, it is evident that the present set of data does not allow a general evaluation of the over-all environmental impact of peat combustion.

  6. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail: expmotor@fiat.com.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  7. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  8. Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero M, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage. This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Recently it has been observed with the damage induced by gamma radiation, ENU and CrO 3 in somatic cells of the wing of Drosophila and in the induction of tumors for 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination (SMART) in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Its were pretreated with CHLN or SAC to transheterocygotes larvas for two locus of the chromosome three mwh+/+flr 3 ; later on they are retarded the chronic treatment with DMH 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results indicated: differences in the viability of the individuals of the groups SAC + DMH vs CHLN + DMH only in the treated immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) that the CHLN doesn't modify the rate of the treated individuals development. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  9. Steady-state and transient core feasibility analysis for a thorium-fuelled reduced-moderation PWR performing full transuranic recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Ahmad, Ali; Zainuddin, N. Zara; Franceschini, Fausto; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a core analysis for a thorium-transuranic fuelled reduced-moderation PWR. • There is the possibility of positive reactivity in severe large break LOCAs. • Mechanical shim is used to control reactivity within power peaking constraints. • Adequate shutdown margin can be achieved with B 4 C control rods are required. • The response to a rod ejection accident is within likely licensing limits. - Abstract: It is difficult to perform multiple recycle of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in PWRs as the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) tends to become positive after a few recycles and the core may have positive reactivity when fully voided. Due to the favourable impact on the MTC fostered by use of thorium (Th), the possibility of performing Th–TRU multiple-recycle in reduced-moderation PWRs (RMPWRs) is under consideration. Heterogeneous fuel design with spatial separation of Th–U and Th–TRU is necessary to improve neutronic performance. This can take the form of a heterogeneous fuel assembly (TPUC), or whole assembly heterogeneity (WATU). Satisfactory discharge burn-up can be maintained while ensuring negative MTC, with the pin diameter of a standard PWR increased from 9.5 to 11 mm. However, the reactivity becomes positive when the coolant density in the core becomes extremely low. This could lead to positive reactivity in some loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios, for example a surge line break, if the reactor does not trip. To protect against this beyond design basis accident, a second redundant set of shutdown rods is added to the reactor, so that either the usual or secondary rods can trip the reactor when there is zero coolant in the core. Even so, this condition is likely to be concerning from a regulatory standpoint. Reactivity control is a key challenge due to the reduced worth of neutron absorbers and their detrimental effect on the void coefficients, especially when diluted, as is the case for soluble boron

  10. In-vitro DNA binding and cleavage studies with pBR322 of N,N-Bis(3{beta}-acetoxy-5{alpha}-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Zishan [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Muddassir, Mohd [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India); Sulaiman, Othman [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Arjmand, Farukh [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The DNA binding studies of the triterpenoid derivative, cholesterol, N,N-Bis(3{beta}-acetoxy-5{alpha}-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine (L) with CT DNA were carried out by employing different optical methods viz, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The ligand binds to DNA through hydrophobic interaction with K{sub b} value found to be 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}. These observations have been validated also by fluorescence spectroscopy. (L) exhibits a remarkable DNA cleavage activity with pBR322 DNA in the presence of different activators and the DNA is probably cleaved by an other than oxidative mechanism, possibly by a discernable hydrolytic pathway. In the presence of major and minor groove binding agents, (L) prefers major groove binding of the DNA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA binding studies of the triterpenoid derivative, cholesterol, N,N-Bis(3{beta}-acetoxy-5{alpha}-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ligand binds to DNA through hydrophobic interaction with K{sub b} value found to be 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA is probably cleaved by an other than oxidative mechanism, possibly by a discernable hydrolytic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of major and minor groove binding agents, the (L) prefers major groove binding of the DNA.

  11. In-vitro DNA binding and cleavage studies with pBR322 of N,N-Bis(3β-acetoxy-5α-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, Zishan; Muddassir, Mohd; Sulaiman, Othman; Arjmand, Farukh

    2012-01-01

    The DNA binding studies of the triterpenoid derivative, cholesterol, N,N-Bis(3β-acetoxy-5α-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine (L) with CT DNA were carried out by employing different optical methods viz, UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The ligand binds to DNA through hydrophobic interaction with K b value found to be 4.7×10 3 M −1 . These observations have been validated also by fluorescence spectroscopy. (L) exhibits a remarkable DNA cleavage activity with pBR322 DNA in the presence of different activators and the DNA is probably cleaved by an other than oxidative mechanism, possibly by a discernable hydrolytic pathway. In the presence of major and minor groove binding agents, (L) prefers major groove binding of the DNA. - Highlights: ► DNA binding studies of the triterpenoid derivative, cholesterol, N,N-Bis(3β-acetoxy-5α-cholest-6-yl-idene)hydrazine. ► The ligand binds to DNA through hydrophobic interaction with K b value found to be 4.7×10 3 M −1 . ► DNA is probably cleaved by an other than oxidative mechanism, possibly by a discernable hydrolytic pathway. ► In the presence of major and minor groove binding agents, the (L) prefers major groove binding of the DNA.

  12. A potential method using Ge{iPrNC[N(SiMe_3)_2]NiPr}{sub 2}, (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te and anhydrous hydrazine for germanium tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Liyong; Du, Shulei; Ding, Yuqiang [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2017-12-29

    A germanium(II)-guanidine derivative of formula Ge{iPrNC[N(SiMe_3)_2]NiPr}{sub 2} (1) was synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction method. Thermal property was also studied to identify its thermal stability and volatility. More importantly, compound 1 was synthesized to develop a new method for germanium tellurides, where anhydrous hydrazine was introduced to prompt the activity of germanium(II) guanidines (or derivatives) towards (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te. Solution reaction of compound 1, (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te, and anhydrous hydrazine was investigated to pre-identify the feasibility of this combination for ALD process. The EDS data of the black precipitate from this reaction verified the potential of this method to manufacture germanium tellurides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Gas market. Fuelling the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article relates to the natural gas market in Europe. The continued surge in European gas demand into the next century raises serious questions over the future security of supplies into the region. Around 72% of the total gas volumes consumed are imported from countries outside the region, the most important of which are Russia and Algeria. Natural gas has played a key role in reducing dependence on oil and will increasingly become the fuel of choice for environmental reasons, especially for power generation. Themes like liberalization plans, total production increase, and innovative delivery alternatives are discussed. 1 fig

  14. Fuelling Europe in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassin, W.

    1983-01-01

    An energy policy study carried out by International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) for the EC Commission found over-optimistic expectations of economic growth, the availability of energy imports, and conservation potential. Extending the insights of IIASA's global study Energy in a Finite World, a warning is given against postponing the necessary restructuring of Western Europe's energy system. (author)

  15. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  16. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  17. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  18. COMPLEXES CONTAINING HYDRAZINE AND BENZYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Treatment of 2 in refluxing acetone in the presence of the ... Microanalyses were carried out at the Center for Nanotechnology, Department of. Chemistry ... product as mixtures of colourless prisms and needles containing methanol and water of.

  19. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  20. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.