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Sample records for fuel transfer system

  1. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  2. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  3. Feasibility Study For Use Of Commercial Cask Vendor Dry Transfer Systems To Unload Used Fuel Assemblies In L-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, Dan; Rose, David; Dunsmuir, Mike

    2014-02-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commercial dry transfer system (DTS) could be used for loading or unloading used nuclear fuel (UNF) in L-Basin and to determine if a DTS pool adapter could be made for L-Basin Transfer Pit #2 that could accommodate a variety of DTS casks and fuel baskets or canisters up to 24” diameter.[1, 2] This study outlines the technical feasibility of accommodating different vendor dry transfer systems in the L-Basin Transfer Bay with a general work scope. It identifies equipment needing development, facility modifications, and describes the needed analyses and calculations. After reviewing the L-Basin Transfer Bay area layout and information on the only DTS system currently in use for the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC LWT), the authors conclude that use of a dry transfer cask is feasible. AREVA was contacted and acknowledged that they currently do not have a design for a dry transfer cask for their new Transnuclear Long Cask (TN-LC) cask. Nonetheless, this study accounted for a potential future DTS from AREVA to handle fuel baskets up to 18” in diameter. Due to the layout of the Transfer Bay, it was determined that a DTS cask pool adapter designed specifically for spanning Pit #2 and placed just north of the 70 Ton Cask lid lifting superstructure would be needed. The proposed pool adapter could be used to transition a fuel basket up to 24” in diameter and ~11 feet long from a dry transfer cask to the basin. The 18” and 24” applications of the pool adapter are pending vendor development of dry transfer casks that accommodate these diameters. Once a fuel basket has been lowered into Pit #2 through a pool adapter, a basket cart could be used to move the basket out from under the pool adapter for access by the 5 Ton Crane. The cost to install a dry transfer cask handling system in L-Area capable of handling multiple vendor provided transport and dry transfer casks and baskets with

  4. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  5. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  6. Incorporation of Water-Oxidation Catalysts into Photoinduced Electron Transfer Systems: Toward Solar Fuel Generation via Artificial Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnini, Michael Thomas

    mechanisms and probing highly-reactive intermediates, and it also establishes a basis in systems design for photodriving catalytic processes. Covalent dye-catalyst assemblies have been gaining recognition as a useful motif for incorporation into dye-sensitized photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water-splitting cells, and the PMI-Ir catalyst unit is well-poised, both in the energetics and kinetics of its electron transfer properties, to improve upon current solar-driven fuel-forming devices.

  7. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y. [Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349.

  8. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  9. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  10. Deposit formation and heat transfer in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to investigate the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of several hydrocarbon fuels under conditions that simulate high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. The rates of carbon deposition in heated copper and nickel-plated copper tubes were determined for RP-1, propane, and natural gas using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect on deposit formation of wall temperature, fuel pressure, and fuel velocity. In addition, the effects of fuel additives and contaminants, cryogenic fuel temperatures, and extended duration testing with intermittent operation were examined. Parametric tests to map the thermal stability characteristics of RP-1, commercial-grade propane, and natural gas were conducted at pressures of 6.9 to 13.8 MPa, bulk fuel velocities of 30 to 90 m/s, and tube wall temperatures in the range of 230 to 810 K. Also, tests were run in which propane and natural gas fuels were chilled to 230 and 160 K, respectively. Corrosion of the copper tube surface was detected for all fuels tested. Plating the inside of the copper tubes with nickel reduced deposit formation and eliminated tube corrosion in most cases. The lowest rates of carbon deposition were obtained for natural gas, and the highest rates were obtained for propane. For all fuels tested, the forced-convection heat transfer film coefficients were satisfactorily correlated using a Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number equation.

  11. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  12. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  13. From Homogeneous to Heterogenized Solar Fuels Assemblies: Observation of Electron Transfer Events in Systems Containing Dye-Sensitized Semiconductors and Molecular Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamire, Rebecca Joy

    The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by simultaneously oxidizing water and reducing protons to hydrogen could provide a much-needed fuel source within a more sustainable energy economy. Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPECs) are capable of forming fuels using sunlight if photoexcited chromophores transfer charges to semiconductor electrodes and catalysts, and catalysis occurs, at rates exceeding those of charge recombination. The rational design of efficient DSPECs will require an understanding of the catalytic mechanisms and rate-limiting steps of the oxidative and reductive reactions. Here, we focus on how molecular and electrode design can be used to favor the desired charge transfer events from photoexcited perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (PMI) chromophores into semiconductor films and to molecular catalysts. Previous efforts with related chromophores have focused on charge transfer between dyes and catalysts in homogeneous covalent systems without the presence of a supporting electrode. In this work, femtosecond to millisecond transient absorption spectroscopies are utilized to identify a PMI derivative capable of injecting electrons into nanostructured semiconductor films with favorable rates and yields. The identified derivative is further used to oxidize covalently attached homogeneous water oxidation catalyst (WOC) precursor Cp*Ir III(ppy)Cl, where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, on TiO2 and then incorporated into several photoelectrodes for photodriven water oxidation and hydrogen production. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 following chromophore adsorption is employed to improve the chemical stability of the chromophores and to prevent rapid electron-hole recombination. The TiO2-based photoanodes contain a coadsorbed WOC [(Ir IV(pyalc)(H2O)R)2(micro-O)] +2, where pyalc = 2-(2'pyridyl)-2-propanolate, or its mononuclear precursor functionalized with a siloxane binding group. NiO-based photocathodes include molecular cobaloxime- or [Ni(P2N2) 2

  14. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  15. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  16. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  17. Wireless power transfer system

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of recent wireless power transfer systems. The issue of wireless power transfer is to achieve a highly efficient system with small positioning errors of the facilities setting. Several theories have been presented to obtain precise system design. This paper presents a summary of design theory for short range power transfer systems and detailed formulations based on a circuit model and an array of infinitesimal dipoles. In addition to these theories, this paper in...

  18. An Exploration Of Fuel Optimal Two-impulse Transfers To Cyclers in the Earth-Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinisianaki, Saghar

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the optimum two-impulse transfers between a low Earth orbit and cycler orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body framework, emphasizing the optimization strategy. Cyclers are those types of periodic orbits that meet both the Earth and the Moon periodically. A spacecraft on such trajectories are under the influence of both the Earth and the Moon gravitational fields. Cyclers have gained recent interest as baseline orbits for several Earth-Moon mission concepts, notably in relation to human exploration. In this thesis it is shown that a direct optimization starting from the classic lambert initial guess may not be adequate for these problems and propose a three-step optimization solver to improve the domain of convergence toward an optimal solution. The first step consists of finding feasible trajectories with a given transfer time. I employ Lambert's problem to provide initial guess to optimize the error in arrival position. This includes the analysis of the liability of Lambert's solution as an initial guess. Once a feasible trajectory is found, the velocity impulse is only a function of transfer time, departure, and arrival points' phases. The second step consists of the optimization of impulse over transfer time which results in the minimum impulse transfer for fixed end points. Finally, the third step is mapping the optimal solutions as the end points are varied.

  19. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  20. Optimal control of fuel overpressure in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with hydrogen transfer leak during load change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadighajari, Alireza; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2017-02-01

    Formation of membrane pinholes is a common defect in fuel cells, inflicting more cost and making less durable cells. This work focuses on mitigating this issue, and offers a continuous online treatment instead of attempting to dynamically model the hydrogen transfer leak rate. This is achieved by controlling the differential pressure between the anode and cathode compartments at the inlet side of the fuel cell stack, known as the fuel overpressure. The model predictive control approach is used to attain the objectives in a Ballard 9-cell Mk1100 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with inclusion of hydrogen transfer leak. Furthermore, the pneumatic modeling technique is used to model the entire anode side of a fuel cell station. The hydrogen transfer leak is embedded in the model in a novel way, and is considered as a disturbance during the controller design. Experimental results for different sizes of hydrogen transfer leaks are provided to show the benefits of fuel overpressure control system in alleviating the effects of membrane pinholes, which in turn increases membrane longevity, and reduces hydrogen emissions in the eventual presence of transfer leaks. Moreover, the model predictive controller provides an optimal control input while satisfying the problem constraints.

  1. Transferences of Purkinje systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transferences of heterocentric astigmatic Purkinje systems are special: submatrices B and C, that is, the disjugacy and the divergence of the system, are symmetric and submatrix D (the divarication is the transpose of submatrix A (the dilation.  It is the primary purpose of this paper to provide a proof.  The paper also derives other relationships among the fundamental properties and compact expressions for the transference and optical axis locator of a Purkinje system. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 57-60

  2. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and...

  3. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  4. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  5. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  6. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  7. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  8. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  9. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  10. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  11. Wireless power transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  12. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  13. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Glarborg; A.D. Jensen; J.E. Johnsson [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. There are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NOx control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. Results on biomass combustion are also discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. 247 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to the...

  15. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The focus of this program was to experimentally investigate advanced gas turbine cooling schemes and the effects of and factors that contribute to surface deposition from particulate matter found in coal syngas exhaust flows on turbine airfoil heat transfer and film cooling, as well as to characterize surface roughness and determine the effects of surface deposition on turbine components. The program was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary collaborative effort between aero-thermal and materials faculty researchers and the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The primary technical objectives of the program were to evaluate the effects of combustion of syngas fuels on heat transfer to turbine vanes and blades in land-based power generation gas turbine engines. The primary questions to be answered by this investigation were; What are the factors that contribute to particulate deposition on film cooled gas turbine components? An experimental program was performed in a high-temperature and pressure combustion rig at the DOE NETL; What is the effect of coal syngas combustion and surface deposition on turbine airfoil film cooling? Deposition of particulate matter from the combustion gases can block film cooling holes, decreasing the flow of the film coolant and the film cooling effectiveness; How does surface deposition from coal syngas combustion affect turbine surface roughness? Increased surface roughness can increase aerodynamic losses and result in decreased turbine hot section efficiency, increasing engine fuel consumption to maintain desired power output. Convective heat transfer is also greatly affected by the surface roughness of the airfoil surface; Is there any significant effect of surface deposition or erosion on integrity of turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and do surface deposits react with the TBC in any way to decrease its thermal insulating capability? Spallation and erosion of TBC is a persistent problem in

  17. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  18. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Jensen, A.D.; Johnsson, J.E. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. Even though this area has been the subject of extensive research over the last three decades, there are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NO{sub x} control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing mostly combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. However, also results on biomass combustion is discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. (author)

  19. Dry spent fuel storage with the MACSTOR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). CANDU Operations

    1996-10-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and Transnuclear Inc. (TNI) began in 1989 the development of the concrete spent fuel storage system, called MACSTOR (Modular Air-Cooled Canister STORage) for use with LWR spent fuel assemblies. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure that can accommodate up to 20 spent fuel canisters. Each canister typically holds up to 21 PWR or 44 BWR spent fuel assemblies with a nominal fuel burn up rate of 40,000 MWD/MTU and a 7 year minimum cooling period. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. Thus, the utility can be assured of both positive cooling of the fuel and verification of the integrity of the fuel confinement boundary. The structure is seismically designed and is capable of withstanding site design basis accident events. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. The MACSTOR system can economically address a wide range of storage capacity requirements. The modular concept allows for flexibility in determining each module`s capacity. Starting with 8 canisters, the capacity can be increased by increments of 4 up to 20 canisters. The MACSTOR system is also flexible in accommodating the various spent fuel types from such reactors as VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK 1500. (J.P.N.)

  20. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  1. Heat transfer in nuclear fuels: Measurements of gap conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun Hyung

    Heat transfer in the fuel-clad gap in a nuclear reactor impacts the overall temperature distribution, stored energy and the mechanical properties of a nuclear fuel rod. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the gap conductance between the fuel and the clad is critically important for reactor design and operations. To obtain the requisite accuracy in the gap conductance estimation, it is important to understand the effects of the convective heat transfer coefficient, the gas composition, pressure and temperature, and so forth. The objectives of this study are to build a bench-scale experimental apparatus for the measurement of thermal gap conductances and to develop a better understanding of the differences that have been previously observed between such measured values and those predicted theoretically. This is accomplished by employing improved analyses of the experiments and improved theoretical models. Using laser heating of slightly separated stainless-steel plates, the gap conductance was measured using a technique that compares the theoretical and experimental time dependent temperatures at the back surface of the second plate. To consider the effects of surface temperature and gas pressure, the theoretical temperatures were calculated using a convective heat transfer coefficient that was dependent upon both the temperature and the gas pressure.

  2. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  3. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  4. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  5. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  6. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  7. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  8. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  9. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  10. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  11. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations....

  12. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  13. Heat and mass transfer effects in a direct methanol fuel cell: A 1D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Falcao, D.S.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [INETI - Unidade de Electroquimica e Materiais, Paco do Lumiar, 22,1649-038 (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Models are a fundamental tool for the design process of fuel cells and fuel cell systems. In this work, a steady-state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC, is presented. The model output is the temperature profile through the cell and the water balance and methanol crossover between the anode and the cathode. The model predicts the correct trends for the influence of current density and methanol feed concentration on both methanol and water crossover. The model estimates the net water transfer coefficient through the membrane, {alpha}, a very important parameter to describe water management in the DMFC. Suitable operating ranges can be set up for different MEA structures maintaining the crossover of methanol and water within acceptable levels. The model is rapidly implemented and is therefore suitable for inclusion in real-time system level DMFC calculations. (author)

  14. Contamination transfers during fuel transport cask loading. A concrete situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, B.; Turchet, J.P.; Faure, S.; Allinei, P.G. [DEN/DED Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Briquet, L. [EDF GENV, 93 - Saint Denis (France); Baubet, D. [SGS Qualitest Industrie, 30 - Pont Saint Esprit (France)

    2002-07-01

    In 1998, a number of contamination cases detected during fuel shipments have been pointed out by the french nuclear safety authority. Wagon and casks external surfaces were partly contaminated upon arrival in Valognes railway terminal. Since then, measures taken by nuclear power plants operators in France and abroad solved the problem. In Germany, a report analyzing the situation in depth has been published in which correctives actions have been listed. In France, EDF launched a large cleanliness program (projet proprete radiologique) in order to better understand contamination transfers mechanisms during power plants exploitation and to list remediation actions to avoid further problems. In this context, CEA Department for Wastes Studies at Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DED) was in charge of a study about contamination transfers during fuel elements loading operations. It was decided to lead experiments for a concrete case. The loading of a transport cask at Tricastin-PWR-1 was followed in november 2000 and different analysis comprising water analysis and smear tests analysis were carried out and are detailed in this paper. Results are discussed and qualitatively compared to those obtained in Philippsburg-BWR, Germany for a similar set of tests. (authors)

  15. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  16. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  17. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-23

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  18. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  1. Tools, courses, and learning pathways offered by the National Interagency Fuels, Fire, and Vegetation Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva K. Strand; Kathy H. Schon; Jeff Jones

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in the area of fuel and wildland fire management have created a need for effective decision support tools and technology training. The National Interagency Fuels Committee and LANDFIRE have chartered a team to develop science-based learning tools for assessment of fire and fuels and to provide online training and technology transfer to help...

  2. 78 FR 13661 - Energy Transfer Fuel, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Transfer Fuel, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 15, 2013, Energy Transfer Fuel, LP filed for approval of rates for...

  3. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  4. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  5. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  6. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  7. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bougouffa, Smail

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four qubit system and we demonstrate under which conditions the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of a nonzero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. The complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes only with the transfer to the other pairs being limited to up to 50%. We have found that the complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of...

  8. A quantitative estimate on the heat transfer in cylindrical fuel rods to account for flux depression inside fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mario A.B. da; Narain, Rajendra; Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de, E-mail: narain@ufpe.b, E-mail: wagner@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In a nuclear reactor, the amount of power generation is limited by thermal rather than by nuclear considerations. The reactor core must be operated at a power level that the temperatures of the fuel and cladding anywhere in the core must not exceed safe limits so as to prevent from fuel element damages. Heat transfer from fuel pins can be calculated analytically by using a flat power density in the fuel pin. In actual practice, the neutron flux distribution inside fuel pins results in a smaller effective distance for the heat to be transported to the coolant. This inherent phenomenon gives rise to a heat transfer benefit in fuel pin temperatures. In this research, a quantitative estimate for transferring heat from cylindrical fuel rods is accomplished by considering a non-uniform neutron flux, which leads to a flux depression factor. This, in turn, shifts the temperature inside the fuel pin. A theoretical relationship combining the flux depression factor and a ratio of temperature gradients for uniform and non-uniform is derived, and a computational program, based on energy balance, is developed to validate the considered approximation. (author)

  9. Variable volume combustor with nested fuel manifold system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-13

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles, a fuel manifold system in communication with the micro-mixer fuel nozzles to deliver a flow of fuel thereto, and a linear actuator to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the fuel manifold system.

  10. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  11. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  12. Systems of donor transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Charro, F T; Akveld, H E; Hessing, D J

    1993-10-01

    The development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commercialism is to be opposed. We judge the use of commercial incentives at the supply side less unacceptable in theory but not feasible in western European countries. Since market forces are deemed unacceptable as instruments for coordinating demand and supply of donor organs, donor procurement has to be considered as a collective good, and therefore governments are faced with the responsibility of making sure that alternative interaction and distribution mechanisms function. The role of organ procurement agencies (OPAs) in societal interaction concerning postmortem organ donation is described using a two-dimensional conceptualisation scheme. Medical aspects of living organ donation are described. An international comparative description of legal systems to regulate living organ donation in western European countries completes this survey.

  13. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  14. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  15. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  16. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  17. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 33.67 - Fuel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.67 Fuel system. (a) With fuel supplied to the engine at the flow and pressure specified by the applicant, the engine...

  19. Macstor system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattantyus, P. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Projects)

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Transnuclear Inc. and AECL jointly developed the conceptual design for the Modular Aircooled Canister Storage System (Macstor) for LWR fuel. The development effort has proceeded to the completion of successful full-scale thermal testing. In 1990, AECL adapted the Macstor System approach for use with Candu fuel. The adapted design, called Canstor, has also successfully completed full-scale thermal testing, and the final system design has been completed. (author) 1 fig.

  20. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  1. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  2. Energy transfer and thermal conductivity through inert matrix and nuclear fuel analogous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, C.; Heimgartner, P.; Graber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Takano, Masahide; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Kousaku

    1997-11-01

    Thermal conductivity of zirconia based inert matrix and analogous fuel materials were measured and modelled. Measurements were performed using the laser flash method and systematically applied for binary and ternary zirconia-yttria-erbia as well as quaternary systems including thoria or ceria. Measurements were carried out from room temperature to 1250 K. Thermal conductivity was also modelled taking into account the dopant effect on the lattice parameter of the cubic solid solution, the oxygen vacancy size and their concentration. Experimental and modelled lattice parameter values are compared prior to full justification of the results. In the temperature range from 300 to 950 K, the thermal conductivity of the single phase solid solution with yttria, erbia and ceria as analogous fuel material is about 2 W{center_dot}m{sup -1}K{sup -1}. Energy transfer in these materials is discussed on the basis of both photonic and phononic conductivities. (author)

  3. Modeling and control of fuel cell systems and fuel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukrushpan, Jay Tawee

    Fuel cell systems offer clean and efficient energy production and are currently under intensive development by several manufacturers for both stationary and mobile applications. The viability, efficiency, and robustness of this technology depend on understanding, predicting, and controlling the unique transient behavior of the fuel cell system. In this thesis, we employ phenomenological modeling and multivariable control techniques to provide fast and consistent system dynamic behavior. Moreover, a framework for analyzing and evaluating different control architectures and sensor sets is provided. Two fuel cell related control problems are investigated in this study, namely, the control of the cathode oxygen supply for a high-pressure direct hydrogen Fuel Cell System (FCS) and control of the anode hydrogen supply from a natural gas Fuel Processor System (FPS). System dynamic analysis and control design is carried out using model-based linear control approaches. A system level dynamic model suitable for each control problem is developed from physics-based component models. The transient behavior captured in the model includes flow characteristics, inertia dynamics, lumped-volume manifold filling dynamics, time evolving spatially-homogeneous reactant pressure or mole fraction, membrane humidity, and the Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOX) reactor temperature. The goal of the FCS control problem is to effectively regulate the oxygen concentration in the cathode by quickly and accurately replenishing oxygen depleted during power generation. The features and limitations of different control configurations and the effect of various measurement on the control performance are examined. For example, an observability analysis suggests using the stack voltage measurement as feedback to the observer-based controller to improve the closed loop performance. The objective of the FPS control system is to regulate both the CPOX temperature and anode hydrogen concentration. Linear

  4. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  5. Fuel cell power generation system. Nenryo denchi hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Shiba, Y.

    1993-06-11

    It is general to fabricate the primary cooling water system including the fuel cell main body using corrosion resistant stainless steel, while the secondary cooling system including absorption type freezer is made of carbon steel. For this structure, returning the cooling water of the secondary cooling system to the primary cooling system can cause the corrosion of the primary cooling system. That is, the water of inferior quality in the secondary system can corrode the primary system including the fuel cell. This invention solves the problem. The fuel cell bypass which is branched from the fuel cell cooling water inlet, detours the fuel cell, and it is connected to the water-vapor separator installed to the fuel cell. And the heat exchanger is installed at any of fuel cooling water outlet line, fuel cell cooling water inlet line, or fuel cell bypass line. With this structure, recovering the heat generated during the power generation by the fuel cell at the secondary side of the heat exchanger can be achieved while separating the primary and secondary cooling water. So that the trouble of fuel cell operation caused by the contamination of the primary cooling water with the secondary cooling water which contains corrosive impurities can be avoided. 6 figs.

  6. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  7. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  8. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  9. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.; Tompsett, G.A.; Kendall, K.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H{sub 2}/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack. (orig.)

  10. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  11. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  12. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  13. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954 Section 23.954 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged...

  14. 14 CFR 23.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 23.961 Section 23.961 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Fuel System § 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each fuel system must be free from vapor...

  15. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was

  16. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  17. Heat transfer in fuel oil storage tank at thermal power plants with local fuel heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of the thermal control system in fuel oil storage, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the region, in the framework of models of incompressible viscous fluid are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations, the energy equation and the heat equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. A comparative analysis of the dependence of average temperatures of oil in the volume of the tank on the time calculated by the simplified (balanced method and obtained as a result of numerical simulation are performed.

