WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel incident results

  1. Numerical analyses of an ex-core fuel incident: Results of the OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Z., E-mail: hozer@aeki.kfki.h [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Aszodi, A. [BME NTI Budapest (Hungary); Barnak, M. [IVS, Trnava (Slovakia); Boros, I. [BME NTI Budapest (Hungary); Fogel, M. [VUJE, Trnava (Slovakia); Guillard, V. [IRSN, Cadarache (France); Gyori, Cs. [ITU, EU, Karlsruhe (Germany); Hegyi, G. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, G.L. [VEIKI, Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Junninen, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kobzar, V. [KI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Legradi, G. [BME NTI Budapest (Hungary); Molnar, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Pietarinen, K. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Perneczky, L. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Makihara, Y. [ATMEA, Paris (France); Matejovic, P. [IVS, Trnava (Slovakia); Perez-Fero, E.; Slonszki, E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was developed to support the understanding of fuel behaviour in accident conditions on the basis of analyses of the Paks-2 incident. Numerical simulation of the most relevant aspects of the event and comparison of the calculation results with the available data from the incident was carried out between 2006 and 2007. A database was compiled to provide input for the code calculations. The activities covered the following three areas: (a) Thermal hydraulic calculations described the cooling conditions possibly established during the incident. (b) Simulation of fuel behaviour described the oxidation and degradation mechanisms of the fuel assemblies. (c) The release of fission products from the failed fuel rods was estimated and compared to available measured data. The applied used codes captured the most important events of the Paks-2 incident and the calculated results improved the understanding of the causes and mechanisms of fuel failure. The numerical analyses showed that the by-pass flow leading to insufficient cooling amounted to 75-90% of the inlet flow rate, the maximum temperature in the tank was between 1200 and 1400 deg. C, the degree of zirconium oxidation reached 4-12% and the mass of produced hydrogen was between 3 and 13 kg.

  2. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  3. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  4. The incidence of fuel taxation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Ashokankur

    2010-01-01

    Fuel taxes have returned to centre stage as a potential policy instrument for greenhouse gas abatement. On the basis of some studies in developed countries, critics have complained that a fuel tax would be regressive. This paper uses data from a representative household survey covering more than 124 thousand Indian households to examine this claim. It finds that a fuel tax would be progressive as would a carbon tax. Using an input-output approach, it is found that the progressivity results holds good even when one considers indirect consumption of fuel through its use as an intermediate input. Sensitivity checks allowing for differing price elasticities of demand between rich and poor confirm this result for most of fuels. A tax on kerosene is the only fuel tax that is regressive in all situations.

  5. The incidence of fuel taxation in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Ashokankur [Planning Unit, Indian Statistical Institute-Delhi Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2010-09-15

    Fuel taxes have returned to centre stage as a potential policy instrument for greenhouse gas abatement. On the basis of some studies in developed countries, critics have complained that a fuel tax would be regressive. This paper uses data from a representative household survey covering more than 124 thousand Indian households to examine this claim. It finds that a fuel tax would be progressive as would a carbon tax. Using an input-output approach, it is found that the progressivity results holds good even when one considers indirect consumption of fuel through its use as an intermediate input. Sensitivity checks allowing for differing price elasticities of demand between rich and poor confirm this result for most of fuels. A tax on kerosene is the only fuel tax that is regressive in all situations. (author)

  6. VVER fuel. Results of post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.P.; Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Perepelkin, S.O.; Ivashchenko, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of post-irradiation examination of more than 40 different fuel assemblies (FA) operated in the cores of VVER-1000 and VVER-440-type power reactors in a wide range of fuel burnup. The condition of fuel assembly components from the viewpoint of deformation, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties is described here. A serviceability of the FA design as a whole and interaction between individual FA components under vibration condition and mechanical load received primary emphasis. The reasons of FA damage fuel element failure in a wide range of fuel burnup are also analyzed. A possibility and ways of fuel burnup increase have been proved experimentally for the case of high-level serviceability maintenance of fuel elements to provide for advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  7. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents

  8. Innovative nuclear fuels: results and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the discovery and design of innovative nuclear fuels, multi-scale models and simulations are used to predict irradiation effects on the thermal conductivity, oxygen diffusivity, and thermal expansion of oxide fuels. The multi-scale approach is illustrated using results on ceramic fuels with a focus on predictions of point defect concentrations, stoichiometry, and phase stability. The high performance computer simulations include coupled heat transport, diffusion, and thermal expansion, gas bubble formation and temperature evolution in a fuel element consisting of UO2 fuel and metallic cladding. The second part of the talk is dedicated to a discussion of an international strategy for developing advanced, innovative nuclear fuels. Four initiative are proposed to accelerate the discovery and design of new materials: (a) Develop an international pool of experts, (b) Create Institutes for Materials Discovery and Design, (c) Create an International Knowledge base for experimental data, models (mathematical expressions), and simulations (codes) and (d) Organize international workshops and conference sessions. The paper ends with a discussion of existing and emerging international collaborations.

  9. IAEA expert review mission completes assessment of fuel cleaning incident at Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA today completed its expert review mission to investigate the 10 April fuel cleaning incident at the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. The mission was requested by the Hungarian Government to provide an independent assessment of the causes and actions taken by the plant and Hungarian authorities. The team was composed of nuclear and radiation experts from the IAEA, Austria, Canada, Finland, Slovakia, the United Kingdom and the United States. In a press conference, team leader Miroslav Lipar highlighted the team's findings in five areas: On management, the team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority and Paks are committed to improving the safety of the plant. They noted that as a result of steam generator decontamination in previous years, deposits became attached to the fuel assemblies. A decision was made to clean the fuel and contract an outside company to develop and operate a fuel cleaning process. The team found that the design and operation of the fuel cleaning tank and system was not accomplished in the manner prescribed by the IAEA Safety Standards. Neither the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority nor Paks used conservative decision-making in their safety assessments for this unproven fuel cleaning system. The team determined that there was an over-reliance on the contractor that had been selected for the design, management and operation of the fuel cleaning system. Time pressure related to a prescribed fuel outage schedule, combined with confidence generated by previous successful fuel cleaning operations, contributed to a weak assessment of a new design and operation, which involved fuel directly removed from the reactor following a planned shutdown. On regulatory oversight, the IAEA team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority underestimated the safety significance of the proposed designs for the fuel cleaning system, which resulted in a less than rigorous review and assessment than should have been necessary

  10. WWER fuel: Results of post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Perepelkin, S.O.; Ivashchenko, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP and advanced working assemblies at the Kola NPP demonstrate this. Now a high-priority task is to prolong the service life and increase a burnup of WWER fuel without decrease of high reliability. Design and engineering innovations in the course of fuel development require a fundamental analysis from the viewpoint of efficiency. Innovations are checked at the final stage based on the results of PIE of FAs after semi-commercial operation in the commercial reactor. PIE make it possible to get a detailed and unprejudiced evaluation of a new generation fuel for consistency with the above stipulated requirements. The present paper describes the results of FA PIE with regard to its main parameters and properties, which affect the serviceability of products and their structural components. The paper has the following contents: Introduction; Post-irradiation examination results; FA geometries and rigidity; State of fuel elements; Fuel- cladding interaction; Cladding corrosion; Fission gas release; Zr-spacer grid state; Fuel failure; Corrective actions; Conclusion. In conclusion the authors underline that the WWER-440 FAs provided with shroud demonstrate a high geometrical stability in the course of their operation up to 6 fuel cycles. The problem of FA bending in the WWER-1000 reactor core has been solved at the expense of FA-A and FA-2 development. These designs are provided with rigid skeleton that demonstrates permissible deformation if they are operated up to 6 fuel cycles. As for other parameters affecting the FE serviceability (geometries, cladding corrosion, mechanical properties, fission gas release, etc), the service life is not exhausted up to a fuel burnup of 70 MWd/kgU. The state of ZSGs is satisfactory on the whole, but there are some cases of higher corrosion demonstrating the necessity of further design and engineering work. E635 products (guide tubes, central tubes and FE claddings) demonstrate geometrical stability and strength properties as opposed to

  11. Test Results of PBMR Fuel Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, Konstantin; Diakov, Alexander; Beltyukov, Igor; Barybin, Andrey; Chernetsov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Results of pre-irradiation testing of fuel spheres (FS) and coated particles (CP) manufactured by PBMR SOC (Republic of South Africa) are described. The stable high quality level of major characteristics (dimensions, CP coating structure, uranium-235 contamination of the FS matrix graphite and the outer PyC layer of the CP coating) are shown. Results of a methodical irradiation test of two FS in helium and neon medium at temperatures of 800 to 1300 °C with simultaneous determination of release-to-birth ratios for major gaseous fission products (GFP) are described. (author)

  12. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjimichael, O.C.; Ostfeld, A.M.; D'Atri, D.A.; Brubaker, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  13. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Emese; Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor; Vajda, Nora

    2009-01-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  14. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Zoltan, E-mail: hozer@aeki.kfki.h [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szabo, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Vajda, Nora [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, Muegyetem rakpart 9 (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  15. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries. The case of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, Allen [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W. Washington, DC (United States); Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica); Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco [Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica)

    2010-05-15

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries - all of which are typically major problems - they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel - both directly and via bus transportation - would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated. (author)

  16. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries. The case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, Allen; Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries - all of which are typically major problems - they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel - both directly and via bus transportation - would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated. (author)

  17. Fuel tax incidence in developing countries: The case of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, Allen, E-mail: blackman@rff.or [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W. Washington, DC (United States); Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica); Osakwe, Rebecca; Alpizar, Francisco [Environment for Development Center for Central America, Turriabla (Costa Rica)

    2010-05-15

    Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries-all of which are typically major problems-they are often opposed on distributional grounds. Yet few studies have investigated fuel tax incidence in a developing country context. We use household survey data and income-outcome coefficients to analyze fuel tax incidence in Costa Rica. We find that the effect of a 10% fuel price hike through direct spending on gasoline would be progressive, its effect through spending on diesel-both directly and via bus transportation-would be regressive (mainly because poorer households rely heavily on buses), and its effect through spending on goods other than fuel and bus transportation would be relatively small, albeit regressive. Finally, we find that the overall effect of a 10% fuel price hike through all types of direct and indirect spending would be neutral and the magnitude of this combined effect would be modest. We conclude that distributional concerns need not rule out using fuel taxes to address pressing public health and safety problems, particularly if gasoline and diesel taxes can be differentiated.

  18. SP-100 Fuel Pin Performance: Results from Irradiation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenas, Bruce J.; Paxton, Dean M.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Marietta, Martin; Hoth, Carl W.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  19. Data analysis of grade crossing incidents : research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Incidents and fatalities at highway-rail grade crossing in the United States have declined significantly over the past two decades despite a significant increase in both train and vehicle traffic. Therefore, to provide a more realistic comparison of ...

  20. Results of the investigations of transient fuel rod behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the research on the fuel rod behaviour mainly effected in the KFZ Karlsruhe and at the KWU Erlangen as a part of the German reactor safety research program is to investigate the physical and chemical phenomena which are significant when the zircaloy claddings are failing, and to establish mathematical models verified by experiments by means of which the extent of damage in the reactor core in different incidents can be worked out in a realistic way. These mathematical models (program system SSYST) shall replace the conservative assumptions so far used for incident analyses and quantify their safety reserves, respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  1. PBF severe fuel damage program: results and comparison to analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.E.; Buescher, B.J.; Gruen, G.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; McCardell, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage research program in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to investigate fuel rod and core response, and fission product and hydrogen release and transport under degraded core cooling accident conditions. This paper presents a description of Phase I of the PBF Severe Fuel Damage Program, discusses the results of the first experiment, and compares those results with analysis performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code