  18. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  19. Experimental and numerical study on lead-bismuth heat transfer in a fuel rod simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weimin; Karbojian, Aram; Hollands, Thorsten; Koch, Marco K.

    2011-08-01

    As a task of the EU project IP EUROTRANS towards development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) dedicated to the transmutation of long-lived fission products, experiments and simulations were performed on the TALL test facility at KTH to investigate thermal hydraulics along a single fuel rod simulator cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The fuel rod simulator is concentrically inserted in a tube, so that an annular channel is formed for LBE flow. This paper presents the measured temperature profiles in the annular channel, and the comparisons with the simulation results of the CFX code. The primary objective is to help understanding the LBE heat transfer characteristics and qualifying the turbulence and heat transfer modeling for LBE application. The quantitative comparison between the calculated and measured temperatures of the LBE indicates that the simulation underestimates the experiment at most radial and axial positions. Finally the uncertainties in measurement and the deficiency in turbulence models resulting in such a disagreement were discussed, which will be directive and beneficial to future work in the field.

  20. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  1. 14 CFR 23.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 23.993 Section 23.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Fuel System Components § 23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings. (a) Each fuel line must be...

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  3. Heat transfer in oxy-fuel fluidized bed boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bolea Agüero, Irene; Romeo Giménez, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the stabilization of coal demand in developed countries, the role of coal in the next decades energy mix is still essential. Particularly relevant will be in the great developing economies, such as India or China, where this fuel is abundant and avoid external energy dependences. In parallel, the international community needs to drive its efforts towards politics that commit fossil fuels energetic companies to drop their CO2 emissions drastically for 2015. In this regard, great ad...

  4. Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing

    2009-08-01

    Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  6. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  7. Modeling the burnout of solid polydisperse fuel under the conditions of external heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, I. A.; Goldobin, Yu. M.; Tolmachev, E. M.; Gal'perin, L. G.

    2013-11-01

    A self-similar burnout mode of solid polydisperse fuel is considered taking into consideration heat transfer between fuel particles, gases, and combustion chamber walls. A polydisperse composition of fuel is taken into account by introducing particle distribution functions by radiuses obtained for the kinetic and diffusion combustion modes. Equations for calculating the temperatures of particles and gases are presented, which are written for particles average with respect to their distribution functions by radiuses taking into account the fuel burnout ratio. The proposed equations take into consideration the influence of fuel composition, air excess factor, and gas recirculation ratio. Calculated graphs depicting the variation of particle and gas temperatures, and the fuel burnout ratio are presented for an anthracite-fired boiler.

  8. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  9. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  10. 30 CFR 36.27 - Fuel-supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-supply system. 36.27 Section 36.27 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.27 Fuel-supply system. (a) Fuel tank. (1) The fuel tank shall...

  11. PEM Fuel Cell System Replacement for BA-559O Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    H Power Corp. developed a fuel cell system to demonstrate that fuel cells can be effectively designed for missions requiring a high degree of...equivalent in size to that of a BA-5590 battery. The system comprised an air-cooled fuel cell stack, a metal-hydride-based fuel storage section, and a

  12. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  13. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  14. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  15. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18...Test Center while AMRDEC was conducting Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) fuel flight tests (17). The test results indicated that on-line particle counters

  16. Heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 storage module for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Youn, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    It was verified through heat transfer analysis that a consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel, MACSTOR/KN-400 was safe in thermal aspect. In order to validate the computer code of CATHENA which was employed to perform the analysis, the comparison between actual measurement data of MACSTOR-200 at Getilly-2 NPP in Canada and computed values from the code has been carried out. The comparison represented that the computed values acceptably agreed to the measurement data and thus the computer code was verified for its application to MACSTOR/KN-400. The identical K-values(parameter to describe head loss inside the module) and convective heat transfer coefficient of the module obtained by the validation was applied to the heat transfer analysis modelling of MACSTOR/KN-400. The result from the analysis showed that under 40 .deg. C of ambient temperature, maximum average and local temperatures of the concrete module were represented by 53 .deg. C and 69 .deg. C, respectively, which fulfilled well the allowable temperature limit of the concrete structure given by ACI349(American Concrete Institute)

  17. Spontaneously Igniting Hybrid Fuel-Oxidiser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly outlining the recent developments in hybrid rockets, the work carried out by the author on self-igniting (hypergolic solid fuel-liquid oxidiser systems has been reviewed. A major aspect relates to the solid derivatives of hydrazines, which have been conceived as fuels for hybrid rockets. Many of these N-N bonded compounds ignite readily, with very short ignition delays, on coming into contact with liquid oxidisers, like HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/ O/sub 4/. The ignition characteristics have been examined as a function of the nature of the functional group in the fuel molecule, in an attempt to establish a basis for the hypergolic ignition in terms of chemical reactivity of the fuel-oxidiser combination. Important chemical reactions occurring in the pre-ignition stage have been identified by examining the quenched reaction products. Hybrid systems exhibiting synergistic hypergolicity in the presence of metal powders have investigated. An estimation of the rocket performance parameters, experimental determination of the heats of combustion in HNO/sub 3/, thermal decomposition characteristics, temperature profile by thin film thermometry and product identification by the rapid scan FT-IR, are among the other relevant studies made on these systems. A significant recent development has been the synthesis of new N-N bonded viscous binders, capable of rataining the hypergolicity of the fuel powders embedded therein as well as providing the required mechanical strength to the grain. Several of these resins have been characterised. Metallised fuel composites of these resins having high loading of magnesium are found to have short ignition delays and high performance parameters.

  18. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  19. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  20. Gaseous fuel reactor systems for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on the gaseous fuel nuclear rocket concept continues under the programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office for Aeronautics and Space Technology and now includes work related to power applications in space and on earth. In a cavity reactor test series, initial experiments confirmed the low critical mass determined from reactor physics calculations. Recent work with flowing UF6 fuel indicates stable operation at increased power levels. Preliminary design and experimental verification of test hardware for high-temperature experiments have been accomplished. Research on energy extraction from fissioning gases has resulted in lasers energized by fission fragments. Combined experimental results and studies indicate that gaseous-fuel reactor systems have significant potential for providing nuclear fission power in space and on earth.

  1. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    in which fuel cell appli‐ cations create synergy effects with other components of the system, as well as in which the efficiency improvements achieved by using fuel cells are lost elsewhere in the system. In order to identify suitable applications of fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy sys‐ tems...... be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency...

  2. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Fuel-lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System, Adam C. Brandt, et al. Page 3 of 7 UNCLASSIFIED contains a two lobe camshaft ... camshafts rotation. These follower assemblies are then used to actuate the fuel plunger within the barrel to generate high pressure fuel. Fuel entering...top & bottom Camshaft light polish, seal contact wear light polish, very light burnish, seal contact wear light polish, light burnish, seal

  3. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  4. Riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer from Enterococcus faecalis to electrodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Cai, Yamin; Luo, Yue; Piao, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    Great attention has been focused on Gram-negative bacteria in the application of microbial fuel cells. In this study, the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis was employed in microbial fuel cells. Bacterial biofilms formed by E. faecalis ZER6 were investigated with respect to electricity production through the riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer. Trace riboflavin was shown to be essential for transferring electrons derived from the oxidation of glucose outside the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall of E. faecalis biofilms formed on the surface of electrodes, in the absence of other potential electron mediators (e.g., yeast extract).

  5. TRANSFER RESERVOIR AS A RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  6. A Theoretical Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model for Systems Controls and Stability Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Brinson, Thomas; Credle, Sydni

    2008-01-01

    As the aviation industry moves toward higher efficiency electrical power generation, all electric aircraft, or zero emissions and more quiet aircraft, fuel cells are sought as the technology that can deliver on these high expectations. The hybrid solid oxide fuel cell system combines the fuel cell with a micro-turbine to obtain up to 70% cycle efficiency, and then distributes the electrical power to the loads via a power distribution system. The challenge is to understand the dynamics of this complex multidiscipline system and the design distributed controls that take the system through its operating conditions in a stable and safe manner while maintaining the system performance. This particular system is a power generation and a distribution system, and the fuel cell and micro-turbine model fidelity should be compatible with the dynamics of the power distribution system in order to allow proper stability and distributed controls design. The novelty in this paper is that, first, the case is made why a high fidelity fuel cell mode is needed for systems control and stability designs. Second, a novel modeling approach is proposed for the fuel cell that will allow the fuel cell and the power system to be integrated and designed for stability, distributed controls, and other interface specifications. This investigation shows that for the fuel cell, the voltage characteristic should be modeled but in addition, conservation equation dynamics, ion diffusion, charge transfer kinetics, and the electron flow inherent impedance should also be included.

  7. Effect of heat transfer correlations on the fuel temperature prediction of SCWRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa-Martínez Erick-Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical analysis of the effect of different heat transfer correlations on the prediction of the cladding wall temperature in a supercritical water reactor at nominal operating conditions. The neutronics process with temperature feedback effects, the heat transfer in the fuel rod, and the thermal-hydraulics in the core were simulated with a three-pass core design.

  8. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  9. GIS tools, courses, and learning pathways offered by The National Interagency Fuels, Fire, and Vegetation Technology Transfer (NIFTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Heward; Kathy H. Schon

    2009-01-01

    As technology continues to evolve in the area of fuel and wildland fire management so does the need to have effective tools and training on these technologies. The National Interagency Fuels Coordination Group has chartered a team of professionals to coordinate, develop, and transfer consistent, efficient, science-based fuel and fire ecology assessment GIS tools and...

  10. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems, Control and Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Justesen, Kristian Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Various system topologies are available when it comes to designing high temperature PEM fuel cell systems. Very simple system designs are possible using pure hydrogen, and more complex system designs present themselves when alternative fuels are desired, using reformer systems. The use of reformed...... fuels utilizes one of the main advantages of the high temperature PEM fuel cell: robustness to fuel quality and impurities. In order for such systems to provide efficient, robust, and reliable energy, proper control strategies are needed. The complexity and nonlinearity of many of the components...

  11. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system--FUEL subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Burgan; Richard C. Rothermel

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE--a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  12. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  13. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  14. Surface energy equation for heat transfer process in a pebble fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Castillo-Jiménez, V. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Herranz-Puebla, L.E. [División de Fisión Nuclear, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Rodríguez, R. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Steady and transient behaviors of the interfacial heat transfer in a fuel element. • Non-local averaging volume method for deriving the surface energy equation. • The method captures significant physical phenomena of the interfacial heat transfer. • Closure relationships are proposed in order to obtain the temperatures distribution. • The derived average equation represents an upscaling regarding the local description. - Abstract: In this paper the surface energy equation for the heat transfer process (HT) between the mixture of fuel (TRISO particles and graphite matrix) and coating in a fuel pebble is derived. The fuel pebble can be treated as a heterogeneous region (mixture of microspheres and graphite) interacting thermally with the homogeneous region (the coating or cladding). These two regions are separated by a boundary region where the properties and behavior differ from those of the adjoining regions. The methodology applied for deriving the surface energy equation is based on the classical theory on interfacial transport phenomena. The surface energy equation derived in this work is an average equation that represents an upscaling respect to the local description. The regions around the surface where changes in the physical phenomena are important are of the order of microns, in contrast with interfacial mass transfer between phases that may be several molecular diameters. The numerical analysis regarding the application of surface energy equation is presented in this work.

  15. Modelling microbial fuel cells with suspended cells and added electron transfer mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picoreanu, C.; Katuri, K.P.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Head, I.M.; Scott, K.

    2009-01-01

    Derivation of a mathematical model for microbial fuel cells (MFC) with suspended biomass and added electron-transfer mediator is described. The model is based on mass balances for several dissolved chemical species such as substrate, oxidized mediator and reduced mediator. Biological, chemical and e

  16. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  17. Measurements of the effects of thermal contact resistance on steady state heat transfer in phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Alkasab, Kalil A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the heat transfer between the electrode plates, and the cooling system plate in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted using a set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack. The fuel-cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants, water, engine oil, and air, to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The thermal contact resistance was measured as a function of pressure at the interface between the electrode plate and the cooling system plate. The interface pressure range was from 0 kPa to 3448 kPa, while the Reynolds number for the cooling limits varied from 15 to 79 for oil, 1165 to 6165 for water, and 700 to 6864 for air. Results showed that increasing the interface pressure resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Measurements of the effects of thermal contact resistance on steady state heat transfer in phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Alkasab, Kalil A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the heat transfer between the electrode plates, and the cooling system plate in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted using a set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack. The fuel-cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants, water, engine oil, and air, to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The thermal contact resistance was measured as a function of pressure at the interface between the electrode plate and the cooling system plate. The interface pressure range was from 0 kPa to 3448 kPa, while the Reynolds number for the cooling limits varied from 15 to 79 for oil, 1165 to 6165 for water, and 700 to 6864 for air. Results showed that increasing the interface pressure resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  19. A comparison of mechanical algorithms of fuel performance code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. J.; Park, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Moon, J. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Song, K. C

    2003-11-01

    The goal of fuel rod performance evaluation is to identify the robustness of fuel rod with cladding material during fuel irradiation. Computer simulation of fuel rod performance becomes important to develop new nuclear systems. To construct the computing code system for fuel rod performance, we compared several algorithms of existing fuel rod performance code systems and summarized the details and tips as a preliminary work. Among several code systems, FRAPCON, FEMAXI for LWR, ELESTRES for CANDU reactor, and LIFE for fast reactor are reviewed. The computational algorithms related to mechanical interaction of the fuel rod are compared including methodologies and subroutines. This work will be utilized to develop the computing code system for dry process fuel rod performance.

  20. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biert, L.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Aravind, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    Progressing limits on pollutant emissions oblige ship owners to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. Fuel cells may provide a suitable solution, since they are fuel efficient while they emit few hazardous compounds. Various choices can be made with regard to the type of fuel cell system and logistic fuel, and it is unclear which have the best prospects for maritime application. An overview of fuel cell types and fuel processing equipment is presented, and maritime fuel cell application is reviewed with regard to efficiency, gravimetric and volumetric density, dynamic behaviour, environmental impact, safety and economics. It is shown that low temperature fuel cells using liquefied hydrogen provide a compact solution for ships with a refuelling interval up to a tens of hours, but may result in total system sizes up to five times larger than high temperature fuel cells and more energy dense fuels for vessels with longer mission requirements. The expanding infrastructure of liquefied natural gas and development state of natural gas-fuelled fuel cell systems can facilitate the introduction of gaseous fuels and fuel cells on ships. Fuel cell combined cycles, hybridisation with auxiliary electricity storage systems and redundancy improvements are identified as topics for further study.

  1. Heat transfer analysis of fuel assemblies in a heterogeneous gas core nuclear rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Appelbaum, Jacob; Diaz, Nils; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer problems of a heterogeneous gaseous core nuclear rocket were studied. The reactor core consists of 1.5-m long hexagonal fuel assemblies filled with pressurized uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) gas. The fuel gas temperature ranges from 3500 to 7000 K at a nominal operating condition of 40 atm. Each fuel assembly has seven coolant tubes, through which hydrogen propellant flows. The propellant temperature is not constrained by the fuel temperature but by the maximum temperature of the graphite coolant tube. For a core achieving a fission power density of 1000 MW/cu m, the propellant core exit temperature can be as high as 3200 K. The physical size of a 1250 MW gaseous core nuclear rocket is comparable with that of a NERVA-type solid core nuclear rocket. The engine can deliver a specific impulse of 1020 seconds and a thrust of 330 kN.

  2. Heat Transfer Calculation on Plate-Type Fuel Assembly of High Flux Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of fuel assemblies for a high flux research reactor with a neutron trap are numerically investigated in this study. Single-phase turbulence flow is calculated by a commercial code, FLUENT, where the computational objective covers standard and control fuel assemblies. The simulation is carried out with an inlet coolant velocity varying from 4.5 m/s to 7.5 m/s in hot assemblies. The results indicate that the cladding temperature is always lower than the saturation temperature in the calculated ranges. The temperature rise in the control fuel assembly is smaller than that of the standard fuel assembly. Additionally, the assembly with a hot spot is specially studied, and the safety of the research reactor is also approved.

  3. Frictional Characteristics and Heat Transfer of Antimisting Fuels in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    m l innl il mmlliillmp i 3 For turbulent flow: Nu = Nu f (Re, Pr, 1b/11w) * Sieder and Tate (reference 7) suggested empirical equations to...Hence, values of hw obtained using equation A.5 are confirmed by this result. Figure 28 shows that data of 0.3 percent FM-9 ANK collapse onto Sieder ...34, Transaction of ASME, June 1972. 7. Sieder , E. N. and Tate, G. E., "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tube", Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, V

  4. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  5. Dermal exposure from transfer of lubricants and fuels by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Davis, Alice; Todd, Davis; MacCalman, Laura; McGonagle, Carolyn; Cherrie, John W

    2014-11-01

    Consumer uses of fuels and lubricants in Europe are subject to the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) legislation. Ten volunteers completed a series of exposure situations to simulate filling a vehicle fuel tank with diesel (ES1 Diesel), adding lubricant to a car engine (two situations, one filling point easier to reach (ES2 Easy) than the other (ES3 Hard)) and lubricating a bicycle chain (ES4 Bike). Dermal exposure to the hands and forearms was assessed using a wipe sampling method. A high proportion of samples was less than the limit of detection (ES1=38%, ES3=60%, ES2 and 4, both 78%). In ES1 Diesel, dermal exposure to the hands and forearms ranged from <0.25 μg/cm(2) to 96.21 μg/cm(2). Significantly higher dermal exposure was observed when a lower level of care was taken to complete the task. In ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard, the hand and forearm results ranged from <0.1 μg/cm(2) to 3.33 μg/cm(2) and from <0.1 μg/cm(2) to 3.54 μg/cm(2), respectively. In ES4 Bike, the hand and forearm exposures ranged from <0.35 μg/cm(2) to 5.25 μg/cm(2). Not all volunteers fully complied with the ES4 instructions, thus highlighting that this situation may have more variability in consumer behaviour. The ratio of the amount measured on the hands and forearms to the amount of product handled for ES1 Diesel, ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard was less than 0.0001%, for ES4 Bike it was 0.04%. Mixed effect models showed that the between and within volunteer variations are small for all except ES1 Diesel, where the within volunteer variation was relatively large (likely due to the few high measurements). This study reports dermal exposure measurement data, which will be of value when updating REACH and other exposure assessments for these, and similar, petroleum products.

  6. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector Ricardo.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  7. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-15

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  8. Evolution of the MACSTOR{trademark} dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Joubert, W.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The MACSTOR{trademark} (Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage) system was developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for the interim storage of spent fuel discharged by light water reactors. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The system includes all the necessary equipment to transfer spent fuel from a storage pool to an independent interim dry spent fuel storage site. After presenting a description of the system and a brief history of its development, the paper addresses its thermal performance and modeling for various design configurations. Finally, a brief summary of the experience being gained during the implementation of a MACSTOR{trademark} system modified for CANDU spent fuel at the Gentilly-2 NPP in Quebec is presented. It includes progress made in licensing activities and in public hearings pertinent to the initiation of the project.

  9. Mathematical Model of the Jet Engine Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The paper discusses the design of a simplified mathematical model of the jet (turbo-compressor) engine fuel system. The solution will be based on the regulation law, where the control parameter is a fuel mass flow rate and the regulated parameter is the rotational speed. A differential equation of the jet engine and also differential equations of other fuel system components (fuel pump, throttle valve, pressure regulator) will be described, with respect to advanced predetermined simplifications.

  10. Mathematical Model of the Jet Engine Fuel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimko Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design of a simplified mathematical model of the jet (turbo-compressor engine fuel system. The solution will be based on the regulation law, where the control parameter is a fuel mass flow rate and the regulated parameter is the rotational speed. A differential equation of the jet engine and also differential equations of other fuel system components (fuel pump, throttle valve, pressure regulator will be described, with respect to advanced predetermined simplifications.

  11. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  12. System for Multicast File Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Custura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of big files over the network from a single source to a large number of recipients is not efficient by using standard client-server or even peer-to peer file transfer protocols.  Thus, the transfer of a hierarchy of big files to multiple destinations can be optimized in terms of bandwidth usage and data storage reads by using multicast networking. In order to achieve that, a simple application layer protocol can be imagined. It uses multicast UDP as transport and it provides a mechanism for data ordering and retransmission. Some security problems are also considered in this protocol, because at this time the Internet standards supporting multicast security are still in the development stage.

  13. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  14. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey

    2008-12-01

    This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.

  17. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  18. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  19. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  20. Low NO/x/ combustion systems for burning heavy residual fuels and high-fuel-bound nitrogen fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. J.; Batakis, A.; Lecren, R. T.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Design concepts are presented for lean-lean and staged rich-lean combustors. The combustors are designed for the dry reduction of thermal NO(x), control of NO(x) from fuels containing high levels of organic nitrogen, and control of smoke from low hydrogen content fuels. The combustor concepts are tested with a wide variety of fuels including a middle distillate, a petroleum based heavy residual, a coal derived synthetic, and ratios of blends of these fuels. The configurations of the lean-lean and rich-lean combustion systems are provided along with a description of the test rig and test procedure.

  1. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  3. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 29.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard...) Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel must be located as far...

  4. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 27.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard...) Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel must be located as far...

  5. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...