  2. Results of trial operation of the WWER advanced fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, I.; Dragunov, Y.; Mikhalchuk, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes results from experimental operation of advanced WWER-1000 fuel assemblies (AFA) at five units in Balakovo NPP. Advanced fuel is developed according to the concept of standard WWER-1000 fuel assembly (jacket-free). The new features includes: 1) zirconium guiding channels (alloy E-635 and E-110) and spacer grids (alloy E-110); 2) integrated burnable absorber gadolinium; 3) extended service life of fuel assemblies (FA) and absorber rods (possibility of repair of FA); 4) improved adoption to reactor conditions. Some results of AFA pilot operation of a three year operation are presented and analyses of effectiveness of improvements are made concerning application of zirconium channels and grids; application of integrated burnable absorbers; extension of FA and absorbing rods service life and FA repairability. These new features of WWER-1000 fuel design allow: 1) to reduce the average fuel enrichment to the 3.77% instead of 4.31% in U-235; 2) to reduce the FA axial load in reactor hot state by 40%,; 3) increasing of fuel operation in reactor to the 30000 effective days with possibility to have a 5-year residence time in the reactor. The design of new generation FA for WWER-440 reactors involves few key changes. Fuel inventory in new fuel design is increased due to elongation of fuel stack and reducing the diameter of the central hole. Vibration stability is enhanced as a result of: no-play junction of the fuel rod with the lower grid; change of SG arrangements; strengthening of the lower grid unit; secure of the central tube in the gap. Water-uranium ration is increased. Introduction of all these kinds of modernization in a 5-year fuel cycle reduces fuel component in the energy cost to the 7%

  3. Results of tests with open fuel in KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G.

    1987-03-01

    For the operation of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors with cladding failures the consequences of increased contamination by fission products and fuel and the possibility of failure propagation to adjacent fuel pins due to fuel swelling have to be envisaged. To clarify some of these problems a KNK II test program involving open fuel was defined with the first experiments of this program being performed between October 1981 and May 1984. After the description of the test equipment and of the test program, the results will be presented on delayed neutron measurements, fission gas measurements and post irradiation examinations. The report will conclude with a discussion of the results [de

  4. Interim results from UO2 fuel oxidation tests in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, T.K.; Gilbert, E.R.; Thornhill, C.K.; White, G.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Griffin, C.W.j.

    1987-08-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to extend the characterization of spent fuel oxidation in air. To characterize oxidation behavior of irradiated UO 2 , fuel oxidation tests were performed on declad light-water reactor spent fuel and nonirradited UO 2 pellets in the temperature range of 135 to 250 0 C. These tests were designed to determine the important independent variables that might affect spent fuel oxidation behavior. The data from this program, when combined with the test results from other programs, will be used to develop recommended spent fuel dry-storage temperature limits in air. This report describes interim test results. The initial PNL investigations of nonirradiated and spent fuels identified the important testing variables as temperature, fuel burnup, radiolysis of the air, fuel microstructure, and moisture in the air. Based on these initial results, a more extensive statistically designed test matrix was developed to study the effects of temperature, burnup, and moisture on the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Oxidation tests were initiated using both boiling-water reactor and pressurized-water reactor fuels from several different reactors with burnups from 8 to 34 GWd/MTU. A 10 5 R/h gamma field was applied to the test ovens to simulate dry storage cask conditions. Nonirradiated fuel was included as a control. This report describes experimental results from the initial tests on both the spent and nonirradiated fuels and results to date on the tests in a 10 5 R/h gamma field. 33 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  6. Results of modeling advanced BWR fuel designs using CASMO-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.; Edenius, M.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced BWR fuel designs from General Electric, Siemens and ABB-Atom have been analyzed using CASMO-4 and compared against fission rate distributions and control rod worths from MCNP. Included in the analysis were fuel storage rack configurations and proposed mixed oxide (MOX) designs. Results are also presented from several cycles of SIMULATE-3 core follow analysis, using nodal data generated by CASMO-4, for cycles in transition from 8x8 designs to advanced fuel designs. (author)

  7. Operational results of WWER fuel fabricated by MSZ (Elektrostal, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatiani, I.; Balabanov, S.; Beglov, A.; Khryashchev, D.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation brings forth a statistical analysis of the WWER fuel manufactured by OAO MSZ, operational experience. A necessity of such an analysis is determined by the fact that objective operational results prove the appropriateness of the solutions and decisions made by vendor, designer, manufacturer and utility, as well as motivates further fuel improvements. (authors)

  8. PND fuel handling decontamination program: specialized techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.; Hobbs, K.; Minnis, M.; Graham, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at the Pickering Nuclear Station, an eight unit CANDU station located about 30 km east of Toronto. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for cleaning in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility, and the results achieved. (author)

  9. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  10. Identification of potential safety-related incidents applicable to a breeder fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The current emphasis on safety in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle requires that safety features be identified and included in designs of nuclear facilities at the earliest possible stage. A popular method for the early identification of these safety features is the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. An extension of this analysis is to illustrate the nature of a hazard by its effects in accident situations, that is, to identify what are called safety-related incidents. Some useful tools are described which have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory, SRL, to make Preliminary Hazards Analyses as well as safety analyses of facilities for processing spent nuclear fuels from both power and production reactors. These tools have also been used in safety studies of waste handling operations at the Savannah River Plant. The tools are the SRL Incidents Data Bank and the What If meeting. The application of this methodology to a proposed facility which has breeder fuel reprocessing capability, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) is illustrated

  11. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  12. IAEA/NEA Fuel Incident Notification and Analysis System (FINAS) guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Incident Notification and Analysis System (FINAS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of FINAS is to contribute to improving the safety of fuel cycle facilities, which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance, which occur at these facilities. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous NEA FINAS guidelines is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce FINAS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating FCFs. These guidelines have been jointly developed and approved by the NEA/IAEA

  13. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  14. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of

  15. Impact of indoor air pollution from the use of solid fuels on the incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses in children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Ashish

    2015-03-28

    India contributes 24% of the global annual child deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). According to WHO, nearly 50% of the deaths among children due to ARIs is because of indoor air pollution (IAP). There is insufficient evidence on the relationship between IAP from the use of solid fuels and incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses (LTRI) in children in India. Panel data of children born during 2001-02, from the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 was used to estimate the impact of household use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in children. Multivariable two-stage random effects logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds of suffering from LTRI among children from households using solid fuels relative to children from households using other fuels (Gas/Electricity/Kerosene). Bivariate results indicate that the probability of an episode of LTRI was considerably higher among children from households using solid fuels for cooking (18%) than among children from households using other fuels (10%). Moreover, children from households using solid fuels in both the rounds of YLS were more likely to suffer from one or more than one episode of LTRI compared to children from households using solid fuels in only one round. Two-stage random effects logistic regression result shows that children from households using solid fuels were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.05-2.99) times as likely to suffer from LTRI as those from households using other fuels. The findings of this paper provide conclusive evidence on the harmful effects of the use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in India. The Government of India must make people aware about the health risks associated with the use of solid fuels for cooking and strive to promote the use of cleaner fuels.

  16. Westinghouse accident tolerant fuel program. Current results and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sumit; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward; Hallstadius, Lars; Boylan, Frank [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Hopkins, SC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This paper discusses the current status, results from initial tests, as well as the future direction of the Westinghouse's Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program. The current preliminary testing is addressed that is being performed on these samples at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test reactor, initial results from these tests, as well as the technical learning from these test results. In the Westinghouse ATF approach, higher density pellets play a significant role in the development of an integrated fuel system.

  17. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  18. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  19. Energy and the global warming issue in developing countries: analyzing the incidence of the fuel carbon tax and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddayao, C.M.; Percebois, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    By changing the natural environment, energy resource use has repercussions for human welfare. So do policies that are proposed to deal with concerns over global climate warming, particularly with respect to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the major policy options identified are reduction of emission from fossil fuel consumption, as well as more rigorous forest management to avoid further deforestation. The basic approach to reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels is through the efficient use of energy. Fuel switching, pollution prevention technologies, and the 'polluter pays' principle are also among the policy strategies often discussed. One of the proposed economic policy instruments in the 'polluter pays' category that could lead to more efficient use of energy and at the same time deal with the CO 2 problem is the carbon tax. This paper will focus on the incidence of the tax in the different sectors of a developing country and suggest the key issues in analyzing this incidence. This introduction will include a brief background discussion on the greenhouse gas (GHG) issue which has led to the proposal for the carbon tax. In section II, the incidence of the carbon tax will be reviewed. In section III, the key analytical issues for analyzing incidence of the tax on a sector-by-sector analysis of a national tax will be raised. In this version of this paper, the intended quantitative analysis is not presented; we hope to have partial results by the time of conference. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Results of the implementation of a learning system with incidents in an radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicchi, Lucas Augusto; Vilela, Ellen Pedroso Severino; Faustino, Fabio de Lima C.; Rodrigues, Fernanda Arantes C.; Gomes, Franciele N.; Souza, Guilherme Vicente de; Silva, Rose Marta S.; Toledo, Jose Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    An incident learning system (ILS) is an important tool for improving aspects of patient and staff safety. In radiation oncology, ILS has been implemented both at the institutional level as at the national level, allowing to share lessons learned from incidents that have already occurred. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the ILS implemented in a radiation oncology department. In total, 128 incidents were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee, and the professional groups that registered more were medical physicists, radiation oncologists and radiation therapists. In addition, incidents have occurred and have been detected mainly in the treatment step. The incident learning system proved to be an important process improvement tool, according to the results shown,the improvement actions proposed and the perception of the people involved. (author)

  1. Fuel Coolant Interaction Results in the Fuel Pins Melting Facility (PMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urunashi, H.; Hirabayashi, T.; Mizuta, H.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental work related to FCI at PNC has been concentrated into the molten UO 2 dropping test. After the completion of molten UO 2 drop experiments, emphasis is directed toward the FCI phenomena of the initiating conditions of the accident under the more realistic geometry. The experiments are conducted within the Pin Melt Facility (PMF) in which UO 2 pellets clad in stainless steel are melted by direct electric heating under the stagnant or flowing sodium. The primary objectives of the PMF test are to: - obtain detail experimental results (heat-input, clad temperature, sodium temperature, etc.) on the FCI under TOP and LOF conditions; - observe the movement of the fuel before and after the pin failure by the X-ray cinematography; - observe the degree of coherence of the pin failures; - accumulate the experience of the FCI experiment which is applicable to the subassembly or more larger scale; - simulate the fuel behavior of the in-pile test (GETR, CABRI). The preliminary conclusions can be drawn from the foregoing observations are as follows: - Although the fuel motion and FCI of the closed test section appeared to be different from those of the open test section, the conclusion of the effect of the inside pressure on FCI needs more experimental data. - The best heating condition of the UO 2 pellet for the FCI study with PMF is established as 40 w/cm at the steady state and 1680 J/g of UO 2 during the additional transient state. The total energy deposition of the UO 2 pellet is thus estimated in the range of 2400 J/g of UO 2 -2600 J/g of UO 2 . The analytical model of the fuel pin failure and the subsequent FCI are suggested to count the following parameters: - The fuel pin failure due to the fuel vaporization due to the rapid energy deposition; - Molten fuel, clad and sodium interaction in the fuel pin after the pin failure; - The upward flow of molten fuel with molten clad or vapor sodium, as well as the slumping of molten fuel

  2. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallongeville, M.; Werle, J. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); McCreesh, G. [BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  3. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, M.; Werle, J.; McCreesh, G.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  4. Introduction of a prehospital critical incident monitoring system--pilot project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Julian; Davis, Anna; Jennings, Paul; Bartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Hospital medical incident monitoring improves preventable morbidity and mortality rates. Error management systems have been adopted widely in this setting. Data relating to incident monitoring in the prehospital setting is limited. Implementation of an incident monitoring process in a prehospital setting. This is a prospective, descriptive study of the pilot phase of the implementation of an incident monitoring process in a regional prehospital setting, with a focus on trauma care. Paramedics and emergency department staff submitted anonymous incident reports, and a chart review was performed on patients who met major trauma criteria. Selected trauma cases were analyzed by a structured interview/debriefing process to elucidate undocumented incidents. A project committee coded and logged all incidents and developed recommendations. Of 4,429 ambulance responses, 41 cases were analyzed. Twenty-four (58.5%; 95% CI = 49.7-67.4%) were reported anonymously, and the rest were major trauma patients. A total of 77 incidents were identified (mean per case = 1.8; CI = 1.03-2.57). Anonymous cases revealed 26 incidents (mean = 1.1; CI = 0.98-1.22); eight trauma debriefings revealed 38 incidents (mean = 4.8; CI = 0.91-8.69) and nine trauma chart reviews revealed 13 incidents (mean = 1.6; CI = 1.04-2.16). A total of 56 of 77 (72.7%; CI = 65.5-80.0%) incidents related to system inadequacies, and 15 (57.7%; CI = 46.7-68.6%) anonymously reported incidents related to resource problems. A total of 35 of 77 (45.5%; CI = 40.4-50.5%) incidents had minimal or no impact on the patients' outcomes. Thirty-four of 77 (44.2%; CI = 39.3-49.1%) incidents were considered mitigated by circumstance. Incident monitoring led to generalized feedback in most cases (65 of 77; 84.4%; CI = 77.6-91.3%); in three cases (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%), specific education occurred; two cases were reported to an external body (2.6%; CI = 2.5-2.7%); three cases resulted in remedial action (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%); four for