  6. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  7. Conceptual design study of advanced fuel fabrication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken-ya, Tanaka; Shusaku, Kono; Kiyoshi, Ono [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development JNC, Fuel Fabrication System Group, O-Arai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The fuel fabrication plant images based on the advanced equipment with availability to operate in hot-cell facility are constructed. The characteristics of each fuel fabrication system for economical and environmental are evaluated roughly. The advanced fuel fabrication routes such as simplified pelletizing, vibration compaction and casting process would have the potential for reducing plant construction cost and minimizing the radioactive waste generated from fuel fabrication process. (author)

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  9. Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-20

    TITLE (Include Security Classitcation) (U) Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hrvciw, Roman D. 13a... Geosynthetics 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse it necessary and identity by block number) The success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on...the satisfactory transfer of load between the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope

  10. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  11. Low power proton exchange membrane fuel cell system identification and adaptive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Ma, Ying-Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan); Chang, Hsin-Ping; Weng, Biing-Jyh [Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST), Armaments Bureau, M.N.D. (Taiwan)

    2007-02-10

    This paper proposes a systematic method of system identification and control of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This fuel cell can be used for low-power communication devices involving complex electrochemical reactions of nonlinear and time-varying dynamic properties. From a system point of view, the dynamic model of PEM fuel cell is reduced to a configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions describe linearized subsystem dynamics with finite orders and time-varying parameters, which are expressed as discrete-time auto-regression moving-average with auxiliary input models for system identification by the recursive least square algorithm. In the experiments, a pseudo-random binary sequence of hydrogen or air flow rate is fed to a single fuel cell device to excite its dynamics. By measuring the corresponding output signals, each subsystem transfer function of reduced order is identified, while the unmodeled, higher-order dynamics and disturbances are described by the auxiliary input term. This provides a basis of adaptive control strategy to improve the fuel cell performance in terms of efficiency, as well as transient and steady state specifications. Simulation shows that adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics, and it has proved promising from the experimental results. (author)

  12. Low power proton exchange membrane fuel cell system identification and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Hsin-Ping; Ma, Ying-Wei; Weng, Biing-Jyh

    This paper proposes a systematic method of system identification and control of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This fuel cell can be used for low-power communication devices involving complex electrochemical reactions of nonlinear and time-varying dynamic properties. From a system point of view, the dynamic model of PEM fuel cell is reduced to a configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions describe linearized subsystem dynamics with finite orders and time-varying parameters, which are expressed as discrete-time auto-regression moving-average with auxiliary input models for system identification by the recursive least square algorithm. In the experiments, a pseudo-random binary sequence of hydrogen or air flow rate is fed to a single fuel cell device to excite its dynamics. By measuring the corresponding output signals, each subsystem transfer function of reduced order is identified, while the unmodeled, higher-order dynamics and disturbances are described by the auxiliary input term. This provides a basis of adaptive control strategy to improve the fuel cell performance in terms of efficiency, as well as transient and steady state specifications. Simulation shows that adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics, and it has proved promising from the experimental results.

  13. PEM fuel stack dynamics, constraining supervisory control for propulsion systems in fuel cell busses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Veenhuizen, Bram; Middelman, E.; Bosch, P. van den

    2013-01-01

    The last decade several prototypes of fuel cell busses have been presented [1, 2]. A closer observation of these prototypes shows remarkable differences in both sizing and control of the system components. Some busses are essentially electric vehicles with a relative low power fuel cell system used

  14. In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part II: Operational applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand, Amir M.; Homayouni, Hooman; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic tool for in-situ characterization of the rate and distribution of hydrogen transfer leaks in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The method is based on reducing the air flow rate from a high to low value at a fixed current, while maintaining an anode overpressure. At high air flow rates, the reduction in air flow results in lower oxygen concentration in the cathode and therefore reduction in cell voltages. Once the air flow rate in each cell reaches a low value at which the cell oxygen-starves, the voltage of the corresponding cell drops to zero. However, oxygen starvation results from two processes: 1) the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction which produces current; and 2) the chemical reaction between oxygen and the crossed over hydrogen. In this work, a diagnostic technique has been developed that accounts for the effect of the electrochemical reaction on cell voltage to identify the hydrogen leak rate and number of leaky cells in a fuel cell stack. This technique is suitable for leak characterization during fuel cell operation, as it only requires stack air flow and voltage measurements, which are readily available in an operational fuel cell system.

  15. Numerical investigation of Prandtl number effect on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a nuclear fuel element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Abdul Razak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of liquid metal coolants (such as Sodium, Sodium potassium, Bismuth, Lead, and Lead–bismuth flowing over a nuclear fuel element having non-uniform internal energy generation numerically using finite difference method. The Full Navier Stokes Equations governing the flow were converted into stream function-Vorticity form and solved simultaneously along with energy equation using central finite difference scheme. For the two dimensional steady state heat conduction and Stream-Function Equation, the discretization was done in the form suitable to solve using ‘Line-by-Line Gauss-Seidel’ solution technique whereas the discretization of Vorticity transport and energy equations were done using Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI scheme. After discretization the systems of equations were solved using ‘Thomas Algorithm’. The complete task was done by writing a computer code. The results were obtained in the form of variation of Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots and its location, mean coolant temperature at the exit .The parameters considered for the study were  aspect ratio of fuel element, Ar, conduction-convection parameter Ncc, total energy generation parameter Qt, and flow Reynolds number ReH. The results obtained can be used to minimize the Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots.

  16. A multi-fluid model to simulate heat and mass transfer in a PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes a multi-phase model of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell based on the formerly commercial CFD code CFX-4. It is three-dimensional in nature and includes multiphase heat and mass transfer in porous media. An overview is given and some numerical issues are discussed...... heat and mass transfer properties are superior. Another important aspect of this study is the wetting status of the electrolyte menbrane and the effective drag of water through the menbrane, which indicates what fraction of the product water created at the cathode side diffuses through the membrane...

  17. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  18. 46 CFR 62.35-40 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 62.35-40 Section 62.35-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-40 Fuel systems. (a) Level alarms. Where...

  19. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  20. Modeling Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    The objective of this doctoral thesis was to develop reliable steady-state and transient component models suitable to asses-, develop- and optimize proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Several components in PEM fuel cell systems were characterized and modeled. The developed component...... cell systems. Consequences of indirectly fueling PEM stacks with hydrocarbons using reforming technology were investigated using a PEM stack model including CO poisoning kinetics and a transient Simulink steam reforming system model. Aspects regarding the optimization of PEM fuel cell systems...

  1. Model of U3Si2 Fuel System using BISON Fuel Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Metzger; T. W. Knight; R. L. Williamson

    2014-04-01

    This research considers the proposed advanced fuel system: U3Si2 combined with an advanced cladding. U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, which motivate its use as an accident tolerant fuel. This preliminary model evaluates the behavior of U3Si2 using available thermophysical data to predict the cladding-fuel pellet temperature and stress using the fuel performance code: BISON. The preliminary results obtained from the U3Si2 fuel model describe the mechanism of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction for this system while more extensive testing including creep testing of U3Si2 is planned for improved understanding of thermophysical properties for predicting fuel performance.

  2. Synchronous transfer circuits for redundant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S.

    1978-01-01

    Circuit arrangements for flip-flops, counters, and clock drivers in redundant systems ensure that control is synchronously transferred to surviving components when failure occurs. In addition to original application to spacecraft systems, redundant circuits have terrestrial uses in power generators, solar-energy converters, computers, vehicle controllers, and other systems demanding high reliability.

  3. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  4. Cfd Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve a deeper understanding of the heat transfer in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC stack based on the results obtained by means of a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. Stack performance predictions were based on simulations for a 16 anodesupported mSOFCs sub-stack, which was a component of the overall stack containing 64 fuel cells. The emphasis of the paper was put on steady-state modelling, which enabled identification of heat transfer between the fuel cells and air flow cooling the stack and estimation of the influence of stack heat losses. Analysis of processes for different heat losses and the impact of the mSOFC reaction heat flux profile on the temperature distribution in the mSOFC stack were carried out. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were taken into account in the analysis. Two different levels of the inlet air velocity and three different values of the heat losses were considered. Good agreement of the CFD model results with experimental data allowed to predict the operation trends, which will be a reliable tool for optimisation of the working setup and ensure sufficient cooling of the mSOFC stack.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  6. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseung Na

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems.

  7. Microwork transfer system in a nanomanufacturing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kensuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Okusa, Takenori; Hatamura, Yotaro; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Practical micromachines, such as magnetic heads or endoscopic tools, can not be made only by shaping processes; they require post-machining processes such as assembling, wiring, piping, etc. The authors have developed an integrated manufacturing system, 'nano manufacturing world' (NMW). It performs shaping, post-machining or transferring like a factory. In this paper, we introduce a microwork transfer system, which functions a) steady transfer of a workpiece, b) non-release chucking of the workpiece during production and c) individual rotation of the workpiece using a preloaded microslide bearing on the pallet. Developed transfer system could realize the functions: less positioning error due to accurate pallet positioning by taper pins, high transfer yield of the workpieces due to no missing by a micro chuck, sub-micron rotational fluctuation due to a roller pallet by a preloaded micro slide bearing. Through the fabrication demonstrations of a sub-1 mm3 micro-house or micro force sensor block of 125 X 100 X 500 micrometers , it has been confirmed that this transfer system improved the performance of integrated manufacturing in NMW.

  8. Simulating thermal behavior of AECL's spent fuel dry storage system with CATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    This paper documents the comparisons between CATHENA predictions and temperature measurements taken at the Gentilly-2 NPP spent fuel dry storage facility and in a mock--up of a storage basket placed inside a storage cylinder. It also presents CATHENA temperature predictions related to the storage of spent fuel in MACSTOR modules as planned for Ignalina NPP, Lithuania. CATHENA has been chosen because it can simulate many noncondensable gases including air and helium, and because of its great flexibility in the representation of the MACSTOR module geometry. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements. The two comparisons indicate that CATHENA can be used to simulate heat transfer from the fuel to the external air circuit of the spent fuel dry storage system. For the Ignalina MACSTOR module, containing RBMK fuel having higher heat release than typical CANDU fuel, CATHENA predicts that the maximum fuel temperature is expected to be around 240 deg C, giving an acceptable margin below the maximum allowed temperature of 300 deg C. In conclusion, this paper shows that the thermalhydraulic code CATHENA can accurately predict the thermal behavior AECL's air cooled spent fuel dry storage system. (author)

  9. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  10. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  11. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  12. File Transfer Algorithm for Autonomous Decentralized System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Xun; TAN Yong-dong; Qian Qing-quan

    2008-01-01

    A file transfer algorithm based on ADP (autonomous decentralized protocol) was proposed to solve the problem that the ADS (autonomous decentralized system) middleware (NeXUS/Dlink) lacks of file transfer functions for Windows. The algorithm realizes the peer-to-peer file transfer, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution in the same data field based on communication patterns provided by the ADP. The peer-to-peer file transfer is implemented through a peer-to-peer communication path, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution are implemented through multicast commtmieation. In this algorithm, a file to be transferred is named with a GUID ( global unique identification), every data packet is marked with a sequence number, and file-receiving in parallel is implemented by caching DPOs (data processing objects) and multithread technologies. The algorithm is applied in a simulation system of the decentralized control platform, and the test results and long time stable mrming prove the feasibility of the algorithm.

  13. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  14. Heat Transfer Enhancement By Three-Dimensional Surface Roughness Technique In Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Umair

    This thesis experimentally investigates the enhancement of single-phase heat transfer, frictional loss and pressure drop characteristics in a Single Heater Element Loop Tester (SHELT). The heater element simulates a single fuel rod for Pressurized Nuclear reactor. In this experimental investigation, the effect of the outer surface roughness of a simulated nuclear rod bundle was studied. The outer surface of a simulated fuel rod was created with a three-dimensional (Diamond-shaped blocks) surface roughness. The angle of corrugation for each diamond was 45 degrees. The length of each side of a diamond block is 1 mm. The depth of each diamond block was 0.3 mm. The pitch of the pattern was 1.614 mm. The simulated fuel rod had an outside diameter of 9.5 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm and was placed in a test-section made of 38.1 mm inner diameter, wall thickness 6.35 mm aluminum pipe. The Simulated fuel rod was made of Nickel 200 and Inconel 625 materials. The fuel rod was connected to 10 KW DC power supply. The Inconel 625 material of the rod with an electrical resistance of 32.3 kO was used to generate heat inside the test-section. The heat energy dissipated from the Inconel tube due to the flow of electrical current flows into the working fluid across the rod at constant heat flux conditions. The DI water was employed as working fluid for this experimental investigation. The temperature and pressure readings for both smooth and rough regions of the fuel rod were recorded and compared later to find enhancement in heat transfer coefficient and increment in the pressure drops. Tests were conducted for Reynold's Numbers ranging from 10e4 to 10e5. Enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all Re was recorded. The maximum heat transfer co-efficient enhancement recorded was 86% at Re = 4.18e5. It was also observed that the pressure drop and friction factor increased by 14.7% due to the increased surface roughness.

  15. Study on three level system population transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Yang(杨山); Ye Kuang(旷冶)

    2003-01-01

    Stimulated-Raman-adiabatic-passage (STIRAP) process provides an effective technique to transfer electronpopulation from an initial state (e.g. ground state) to excited final state for both atoms and molecules. Inthis paper, we present the results of the study on electron population transfer in three level system. Wehave analyzed the effects of various conditions on the transfer process, such as the time delay of the twolaser beams, two-photon off-resonance, one-photon off-resonance and the change of relative laser intensity.The numerical result is compared with experiment, and the reasons for the effects are also given.

  16. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D&D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor`s fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  18. Novel proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes to improve performance of reversible fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim Matthew

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells react fuel and oxidant to directly and efficiently produce electrical power, without the need for combustion, heat engines, or motor-generators. Additionally, PEM fuel cell systems emit zero to virtually zero criteria pollutants and have the ability to reduce CO2 emissions due to their efficient operation, including the production or processing of fuel. A reversible fuel cell (RFC) is one particular application for a PEM fuel cell. In this application the fuel cell is coupled with an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage tank to complete a system that can store and release electrical energy. These devices can be highly tailored to specific energy storage applications, potentially surpassing the performance of current and future secondary battery technology. Like all PEM applications, RFCs currently suffer from performance and cost limitations. One approach to address these limitations is to improve the cathode performance by engineering more optimal catalyst layer geometry as compared to the microscopically random structure traditionally used. Ideal configurations are examined and computer modeling shows promising performance improvements are possible. Several novel manufacturing methods are used to build and test small PEM fuel cells with novel electrodes. Additionally, a complete, dynamic model of an RFC system is constructed and the performance is simulated using both traditional and novel cathode structures. This work concludes that PEM fuel cell microstructures can be tailored to optimize performance based on design operating conditions. Computer modeling results indicate that novel electrode microstructures can improve fuel cell performance, while experimental results show similar performance gains that bolster the theoretical predictions. A dynamic system model predicts that novel PEM fuel cell electrode structures may enable RFC systems to be more competitive with traditional energy storage technology options.

  19. 46 CFR 63.15-3 - Fuel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel system. 63.15-3 Section 63.15-3 Shipping COAST... General Requirements § 63.15-3 Fuel system. (a) Firing of an automatic auxiliary boiler by natural gas is... pump and its piping system must be designed in accordance with § 56.50-65 of this chapter....

  20. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  1. Dual-fuel versus single-fuel propulsion systems for AMLS applications. [Advanced Manned Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Talay, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of using a computerized preliminary design system to integrate propulsion systems examined as a part of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) and Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) studies with reference vehicle concepts from the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study are presented. The major trade study presented is an analysis of the effect of using a single fuel for both stages of two-stage AMLS reference vehicles as opposed to using a separate fuel for the boosters. Other trade studies presented examine the effect of varying relevant engine parameters in an attempt to optimize the reference engines for use with the AMLS launch vehicles. In each propulsion trade discussed, special attention is given to the major vehicle performance and operational issues involved.

  2. Inhibited proton transfer enhances Au-catalyzed CO2-to-fuels selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttig, Anna; Yaguchi, Momo; Motobayashi, Kenta; Osawa, Masatoshi; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    CO2 reduction in aqueous electrolytes suffers efficiency losses because of the simultaneous reduction of water to H2. We combine in situ surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and electrochemical kinetic studies to probe the mechanistic basis for kinetic bifurcation between H2 and CO production on polycrystalline Au electrodes. Under the conditions of CO2 reduction catalysis, electrogenerated CO species are irreversibly bound to Au in a bridging mode at a surface coverage of ∼0.2 and act as kinetically inert spectators. Electrokinetic data are consistent with a mechanism of CO production involving rate-limiting, single-electron transfer to CO2 with concomitant adsorption to surface active sites followed by rapid one-electron, two-proton transfer and CO liberation from the surface. In contrast, the data suggest an H2 evolution mechanism involving rate-limiting, single-electron transfer coupled with proton transfer from bicarbonate, hydronium, and/or carbonic acid to form adsorbed H species followed by rapid one-electron, one-proton, or H recombination reactions. The disparate proton coupling requirements for CO and H2 production establish a mechanistic basis for reaction selectivity in electrocatalytic fuel formation, and the high population of spectator CO species highlights the complex heterogeneity of electrode surfaces under conditions of fuel-forming electrocatalysis. PMID:27450088

  3. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  4. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  5. Heat and Mass Transfer during Hydrogen Generation in an Array of Fuel Bars of a BWR Using a Periodic Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Romero-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, the numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during hydrogen generation in an array of fuel cylinder bars, each coated with a cladding and a steam current flowing outside the cylinders. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The system consists of a representative periodic unit cell where the initial and boundary-value problems for heat and mass transfer were solved. In this unit cell, we considered that a fuel element is coated by a cladding with steam surrounding it as a coolant. The numerical simulations allow describing the evolution of the temperature and concentration profiles inside the nuclear reactor and could be used as a basis for hybrid upscaling simulations.

  6. Process modeling of fuel cell vehicle power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LiMing; LIN ZhaoJia; MA ZiFeng

    2009-01-01

    Constructed here is a mathematic model of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Power System which is composed of fuel supply model, fuel cell stack model and water-heat management model. The model was developed by Matiab/Simulink to evaluate how the major operating variables affect the output performances. Itshows that the constructed model can represent characteristics of the power system closely by comparing modeling results with experimental data, and it can be used in the study and design of fuel cell vehicle power system.

  7. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  8. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  9. Energy transfer in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  10. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into a fuel holds promise to provide a significant part of the future renewable energy demand of our societies. Solar energy technologies today generate heat or electricity, while the large majority of our energy is used in the form of fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel would satisfy our needs for storable energy on a large scale. Solar fuels can be generated by absorbing light and converting its energy to chemical energy by electron transfer leading to separation of electrons and holes. The electrons are used in the catalytic reduction of a cheap substrate with low energy content into a high-energy fuel. The holes are filled by oxidation of water, which is the only electron source available for large scale solar fuel production. Absorption of a single photon typically leads to separation of a single electron-hole pair. In contrast, fuel production and water oxidation are multielectron, multiproton reactions. Therefore, a system for direct solar fuel production must be able to accumulate the electrons and holes provided by the sequential absorption of several photons in order to complete the catalytic reactions. In this Account, the process is termed accumulative charge separation. This is considerably more complicated than charge separation on a single electron level and needs particular attention. Semiconductor materials and molecular dyes have for a long time been optimized for use in photovoltaic devices. Efforts are made to develop new systems for light harvesting and charge separation that are better optimized for solar fuel production than those used in the early devices presented so far. Significant progress has recently been made in the discovery and design of better homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for solar fuels and water oxidation. While the heterogeneous ones perform better today, molecular catalysts based on transition metal complexes offer much greater tunability of electronic and

  11. Continuously acting fuel injection system. Kontinuierlich arbeitende Kraftstoffeinspritzanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, H.; Hofbauer, A.; Steinbeck, H.

    1986-02-20

    A continuously acting fuel injection system with an air quantity meter in the suction pipe and a fuel distributor controlled by it is provided with an additional device for use in a multi-cylinder aircraft engine, which is used to give the best possible performance, fuel saving and safety. An altitude control pressure controller is connected in parallel with a warming up controller to the control pressure pipe going to the fuel distributor, which measures the control pressure and therefore the fuel dosing according to the air density varying with the temperature and pressure. By fitting a fixed throttle between the control pressure pipe and the fuel return pipe to the fuel tank, emergency running of the engine is ensured on failure of both controllers. (orig./BWI).

  12. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  13. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K D; Donnert, H J; Yang, T F

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron temperature is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  14. Elementary kinetic modelling applied to solid oxide fuel cell pattern anodes and a direct flame fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Marcel

    2009-05-27

    In the course of this thesis a model for the prediction of polarisation characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was developed. The model is based on an elementary kinetic description of electrochemical reactions and the fundamental conservation principles of mass and energy. The model allows to predict the current-voltage relation of an SOFC and offers ideal possibilities for model validation. The aim of this thesis is the identification of rate-limiting processes and the determination of the elementary pathway during charge transfer. The numerical simulation of experiments with model anodes allowed to identify a hydrogen transfer to be the most probable charge-transfer reaction and revealed the influence of diffusive transport. Applying the hydrogen oxidation kinetics to the direct flame fuel cell system (DFFC) showed that electrochemical oxidation of CO is possible based on the same mechanism. Based on the quantification of loss processes in the DFFC system, improvements on cell design, predicting 80% increase of efficiency, were proposed. (orig.)

  15. A natural-gas fuel processor for a residential fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Lee, S. H. D.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Bendert, J. C.; Kanner, S. A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    A system model was used to develop an autothermal reforming fuel processor to meet the targets of 80% efficiency (higher heating value) and start-up energy consumption of less than 500 kJ when operated as part of a 1-kWe natural-gas fueled fuel cell system for cogeneration of heat and power. The key catalytic reactors of the fuel processor - namely the autothermal reformer, a two-stage water gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor - were configured and tested in a breadboard apparatus. Experimental results demonstrated a reformate containing ∼48% hydrogen (on a dry basis and with pure methane as fuel) and less than 5 ppm CO. The effects of steam-to-carbon and part load operations were explored.

  16. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  17. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  18. Modeling Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    The objective of this doctoral thesis was to develop reliable steady-state and transient component models suitable to asses-, develop- and optimize proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Several components in PEM fuel cell systems were characterized and modeled. The developed component...

  19. Bubble Effect in Heterogeneous Nuclear Fuel Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Xiao-ping; LUO; Huang-da; ZHANG; Wei; ZHU; Qing-fu

    2013-01-01

    Bubble effect means system reactivity changes due to the bubble induced solution volume,neutron leakage and absorption properties,neutron energy spectrum change in the nuclear fuel solution system.In the spent fuel dissolver,during uranium element shearing,the oxygen will be inlet to accelerate the

  20. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  1. Helium Leak Detection of Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, N. G.