  5. Supporting staff recovery and reintegration after a critical incident resulting in infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Roberta; Ward, Debra; Short, Mary

    2009-08-01

    A critical incident is described as any sudden unexpected event that has the power to overwhelm the usual effective coping skills of an individual or a group and can cause significant psychological distress in usually healthy persons. A Just Culture model to deal with critical incidents is an approach that seeks to identify and balance system events and personal accountability. This article reports a critical incident that occurred at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Methodist Hospital of Indianapolis, when 5 infants received an overdose of heparin that resulted in the death of 3 infants. Although care of the family after the critical incident was the immediate priority, the focus of this article was on the recovery and reintegration of the NICU staff after a critical incident based on the Just Culture philosophy.

  6. Fuel improvement and WWER-1000 FA main operational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, V.; Enin, A.; Bezborodov, Y.; Petrov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The JSC NCCP experience of WWER-1000 Fuel Assemblies (FAs) fabrication and operation confirms the adequate feasibility and efficiency of fuel operation in 3-4-x fuel cycles, high operating reliability and competitive capacity as compared with foreign analogues. The work on fuel improvement is aimed at an improvement of the operating reliability and an enhancement of the fuel use efficiency in WWER-1000 advanced FAs

  7. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    /100,000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100,000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (Pcervical cancer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...

  8. Experimental irradiation of UMo fuel: Pie results and modeling of fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Plancq, D.; Huet, F.; Guigon, B.; Lemoine, P.; Sacristan, P.; Hofman, G.; Snelgrove, J.; Rest, J.; Hayes, S.; Meyer, M.; Vacelet, H.; Leborgne, E.; Dassel, G.

    2002-01-01

    Seven full-sized U Mo plates containing ca. 8 g/cm 3 of uranium in the fuel meat have been irradiated since the beginning of the French U Mo development program. The first three of them with 20% 235 U enrichment were irradiated at maximum surfacic power under 150 W/cm 2 in the OSIRIS reactor up to 50% burn-up and are under examination. Their global behaviour is satisfactory: no failure and a low swelling. The other four plates were irradiated in the HFR Petten at maximum surfacic power between 150 and 250 W/cm 2 with two enrichments 20 and 35%. The experiment was stopped after two cycles due to a fuel failure. The post- irradiation examinations were completed in 2001 in Petten. Examinations showed a correct behaviour of 20% enriched plates and an abnormal behaviour of the two other plates (35%-enriched) with a clad failure on the plate 4. The fuel failure appears to result from a combination of factors that led to high corrosion cladding and high fuel meat temperatures. (author)

  9. Retinoblastoma incidence patterns in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeannette R; Tucker, Margaret A; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Devesa, Susan S

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Several studies have found no temporal or demographic differences in the incidence of retinoblastoma except for age at diagnosis, whereas other studies have reported variations in incidence by sex and race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVE To examine updated US retinoblastoma incidence patterns by sex, age at diagnosis, laterality, race/ethnicity, and year of diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) databases were examined for retinoblastoma incidence patterns by demographic and tumor characteristics. We studied 721 children in SEER 18 registries, 659 in SEER 13 registries, and 675 in SEER 9 registries. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and annual percent changes in rates. RESULTS During 2000-2009 in SEER 18, there was a significant excess of total retinoblastoma among boys compared with girls (IRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.36), in contrast to earlier reports of a female predominance. Bilateral retinoblastoma among white Hispanic boys was significantly elevated relative to white non-Hispanic boys (IRR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.79) and white Hispanic girls (IRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.91) because of less rapid decreases in bilateral rates since the 1990s among white Hispanic boys than among the other groups. Retinoblastoma rates among white non-Hispanics decreased significantly since 1992 among those younger than 1 year and since 1998 among those with bilateral disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although changes in the availability of prenatal screening practices for retinoblastoma may have contributed to these incidence patterns, further research is necessary to determine their actual effect on the changing incidence of retinoblastoma in the US population. In addition, consistent with other cancers, an excess of retinoblastoma diagnosed in boys suggests a potential effect of sex on cancer origin.

  10. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  11. Conventional fuel tank blunt impact tests : test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. A series of impact tests are planned to : measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dynamic : loading conditi...

  12. Results of a conventional fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into passenger : locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is : being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two : type...

  13. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner start-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Vaden, D.; Bonomo, N.L.; Cunningham, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    At ANL-West, there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will make use of an electrometallurgical process employing molten salts and liquid metals. The treatment equipment is presently undergoing testing with depleted uranium. Operations with irradiated fuel will commence when the environmental evaluation for FCF is complete

  14. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  15. Bio-fuels: results in progress, necessary adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In this report, the French Court of Auditors examines whether its assessments and recommendations published some years before about the development and use of bio-fuels in France had been taken into account. It shows that the support to bio-fuels has multiple objectives, produced some interesting results, but at high cost. Production processes are described. The authors outline that instruments had not been always coherently implemented, and that the tax system had negative effects. They notice that the objective in terms of bio-diesel share has been reached, whereas that of bio-ethanol has not. They also outline that these results have also been obtained with the help of some palliative measures, and that cost remains high for the consumer. In a second part, the report outlines that the present context calls for adaptations, notably due to its uncertainty (instability of European rules, lack of European ambition, a less promising market, a lower priority for automotive manufacturers), and proposes some perspectives and approaches of adaptation, notably to reach quantitative objectives with a greater transparency for the consumer. The report also contains answers made by the different concerned ministers

  16. Posttest examination results of recent treat tests on metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; Bauer, T.H.; Goldman, A.J.; Klickman, A.E.; Sevy, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    A series of in-reactor transient tests is underway to study the characteristics of metal-alloy fuel during transient-overpower-without-scam conditions. The initial tests focused on determining the margin to cladding breach and the axial fuel motions that would mitigate the power excursion. The tests were conducted in flowing-sodium loops with uranium - 5% fissium EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel elements in the TREAT facility. Posttest examination of the tests evaluated fuel elongation in intact pins and postfailure fuel motion. Microscopic examination of the intact pins studied the nature and extent of fuel/cladding interaction, fuel melt fraction and mass distribution, and distribution of porosity. Eutectic penetration and failure of the cladding were also examined in the failed pins

  17. First results on the effect of fuel-cladding eccentricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panka, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the traditional fuel-behaviour or hot channel calculations it is assumed that the fuel pellet is centered within the clad. However, in the real life the pellet could be positioned asymmetrically within the clad, which leads to asymmetric gap conductance and therefore it is worthwhile to investigate the magnitude of the effect on maximal fuel temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper our first experiences are presented on this topic. (Authors)

  18. Argonne Fuel Cycle Facility ventilation system -- modeling and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Danielson, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated study of the Argonne-West Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) interconnected ventilation systems during various operations. Analyses and test results include first a nominal condition reflecting balanced pressures and flows followed by several infrequent and off-normal scenarios. This effort is the first study of the FCF ventilation systems as an integrated network wherein the hydraulic effects of all major air systems have been analyzed and tested. The FCF building consists of many interconnected regions in which nuclear fuel is handled, transported and reprocessed. The ventilation systems comprise a large number of ducts, fans, dampers, and filters which together must provide clean, properly conditioned air to the worker occupied spaces of the facility while preventing the spread of airborne radioactive materials to clean am-as or the atmosphere. This objective is achieved by keeping the FCF building at a partial vacuum in which the contaminated areas are kept at lower pressures than the other worker occupied spaces. The ventilation systems of FCF and the EBR-II reactor are analyzed as an integrated totality, as demonstrated. We then developed the network model shown in Fig. 2 for the TORAC code. The scope of this study was to assess the measured results from the acceptance/flow balancing testing and to predict the effects of power failures, hatch and door openings, single-failure faulted conditions, EBR-II isolation, and other infrequent operations. The studies show that the FCF ventilation systems am very controllable and remain stable following off-normal events. In addition, the FCF ventilation system complex is essentially immune to reverse flows and spread of contamination to clean areas during normal and off-normal operation

  19. OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project. Detailed Description of the Results of Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    On 10 April 2003 severe damage of fuel assemblies took place during an incident at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The assemblies were being cleaned in a special tank below the water level of the spent fuel storage pool in order to remove crud buildup. That afternoon, the chemical cleaning of assemblies was completed and the fuel rods were being cooled by circulation of storage pool water. The first sign of fuel failure was the detection of some fission gases released from the cleaning tank during that evening. The cleaning tank cover locks were released after midnight and this operation was followed by a sudden increase in activity concentrations. The visual inspection revealed that all 30 fuel assemblies were severely damaged. The first evaluation of the event showed that the severe fuel damage happened due to inadequate coolant circulation within the cleaning tank. The damaged fuel assemblies will be removed from the cleaning tank in 2005 and will be stored in special canisters in the spent fuel storage pool of the Paks NPP. Following several discussions between expert from different countries and international organisations the OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was proposed. The project is envisaged in two phases. - Phase 1 is to cover organization of visual inspection of material, preparation of database, performance of analyses and preparatory work for fuel examination. - Phase 2 is to cover the fuel transport and the hot cell examination

  20. The cancer mortality and incidence experience of workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1946–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Michael; Haylock, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate cancer mortality and incidence risk associated with external radiation exposure in the BNFL cohort of nuclear workers and to determine if these risks are modified by potential for internal exposure. The cohort comprised 64 956 individuals who were employed at the four study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005. External radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (generally ‘film badges’) were available for 42 431 individuals classified as ‘radiation workers’. Poisson regression models were used to investigate cancer mortality and incidence in relation to cumulative external radiation exposure using relative risk models. The cohort showed the expected ‘healthy worker’ effect. This analysis found an increased risk of all cancers associated with external occupational radiation exposure (ERR/Gy = 0.34 90% CI: 0.07; 0.64), with significant excess risks observed for all solid cancers (ERR/Gy = 0.29 90% CI: 0.02; 0.59) and leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR/Gy = 2.60 90% CI: 0.28; 7.01). The overall cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used by national and international bodies in setting radiation protection standards. The slopes of the dose response relationships for all cancer mortality and incidence were found to be significantly less steep for workers exposed to both external radiation and potentially to internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.09 90% CI: −0.17; 0.39) when compared to those workers only exposed to external radiation (ERR/Gy = 1.14 90% CI: 0.49; 1.89). Analyses of individual cancer types indicate that this overall result is mainly driven by that for digestive cancers and in particular cancers of the oesophagus. Categorical analyses also revealed that the difference in the dose response relationship between the two groups is only apparent for those exposed to cumulative external doses in excess of 200 mGy. Such differences have also been observed for non-cancer mortality

  1. Fuel models and results from the TRAC-PF1/MIMAS TMI-2 accident calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwegler, E.C.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description of several fuel models used in the TRAC-PF1/MIMAS analysis of the TMI-2 accident is presented, and some of the significant fuel-rod behavior results from this analysis are given. Peak fuel-rod temperatures, oxidation heat production, and embrittlement and failure behavior calculated for the TMI-2 accident are discussed. Other aspects of fuel behavior, such as cladding ballooning and fuel-cladding eutectic formation, were found not to significantly affect the accident progression

  2. Testing Systems and Results for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Griffith, G.W.; Garnier, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development (ALFD) Pathway. Development and testing of high performance fuel cladding identified as high priority to support: enhancement of fuel performance, reliability, and reactor safety. One of the technologies being examined is an advanced fuel cladding made from ceramic matrix composites (CMC) utilizing silicon carbide (SiC) as a structural material supplementing a commercial Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) tube. A series of out-of-pile tests to fully characterize the SiC CMC hybrid design to produce baseline data. The planned tests are intended to either produce quantitative data or to demonstrate the properties required to achieve two initial performance conditions relative to standard zircaloybased cladding: decreased hydrogen uptake (corrosion) and decreased fretting of the cladding tube under normal operating and postulated accident conditions. These two failure mechanisms account for approximately 70% of all in-pile failures of LWR commercial fuel assemblies

  3. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  4. Main results and status of the development of LEU fuel for Russian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Morozov, A.; Suprun, V.; Dobrikova, I.