    2012-11-01

    Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (BHAVINI) is engaged in construction of 500MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpak am, Chennai. In this very important and prestigious national programme Special Product Division (SPD) of M/s Kay Bouvet Engg.pvt. ltd. (M/s KBEPL) Satara is contributing in a major way by supplying many important sub-assemblies like- Under Water trolley (UWT), Airlocks (PAL, EAL) Container and Storage Rack (CSR) Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) etc for PFBR. SPD of KBEPL caters to the requirements of Government departments like - Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), BARC, Defense, and Government undertakings like NPCIL, BHAVINI, BHEL etc. and other precision Heavy Engg. Industries. SPD is equipped with large size Horizontal Boring Machines, Vertical Boring Machines, Planno milling, Vertical Turret Lathe (VTL) & Radial drilling Machine, different types of welding machines etc. PFBR is 500 MWE sodium cooled pool type reactor in which energy is produced by fissions of mixed oxides of Uranium and Plutonium pellets by fast neutrons and it also breeds uranium by conversion of thorium, put along with fuel rod in the reactor. In the long run, the breeder reactor produces more fuel then it consumes. India has taken the lead to go ahead with Fast Breeder Reactor Programme to produce electricity primarily because India has large reserve of Thorium. To use Thorium as further fuel in future, thorium has to be converted in Uranium by PFBR Technology.

  2. Consideration of Numerical Simulation Parameters and Heat Transfer Models for a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, J.H.; Seo, H.K.; Lim, H.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    A fuel cell stack model based on differential heat balance equations was solved numerically with a computational fluid dynamics code. Theoretical aspects in the simulation of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance model were discussed with regard to numerical accuracy of temperature prediction. The effect of grid setting for gas channel depth was studied to ensure how coarse it can be. A single computational element was sufficient for temperature prediction, while more grid elements are required for calculation of flow field and pressure distribution. The use of constant velocities is not recommended because it cannot account for the change of linear velocity within fuel cells, indicating the momentum equations have to be solved together with the heat balance equations. Thermal radiation has little effect on calculation of temperature field from the model. Gas properties vary within fuel cells, but most of them can be treated constant except for specific heat capacity of anode gas. Convection heat transfer by anode gas can be overestimated when a constant specific heat capacity is used, resulting in prediction of lower temperature curves. (author). 18 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  4. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  5. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  6. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhi; Cheng Zeyuan; Zhu Jianqin; Li Haiwang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux rang-ing from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophys-ical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction per-formance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST) and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  7. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  8. 46 CFR 28.835 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flame screen. (c) Test cocks must not be fitted to fuel oil tanks. (d) Valves for removing water or...) Flexible connections of a short length (no more than 762mm, (30 inches)), suitable metallic or nonmetallic flexible tubing or hose is permitted in the fuel supply line at or near the engine to prevent damage by...

  9. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitab...

  10. Evaluation of a Passive Heat Exchanger Based Cooling System for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell cooling is conventionally performed with an actively controlled, dedicated coolant loop that exchanges heat with a separate external cooling loop. To simplify this system the concept of directly cooling a fuel cell utilizing a coolant loop with a regenerative heat exchanger to preheat the coolant entering the fuel cell with the coolant exiting the fuel cell was analyzed. The preheating is necessary to minimize the temperature difference across the fuel cell stack. This type of coolant system would minimize the controls needed on the coolant loop and provide a mostly passive means of cooling the fuel cell. The results indicate that an operating temperature of near or greater than 70 C is achievable with a heat exchanger effectiveness of around 90 percent. Of the heat exchanger types evaluated with the same type of fluid on the hot and cold side, a counter flow type heat exchanger would be required which has the possibility of achieving the required effectiveness. The number of heat transfer units required by the heat exchanger would be around 9 or greater. Although the analysis indicates the concept is feasible, the heat exchanger design would need to be developed and optimized for a specific fuel cell operation in order to achieve the high effectiveness value required.

  11. Energy transfer in double plate system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy transfer between coupled subsystems in a hybrid system is very important for applications. This paper presents an analytical analysis of energy transfer between plates of a visco-elastically connected double-plate system in free transversal vibrations. The analytical analysis shows that the visco-elastic connection between plates is responsible for the appearance of two-frequency regime in the time function, which corresponds to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, but energy transfer between plates in one eigen mode appears. It was shown for each shape of vibrations. Series of the two Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the one eigen amplitude mode are expressed by using the energy of the corresponding eigen amplitude time component.

  12. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  13. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

  15. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  16. Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors: Fuel Handling Route Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Dechelette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of three SFR fuel handling route fully described and compared to a reference FHR option. In those three FHR, two use a gas corridor to transfer spent and fresh fuel assembly and the third uses two casks with a sodium pot to evacuate and load an assembly in parallel. All of them are designed for the ASTRID reactor (1500 MWth but can be extrapolated to power reactors and are compatible with the mutualisation of one FHS coupled with two reactors. These three concepts are then intercompared and evaluated with the reference FHR according to four criteria: performances, risk assessment, investment cost, and qualification time. This analysis reveals that the “mixed way” FHR presents interesting solutions mainly in terms of design simplicity and time reduction. Therefore its study will be pursued for ASTRID as an alternative option.

  17. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushik Rajashekara

    2005-01-01

    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  18. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  19. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  20. Evaluation of the shielding design of the fuel handling and storage system in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Hisashi [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Matumiya, Hisato [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Fujimoto, Takeshi; Tabayashi, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Deshimaru, Takehide [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Shielding performance tests of the fuel handling and storage system were carried out at Monju in October 1993. The performance of the shielding of the fresh fuel storage rack against neutron and gamma radiation from fresh fuel assemblies, that of the in-vessel fuel transfer machine (IVTM) and the ex-vessel fuel transfer machine (EVTM) against neutron and secondary gamma-rays generated in the shielding or structural materials from the neutron source assembly ({sup 252}Cf), were assessed. Dose rates were measured using rem-counters and solid-state track-detectors (SSTDs) for neutrons and ionization chamber survey-meters and film dosimeters for gamma-rays. This paper presents an outline of the measurement methods, and results, the design requirements and the design margins, which were evaluated by comparing the measurements with the calculations based on FBR shielding analysis methods. (author)

  1. ARC System fuel cycle analysis capability, REBUS-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteny, R.P.

    1978-10-01

    A detailed description is given of the ARC System fuel cycle modules FCI001, FCC001, FCC002, and FCC003 which form the fuel cycle analysis modules of the ARC System. These modules, in conjunction with certain other modules of the ARC System previously described in documents of this series, form the fuel cycle analysis system called REBUS-2. The physical model upon which the REBUS-2 fuel cycle modules are based and the calculational approach used in solving this model are discussed in detail. The REBUS-2 system either solves for the infinite time (i.e., equilibrium) operating conditions of a fuel recycle system under fixed fuel management conditions, or solves for the operating conditions during each of a series of explicitly specified (i.e., nonequilibrium) sequence of burn cycles. The code has the capability to adjust the fuel enrichment, the burn time, and the control poison requirements in order to satisfy user specified constraints on criticality, discharge fuel burnup, or to give the desired multiplication constant at some specified time during the reactor operation.

  2. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, C.R.K.; Rosato, A.D.; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from

  3. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966), Machel (1975-1986), and Chissano (1986-2005) administrations. The…

  4. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-04-03

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions.

  5. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-03-31

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test.

  6. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Douglas [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Tech's comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

  7. Design of gasifiers to optimize fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project is to configure coal gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems that can significantly improve the economics, performance, and efficiency of electric power generation systems. (VC)

  8. Design of gasifiers to optimize fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project is to configure coal gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems that can significantly improve the economics, performance, and efficiency of electric power generation systems. (VC)

  9. Burn-up characteristics of ADS system utilizing the fuel composition from MOX PWRs spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsodi E-mail: marsodi@batan.go.id; Lasman, K.A.S.; Nishihara, K. E-mail: nishi@omega.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Osugi, T.; Tsujimoto, K.; Marsongkohadi; Su' ud, Z. E-mail: szaki@fi.itb.ac.id

    2002-12-01

    Burn-up characteristics of accelerator-driven system, ADS has been evaluated utilizing the fuel composition from MOX PWRs spent fuel. The system consists of a high intensity proton beam accelerator, spallation target, and sub-critical reactor core. The liquid lead-bismuth, Pb-Bi, as spallation target, was put in the center of the core region. The general approach was conducted throughout the nitride fuel that allows the utilities to choose the strategy for destroying or minimizing the most dangerous high level wastes in a fast neutron spectrum. The fuel introduced surrounding the target region was the same with the composition of MOX from 33 GWd/t PWRs spent-fuel with 5 year cooling and has been compared with the fuel composition from 45 and 60 GWd/t PWRs spent-fuel with the same cooling time. The basic characteristics of the system such as burn-up reactivity swing, power density, neutron fluxes distribution, and nuclides densities were obtained from the results of the neutronics and burn-up analyses using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy research Institute, JAERI.

  10. System for operating solid oxide fuel cell generator on diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhu (Inventor); George, Raymond A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system is provided for operating a solid oxide fuel cell generator on diesel fuel. The system includes a hydrodesulfurizer which reduces the sulfur content of commercial and military grade diesel fuel to an acceptable level. Hydrogen which has been previously separated from the process stream is mixed with diesel fuel at low pressure. The diesel/hydrogen mixture is then pressurized and introduced into the hydrodesulfurizer. The hydrodesulfurizer comprises a metal oxide such as ZnO which reacts with hydrogen sulfide in the presence of a metal catalyst to form a metal sulfide and water. After desulfurization, the diesel fuel is reformed and delivered to a hydrogen separator which removes most of the hydrogen from the reformed fuel prior to introduction into a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The separated hydrogen is then selectively delivered to the diesel/hydrogen mixer or to a hydrogen storage unit. The hydrogen storage unit preferably comprises a metal hydride which stores hydrogen in solid form at low pressure. Hydrogen may be discharged from the metal hydride to the diesel/hydrogen mixture at low pressure upon demand, particularly during start-up and shut-down of the system.

  11. Trigger - and heat-transfer times measured during experimental molten-fuel-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Spitznagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified setup featuring high speed high resolution data and video recording was developed to obtain detailed information on trigger and heat transfer times during explosive molten fuel-coolant-interaction (MFCI. MFCI occurs predominantly in configurations where water is entrapped by hot melt. The setup was modified to allow direct observation of the trigger and explosion onset. In addition the influences of experimental control and data acquisition can now be more clearly distinguished from the pure phenomena. More precise experimental studies will facilitate the description of MFCI thermodynamics.

  12. Numerical investigation of a heat transfer within the prismatic fuel assembly of a very high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Nam-il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok Street, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: takni@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Min-Hwan; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok Street, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The complex geometry of the hexagonal fuel blocks of the prismatic fuel assembly in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) hinders accurate evaluations of the temperature profile within the fuel assembly without elaborate numerical calculations. Therefore, simplified models such as a unit cell model have been widely applied for the analyses and designs of prismatic VHTRs since they have been considered as effective approaches reducing the computational efforts. In a prismatic VHTR, however, the simplified models cannot consider a heat transfer within a fuel assembly as well as a coolant flow through a bypass gap between the fuel assemblies, which may significantly affect the maximum fuel temperature. In this paper, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out on a typical fuel assembly of a prismatic VHTR. Thermal behaviours and heat transfer within the fuel assembly are intensively investigated using the CFD solutions. In addition, the accuracy of the unit cell approach is assessed against the CFD solutions. Two example situations are illustrated to demonstrate the deficiency of the unit cell model caused by neglecting the effects of the bypass gap flow and the radial power distribution within the fuel assembly.

  13. Effects of Fuel Type and Fuel Delivery System on Pollutant Emissions of Pride and Samand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Sarhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of the type of fuel delivery system (petrol, dedicated or bifuel, the type of consumed fuel (petrol or gas, the portion of consumed fuel and also the duration of dual-fuelling in producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons from Pride and Samand. According to research objectives, data gathering from 2000 vehicles has been done by visiting Hafiz Vehicle Inspection Center every day for 2 months. The results of this survey indicated that although there is no significant difference between various fuel delivery systems in terms of producing the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons by Samand, considering the emission amount of carbon dioxide, the engine performance of Pride in bifuel and dedicated state in GTXI and 132 types is more unsatisfactory than that of petrol state by 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. On the other hand, consuming natural gas increases the amount of carbon monoxide emission in dual- fuel Pride by 0.18% and decreases that in dual-fuel Samand by 1.2%, which signifies the better design of Samand in terms of fuel pumps, used kit type and other engine parts to use this alternative fuel compared to Pride. Since the portion of consumed fuel and also duration of dual-fuelling does not have a significant effect on the amount of output pollutants from the studied vehicles, it can be claimed that the output substances from the vehicle exhaust are more related to the vehicle’s condition than the fuel type.

  14. Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow.

  15. Microbial contamination control in fuels and fuel systems since 1980 - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passman, Frederick J. [Biodeterioration Control Associates, Inc (United States)], email: fredp@biodeterioration-control.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a review of microbial contamination control in fuel and fuel systems. Some examples of the biodeterioration of components of fuel systems are given. Root cause analysis (RCA) and modeling can help in condition monitoring of fuel systems. RCA is a systematic process that starts after symptoms become apparent and facilitates improvement. Modeling, by contrast, starts before the problem occurs and the objective is to improve understanding of the process. Some of the different areas creating risk due to the process are climate, microbiology, chemistry, maintenance, and engineering. Condition monitoring is explained in detail, using representative samples. Contamination control plays a very important role. Various aspects of microbial contamination control are design, inventory control, house keeping and remediation. These aspects are explained in detail, using various examples. Since the deterioration cost involved is very high, its is important to avoid this problem by reducing the quantity of water used and using better risk assessment models.

  16. Development of a charge-transfer distribution model for stack simulation of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, H.; Iwai, H.; Kishimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Yoshida, H.; Brus, G.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    An overpotential model for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is developed and applied to a stack numerical simulation. Charge-transfer distribution within the electrodes are approximated using an exponential function, based on which the Ohmic loss and activation overpotential are evaluated. The predicted current-voltage characteristics agree well with the experimental results, and also the overpotentials within the cell can reproduce the results obtained from a numerical analysis where the distribution of the charge-transfer current within the electrodes is fully solved. The proposed model is expected to be useful to maintain the accuracy of SOFC simulations when the cell components, consisting of anode, electrolyte and cathode, are simplified into one layer element.

  17. Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles enhanced extracellular electron transfer for high-performance microbial fuel cells anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun Xian; Yong, Yang-Chun; Li, Chang Ming; Song, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles (NDCN) were applied to modify the carbon cloth anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens. Experimental results demonstrated that the use of NDCN increased anodic absorption of flavins (i.e., the soluble electron mediator secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1), facilitating shuttle-mediated extracellular electron transfer. In addition, we also found that NDCN enabled enhanced contact-based direct electron transfer via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes. Taken together, the performance of MFCs with the NDCN-modified anode was enormously enhanced, delivering a maximum power density 3.5 times' higher than that of the MFCs without the modification of carbon cloth anodes.

  18. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  19. Basic data for integrated assessment of nuclear fuel cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Tamaki, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ito, Chihiro; Saegusa, Toshiari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    In our country, where natural energy resources such as oil and coal are scarce, it is vital to establish a nuclear fuel cycle to reprocess spent fuel and reuse valuable nuclear fuel in electric power generation reactors. However spent fuel is now being accumulated too much so that, for the time being, it is necessary to establish a system for tentatively storing spent fuel. In this report, in order to deal with these issues, evaluation methods, which were developed, prepared and discussed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are rendered together with sample results of their application. Also reported is some important information on the data and methods for the safety assessment of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, which have been surveyed by JAERI and CRIEPI. (author)

  20. Progress on coal-derived fuels for aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic aviation kerosene (Syn. Jet-A), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid hydrogen (LH2) appear to be the most promising coal-derived fuels. Liquid hydrogen aircraft configurations, their fuel systems, and their ground requirements at the airport are identified. These aircraft appear viable, particularly for long haul use, where aircraft fueled with coal derived LH2 would consume 9 percent less coal resources than would aircraft fueled with coal derived Syn. Jet-A. Distribution of hydrogen from the point of manufacture to airports may pose problems. Synthetic JET-A would appear to cause fewer concerns to the air transportation industry. Of the three candidate fuels, LCH4 is the most energy efficient to produce, and an aircraft fueled with coal derived LCH4 may provide both the most efficient utilization of coal resources and the least expensive ticket as well.

  1. Design package test weights for fuel retrieval system (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-10-26

    This is a design package that documents the development of test weights used in the Spent Nuclear Fuels subproject Fuel Retrieval System. The K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project consists of the safe retrieval, preparation, and repackaging of the spent fuel stored at the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins for interim safe storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) scrap baskets and fuel baskets will be loaded and weighed under water. The equipment used to weigh the loaded fuel baskets requires daily calibration checks, using test weights traceable to National Institute of Standards Testing (NIST) standards. The test weights have been designated as OCRWM related in accordance with HNF-SD-SNF-RF'T-007 (McCormack).

  2. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Interim report, August 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the progress in the Georgetown University research, development and demonstration project of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. The topics addressed in the report include vehicle design and application analysis, technology transfer activities, coordination and monitoring of system design and integration contractor, application of fuel cells to other vehicles, current problems, work planned, and manpower, cost and schedule reports.

  3. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Bae [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea)

    2010-10-01

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system. (author)

  4. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Bae

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system.

  5. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  6. Fuel switching in Harare : An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  7. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  8. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...

  9. Fuel switching in Harare : An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey c

  10. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey c

  11. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...

  12. Analysis of Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-11-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) has been evaluated for the five nuclear fuel cycle systems, potentially deployable in Korea in the future, using the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes suggested in the TOPS report. Unidimensional Utility Theory (UUT) was used in the calculation of utility value for each of the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes, and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a decision tool with multiple objectives, was used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of each nuclear fuel cycle system. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Elicitation (EE) were utilized in the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes. Among the five nuclear fuel cycle systems evaluated, the once-through fuel cycle system showed the highest level of proliferation resistance, and Pyroprocessing-SFR fuel cycle system showed the similar level of proliferation resistance with the DUPIC fuel cycle system, which has two time higher level of proliferation resistance compared to that of the thermal MOX fuel cycle system. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to make up for the uncertainty associated with the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes.

  13. Mass and charge transfer on various relevant scales in polymer electrolyte fuel cells[Dissertation 16991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freunberger, S. A.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the development, experimental diagnostics and mathematical modelling and simulation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The central themes throughout this thesis are the closely interlinked phenomena of mass and charge transfer. In the face of developing a PEFC system for vehicle propulsion these phenomena are scrutinized on a broad range of relevant scales. Starting from the material related level of the membrane and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) we turn to length scales, where structural features of the cell additionally come into play. These are the scale of flow channels and ribs, the single cell and the cell stack followed by the cell, stack, and system development for an automotive power train. In Chapter 3 selected fundamental material models and properties, respectively, are explored that are crucial for the mathematical modelling and simulation of PEFC, as needed in some succeeding parts of this work. First, established mathematical models for mass and charge transfer in the membrane are compared within the framework of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which represents the electrochemical unit. Second, reliable values for effective diffusivities in the GDLs which are vital for the simulation of gaseous mass transport are measured. Therefore, a method is developed that allows measuring this quantity both as a function of compression and direction as this is a prerequisite of sophisticated more-dimensional numerical PEFC-models. Besides the cross section of the catalyst layer (CL) mass transfer under channels and ribs is considered as a major source of losses in particular under high load operation. As up to now there have been solely non-validated theoretical investigations, in Chapter 4 an experimental method is developed that is for the first time capable of resolving the current density distribution on the this scale. For this, the electron conductors in the cell are considered as 2-dimensional shunt

  14. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  15. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  16. Development of machine vision system for PHWR fuel pellet inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalesh Kumar, B.; Reddy, K.S.; Lakshminarayana, A.; Sastry, V.S.; Ramana Rao, A.V. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Joshi, M.; Deshpande, P.; Navathe, C.P.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex, a constituent of Department of Atomic Energy; India is responsible for manufacturing nuclear fuel in India . Over a million Uranium-di-oxide pellets fabricated per annum need visual inspection . In order to overcome the limitations of human based visual inspection, NFC has undertaken the development of machine vision system. The development involved designing various subsystems viz. mechanical and control subsystem for handling and rotation of fuel pellets, lighting subsystem for illumination, image acquisition system, and image processing system and integration. This paper brings out details of various subsystems and results obtained from the trials conducted. (author)

  17. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.; Prokopius, P. R.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are important. The barrier to the attainment of these goals has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants are their technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  19. 40 CFR 80.536 - How are NRLM diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.536 How... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are NRLM diesel fuel credits...

  20. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  1. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  2. Coupled thermochemical, isotopic evolution and heat transfer simulations in highly irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, M. H. A.; Banfield, J.; Clarno, K. T.; Simunovic, S.; Besmann, T. M.; Lewis, B. J.; Thompson, W. T.

    2013-10-01

    Predictive capabilities for simulating irradiated nuclear fuel behavior are enhanced in the current work by coupling thermochemistry, isotopic evolution and heat transfer. Thermodynamic models that are incorporated into this framework not only predict the departure from stoichiometry of UO2, but also consider dissolved fission and activation products in the fluorite oxide phase, noble metal inclusions, secondary oxides including uranates, zirconates, molybdates and the gas phase. Thermochemical computations utilize the spatial and temporal evolution of the fission and activation product inventory in the pellet, which is typically neglected in nuclear fuel performance simulations. Isotopic computations encompass the depletion, decay and transmutation of more than 2000 isotopes that are calculated at every point in space and time. These computations take into consideration neutron flux depression and the increased production of fissile plutonium near the fuel pellet periphery (i.e., the so-called “rim effect”). Thermochemical and isotopic predictions are in very good agreement with reported experimental measurements of highly irradiated UO2 fuel with an average burnup of 102 GW d t(U)-1. Simulation results demonstrate that predictions are considerably enhanced when coupling thermochemical and isotopic computations in comparison to empirical correlations. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  3. Mathematical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Heterogenous Forest Fuel Layer Influenced by Heated Up to High Temperatures Steel Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of forest fuel layer renders the important influence on forest fire occurrence processes. One of sources of the raised temperature on forested territories is metal particles heated up to high temperatures. Such particles can be formed as a result of welding of metals on forested territories. The present paper represents the heat transfer research in forest fuel at the influence of metal particle heated up to high temperatures. The heterogonous forest fuel layer with inclusions of small wooden branches and chips is considered. Such object research is urgent especially at fire forecasting on forest cutting. The technology of mathematical simulation is used. The two-dimensional problem of heat transfer in forest fuel layer structure with wood inclusions is solved.

  4. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  5. MASS TRANSFER LIMITATION IN DIFFERENT ANODE ELECTRODE SURFACE AREAS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DUAL CHAMBER MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeqzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different electrode surface areas on the performance of dual chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC was investigated. Four different electrodes with 12, 16, 20 and 24 cm2 surface areas were tested in an MFC system. The 20 cm2 electrode generated an output power of 76.5 mW/m2 was found to be the highest among all the electrodes tested. This might be due to better interactions with microorganism and less mass transfer limitation. In addition, this indicates that the chances for attachment of bacteria and generation of electricity in larger electrode surface areas might be limited by mass transport and by higher surface area. The output power generation was then followed by the 16, 12 and 24 cm2 electrodes which generated 69.6, 64.7 and 61.25 mW/m2 electricity, respectively.

  6. Control of Fuel Cell Power System

    OpenAIRE

    KOCALMIŞ BİLHAN, Ayşe; Wang, Caisheng

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, it is gettingattention for renewable energy sources such as Fuel Cell (FC), batteries,ultracapacitors or photovoltaic panels (PV) for distributed power generationsystems (DG) or electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a DC/DC converter andDC/AC inverter scheme to combine the Fuel Cell Stack (FC). The power systemconsist of a FC stack, a DC/DC converter, inverter and load. A FC mostly couldnot produce necessary output voltage, the DC/DC boost converter is used forobtaining th...

  7. Fuel-cell-system and its components for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Massimo [NuCellSys GmbH, Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In the past years the development of fuel cell systems for mobile applications has made significant progress in power density, performance and robustness. For a successful market introduction the cost of the fuel system powertrain needs to be competitive to diesel hybrid engine. The current development activities are therefore focusing on cost reduction. There are 3 major areas for cost reduction: functional integration, materials and design, supplier competitiveness and volume. Today unique fuel cell system components are developed by single suppliers, which lead to a monopoly. In the future the components will be developed at multiple suppliers to achieve a competitor situation, which will further reduce the component cost. Using all these cost reduction measures the fuel cell system will become a competitive alternative drive train. (orig.)

  8. High Efficiency Direct Methane Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a defined need for energy dense and highly efficient energy storage and power delivery systems for future space missions. Compared to other fuel cell...

  9. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  10. Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2011-03-15

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

  11. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells.

  12. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  13. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  14. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  15. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  16. Orbital transfers in an asteroid system considering the solar radiation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Geraldo Magela Couto; Bertachini de A. Prado, Antonio F.; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo; Gomes, Vivian Martins

    2017-10-01

    The present paper studies the effects of the radiation pressure in the trajectories of a spacecraft in transfers between the collinear Lagrange points of a double asteroid system. The system considered is this paper is formed by the double asteroid 1996FG3 and the maneuvers are always assumed to be bi-impulsive. In a system formed by asteroids, the solar radiation pressure has a significant influence in the transfers paths. This occurs because the gravitational forces in these systems are smaller if compared with systems formed by larger bodies. Solutions with lower and higher fuel consumption can be found by adding the solar radiation pressure. The radiation pressure was not used as a control but its effects over the transfers were measured. For a small system of primaries such as an asteroid system, it is very important to take into account this force to make sure that the spacecraft will reach the desired point.

  17. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  18. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    the laminar heat transfer correlation of Sieder and Tate @24# Nu51.86S Re Pr DL D 1/3S mm intD 0.14 (13) If desired, an alternative and more accurate...Convection on Viscous-Flow Heat Transfer in Horizontal Tubes,’’ Chem. Eng. Sci., 17, pp. 335–350.238 Õ Vol. 122, DECEMBER 2000 12@24# Sieder , E. N., and

  19. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at

  20. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cossa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966, Machel (1975-1986, and Chissano (1986-2005 administrations. The findings were that (a the colonial government created economic and educational systems for colonizing Mozambique, whereas the Machel and Chissano administrations adapted foreign systems of government and education (i.e., Socialism, Soviet, Democracy, Portuguese, etc., to their particular context without altering the inherent theoretical basis of the systems transferred; (b the Machel and Chissano administrations, implicitly or explicitly, perceived the relationship between education and development as circular causality rather than a unidirectional linear causality, while the Salazar administration perceived it as unidirectional linear causality; and (c while the Machel and Chissano administrations focused on primary education, literacy campaigns, and education of women and girls, they differed in the reasons for such focus.

  1. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  2. Interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens enhanced by nanoflaky nickel oxide array in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-11-01

    A uniform nanoflaky nickel oxide (NiO) array is constructed on carbon cloth via optimized conditions, and further employed as an anode in Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results indicate that the NiO nanoflakes/carbon cloth anode significantly improves the MFC performance in comparison to the unmodified carbon cloth, delivering about three times higher power density. This attributes to an enhanced interfacial electron transfer rate between bacteria cell and nanoflaky NiO array-modified carbon fiber and improved adhesion of bacteria cells on the modified carbon fiber for more active reaction centers. Considering the facile synthesis process, low cost and long discharging lifetime, this NiO/carbon cloth anode could be very promising to be applied for high performance, large scale MFCs.

  3. A one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell based on direct electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuee; Zhao, Feng; Varcoe, John R; Thumser, Alfred E; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio; Slade, Robert C T

    2009-10-15

    The construction and characterization of a one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell (BFC) based on direct electron transfer is reported. The BFC employs bilirubin oxidase and d-fructose dehydrogenase adsorbed on a cellulose-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) matrix, reconstituted with an ionic liquid, as the biocathode and the bioanode for oxygen reduction and fructose oxidation reactions, respectively. The performance of the bioelectrode was investigated by chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric techniques in a standard three-electrode cell, and the polarization and long-term stability of the BFC was tested by potentiostatic discharge. An open circuit voltage of 663 mV and a maximum power density of 126 microWcm(-2) were obtained in buffer at pH 5.0. Using this regenerated cellulose-MWCNT matrix as the immobilization platform, this BFC has shown a relatively high performance and long-term stability compared with previous studies.

  4. Mass and charge transfer on various relevant scales in polymer electrolyte fuel cells[Dissertation 16991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freunberger, S. A.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the development, experimental diagnostics and mathematical modelling and simulation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The central themes throughout this thesis are the closely interlinked phenomena of mass and charge transfer. In the face of developing a PEFC system for vehicle propulsion these phenomena are scrutinized on a broad range of relevant scales. Starting from the material related level of the membrane and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) we turn to length scales, where structural features of the cell additionally come into play. These are the scale of flow channels and ribs, the single cell and the cell stack followed by the cell, stack, and system development for an automotive power train. In Chapter 3 selected fundamental material models and properties, respectively, are explored that are crucial for the mathematical modelling and simulation of PEFC, as needed in some succeeding parts of this work. First, established mathematical models for mass and charge transfer in the membrane are compared within the framework of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which represents the electrochemical unit. Second, reliable values for effective diffusivities in the GDLs which are vital for the simulation of gaseous mass transport are measured. Therefore, a method is developed that allows measuring this quantity both as a function of compression and direction as this is a prerequisite of sophisticated more-dimensional numerical PEFC-models. Besides the cross section of the catalyst layer (CL) mass transfer under channels and ribs is considered as a major source of losses in particular under high load operation. As up to now there have been solely non-validated theoretical investigations, in Chapter 4 an experimental method is developed that is for the first time capable of resolving the current density distribution on the this scale. For this, the electron conductors in the cell are considered as 2-dimensional shunt

  5. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  6. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  7. Minimum Fuel Low-Thrust Transfers for Satellites Using a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Carneiro Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the satellite missions require orbital maneuvers to accomplish its goals. An orbital maneuver is an operation where the orbit of a satellite is changed, usually applying a type of propulsion. The maneuvers may have several purposes, such as the transfer of a satellite to its final orbit, the interception of another spacecraft, or the adjustment of the orbit to compensate the shifts caused by external forces. In this situation it is essential to minimize the fuel consumption to allow a greater number of maneuvers to be performed, and thus the lifetime of the satellite can be extended. There are several papers and studies which aim at the fuel minimization in maneuvers performed by space vehicles. In this context, this paper has two goals: (i to develop an algorithm capable of finding optimal trajectories with continuous thrust that can fit different types of missions and constraints at the same time and (ii to study the performance of two propulsion devices for orbital maneuvers under development at the Universidade de Brasilia, including a study of the effects of the errors in magnitude of these new devices.

  8. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  9. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  10. Fuel Lubricity Impact on Shipboard Engine and Fuel Systems and Sensitivity of U.S. Navy Diesel Engines to Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ABSTRACT This project attempted to determine the kerosene and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel lubricity requirements of Delphi DPA rotary fuel injection...pumps and Detroit Diesel unit injectors . A test stand was configured to operate a rotary fuel injection pump and a stand configured to operated four...unit injectors simultaneously, with data acquisition and control systems for logging data. Results suggest that synthetic kerosene fuel adversely

  11. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  12. Fuel-cell powered uninterruptible power supply systems: Design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojin; Howze, Jo. W.; Enjeti, Prasad

    A 1-kVA fuel cell powered, line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system that employs modular (fuel cell and power converter) blocks is introduced. Two commercially available proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (25-39 V, 500 W) modules together with suitable dc-dc and dc-ac power electronic converter modules are employed. A supercapacitor module is also used to compensate for the instantaneous power fluctuations and to overcome the slow dynamics of the fuel processor (reformers). Further energy stored in the supercapacitor is also utilized to handle a momentary overload such as 200% for a short duration. Due to the absence of batteries, the system satisfies the demand for an environmentally clean source of energy. A complete design that defines the amount of hydrogen storage required for a power outage of 1 h, and the sizing of the supercapacitors for transient load demand is presented for a 1-kVA UPS.

  13. STAT, GAPS, STRAIN, DRWDIM: a system of computer codes for analyzing HTGR fuel test element metrology data. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.

    1977-08-01

    A system of computer codes has been developed to statistically reduce Peach Bottom fuel test element metrology data and to compare the material strains and fuel rod-fuel hole gaps computed from these data with HTGR design code predictions. The codes included in this system are STAT, STRAIN, GAPS, and DRWDIM. STAT statistically evaluates test element metrology data yielding fuel rod, fuel body, and sleeve irradiation-induced strains; fuel rod anisotropy; and additional data characterizing each analyzed fuel element. STRAIN compares test element fuel rod and fuel body irradiation-induced strains computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. GAPS compares test element fuel rod, fuel hole heat transfer gaps computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. DRWDIM plots the measured and predicted gaps and strains. Although specifically developed to expedite the analysis of Peach Bottom fuel test elements, this system can be applied, without extensive modification, to the analysis of Fort St. Vrain or other HTGR-type fuel test elements.

  14. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    of the Micro Combined Heat and Power plant (mCHP) will be identified including fuel and air supply, fuel management anode re-circulation, exhaust gas heat management, power conditioning and control system. Using mass and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming...

  15. Macrokinetic calculation of the ignition of a solid-fuel charge of glycidyl azide polymer in the mini-engine of a microelectromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fut'ko, S. I.; Ermolaeva, E. M.; Dobrego, K. V.; Bondarenko, V. P.; Dolgii, L. N.

    2011-11-01

    The process of ignition of the solid fuel from glycidyl azide polymer in the mini-engine of a microelectromechanical system has been considered. Macrokinetic calculations of the self-ignition temperature of the fuel and the induction period for different heat transfer conditions have been made. On the basis of the critical thermal flux determination, recommendations on the choice of the minimum power and size of the thermistor in the igniter of the solid-fuel mini-engine have been formulated.

  16. Wireless Power Transfer system : Development and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) System and implement it in innovative flooring. The project was done at NextFloor Oy, a company based in Helsinki, Finland. At the moment, Wireless Power Transmission is in the forefront of electronics research, which is why this study started as an initial attempt to investigate WPT in order to keep up with the fast growing industry. The main steps of the project were to study the physics behind wireless electricity t...

  17. Minimum fuel coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer using collocation and nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun Yuan; Young, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) without plane change. The basic approach here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the coplanar aeroassisted HEO to LEO orbit transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into a elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and drag modulation to satisfy heating constraints and to exit the atmosphere with the desired flight path angle and velocity so that the apogee of the exit orbit is the altitude of the desired LEO. Finally, the second impulse is required to circularize the orbit at LEO. The performance index is maximum final mass. Simulation results show that the coplanar aerocapture is quite different from the case where orbital plane changes are made inside the atmosphere. In the latter case, the vehicle has to penetrate deeper into the atmosphere to perform the desired orbital plane change. For the coplanar case, the vehicle needs only to penetrate the atmosphere deep enough to reduce the exit velocity so the vehicle can be captured at the desired LEO. The peak heating rates are lower and the entry corridor is wider. From the thermal protection point of view, the coplanar transfer may be desirable. Parametric studies also show the maximum peak heating rates and the entry corridor width are functions of maximum lift coefficient. The problem is solved using a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the states and controls and collocation to represent the differential equations. This converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem

  18. Elimination of Fuel Pressure Fluctuation and Multi-injection Fuel Mass Deviation of High Pressure Common-rail Fuel Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pimao; ZHANG Youtong; LI Tieshuan; XIE Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73%at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92%at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  19. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  1. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gidden, Matthew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Carlsen, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mouginot, Baptiste [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Flanagan, Robert [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-06-13

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  2. Integral reactor system and method for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Neil Edward; Brown, Michael S.; Cheekatamaria, Praveen; Deng, Thomas; Dimitrakopoulos, James; Litka, Anthony F.

    2017-03-07

    A reactor system is integrated internally within an anode-side cavity of a fuel cell. The reactor system is configured to convert higher hydrocarbons to smaller species while mitigating the lower production of solid carbon. The reactor system may incorporate one or more of a pre-reforming section, an anode exhaust gas recirculation device, and a reforming section.

  3. Integral reactor system and method for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Neil Edward; Brown, Michael S; Cheekatamarla, Praveen; Deng, Thomas; Dimitrakopoulos, James; Litka, Anthony F

    2013-11-19

    A reactor system is integrated internally within an anode-side cavity of a fuel cell. The reactor system is configured to convert hydrocarbons to smaller species while mitigating the lower production of solid carbon. The reactor system may incorporate one or more of a pre-reforming section, an anode exhaust gas recirculation device, and a reforming section.

  4. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  5. Modeling mass transfer in solid oxide fuel cell anode: II. H2/CO co-oxidation and surface diffusion in synthesis-gas operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-08-01

    Following the previous work on comparing performance of Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and dusty-gas model for mass transfer in single fuel system, this article is focused on the electrochemistry and transport in the anode of solid oxide fuel cell using H2sbnd H2Osbnd COsbnd CO2sbnd N2 hybrid fuel. Under the standard framework of the dusty-gas model combined with the Butler-Volmer equation, it carries out a macroscopic area-specific modeling work. More specifically, two variables of hydrogen current fraction and enhancement factor are well defined and solved for the electrochemical co-oxidation of H2 and CO, and the diffusion equivalent circuit model is introduced to describe more comprehensively the resistance of mass transfer including molecular/Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion. The model has been validated well in full region of Vsbnd I performance of an experimental anode-supported button cell. An approximate analytical solution of the hydrogen current fraction is also presented for explicit computation. Comparison between the results by different approaches for the effective diffusivity shows the importance of right mass-transfer modeling.

  6. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  7. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  8. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  9. High temperature polymer fuel cells and their Interplay with fuel processing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports recent results from our group on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all....... The high working temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  12. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  13. Surface chemistry effects in finite element modeling of heat transfer in (micron)-fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, M

    2000-12-07

    Equations for modeling surface chemical kinetics by the interaction of gaseous and surface species are presented. The formulation is embedded in a finite element heat transfer code and an ordinary differential equation package is used to solve the surface system of chemical kinetic equations for each iteration within the heat transfer solver. The method is applied to a flow which includes methane and methanol in a microreactor on a chip. A simpler more conventional method, a plug flow reactor model, is then applied to a similar problem. Initial results for steam reforming of methanol are given.

  14. Impact of physical properties of mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on hydrodynamic characteristics of fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative fuels, originating from renewable sources, is biodiesel fuel, which is introduced in diesel engines without major construction modifications on the engine. Biodiesel fuel, by its physical and chemical properties, is different from diesel fuel. Therefore, it is expected that by the application of a biodiesel fuel, the characteristic parameters of the injection system will change. These parameters have a direct impact on the process of fuel dispersion into the engine cylinder, and mixing with the air, which results in an impact on the quality of the combustion process. Method of preparation of the air-fuel mixture and the quality of the combustion process directly affect the efficiency of the engine and the level of pollutant emissions in the exhaust gas, which today is the most important criterion for assessing the quality of the engine. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of physical properties of a mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on the output characteristics of the fuel injection system. The following parameters are shown: injection pressure, injection rate, the beginning and duration of injection, transformation of potential into kinetic energy of fuel and increase of energy losses in fuel injection system of various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. For the analysis of the results a self-developed computer program was used to simulate the injection process in the system. Computational results are verified using the experiment, for a few mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. This paper presents the verification results for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel in particular.

  15. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2005-01-24

    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  16. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  17. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), shall be delivered from the system into the gas supply connection. (b) LP-gas containers—(1) Maximum... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel supply systems. 3280.704 Section 3280.704 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    in individual households are not suitable for renewable en‐ ergy systems. This is due to the high losses associated with the conversion to hydrogen and the lower regulation abilities of such systems. In a short‐term perspective, natural gas mi‐ cro‐fuel cell CHP may spread the CHP production more than locally...

  20. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  1. Design of spent-fuel concrete pit dry storage and handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, H.; Natsume, T.; Maruoka, K.; Yokoyama, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    An advanced dry storage system design with highly improved storage efficiency of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. The new concept 'Concrete Pit Dry Storage System' realizes a safe and economical solution to an increasing demand of storing spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) generated from commercial nuclear power reactors. The system is basically composed of a large mass concrete module which has densely arranged pit boreholes, sealed canisters containing spent fuel assemblies and a canister handling system. The system is characterized by the following advantages compared with the existing concrete module type storage systems: higher storage efficiency can be achieved by the storage module filled with concrete which also gives a high shielding performance; simple handling technology is used for transfer and installation of the canisters at the storage facility as well as the transport cask of the canisters, surface contamination of the canister is prevented; lower radiation around the storage area is provided to reduce radiation exposure during handling and storage; high structural integrity of the facility is maintained by the concrete module with a simple construction ; the ventilation gallery introducing cooling air air to the bit borehole has an enough draft height to improve cooling performance of the system; a result of the design concept, the storage system can store higher burn-up SFAs with a short cooling period. (authors)

  2. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  3. Numerical heat transfer analysis of transcritical hydrocarbon fuel flow in a tube partially filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon fuel has been widely used in air-breathing scramjets and liquid rocket engines as coolant and propellant. However, possible heat transfer deterioration and threats from local high heat flux area in scramjet make heat transfer enhancement essential. In this work, 2-D steady numerical simulation was carried out to study different schemes of heat transfer enhancement based on a partially filled porous media in a tube. Both boundary and central layouts were analyzed and effects of gradient porous media were also compared. The results show that heat transfer in the transcritical area is enhanced at least 3 times with the current configuration compared to the clear tube. Besides, the proper use of gradient porous media also enhances the heat transfer compared to homogenous porous media, which could help to avoid possible over-temperature in the thermal protection.

  4. Integration of criticality alarm system at a fuel manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinov, M.; Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element CANFLEX bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. As the primary fuel supplier to the reactor site that has chosen to utilize this new fuel design, Zircatec has agreed to manufacture and supply this new fuel at their facility in Port Hope, Ontario. Under this agreement, Zircatec is challenged with converting a fuel manufacturing facility to include the processing of enriched uranium. The challenge is to introduce the new concept of criticality control to a facility that traditionally does not have to deal with such a concept. One of the elements of the implementation is the criticality detection and alarm system - CIDAS. Since a criticality could go undetected by human senses, one of the methods of ensuring safety from radiation exposure in the event of a criticality is the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. This early warning device could be the difference between low dose exposure and lethal exposure. This paper describes the challenges that Zircatec has faced with the installation of a criticality incident detection and alarm system. These challenges include determining the needs and requirements, determining appropriate specifications, selecting the right equipment, installing the equipment and training personnel in the operation of the new equipment. (author)

  5. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  6. Modeling and simulation of coupled nuclear heat energy deposition and transfer in the fuel assembly of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameyaw, Felix, E-mail: fafeknoc@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Sciences, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); Ayensu, Akwasi; Akaho, E.H.K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Sciences, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model heat energy distribution without exceeding thermal limits Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We ascertain the hottest fuel rod is within design limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Axial fuel rod heat energy increases until maximum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radial energy profile suggest the hottest region in the core. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model convective heat transfer processes of the core. - Abstract: Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code coupled with PLTEMP/ANL code were used to model and simulate the heat transfer problems in the fuel elements assembly of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) by solving Boltzmann transport approximation to the heat conduction equation. Coupled neutron radiation-thermal codes were used to determine the spatial variations of thermal energy in the fuel channels, the heat energy distribution in the radial and axial segments of the fuel assembly and the convective heat transfer processes in the entire core of the reactor. The thermal energy at maximum reactivity load of 4 mk, reactor power of 30 kW and inlet system pressure of 101.3 kPa were found to be 8.896 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} J for a single fuel pin, and 1.104 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} J and 7.376 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} J, for the radial and axial sectioning of the core respectively. Using the PLTEMP/ANL V4.0 code and given that the inlet coolant temperature was 30 Degree-Sign C, the maximum outlet coolant temperature was 51 Degree-Sign C. The energy values were obtained using the following thermodynamic parameters as maximum pressure drop of 0.7 MPa and mass flow rate of 0.4 kg/s. Neutronics point kinetics model and Safety Analysis Report used to validate the results confirmed that the heat distribution in the core did not exceed 100 Degree-Sign C. The heat energy profiles based on the data suggested no nucleate boiling at the simulated energies, and since the melting point of U-Al alloy fuel

  7. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  8. Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

    The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

  9. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YongDeok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241 was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with ~2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber, the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  10. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  11. System design description for sampling fuel in K basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-17

    This System Design Description provides: (1) statements of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project`s needs for sampling of fuel in the K East and K West Basins, (2) the sampling equipment functions and requirements, (3) a general work plan and the design logic followed to develop the equipment, and (4) a summary description of the design for the sampling equipment. This report summarizes the integrated application of both the subject equipment and the canister sludge sampling system in the characterization campaigns at K Basins.