    2005-01-01

    VNIINM develops low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel on base U-Mo alloys and a novel design of pin-type fuel elements. The development is carried out both for existing reactors, and for new advanced designs of reactors. The work is carried on the following main directions: - irradiate LEU U-Mo dispersion fuel (the uranium density up to 6,0 g/cm 3 ) in two Russian research reactors: MIR (RIAR, Dimitrovgrad) as pin type fuel mini-elements and in WWR-M (PINP, Gatchina) within full-scaled fuel assembly (FA) with pin type fuel elements; - finalize development of design and fabrication process of IRT type FA with pin type fuel elements; - develop methods of reducing of U-Mo fuel --Al matrix interaction under irradiation; - develop fabricating methods of fuel elements on base of monolithic U-Mo fuel. The paper generally reviews the results of calculation, design and technology investigations accomplished by now. (author)

  5. First qualitative analysis of fuel irradiation results carried out in the MR reactor on WWER-1000 fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantoin, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dubrovin, K; Platonov, P [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Onufriev, V [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Four experiments carried out in the MR reactor are evaluated. They are aimed to assess the influence of burnup and the size of the pellet central hole on the fuel temperature and thus on the fuel swelling and fission gas release. The experiments have been performed at different linear rate and burnup of the fuel rods which are above the actual licensed values in WWER power stations. In this paper the results on WWER fuel rod behaviour are examined. The main fabrication and irradiation characteristics for each experiment are given. The main results from destructive and non-destructive examinations are summarized. They include: burnup determination by gamma spectroscopy, caesium shifting along fuel column and accumulation at the end of the fuel stack, fission gas release. fuel rod diameter and length change and macro-graphs showing the central hole size and the morphology after irradiation. From observation of fuel structure, Cs spectrometry and fission gas release, a large degradation of fuel thermal conductivity can be identified at high burnup. If the fuel burnup is the right parameter to be considered, burnup limits identified are: 0 70-75 MWd/kg for rods with large central hole; (2) 58-64 MWd/kg for rods with small central hole. As a general conclusion it is stressed the importance of the study due to irradiation beyond the usual linear rates at high burnup. Up to now the fuel life limiting factor was cladding corrosion when using Zircaloy-4. As the cladding corrosion situation improves, the next life limiting factor to be met could be the fuel itself. The decreasing fuel thermal conductivity is probably of prime importance and should be further studied and modelled. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 3 refs.

  6. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  7. Results of 200 KW fuel cell evaluation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, J.M.; Merten, G.P. [SAIC, San Diego, CA (United States); Binder, M.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has installed six monitoring systems on ONSI Corporation 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells. Three of the systems were installed for the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) which is coordinating the Department of Defense (DoD) fuel cell Demonstration Program and three were installed under a contract with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Monitoring of the three NYSERDA sites has been completed. Monitoring systems for the DoD fuel cells were installed in August, 1996 and thus no operating data was available at the time of this writing, but will be presented at the Fuel Cell Seminar. This paper will present the monitoring configuration and research approach for each program. Additionally, summary performance data is presented for the completed NYSERDA program.

  8. Results of Microstructural Examinations of Irradiated LEU U-Mo Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Finlay, M.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: The RERTR program is responsible for converting research reactors that use high-enriched uranium fuels to ones that use low-enriched uranium fuels [1]. As part of the development of LEU fuels, a variety of irradiation experiments are being conducted using the Advanced Test Reactor. Based on the results of initial fuel plate testing, adjustments have been made to the characteristics of fuel plates to improve the stability of the fuel microstructure. One improvement has been to add Si to the matrix of a dispersion fuel. This material is also being added at the fuel/cladding interface of a monolithic fuel. This paper will discuss the irradiation performance of these fuels, in terms of the stability of their microstructures during irradiation. Results and discussion: The post-irradiation examinations of fuel plates are performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. These examinations consist of visual examinations of fuel plates, gamma scanning, thickness measurements, oxide thickness measurements, and optical metallographic examinations of the fuel plate microstructures. Microstructural analysis is also performed using scanning electron microscopy. Overall, U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloy fuels have displayed the best irradiation performance, particularly, when a Si-containing Al alloy is used as the dispersion fuel matrix. The benefit of using this type of matrix is that the commonly observed fuel/cladding interaction that occurs during irradiation is reduced and the interaction layer that forms exhibit stable behavior during irradiation. Monolithic-type fuels, which consist of a U-Mo foil encased in Al alloy cladding, are also being developed. These types of fuels are also showing promise and will continue to be developed. One challenge with this type of fuel is in trying to maximize the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface. Fuel/cladding interactions can affect the quality of the boding at this interface. Si is being added to improve the characteristics

  9. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Results of fuel elements fabrication on the basis of increased concentration dioxide fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    According to the Russian Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, that were constructed under the Russian projects, at the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant the pilot series of different configuration (WR-M2, MR, IRT-4M) fuel elements, based on increased concentration uranium dioxide fuel, have been fabricated for reactor tests. Comprehensive fabricated fuel elements quality estimation has been carried out. (author)

  11. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  12. Incidence and Prognosis of Spinal Hemangioblastoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Giguère, Jean-François; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2016-01-01

    Intradural spinal hemangioblastoma are infrequent, vascular, pathologically benign tumors occurring either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease along the neural axis. Described in fewer than 1,000 cases, literature is variable with respect to epidemiological factors associated with spinal hemangioblastoma and their treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of intradural spinal hemangioblastoma with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database while also presenting an illustrative case. The SEER database was queried for cases of spinal hemangioblastoma between 2000 and 2010 with the use of SEER*Stat software. Incidence was evaluated as a function of age, sex and race. Survival was evaluated with the Cox proportionate hazards ratio using IBM SPSS software evaluating age, sex, location, treatment modality, pathology and number of primaries (p = 0.05). Descriptive statistics of the same factors were also calculated. The case of a 43-year-old patient with a surgical upper cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma is also presented. In the data set between 2000 and 2010, there were 133 cases with an age-adjusted incidence of 0.014 (0.012-0.017) per 100,000 to the standard USA population. Hemangioblastoma was the tenth most common intradural spinal tumor type representing 2.1% (133 of 6,156) of all spinal tumors. There was no difference in incidence between men and women with an female:male rate ratio of 1.05 (0.73-1.50) with p = 0.86. The average age of patients was 48.0 (45.2-50.9) years, and a lower incidence was noted in patients incidence amongst the different races. Treatment included surgical resection in 106 (79.7%) cases, radiation with surgery in 7 (5.3%) cases, and radiation alone was used in only 1 (0.8%) case, and no treatment was performed in 17 (12.8%) cases. Mortality was noted in 12 (9%) cases, and median survival of 27.5 months (range 1-66 months) over the 10-year period. Mortality