  12. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Haibin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  13. A Multi-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model of a Tie-Tube and Hexagonal Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.

  14. Distributed generation system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buasri, Panhathai

    This dissertation investigates the performance and the operation of a distributed generation (DG) power system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell (W/PV/FC). The power system consists of a 2500 W photovoltaic array subsystem, a 500 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack subsystem, 300 W wind turbine, 500 W wind turbine, and 1500 W wind energy conversion subsystems. To extract maximum power from the PV, a maximum power point tracker was designed and fabricated. A 4 kW single phase inverter was used to convert the DC voltage to AC voltage; also a 44 kWh battery bank was used to store energy and prevent fluctuation of the power output of the DG system. To connect the fuel cell to the batteries, a DC/DC controller was designed and fabricated. To monitor and study the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, a data acquisition system was designed and installed. The fuel cell subsystem performance was evaluated under standalone operation using a variable resistance and under interactive mode, connected to the batteries. The manufacturing data and the experimental data were used to develop an electrical circuit model to the fuel cell. Furthermore, harmonic analysis of the DG system was investigated. For an inverter, the AC voltage delivered to the grid changed depending on the time, load, and electronic equipment that was connected. The quality of the DG system was evaluated by investigating the harmonics generated by the power electronics converters. Finally, each individual subsystem of the DG system was modeled using the neuro-fuzzy approach. The model was used to predict the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, such as passing clouds and wind gust conditions. The steady-state behaviors of the model were validated by the experimental results under different operating conditions.

  15. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.

  16. Analysis of features of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in the fuel assembly of prospective sodium reactor with a high rate of reproduction in the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubina, A. S.; Subbotin, A. S.; Sedov, A. A.; Frolov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The fast sodium reactor fuel assembly (FA) with U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel is described. In comparison with a "classical" fast reactor, this FA contains thin fuel rods and a wider fuel rod grid. Studies of the fluid dynamics and the heat transfer were carried out for such a new FA design. The verification of the ANSYS CFX code was provided for determination of the velocity, pressure, and temperature fields in the different channels. The calculations in the cells and in the FA were carried out using the model of shear stress transport (SST) selected at the stage of verification. The results of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer calculations have been analyzed.

  17. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  18. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  19. Aviation Fuel System Reliability and Fail-Safety Analysis. Promising Alternative Ways for Improving the Fuel System Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design requirements for an aviation fuel system (AFS, AFS basic design requirements, reliability, and design precautions to avoid AFS failure. Compares the reliability and fail-safety of AFS and aircraft hydraulic system (AHS, considers the promising alternative ways to raise reliability of fuel systems, as well as elaborates recommendations to improve reliability of the pipeline system components and pipeline systems, in general, based on the selection of design solutions.It is extremely advisable to design the AFS and AHS in accordance with Aviation Regulations АП25 and Accident Prevention Guidelines, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Association, which will reduce risk of emergency situations, and in some cases even avoid heavy disasters.ATS and AHS designs should be based on the uniform principles to ensure the highest reliability and safety. However, currently, this principle is not enough kept, and AFS looses in reliability and fail-safety as compared with AHS. When there are the examined failures (single and their combinations the guidelines to ensure the AFS efficiency should be the same as those of norm-adopted in the Regulations АП25 for AHS. This will significantly increase reliability and fail-safety of the fuel systems and aircraft flights, in general, despite a slight increase in AFS mass.The proposed improvements through the use of components redundancy of the fuel system will greatly raise reliability of the fuel system of a passenger aircraft, which will, without serious consequences for the flight, withstand up to 2 failures, its reliability and fail-safety design will be similar to those of the AHS, however, above improvement measures will lead to a slightly increasing total mass of the fuel system.It is advisable to set a second pump on the engine in parallel with the first one. It will run in case the first one fails for some reasons. The second pump, like the first pump, can be driven from the

  20. Utilization of hydrolysate from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment to generate electricity by enzymatic fuel cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Kim, Dong Sup; Yang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Junyoung; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    The waste hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) of lignocellulosic biomass was utilized to generate electricity using an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) system. During DAP, the components of biomass containing hemicellulose and other compounds are hydrolyzed, and glucose is solubilized into the dilute acid solution, called as the hydrolysate liquid. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and laccase (Lac) were assembled on the electrode of the anode and cathode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were measured, and the maximum power density was found to be 1.254×10(3) μW/cm(2). The results indicate that the hydrolysate from DAP is a reliable electrolyte containing the fuel of EFC. Moreover, the impurities in the hydrolysate such as phenols and furans slightly affected the charge transfer on the surface of the electrode, but did not affect the power generation of the EFC system in principal.

  1. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  2. Exergy & economic analysis of biogas fueled solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Litster, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    We present an exergy and an economic analysis of a power plant that uses biogas produced from a thermophilic anaerobic digester (AD) to fuel a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). We performed a 4-variable parametric analysis of the AD-SOFC system in order to determine the optimal design operation conditions, depending on the objective function of interest. We present results on the exergy efficiency (%), power normalized capital cost ( kW-1), and the internal rate of return on investment, IRR, (% yr-1) as a function of the current density, the stack pressure, the fuel utilization, and the total air stoichiometric ratio. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first AD-SOFC paper to include the cost of the AD when conducting economic optimization of the AD-SOFC plant. Our calculations show that adding a new AD-SOFC system to an existing waste water treatment (WWT) plant could yield positives values of IRR at today's average electricity prices and could significantly out-compete other options for using biogas to generate electricity. AD-SOFC systems could likely convert WWT plants into net generators of electricity rather than net consumers of electricity while generating economically viable rates of return on investment if the costs of SOFC systems are within a factor of two of the DOE/SECA cost targets.

  3. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  4. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-02-19

    Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m 2, which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m2), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m2). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m2, compared to 0.49 A/m2 originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, C. S.; Cha, H. R.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC Surveillance System is developed to process image data and radiation data together to diagnose intelligently the transportation status of the nuclear material, which makes it possible that usual DUPIC process be carried out without interruption under the surveillance. We developed the neutron monitor for surveillance and the system which takes and processes radiation data and image data, where the system is under the test operation after installed at DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility)

  6. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  7. Fuel System Durability--U.S. Coast Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    injection pump test facility would require a cam support, camshaft components, and fuel injection system components. Due to the low rpm, large injection...support the cam lobe and camshaft . The cam box was built with steel plates, bearings, and shafting shown in Figure 7. Machining and fabrication of the

  8. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five gallons per minute for at least five seconds will not enter the boat when the boat is in its static... that do not depend solely on the spring tension of the clamps for compressive force. (c) Each...

  9. Advanced energy analysis of high temperature fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the performance of high temperature fuel cell systems is studied using a new method of exergy analysis. The thesis consists of three parts: ⢠In the first part a new analysis method is developed, which not only considers the total exergy losses in a unit operation, but which distingu

  10. Fluid bed gasification pilot plant fuel feeding system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W.A.; Fonstad, T.; Pugsley, T.; Gerspacher, R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: wac132@mail.usask.ca; Wang Zhiguo (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: zhiguo.wang@src.sk.ca

    2009-07-01

    Fluidized bed gasification (FBG) is a method for thermally converting solid biomass to a gaseous product termed syngas, which can be used as fuel for heat or electricity generation. Accurate and consistent feeding of biomass fuel into biomass FBG converters is a continuing, challenge, and was the subject of experimentation at the University of Saskatchewan biomass FBG pilot plant. The 2-conveyor feeding system for this pilot plant was tested using meat and bone meal (MBM) as feedstock, by conveying the feedstock through the system, and measuring the output rate as the fuel was discharged. The relationship between average mass-flowrate (F{sub M}) and conveyor speed (S) for the complete feeding system was characterized to be F{sub M}=0.2188S-0.42 for the tests performed. Testing of the metering conveyor coupled to the injection conveyor showed that operating these conveyors at drive synchronized speeds, air pulsed into the injection hopper, and 50 slpm injection air, produced the most consistent feed output rate. Hot fluidized bed tests followed, which showed that plugging of the injection nozzle occurred as bed temperatures increased past 700C, resulting in loss of fuel flow. The pneumatic injection nozzle was subsequently removed, and the system was found to perform adequately with it absent. (orig.)

  11. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a

  12. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  13. Models for mass transfer effects in semi-fuel cells and for a silver-zinc battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Murali Sankar

    Semi-Fuel Cells (SFCs) and Silver-Zinc batteries have been recognized as batteries for high power applications. For channel flow between two parallel plates, featured in SFCs, obstacles may take the form of ordered asymmetrical porous nets. The net controls the spacing between the two electrode plates. The effect of the inert insulating net and its geometry on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in such a system is presented. The governing equations for momentum, continuity, and energy are solved in a three-dimensional domain using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software for fully developed flow with constant temperature boundary conditions. The local Nusselt number is calculated from the resulting temperature distribution. This net also affects the limiting current distribution in an SFC operating at limiting current because it disrupts the parabolic laminar flow velocity distribution. Hence, the current density distribution is obtained from the Nusselt number distribution through a heat and mass transfer analogy. The location, spacing, and number of the longitudinal and transverse ribs of the net are shown to affect the local and average current density distributions and Nusselt numbers on each of the two electrode plates. The results show that transverse ribs have a greater effect and that the enhancements of the average current density of 250% can be obtained for a spacing of 0.94 x 10-3 m with greater than 16 transverse ribs. A silver-zinc battery shows similar mass transfer limitations while discharged at moderate to high discharge rates. A one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a negative (zinc) electrode, separator, and positive (silver) electrode, has been developed to study the performance and thermal behavior of the silver-zinc cell during discharge. The physical phenomena described here are reaction kinetics, mass transfer and heat generation. The analysis includes finite matrix conductivities (thermal and electrical

  14. Simulation of transient heat transfer in MACSTOR/KN-400 module storing irradiated CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, K.-H.; Yoon, J.-H.; Choi, B.-I.; Lee, H.-Y.; Song, M.-J. [KHNP, Nuclear Environment Technology Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), in collaboration with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), are developing a new module for the dry storage of spent fuel from the four CANDU 6 nuclear reactors at the Wolsong site in South Korea, the MACSTOR/KN-400. The simulation of transient conditions for AECL's spent fuel dry storage systems, presented in this paper, has not been performed before and is considered a major achievement of the present work. In a fist step, CATHENA was compared to MACSTOR-200 temperature measurements and the accuracy of the results were very good. In a second step, CATHENA was applied to the MACSTOR/KN-400. Four cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter and reduced air flow cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63{sup o}C for the off-normal case and 65{sup o}C in the reduced air flow case. The maximum temperature gradients in the concrete are predicted to be 28{sup o}C for the off-normal case and 30{sup o}C in the reduced air flow case, incorporating a 3{sup o}C uncertainty. This paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of appropriate standards. (author)

  15. Thorium as a Fuel for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Electronuclear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Singh, V

    2000-01-01

    Neutron yield and energy production in a very large, practically infinite, uranium and thorium target-blocks irradiated by protons with energies in the range 0.1-2 GeV are studied by Monte Carlo method. Though the comparison of uranium and thorium targets shows that the neutron yield in the latter is 30-40 % less and the energy gain is approximatelly two times smaller, accelerator Driven subcritical Systems (ADS) with thorium fuel are very perspective at the bombarding energies higher than several hundreds MeV. An admixture of fissile elements U^{233}, U^{235}, Pu^{239} in the set-up gives larger neutron multiplication which in turn shows better energy amplification. It is argued that due to the practically complete burning of the fuel in such set-up there is no need of technology of conversion of the exhaust fuel.

  16. PV-Wind System with Fuel Cell & Electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a detailed modeling and simulation of solar cell/ wind turbine/ fuel cell hybrid power system is developed using a novel topology to complement each other and to alleviate the effects of environmental variations. Comparing with the other sources , the renewable energy is inexhaustible and has non-pollution characteristics. The solar energy, wind power, hydraulic power and tidal energy are natural resources of the interest to generate electrical power. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed and the solar cell output power varies with both the ambient temperature and radiation, a fuel cell with ultra capacitor bank can be integrated to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. Excess wind and solar energies when available are converted to hydrogen using electrolysis for later use in the fuel cell. In this paper dynamic modeling of various components of this isolated system system is presented. Transient responses of the system to step change in the load, ambient temperature, radiation, and wind speed in a number of possible situations are studied. Modeling and simulations are conducted using MATLAB/Simulink software packages to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that the proposed hybrid power system can tolerate the rapid change in natural conditions and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the voltage within the acceptable range.The proposed system can be used for off grid power generation in non interconnected areas or remote isolated communities of nation.

  17. 60-WATT HYDRAZINE-AIR FUEL CELL SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuel cell system as presented in our Design Plan. Prior to preparation of the Design Plan, a systems analysis of the basic electrochemical system was made. From the results of this analysis, the operating parameters of the support equipment were defined and an initial selection of components made. System components defined were: the cell stack, electrolyte tank, hydrazine feed system, cooling and chemical air blowers, voltage regulator, and thermal control system. A package design was then made for these components and the final detail design completed.

  18. CURRENT STATUS OF INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT BY SIPPING SYSTEM OF SPENT FUEL BUNDLES IRRADIATED IN CANDU REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG-YOUL PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of safety and the efficient management of spent fuel storage, detecting failed fuel is one of the most important tasks in a CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU reactor operation. It has been successfully demonstrated that in a CANDU reactor, on-power failed fuel detection and location systems, along with alarm area gamma monitors, can detect and locate defective and suspect fuel bundles before discharging them from the reactor to the spent fuel storage bay. In the reception bay, however, only visual inspection has been used to identify suspect bundles. Gaseous fission product and delayed neutron monitoring systems cannot precisely distinguish failed fuel elements from each fuel bundle. This study reports the use of a sipping system in a CANDU reactor for the integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles. The integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles using this sipping system has shown promise as a nondestructive test for detecting a defective fuel bundle in a CANDU reactor.

  19. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  20. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  1. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as

  2. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as

  3. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  4. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stuart R. [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2013-11-25

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  5. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  6. Study of Hydrogen Supply System with Ammonia Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nohara, Tetsuo; Ishimatsu, Shinji

    Carbon-free fuel is effective in preventing global warming. Hydrogen has no carbon and can be made also from nuclear energy or reproducible energies other than fossil fuels. However, hydrogen lacks portability because of its difficulty in liquefying, but ammonia can easily be liquefied at a room temperature and dissociated into high-content hydrogen and nitrogen using a suitable catalyst. An ammonia dissociation system for fuel cells is proposed in this paper. The residual ammonia by 13ppm or more in the dissociated gas (H2+ N2) causes a decrease in the output of fuel cells. To separate residual ammonia, it should be sent to an ammonia separator and then to an ammonia distiller. In the experiment, the authors examine the concentrations of ammonia after dissociation at various temperatures, pressures and space velocities. The ammonia separator uses the fact that ammonia dissolves well in water. Then the ammonia water is distilled in the distiller. Thereby, the authors have proposed an ammonia circulation system that is a clean energy system.

  7. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  8. Dynamics and heat and mass transfer under spreading of liquid-droplet aviation fuel in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Vladimir; Zharova, Irina; Kozlov, Eugene; Tkachenko, Aleksey

    2014-08-01

    A physical-mathematical model of dynamics and heat and mass transfer during spreading of liquid-droplet aviation fuel in the atmosphere is presented. The optimal emergency discharge height of kerosene for different Russian regions was evaluated based on the proposed mathematical model. The developed model can be used to select the height limit of reset kerosene, guaranteeing complete evaporation of the droplets in the atmosphere to the different aircraft velocities.

  9. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  10. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  11. Measurement of Ballooning Gap Size of Irradiated Fuels Using Neutron Radiography Transfer Method and HV Image Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Tae Joo; Oh, Hwa Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Cheol [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A transfer method of neutron radiography was developed to measure the size of the end plug and a gap of an intact K102L-2, the irradiated fuel of a ballooned K174L-3, a ballooned and ruptured K98L-3. A typical irradiation time of 25 min. was determined to obtain a film density of between 2 and 3 of SR X-ray film with neutrons of 1.5x10{sup 11}n{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. To validate and calibrate the results, a RISO fuel standard sample, Cd plate and ASTM-BPI/SI were used. An activated latent image formed in the 100 {mu}m Dy foil was subsequently transferred in a dark room for more than 8 hours to the SR film which is a maximum of three half-lives. Due to the L/D ratio an unsharpness of 9.82-14{mu}m and a magnification of 1.0003 were given. After digitizing an image of SR film, the ballooning gap of the plug was discernible by an H/V filter of image processing. The gap size of the ballooned element, K174L-3, is equal to or greater than 1.2 mm. The development of a transfer method played a pivotal role in developing high burn-up of Wolsung and PWR nuclear fuel type.

  12. Electron transfer mechanisms, new applications, and performance of biocathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    Broad application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires low cost and high operational sustainability. Microbial-cathode MFCs, or cathodes using only bacterial catalysts (biocathodes), can satisfy these demands and have gained considerable attention in recent years. Achievements with biocathodes over the past 3-4. years have been particularly impressive not only with respect to the biological aspects but also the system-wide considerations related to electrode materials and solution chemistry. The versatility of biocathodes enables us to use not only oxygen but also contaminants as possible electron acceptors, allowing nutrient removal and bioremediation in conjunction with electricity generation. Moreover, biocathodes create opportunities to convert electrical current into microbially generated reduced products. While many new experimental results with biocathodes have been reported, we are still in the infancy of their engineering development. This review highlights the opportunities, limits, and challenges of biocathodes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability of Supercritical JP-7 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Meyer, Michael L.; Edwards, Tim; Eitman, David A.

    1997-01-01

    A series of electrically heated tube experiments was conducted to investigate the potential of JP-7 as a coolant under conditions relevant to a Mach 8 propulsion system. The heat transfer capabilities, carbon deposition, and material compatibility of JP-7 at surface temperatures up to 1700 F (927 C) were tested in 0.125 in. diameter tubes of 304 SS, Inconel 617, Haynes 188, Haynes 230, and 50150 Moly-Rhenium. The heat transfer to the coolant was modeled well by a Dittus-Boelter correlation at lower heat fluxes. At higher heat fluxes, audible instabilities were observed and corresponded to a significant enhancement in the coolant heat transfer. The carbon deposition rates in these tests were comparable to those in previous experiments at lower heat fluxes and much longer residence times. This result suggests that alternative paths of the deposition mechanism may be enhanced under high heat flux test conditions. Microscopic investigation of the post test tubes indicated that there was a significant layer of ordered carbon deposits that had not been seen in the tests at lower heat flux.

  14. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 – 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Power’s share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Power’s GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: • A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use • An advanced electrical energy storage system • A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements • A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) • Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL

  15. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  16. Advanced ECU Software Development Method for Fuel Cell Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shuo; LIU Yuan; XIA Wenchuan; LI Jianqiu; YANG Minggao

    2005-01-01

    The electronic control unit (ECU) in electrical powered hybrid and fuel cell vehicles is exceedingly complex. Rapid prototyping control is used to reduce development time and eliminate errors during software development. This paper describes a high-efficiency development method and a flexible tool chain suitable for various applications in automotive engineering. The control algorithm can be deployed directly from a Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow environment into the ECU hardware together with an OSEK real-time operating system (RTOS). The system has been successfully used to develop a 20-kW fuel cell system ECU based on a Motorola PowerPC 555 (MPC555) microcontroller. The total software development time is greatly reduced and the code quality and reliability are greatly enhanced.

  17. A micro-solid oxide fuel cell system as battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Beckel, Daniel; Infortuna, Anna; Muecke, Ulrich P.; Rupp, Jennifer L. M.; Gauckler, Ludwig J.; Rey-Mermet, Samuel; Muralt, Paul; Bieri, Nicole R.; Hotz, Nico; Stutz, Michael J.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Heeb, Peter; Müller, Patrik; Bernard, André; Gmür, Roman; Hocker, Thomas

    The concept and the design of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell system is described and discussed. The system in this study is called the ONEBAT system and consists of the fuel cell PEN (positive electrode - electrolyte - negative electrode) element, a gas processing unit, and a thermal system. PEN elements of free-standing multi-layer membranes are fabricated on Foturan ® and on Si substrates using thin film deposition and microfabrication techniques. Open circuit voltages of up to 1.06 V and power of 150 mW cm -2 are achieved at 550 °C. The membranes are stable up to 600 °C. The gas processing unit allows butane conversion of 95% and hydrogen selectivity of 83% at 550 °C in the reformer and efficient after-burning of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and lower hydrocarbons in the post-combustor. Thermal system simulations prove that a large thermal gradient of more than 500 °C between the hot module and its exterior are feasible. The correlation between electrical power output - system size and thermal conductivity - heat-transfer coefficient of the thermal insulation material are shown. The system design studies show that the single sub-systems can be integrated into a complete system and that the requirements for portable electronic devices can be achieved with a base unit of 2.5 W and a modular approach.

  18. Principles of Fuel and Fuel Systems, 8-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of fuel and fuel systems is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to provide the…

  19. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  20. Challenges facing air management for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.B. [Department of Energy (United States); Sutton, R. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Wagner, F.W. [Energetics Incorporated (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 mpg. while meeting customer needs and all safety and emission requirements. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in the research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient energy conversion system for the PNGV. A critical challenge facing fuel cell systems for the PNGV is the development of efficient, compact, cost-effective air management systems. The U.S. Department of Energy has been exploring several compressor/expander options for pressurized fuel cell systems, including scroll, toroidal intersecting vane, turbine, twin screw, and piston technologies. Each of these technologies has strengths and weaknesses regarding efficiency, pressure ratio over turndown, size and weight, and cost. This paper will present data from the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development efforts on air management systems and will discusses recent program developments resulting from an independent peer review evaluation. (author)

  1. Modeling and identification of a PEM fuel cell humidification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrui DENG; Guoping LIU; George WANG; Min TAN

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of a humidifier of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems is developed and analyzed first in this paper. The model shows that there exists a strong nonlinearity in the system. Then, the system is identified using a wavelet networks method. To avoid the curse-of-dimensionality problem, a class of wavelet networks proposed by Billings is employed. The experimental data acquired from the test bench are used for identification. The one-step-ahead predictions and the five-step-ahead predictions are compared with the real measurements, respectively. It shows that the identified model can effectively describe the real system.

  2. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  3. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  4. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  5. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  6. Antimisting kerosene JT3 engine fuel system integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical study and laboratory tests were conducted to assist NASA in determining the safety and mission suitability of the modified fuel system and flight tests for the Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) program. This twelve-month study reviewed and analyzed both the use of antimisting kerosene (AMK) fuel and the incorporation of a fuel degrader on the operational and performance characteristics of the engines tested. Potential deficiencies and/or failures were identified and approaches to accommodate these deficiencies were recommended to NASA Ames -Dryden Flight Research Facility. The result of flow characterization tests on degraded AMK fuel samples indicated levels of degradation satisfactory for the planned missions of the B-720 aircraft. The operability and performance with the AMK in a ground test engine and in the aircraft engines during the test flights were comparable to those with unmodified Jet A. For the final CID test, the JT-3C-7 engines performed satisfactorily while operating on AMK right up to impact.

  7. Materials and system degradation in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Green Energy and Fuel Cell Group

    2007-07-01

    Various degradation processes in fuel cell anodes and cathodes can cause the release of fluoride ions that thin the ionomer membrane and allow more gases to permeate the cell. This presentation provided an overview of reliability modelling techniques used to identify the failure modes of material degradation in fuel cells. A reliability model of a fuel cell stack and hydrogen power system was presented in addition to solution methods for Nafion degradation of the main polymer chain. Changes in the molecular weight of Nafion were discussed. A case study of a model was used to demonstrate that reaction slowed as the ionomer on the cathode degraded. Equations were developed for hydrogen crossover, peroxide production; peroxide destruction; F-ion production; thickness change; diffusion through the gas diffusion layer (GDL); and open circuit voltage (OCV). It was concluded that the OCV durability experiments generated a mechanism for degradation of commercial membranes. The modelling study showed that degradation was related to the permeability of hydrogen to the cathode, and oxygen to the anode. It was concluded that at lower oxygen pressures anode degradation was limited, while at higher pressures anode degradation was more significant. A power point presentation of the University of Waterloo's alternative fuel team provided details of the team's recent research activities. tabs., figs.

  8. Air management system for automotive fuel cells; Luftversorgungssystem fuer Fahrzeugbrennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Temming, J. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Fluidenergiemaschinen

    2001-07-01

    Fuel cells have attained a predominant position in the development of alternative automotive drives during the last few years. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), preferred for automotive applications, requires compressed air for maximum efficiency. In most prototypes this is provided by twin-screw compressors. The article introduces the different types of fuel cells, and the system and requirements of mobile applications of fuel cells. The advantages and development potential of screw compressors are described. Furthermore concepts of a compressor-expander module based on screw machines are presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] Bei der Entwicklung alternativer Fahrzeugantriebe hat die Brennstoffzelle in den letzten Jahren eine vorherrschende Stellung eingenommen. Die Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzelle, PEMFC, die fuer automotive Anwendungen bevorzugt verwendet wird, benoetigt fuer einen optimalen Wirkungsgrad eine Druckluftversorgung. Als Compressor kommt derzeit insbesondere der Schraubenlader bzw. -compressor in verschiedenen Prototypenfahrzeugen zum Einsatz. Der Beitrag behandelt zunaechst die unterschiedlichen Brennstoffzellentypen, den Systemaufbau und die Anforderungen an die mobile Anwendung der Brennstoffzelle. Fuer diesen speziellen Anwendungsfall werden Vorteile und Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten der Schraubenmaschine dargelegt. Davon ausgehend finden sich Konzepte zum Aufbau eines Compressor-Expander-Moduls (CEM) auf Basis der Schraubenmaschinen. (orig.)

  9. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.

    2017-05-02

    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  10. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating multiple stack building

  11. Model-based fault diagnosis in PEM fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobet, T.; de Lira, S.; Puig, V.; Quevedo, J. [Automatic Control Department (ESAII), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Rambla Sant Nebridi 10, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Feroldi, D.; Riera, J.; Serra, M. [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRI), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, Carrer Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, Planta 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, a model-based fault diagnosis methodology for PEM fuel cell systems is presented. The methodology is based on computing residuals, indicators that are obtained comparing measured inputs and outputs with analytical relationships, which are obtained by system modelling. The innovation of this methodology is based on the characterization of the relative residual fault sensitivity. To illustrate the results, a non-linear fuel cell simulator proposed in the literature is used, with modifications, to include a set of fault scenarios proposed in this work. Finally, it is presented the diagnosis results corresponding to these fault scenarios. It is remarkable that with this methodology it is possible to diagnose and isolate all the faults in the proposed set in contrast with other well known methodologies which use the binary signature matrix of analytical residuals and faults. (author)

  12. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating

  13. Heat transfer and fluid flow aspects of fuel--coolant interactions. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M L

    1978-09-01

    A major portion of the safety analysis effort for the LMFBR is involved in assessing the consequences of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). The thermal interaction of the hot fuel and the sodium coolant during the HCDA is investigated in two areas. A postulated loss of flow transient may produce a two-phase fuel at high pressures. The thermal interaction phenomena between fuel and coolant as the fuel is ejected into the upper plenum are investigated. A postulated transient overpower accident may produce molten fuel being released into sodium coolant in the core region. An energetic coolant vapor explosion for these reactor materials does not seem likely. However, experiments using other materials (e.g., Freon/water, tin/water) have demonstrated the possibility of this phenomenon.

  14. Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    radiator #7. The fan blades and shroud were formed using stereo lithography; the fan motor was a brushless DC motor with motor controller. These...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--10-9253 Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles June 18, 2010...Stroman, Michael W. Schuette,* and Gregory S. Page† Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375-5342 NRL/MR/6110--10-9253

  15. Liquid Hydrogen Fuel System for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    propulsion plant comprised a hydrogen fuel cell system, built by Protonex Technology Corporation, which weighed 2.5 lbs and produced a maximum of 550... NASA for flight on long-endurance UAVs. 9 Aluminum was selected for both the inner and outer walls of the LH2 dewar because of its low H2...impact of cooling from air flow would ordinarily be tested in a wind tunnel, LH2 safety complicates indoor testing in a wind tunnel, as

  16. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  17. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  18. NASA Lewis Evaluation of Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D; Kohout, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of two regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems was begun in-house, and under contracts and grants. The passive hydrogen-oxygen RFC offers the possibility of a high-energy density, long-life storage system for geosynchronous Earth orbit missions. The hydrogen-bromine RFC offers the combination of high efficiency and moderate energy density that could ideally suit low Earth orbit missions if successfully developed. Either or both of these systems would be attractive additions to the storage options available to designers of future missions.

  19. Design of Propulsion System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design method of propulsion systems for fuel cell vehicles complying with the 42V PowerNet standard. The method is based on field measurements during several weeks. Several cases of combining energy storage devices to a common bus voltage are investigated, and the total mass......, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system are compared. It is concluded that the number of energy storage devices and their connecting to the common bus have a significant affect of the mass, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system....

  20. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  1. Carbide-based fuel system for undersea vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.; Greene, Eric S. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT), 1176 Howell Street, Building 1302/2, Newport, RI 02841 (United States)

    2008-01-21

    In underwater applications such as unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) propulsion, mass and volume constraints often dictate system energy density and specific energy, which are targeted to exceed 300 Wh L{sup -1} and 300 Wh kg{sup -1}, respectively, in order to compete with state-of-the-art battery technologies. To address this need, a novel carbide-based fuel system (CFS) intended for use with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is under development that is capable of achieving these energy metrics as well as sequestering carbon dioxide. The proposed CFS uses calcium carbide and calcium hydride that react with water to generate acetylene and hydrogen as the fuel and calcium hydroxide as a carbon dioxide scrubber. The acetylene is hydrogenated to ethane and then reformed to syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) before being utilized by the SOFC. Carbon dioxide effluent from the SOFC is reacted with the calcium hydroxide to produce a storable solid, calcium carbonate, thus eliminating gas evolution from the UUV. A system configuration is proposed and discussion follows concerning energy storage metrics, operational parameters and preliminary safety analysis. (author)

  2. Carbide-based fuel system for undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.; Greene, Eric S.

    In underwater applications such as unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) propulsion, mass and volume constraints often dictate system energy density and specific energy, which are targeted to exceed 300 Wh L -1 and 300 Wh kg -1, respectively, in order to compete with state-of-the-art battery technologies. To address this need, a novel carbide-based fuel system (CFS) intended for use with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is under development that is capable of achieving these energy metrics as well as sequestering carbon dioxide. The proposed CFS uses calcium carbide and calcium hydride that react with water to generate acetylene and hydrogen as the fuel and calcium hydroxide as a carbon dioxide scrubber. The acetylene is hydrogenated to ethane and then reformed to syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) before being utilized by the SOFC. Carbon dioxide effluent from the SOFC is reacted with the calcium hydroxide to produce a storable solid, calcium carbonate, thus eliminating gas evolution from the UUV. A system configuration is proposed and discussion follows concerning energy storage metrics, operational parameters and preliminary safety analysis.

  3. MODELLING AND FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM POWER GENERATION FOR RESIDENTIAL APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled MAMMAR; CHAKER, Abdelkader

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of Fuel cell system for residential power generation. The models proposedinclude a fuel cell stack model, reformer model and DC/AC inverter model. More then an analytical details ofhow active and reactive power output of a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system is controlled.Furthermore a fuzzy logic (FLC) controller is used to control active power of PEM fuel cell system. Thecontroller modifies the hydrogen flow feedback from the terminal load. Si...

  4. A New Data Transfer Method in Civil Aviation Transaction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqing, Jia; Weidong, Yan; Lei, Zhang

    In Civil aviation transaction system, some of passenger information is sent to outside system so that the access to mainframe system could be declined in some way. The message queues in mainframe system could not meet the requirement for large scale parallel processing. Hence, in this article, a new method for the TIP(Transaction Processing) file change transfer is introduced simply. In this model, a kind of new index file is used, which is non-recoverable freespace file, and able to faster the data parallel transfer. According to the production application, the new method makes a great improvement to the TIP file change transfer in mainframe side.

  5. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  7. Dynamical control of quantum state transfer within hybrid open systems

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, B M; Clausen, J; Kurizki, G; Davidovich, L

    2010-01-01

    We analyze quantum state-transfer optimization within hybrid open systems, from a "noisy" (write-in) qubit to its "quiet" counterpart (storage qubit). Intriguing interplay is revealed between our ability to avoid bath-induced errors that profoundly depend on the bath-memory time and the limitations imposed by leakage out of the operational subspace. Counterintuitively, under no circumstances is the fastest transfer optimal (for a given transfer energy).

  8. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel - Effect of transverse convex curvature on boiling heat transfer and ONB point of nucleate fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Young; Lee, Sung Hong [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Recently, the effect of convex curvature on heat transfer should not be ignored when the radius of curvature tends to be small and/or associated with high heat transfer rate cases. Both analytical and experimental studies were performed to prove the effect of transverse convex curvature on the boiling heat transfer in concentric annuli flows. The effect of the transverse convex surface curvature on ONB are studied analytically in the case of reactor and evaporator. It is seen that the inner wall heat flux depends on R/sub i/, Rc, Re, Pr, {alpha}, and the {theta} of working fluid. An experimental study on the incipience of nucleate boiling is performed as a verification ad extension of previous analyses. Through flow visualization, the results show that the most dominant parameter to affect the heat flux at ONB is found to be the surface curvature. The heat flux data at ONB increases with the Re and the subcooling, and the effect of subcooling on ONB becomes smaller with decreasing Re. The heat flux at ONB increases rapidly as increase in {alpha} due to higher convective motion of bulk flow. Comparison between both results are accomplished with respect to the relative enhancement due to the convex curvature. The relative heat transfer enhancement ratio shows a good agreement between theory and experiment qualitatively and quantitatively. In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that the effect transverse convex curvature appears significantly in the boiling heat transfer. Therefore, it can be clearly expected that the effect should be more strong at the case of critical heat flux condition which is the most important design goal of the advanced nuclear fuel rods. 30 refs., 78 figs. (Author)

  9. Method of Hydrogenous Fuel Usage to Increase the Efficiency in Tandem Diverse Temperature Oxidation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimation energy efficiency, the collation data of thermodynamic calculations and data on material balance for an assessment of electric and thermal components in considered ways to use convention products, performance enhancement in the tandem system containing the high-temperature fuel cell and the low-temperature fuel cell with full heat regeneration for hydrogenous fuel (CH4. The overall effective efficiency (ηΣef. making full use of the recovered heat considered tandem system depends on the efficiency of its constituent fuel cells. The overall effective efficiency of the tandem installation including the fuel converter, separating system, high-temperature oxidation system, and hydrogen disposal system in case of fuel use in the low-temperature fuel cell, is higher than for each of the fuel cell elements separately.

  10. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Piazza, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.dipiazza@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy); Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m{sup 2}. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals

  11. Alkaline Exchange Membrane (AEM) for High-Efficiency Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers and Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an alkaline exchange membrane (AEM)for use as a polymer electrolyte in both fuel cell and electrolyzer systems.  The ultimate goal in AEM development is...

  12. Heat transfer enhancement in medium temperature thermal energy storage system using a multitube heat transfer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agyenim, Francis; Smyth, Mervyn [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental energy storage system has been designed using an horizontal shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating a medium temperature phase change material (PCM) with a melting point of 117.7 C. Two experimental configurations consisting of a control unit with one heat transfer tube and a multitube unit with four heat transfer tubes were studied. The thermal characteristics in the systems have been analysed using isothermal contour plots and temperature time curves. Temperature gradients along the three directions of the shell and tube systems; axial, radial and angular directions have been analysed and compared. The phase change in the multitube system was dominated by the effect of convective heat transfer compared to conductive heat transfer in the control system. The temperature gradient in the PCM during phase change was greatest in the radial direction for both the control and multitube systems. The temperature gradients recorded in the axial direction for the control and multitube systems during the change of phase were respectively 2.5 and 3.5% that of the radial direction, indicating essentially a two-dimensional heat transfer in the PCM. The onset of natural convection through the formation of multiple convective cells in the multitube system significantly altered the shape of the solid liquid interface fluid flow and indicates the requirement for an in-depth study of multitube arrangements. (author)

  13. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  14. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  15. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  16. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  17. Corrigendum to "Coupled thermochemical, isotopic evolution and heat transfer simulations in highly irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, M. H. A.; Banfield, J.; Clarno, K.; Simunovic, S.; Besmann, T. M.; Lewis, B. J.; Thompson, W. T.

    2016-09-01

    Figs. 7-9 in "Coupled thermochemical, isotopic evolution and heat transfer simulations in highly irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel" [1] have a consistent error corresponding to the relative proportions of iodine. Reported concentrations of iodine in the original manuscript are approximately ten times higher than expected, and are comparable in atomic proportions to cesium. One would expect that the amount of cesium would be about one order of magnitude greater than iodine based on the difference in fission yields of 235U and 239Pu. A practical consequence of this error would affect the predicted quantity and chemical composition of iodine on the fuel surface, which is related to iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking [2].

  18. 77 FR 47043 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling... devices and systems used to assess charges to consumers for electric vehicle fuel. There is no cost for... residential and business locations and those used to measure and sell electricity dispensed as a vehicle fuel...

  19. Modeling and control of the output current of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic Matlab SIMULINK model of the relationship between the fuel cell current set point of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system and the output current of the system is developed. The model contains an estimated fuel cell model, based on a polarization curve and assumed first order...

  20. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  1. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjulstok, Emil Sjulstok; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2015-01-01

    Various biological processes involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations and are quantum mechanical in nature. Such processes involve light absorption, excited electronic states formation, excitation energy transfer, electrons and protons tunnelling...... which for example occur in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA repair, and possibly magnetic field sensing. Quantum biology uses computation to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects and has primarily developed over the past decade as a result of convergence between...... quantum physics and biology. In this paper we consider electron transfer in biological processes, from a theoretical view-point; namely in terms of quantum mechanical and semi-classical models. We systematically characterize the interactions between the moving electron and its biological environment...

  2. Excitation energy transfer in donor-bridge-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinsson, Bo; Mårtensson, Jerker

    2010-07-21

    This perspective will focus on the mechanistic aspects of singlet and triplet excitation energy transfer. Well defined donor-bridge-acceptor systems specifically designed for investigating the distance and energy gap dependencies of the energy transfer reactions are discussed along with some recent developments in computational modeling of the electronic coupling.

  3. Entanglement Transfer in a Four-Qubit Dimerized Heisenberg System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; HUANG Min; WANG Zhao-ming; ZOU Jian

    2008-01-01

    Entanglement transfer is investigated in a dimerized Heisenberg system.Coneurrence as the measure of entanglement is calculated by the time-evolved state starting from an initially entangled state of spin pair.It is shown that perfect entanglement transfer can be realized at 80me special time and suitable interacting.

  4. Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.

  5. Radiative transfer model for Solar System ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, F.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2015-10-01

    We developed a radiative transfer model [1] that simulates the bidirectional reflectance of a contaminated slab layer of ice overlaying a granular medium, under geometrical optics conditions. Designed for planetary studies, this model has a fast computer implementation and thus is suitable for planetary high spatial/spectral resolution hyperspectral data analysis. We will present here its principles, its numerical and experimental validations and its possible applications.

  6. Energy system analysis of fuel cells and distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    on the energy system in which they are used. Consequently, coherent energy systems analyses of specific and complete energy systems must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of FC technologies and in order to be able to compare alternative solutions. In relation to distributed generation, FC...... can be used for such analyses. Moreover, the chapter presents the results of evaluating the overall system fuel savings achieved by introducing different FC applications into different energy systems. Natural gas-based and hydrogen-based micro FC-CHP, natural gas local FC-CHP plants for district...... technologies have different strengths and weaknesses in different energy systems, but often they do not have the expected effect. Specific analyses of each individual country must be conducted including scenarios of expansion of e.g. wind power in order to evaluate where and when the best use of FC...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  8. Micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cells for micro-combined heat and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J.; Wang, Kang; Falkenstein-Smith, Ryan L.; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-02-01

    Currently the role of fuel cells in future power generation is being examined, tested and discussed. However, implementing systems is more difficult because of sealing challenges, slow start-up and complex thermal management and fuel processing. A novel furnace system with a flame-assisted fuel cell is proposed that combines the thermal management and fuel processing systems by utilizing fuel-rich combustion. In addition, the flame-assisted fuel cell furnace is a micro-combined heat and power system, which can produce electricity for homes or businesses, providing resilience during power disruption while still providing heat. A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell achieves a significant performance of 430 mW cm-2 operating in a model fuel-rich exhaust stream.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  10. Single-element Electron-transfer Optical Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. An electron transfer element (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) has a first end and a second end with its first end spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage being applied thereto, transfer of electrons through the electron transfer element is induced from its first to its second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred can be detected.

  11. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  12. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  13. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  14. GCtool for fuel cell systems design and analysis : user documentation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.

    1999-01-15

    GCtool is a comprehensive system design and analysis tool for fuel cell and other power systems. A user can analyze any configuration of component modules and flows under steady-state or dynamic conditions. Component models can be arbitrarily complex in modeling sophistication and new models can be added easily by the user. GCtool also treats arbitrary system constraints over part or all of the system, including the specification of nonlinear objective functions to be minimized subject to nonlinear, equality or inequality constraints. This document describes the essential features of the interpreted language and the window-based GCtool environment. The system components incorporated into GCtool include a gas flow mixer, splitier, heater, compressor, gas turbine, heat exchanger, pump, pipe, diffuser, nozzle, steam drum, feed water heater, combustor, chemical reactor, condenser, fuel cells (proton exchange membrane, solid oxide, phosphoric acid, and molten carbonate), shaft, generator, motor, and methanol steam reformer. Several examples of system analysis at various levels of complexity are presented. Also given are instructions for generating two- and three-dimensional plots of data and the details of interfacing new models to GCtool.

  15. Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J E; Moran, E C; Zmek, W P

    1988-04-15

    By using Fourier techniques and linear systems theory we have derived an analytic expression for a generalized transfer function for grazing incidence optical systems operating at ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths that includes the effects of optical fabrication errors over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies. The Fourier transform of this transfer function yields the image distribution (or point spread function) from which encircled energy characteristics or other image quality criteria can be obtained. This transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems allows parametric trade studies and sensitivity analyses to be performed as well as the derivation of fabrication tolerances necessary to satisfy a given image quality requirement.

  16. Quantum information storage and state transfer based on spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Z

    2004-01-01

    The idea of quantum state storage is generalized to describe the coherent transfer of quantum information through a coherent data bus. In this universal framework, we comprehensively review our recent systematical investigations to explore the possibility of implementing the physical processes of quantum information storage and state transfer by using quantum spin systems, which may be an isotropic antiferromagnetic spin ladder system or a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain. Our studies emphasize the physical mechanisms and the fundamental problems behind the various protocols for the storage and transfer of quantum information in solid state systems.

  17. Engine control system having fuel-based timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Martin L [Dunlap, IL; Fiveland, Scott B [Metamora, IL; Montgomery, David T [Edelstein, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

    2012-04-03

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of an amount of an air/fuel mixture remaining within the cylinder after completion of a first combustion event and a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller may be configured to compare the amount with a desired amount, and to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve associated with a subsequent combustion event based on the comparison.

  18. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  19. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  20. Integrated microchemical systems for fuel processing in micro fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattekar, Ashish V.

    Rapid advances in microelectronics technology over the last decade have led to the search for novel applications of miniaturization to all aspects of engineering. Microreaction engineering, which involves the development of miniature reactors on microchips for novel applications, has been a key area of interest in this quest for miniaturization. The idea of a fully integrated microplant with embedded control electronics, sensors and actuators on a single silicon chip has been gaining increasing acceptance as significant progress is being made in this area. The aim of this project has been to demonstrate a working microreaction system for hydrogen delivery to miniature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells through the catalytic steam reforming of methanol. The complete reformer - fuel cell unit is proposed as an alternative to conventional portable sources of electricity such as batteries due to its ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity as long as a supply of methanol and water can be provided. This technology also offers significantly higher energy storage densities, which translates into less frequent 'recharging' through the refilling of methanol fuel. Various aspects of the design of a miniature methanol reformer on a silicon substrate are discussed with a focus on the theoretical understanding of microreactor operation and optimum utilization of the semiconductor-processing techniques used for fabricating the devices. Three prototype microreactor designs have been successfully fabricated and tested. Issues related to microchannel capping, on-chip heating and temperature sensing, introduction and trapping of catalyst particles in microchannels, microfluidic interfacing, pressure drop reduction, and thermal insulation have been addressed. Details regarding modeling and simulation of the designs to provide an insight into the working of the microreactor are presented along with a description of the microfabrication steps followed to

  1. Energy Conversion Analysis of a Novel Solar Thermochemical System Coupled with Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vinck, Ian; Ozalp, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuels have been the main supply of power generation for use in manufacturing, transportation, residential and commercial sectors. However, environmentally adverse effects of fossil fuel conversion systems combined with pending shortage raise major concerns. As a promising approach to tackle these challenges, this paper presents a novel energy conversion system comprising of a solar thermal reactor coupled with hydrogen fuel cell and carbon fuel cell for electricity generation. The syst...

  2. A Comparison of Two Air Compressors for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kulp, Galen W.

    2001-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered one of the best potential alternative power sources for automobiles. For this application, high efficiency and high power density are required. Pressurizing the fuel cell system can give higher efficiency, higher power density and better water balance characteristics for the fuel cell, but pressurization uses a percentage of the fuel cell output power. The compressor used to elevate the pressure has a direct effect on the system effi...

  3. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... of the fuel heating value. In addition, the devolatilization time of alternative fuels cannot be neglected in kiln system process analyses, as these fuels are typically in the cm-size with devolatilization times in the order of minutes. The devolatilization characteristics of large particles of tyre rubber...... time, where increased particle size increased the devolatilization time. Model analyses demonstrated that the overall devolatilization kinetics of large particles of tyre rubber is mainly controlled by heat transfer and intrinsic pyrolysis kinetics, whereas mass transfer has negligible influence...

  4. Heat and mass transfer in a coal-water fuel particle at the stage of "thermal" treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of heat and mass transfer has been solved numerically under the conditions of coal-water fuel particle ignition. The concurrent processes of evaporation, filtration of steam, thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, thermal and chemical interaction of steam and coke carbon, and oxidation of products of their reaction and volatiles by the external oxidizer have been taken into account. The scales of influence of individual thermophysical and thermochemical properties of coals on the characteristics and conditions of ignition of coal-water slurry have been determined.

  5. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  6. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1975. [Fuel element crushing, solids handling, fluidized bed combustion, aqueous separations, solvent extraction, systems design and drafting, alternative head-end reprocessing, and fuel recycle systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-31

    The development program for HTGR fuel reprocessing continues to emphasize the design and construction of a prototype head-end line. Design work on the multistage crushing system, the primary and secondary fluidized bed burners, the pneumatic transfer systems, and the ancillary fixtures for semiremote assembly and disassembly is essentially complete. Fabrication and receipt of all major components is under way, and auxiliary instrumentation and support systems are being installed. Studies of flow characteristics of granular solids in pneumatic transfer systems are continuing and data are being collected for use in design of systems for solids handling. Experimental work on the 20-cm primary fluidized bed burner verified the fines recycle operating mode in runs of greater than 24 hr. Twelve leaching runs were performed during the quarter using crushed, burned-back TRISO coated ThC/sub 2/ particles and burned-back BISO coated sol gel ThO/sub 2/ particles to examine the effect of varying the Thorex-to-thoria ratio to give product solutions ranging from 0.25M to 1M in thorium. Only minor effects were observed and reference values for facility operations were specified. Two-stage leaching runs with burned-back ThC/sub 2/ indicate there are no measurable differences in total dissolution time as compared to single-stage leaching. Bench-scale tests on oxidation of HTGR fuel boron carbide at 900/sup 0/C indicates that most if not all of the carbide will be converted to boron oxide in the fluidized bed burner. Eight solvent extraction runs were completed during the quarter. These runs represented the first cycle and second uranium cycle of the acid-Thorex flowsheet. A detailed calculation of spent fuel compositions by fuel block and particle type is being performed for better definition of process streams in a fuel reprocessing facility.

  7. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  8. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  9. Satellite Attitude Control System Design considering the Fuel Slosh Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gadelha de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the satellite attitude control system (ACS becomes more complex when the satellite structure has different type of components like, flexible solar panels, antennas, mechanical manipulators, and tanks with fuel. A crucial interaction can occur between the fuel slosh motion and the satellite rigid motion during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre since these interactions can change the satellite centre of mass position damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. As a result, the design of the satellite controller needs to explore the limits between the conflicting requirements of performance and robustness. This paper investigates the effects of the interaction between the liquid motion (slosh and the satellite dynamics in order to predict what the damage to the controller performance and robustness is. The fuel slosh dynamics is modelled by a pendulum which parameters are identified using the Kalman filter technique. This information is used to design the satellite controller by the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG methods to perform a planar manoeuvre assuming thrusters are actuators.

  10. Plant Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems Fed by Alternative Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Different plant design for several fuel types such as natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME, ammonia and pure hydrogen are presented and analysed. Anode recirculation which is an important issue in SOFC plants are also explored and studied. It is shown that depending on type of the fuel whether fuel...... recirculation is needed or not and if so then what would be the effect of anode recycling on plant efficiency. A single study with similar conditions and prerequisites will thus reveal the importance of fuel recirculation on plant performance with alternative fuels. It is also shown that increasing anode...... recycle increases plant efficiency only if fuel utilization factor is low. Other important issues such as why plant efficiency is lower when it is fed with hydrogen or biogas compared to when it is fed by other fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia will also be discussed and explained...

  11. Modeling and control of fuel cell based distributed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo

    This dissertation presents circuit models and control algorithms of fuel cell based distributed generation systems (DGS) for two DGS topologies. In the first topology, each DGS unit utilizes a battery in parallel to the fuel cell in a standalone AC power plant and a grid-interconnection. In the second topology, a Z-source converter, which employs both the L and C passive components and shoot-through zero vectors instead of the conventional DC/DC boost power converter in order to step up the DC-link voltage, is adopted for a standalone AC power supply. In Topology 1, two applications are studied: a standalone power generation (Single DGS Unit and Two DGS Units) and a grid-interconnection. First, dynamic model of the fuel cell is given based on electrochemical process. Second, two full-bridge DC to DC converters are adopted and their controllers are designed: an unidirectional full-bridge DC to DC boost converter for the fuel cell and a bidirectional full-bridge DC to DC buck/boost converter for the battery. Third, for a three-phase DC to AC inverter without or with a Delta/Y transformer, a discrete-time state space circuit model is given and two discrete-time feedback controllers are designed: voltage controller in the outer loop and current controller in the inner loop. And last, for load sharing of two DGS units and power flow control of two DGS units or the DGS connected to the grid, real and reactive power controllers are proposed. Particularly, for the grid-connected DGS application, a synchronization issue between an islanding mode and a paralleling mode to the grid is investigated, and two case studies are performed. To demonstrate the proposed circuit models and control strategies, simulation test-beds using Matlab/Simulink are constructed for each configuration of the fuel cell based DGS with a three-phase AC 120 V (L-N)/60 Hz/50 kVA and various simulation results are presented. In Topology 2, this dissertation presents system modeling, modified space

  12. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V

    2009-01-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.

  14. Plasmid transfer systems in the rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Hynes, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Agricultural application of rhizobial inoculants can play an important role in increasing leguminous crop yields. In temperate rhizobia, genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation are usually located on one or more large plasmids (pSyms) or on symbiotic islands. In addition, other large plasmids of rhizobia carry genes that are beneficial for survival and competition of rhizobia in the rhizosphere. Conjugative transfer of these large plasmids thus plays an important role in the evolution of rhizobia. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of conjugative transfer of large rhizobial plasmids provides foundations for maintaining, monitoring, and predicting the behaviour of these plasmids during field release events. In this minireview, we summarize two types of known rhizobial conjugative plasmids, including quorum sensing regulated plasmids and RctA-repressed plasmids. We provide evidence for the existence of a third type of conjugative plasmid, including pRleVF39c in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain VF39SM, and we provide a comparison of the different types of conjugation genes found in members of the rhizobia that have had their genomes sequenced so far.

  15. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  16. Study of fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental awareness and the interest in distributed generation caused by electricity market de-regulation are factors that promote research on renewable energies. Fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in fuel into electricity by means of electrochemical reactions. Among the different fuel cell types, high temperature fuel cells (HTFCS) have many advantages: high efficiency, low emissions, fuel flexibility, modularity and high quality waste heat. The main disadvant...

  17. Transfer Function Model of Multirate Feedback Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the suitably defined multivariable version of Krancoperators and the extended input and output vectors, the multirate sampling plant is transformed to a equivalent time invariant single rate one, then the transfer function model of the multivariable multirate sampling plant is obtained. By combining this plant model with the time invariant description of the multirate controller in terms of extended vectors, the closed-loop transfer function model of the multirate feedback control system can be determinated. This transfer function model has a very simple structure, and can be used as a basis for the analysis and synthesis of the multirate sampling feedback control systems in the frequency domain.

  18. System and method having multi-tube fuel nozzle with differential flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael John; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Berry, Jonathan Dwight; York, William David

    2017-01-03

    A system includes a multi-tube fuel nozzle with a fuel nozzle body and a plurality of tubes. The fuel nozzle body includes a nozzle wall surrounding a chamber. The plurality of tubes extend through the chamber, wherein each tube of the plurality of tubes includes an air intake portion, a fuel intake portion, and an air-fuel mixture outlet portion. The multi-tube fuel nozzle also includes a differential configuration of the air intake portions among the plurality of tubes.

  19. Solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system; Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi dengen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T. [Kanagawa (Japan); Kadoma, H. [Yokohama (Japan); Hashizaki, K.; Tani, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-11

    When a previous solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system is used underwater, the water generated by the cell reaction is stored in a water storage tank and it is necessary that the system is suspended in case the generated water is full in the water storage tank to take the system out of water and the water in the tank is discharged in the atmosphere. The solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system of this invention is equipped with a discharge pump to exhaust the generated water out of the closed vessel accommodating the system or equipped with a device to exhaust the generated water into the outside water accompanied with gushing of high-pressure gas into the outside water. As a result, the water generated by the cell reaction can be exhausted from the system into the outside water at any required time so that the fuel cell power supply system can be operated continuously as far as the supply of the fuel or the oxidizer last. By the installment of this function, a solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system can be used as an independent underwater power source or as a power source for an underwater moving body. 4 figs.

  20. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  1. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  2. Design of auto-tuning capacitive power transfer system for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of capacitive wireless power transfer systems based on a Class-E inverter approach. The main reason for adopting the Class-E inverter approach is because of its high efficiency, theoretically 100%. However, the operation of a Class-E inverter is highly sensitive to its circuit's parameters. In a typical capacitive wireless power transfer application, the capacitive coupling distance between plates is subject to changes, and hence its power transfer efficiency is greatly affected if the Class-E inverter is properly tuned. This drawback motivates us to develop an auto frequency tuning algorithm for a Class-E inverter which maintains its power transfer efficiency in spite of the variations of capacitive coupling distances between plates and circuit's parameters. Finally, simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the auto frequency tuning algorithm.

  3. ACR fuel storage analysis: finite element heat transfer analysis of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khair, K.; Baset, S.; Millard, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has designed and licensed air-cooled concrete structures used as above ground dry storage containers (MACSTOR) to store irradiated nuclear fuel from CANDU plants. A typical MACSTOR 200 module is designed to store 12,000 bundles in 20 storage cylinders. MACSTOR 200 modules are in operation at Gentilly-2 in Canada and at Cernavoda in Romania. The MACSTOR module is cooled passively by natural convection and by conduction through the concrete walls and roof. Currently AECL is designing the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with CANFLEX slightly enriched uranium fuel to be used. AECL has initiated a study to explore the possibility of storing the irradiated nuclear fuel from ACR in MACSTOR modules. This included work to consider ways of minimizing footprint both in the spent fuel storage bay and in the dry storage area. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used in this study. The FE model is used to complete simulations with the higher heat source using the same concrete structural dimensions to assess the feasibility of using the MACSTOR design for storing the ACR irradiated fuel. This paper presents the results of the analysis. The results are used to confirm the possibility of using, with minimal changes to the design of the storage baskets and the structure, the proven design of the MACSTOR 200 containment to store the ACR fuel bundles with higher enrichment and burnup. This has thus allowed us to confirm conceptual feasibility and move on to investigation of optimization. (author)

  4. Development of a novel computational tool for optimizing the operation of fuel cells systems: Application for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, P. L.; Tatsis, A.; Sarimveis, H.; Markatos, N. C. G.

    Fuel cells offer a significant and promising clean technology for portable, automotive and stationary applications and, thus, optimization of their performance is of particular interest. In this study, a novel optimization tool is developed that realistically describes and optimizes the performance of fuel cell systems. First, a 3D steady-state detailed model is produced based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Simulated results obtained from the CFD model are used in a second step, to generate a database that contains the fuel and oxidant volumetric rates and utilizations and the corresponding cell voltages. In the third step mathematical relationships are developed between the input and output variables, using the database that has been generated in the previous step. In particular, the linear regression methodology and the radial basis function (RBF) neural network architecture are utilized for producing the input-output "meta-models". Several statistical tests are used to validate the proposed models. Finally, a multi-objective hierarchical Non-Linear Programming (NLP) problem is formulated that takes into account the constraints and limitations of the system. The multi-objective hierarchical approach is built upon two steps: first, the fuel volumetric rate is minimized, recognizing the fact that our first concern is to reduce consumption of the expensive fuel. In the second step, optimization is performed with respect to the oxidant volumetric rate. The proposed method is illustrated through its application for phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems.

  5. Thermoeconomic optimization of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehter, P. [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The high operational temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) helps to achieve the highest possible system efficiencies. Although the power density, long term stability and startup time of SOFCs have improved in recent years, the cost of fuel cell systems still has to be reduced by a factor of about 20-50 before widespread commercialization can take place. This study investigated the feasibility of replacing a 1 kW solar panel, a 300 kW internal combustion engine and a 30 MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant by two SOFC cycle configurations. The 2 SOFC cycle configurations were investigated for both mobile and stationary applications with respect to the capital and operational cost. The design model consisted of a 2-dimensional finite difference method and was used to calculate the local distribution of the current density, temperature and gas composition of the SOFC. The size and cost of the whole component was calculated based on different material specifications and scaling effects concerning the SOFC stack, reformer, heat exchanger, evaporator and flue gas condenser. The purpose was to determine the optimum range of operational parameters. Both SOFC cycle configurations showed the strong economic benefit in terms of pressurized SOFC systems. It was concluded that the allowable stack cost can be increased by a factor of 1.6 to 4 compared to cost at atmospheric pressure. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  7. Liquid fueled external heating system for STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.; Godett, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The STM4-120 Stirling engine, currently under development at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., is a 40 kW variable stroke engine with indirect heating using a sodium heat pipe. The engine is functionally separated into an application independent Energy Conversion Unit (ECU) consisting of the Stirling cycle and drive heated by condensing sodium and the application dependent External Heating System (EHS), designed to supply the ECU with sodium vapor heated by the particular energy source, connected by tubes with mechanical couplings. This paper describes an External Heating System for the STM4-120 ECU designed for the combustion of liquid fuel, comprised of a recuperative preheater, a combustion chamber, and a heat exchanger/evaporator where heat is transferred from the flue gas to the sodium causing it to evaporate. The design concept and projected performance are described and discussed.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance with... failures of the FRM that occur in service that could increase any fuel tank's Fleet Average Flammability... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability...

  9. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  10. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  11. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  12. Power and temperature control of fluctuating biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    This paper addresses how the power and temperature are controlled in a biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and micro gas turbine (MGT) hybrid system. A SOFC and MGT dynamic model are developed and used to simulate the hybrid system performance operating on biomass gas. The transient behavior of both the SOFC and MGT are discussed in detail. An unstable power output is observed when the system is fed biomass gas. This instability is due to the fluctuation of gas composition in the fuel. A specially designed fuel controller succeeded not only in allowing the hybrid system to follow a step change of power demand from 32 to 35 kW, but also stably maintained the system power output at 35 kW. In addition to power control, fuel cell temperature is controlled by introduction and use of a bypass valve around the recuperator. By releasing excess heat to the exhaust, the bypass valve provided the control means to avoid the self-exciting behavior of system temperature and stabilized the temperature of SOFC at 850 °C.

  13. CFD modelling of supercritical water flow and heat transfer in a 2 × 2 fuel rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podila, Krishna, E-mail: krishna.podila@cnl.ca; Rao, Yanfei, E-mail: yanfei.rao@cnl.ca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Bare and wire wrapped 2 × 2 fuel rod bundles were modelled with CFD. • Sensitivity of predictions to SST k–ω, v{sup 2}–f and turbulent Prandtl number was tested. • CFD predictions were assessed with experimentally reported fuel wall temperatures. - Abstract: In the present assessment of the CFD code, two heat transfer experiments using water at supercritical pressures were selected: a 2 × 2 rod bare bundle; and a 2 × 2 rod wire-wrapped bundle. A systematic 3D CFD study of the fluid flow and heat transfer at supercritical pressures for the rod bundle geometries was performed with the key parameter being the fuel rod wall temperature. The sensitivity of the prediction to the steady RANS turbulence models of SST k–ω, v{sup 2}–f and turbulent Prandtl number (Pr{sub t}) was tested to ensure the reliability of the predicted wall temperature obtained for the current analysis. Using the appropriate turbulence model based on the sensitivity analysis, the mesh refinement, or the grid convergence, was performed for the two geometries. Following the above sensitivity analyses and mesh refinements, the recommended CFD model was then assessed against the measurements from the two experiments. It was found that the CFD model adopted in the current work was able to qualitatively capture the trends reported by the experiments but the degree of temperature rise along the heated length was underpredicted. Moreover, the applicability of turbulence models varied case-by-case and the performance evaluation of the turbulence models was primarily based on its ability to predict the experimentally reported fuel wall temperatures. Of the two turbulence models tested, the SST k–ω was found to be better at capturing the measurements at pseudo-critical and supercritical test conditions, whereas the v{sup 2}–f performed better at sub-critical test conditions. Along with the appropriate turbulence model, CFD results were found to be particularly sensitive to

  14. Sea experiment of a survey AUV powered by a fuel cell system

    OpenAIRE

    Raugel, E; Rigaud, Vincent; Lakeman, C

    2010-01-01

    The use of autonomous underwater systems, such as AUV, is currently limited by their on board energy supply. The emergence of a higher capacity power source could be a breakthrough that extends these technologies field of application. Since 2005, within the PACSM project1, fuel cell systems for underwater applications were studied. HELION, an AREVA Renewable subsidiary, dedicated to both PEM fuel cell and electrolyze systems development, has designed a fuel cell system adapted for AUV energy ...

  15. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  16. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna International, Rochester Mills, MI (United States)

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  17. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  18. Measurement of Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Limit using Fuel Cladding Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Zircaloy has been widely used as a fuel cladding material of light water reactor for more than three decades because it has a lower neutron absorption cross section and cracking rate. Recently, HANA-6 has been developed in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) as the advanced fuel cladding for high burn-up fuel. Generally, under the normal and accident operating conditions of a nuclear reactor, the nuclear fuel cladding of zirconium based alloys undergoes the surface change, and the oxide layer can be formed. In such a case, the previous CHF correlations should be assessed and examined using the experimental results for not a fresh zircaloy surface but an oxidized one, to predict and examine the thermal margin and safety of a nuclear reactor core. Therefore, the experimental data using the oxidized zircaloy surface need to be provided quantitatively. In this paper, the CHF in saturated water pool boiling is measured and discussed using the specimens of zircaloy-4, HANA-6, and oxidized zircaloy-4 in high temperature air environment. The CHF of zircaloy-4, HANA-6, and oxidized surface was tested. Zircaloy-4 and HANA-6 had a similar CHF performance. This is because both are the zirconium based alloys, and appear the almost same water contact angle. On the other hands, the oxidized specimen became to be higher CHF than plain zircaloy-4 and HANA-6 specimens, due to smaller water contact angle (i. e., good hydrophilicity of specimen). The Kandlikar's (2001) correlation reasonably predicted the present experimental data.

  19. Charge Transfer in Multiple Site Chemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    as catalysis , photoredox systems, and studies of the fundamental properties of film-coated electrodes. 8 One method of attachment of metal complexes...reduction ot Ru(bpy)33+ by released ocalate, the photocurrent in the heterogeneous system remained fairly stable over the period of 2-3 hours if

  20. Transfer Matrix Method for Natural Vibration Analysis of Tree System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Transfer matrix method (TMM ranges from linear/nonlinear vibration, composite structure, and multibody system to calculating static deformation, natural vibration, dynamical response, and damage identification. Generally TMM has two characteristics: (1 the TMM formulae share similarity to the chain mechanics model in terms of topology structure; then TMM often is selected as a powerful tool to analyze the chain system. (2 TMM is adopted to deal with the problems of the discrete system, continuous system, and especial discrete/continuous coupling system with the uniform matrix form. In this investigation, a novel TMM is proposed to analyze the natural vibration of the tree system. In order to make the TMM of the tree system have the two above advantages of the TMM of the chain system, the suitable state vectors and transfer matrices of the typical components of the tree system are constructed. Then the topology comparability between the mechanics model and its corresponding formulae of TMM can be adopted to assembling the transfer matrices and transfer equations of the global tree system. Two examples of natural vibration problems validating the method are given. The formulation of the proposed TMM is mathematically intuitive and can be held and applied by the engineers easily.