  13. NASA fuel cell applications for space: Endurance test results on alkaline fuel cell electrolyzer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibley, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells continue to play a major role in manned spacecraft power generation. The Gemini and Apollo programs used fuel cell power plants as the primary source of mission electrical power, with batteries as the backup. The current NASA use for fuel cells is in the Orbiter program. Here, low temperature alkaline fuel cells provide all of the on-board power with no backup power source. Three power plants per shipset are utilized; the original power plant contained 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. For extended life and better power performance, each power plant now contains three 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. One of the possible future applications for fuel cells will be for the proposed manned Space Station in low earth orbit (LEO)(1, 2, 3). By integrating a water electrolysis capability with a fuel cell (a regenerative fuel cell system), a multikilowatt energy storage capability ranging from 35 kW to 250 kW can be achieved. Previous development work on fuel cell and electrolysis systems would tend to minimize the development cost of this energy storage system. Trade studies supporting initial Space Station concept development clearly show regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage to be superior to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries with regard to subsystem weight, flexibility in design, and integration with other spacecraft systems when compared for an initial station power level ranging from 60 kW to 75 kW. The possibility of scavenging residual O 2 and H 2 from the Shuttle external tank for use in fuel cells for producing power also exists

  14. First ONPE report - French national observatory of fuel poverty. Definitions, indicators, first results and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherel, Didier; Nolay, Pierre; Devaliere, Isolde; Teissier, Olivier; Maresca, Bruno; Guimard, Sebastien; Moisan, Marie; Rousseau, Nicolas; Jouffe, Yves; Poutrel, Severin; Buresi, Sandrine

    2014-09-01

    This first report from the French national observatory of fuel poverty (ONPE) aims at defining fuel poverty and at characterizing and measuring this phenomenon through indicators and inquiries. An additional dimension concerns the vulnerability linked with everyday mobility which is presented in a separate chapter. The national and local policies against fuel poverty are presented with their results, efficiency and possible improvements. A short glimpse on fuel poverty in Europe is given before the conclusion and recommendations

  15. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (4). Investigation of safety evaluation method for fire and explosion incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A special committee on 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objective of this research is to obtain the useful information related to the establishment of quantitative performance objectives and to risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the analysis method of consequences for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution, and fire (including rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radio active materials into the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this technical report, the research results about basic experimental data and the method for safety evaluation of fire and explosion incidents were summarized. (author)

  16. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  17. Main examination results of WWER-1000 fuel after its irradiation in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibiliashvili, Yu.; Dubrovin, K.; Vasilchenko, I.; Yenin, A.; Kushmanov, A.; Smirnov, A.; Smirnov, V.

    1994-01-01

    WWER-1000 fuel examination has been undertaken to specify the properties of fuel assembly members by defining the parameters of their materials and their interconnection in power reactor operation conditions. Nine fuel assemblies are examined. The examination program includes: visual inspection, measurement of overall dimensions, eddy-current test, gamma-scanning, X-ray and neutron radiography, analysis of gas pressure and composition inside fuel rods, ceramography/metallography, mass spectrometry, microanalysis and electron microscopy of fuel and fuel claddings. The examination results suggest that WWER-1000 fuel spent at steady-state operation conditions up to 50 Mwd/kg U of burnup is in satisfactory condition. The examination of all types of fuel cladding failures indicates that the reason lies in the interaction of cladding with coolant solid impurities. The nodular cladding corrosion of fuel assembly discharged from the South-Ukrainian NPP is caused by the graphite compounds deposited on the fuel rod. Those deposits are a result of the circulating pump damage and had accidental, non-typical character. Some of the rods were found to have a small cladding 'fretting' of the spacer grid cell material. The values of the majority of parameters determining the fuel efficiency allow to assume that there is a potential for further extension of fuel burnup and operation length. 1 tab., 11 figs

  18. Main examination results of WWER-1000 fuel after its irradiation in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibiliashvili, Yu [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubrovin, K [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasilchenko, I [Opytno-Konstruktorskoe Byuro Gidropress, Podol` sk (Russian Federation); Yenin, A; Kushmanov, A [AO Novosibirskij Zavod Khimcontsentratov, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Smirnov, A; Smirnov, V [Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    WWER-1000 fuel examination has been undertaken to specify the properties of fuel assembly members by defining the parameters of their materials and their interconnection in power reactor operation conditions. Nine fuel assemblies are examined. The examination program includes: visual inspection, measurement of overall dimensions, eddy-current test, gamma-scanning, X-ray and neutron radiography, analysis of gas pressure and composition inside fuel rods, ceramography/metallography, mass spectrometry, microanalysis and electron microscopy of fuel and fuel claddings. The examination results suggest that WWER-1000 fuel spent at steady-state operation conditions up to 50 Mwd/kg U of burnup is in satisfactory condition. The examination of all types of fuel cladding failures indicates that the reason lies in the interaction of cladding with coolant solid impurities. The nodular cladding corrosion of fuel assembly discharged from the South-Ukrainian NPP is caused by the graphite compounds deposited on the fuel rod. Those deposits are a result of the circulating pump damage and had accidental, non-typical character. Some of the rods were found to have a small cladding `fretting` of the spacer grid cell material. The values of the majority of parameters determining the fuel efficiency allow to assume that there is a potential for further extension of fuel burnup and operation length. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  19. FFTF initial fuel loading, preanalyses, and comparison with preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Daughtry, J.W.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Petrowicz, N.E.; Bennett, R.A.; Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1980-02-01

    Disadvantages of conventional loading from the center out were circumvented by loading one trisector at a time, and connecting the control rod drivelines in each sector after it was loaded so that the rods could be operated during the loading of subsequent trisectors. This sequence was interrupted once during the loading of the final sector, to achieve initial criticality at an approximately minimum critical loading and to measure absolute subcriticality by the rod drop technique. An in-core detector was preferable to the standard FTR ex-core detectors for monitoring the initial fuel loading. Consequently, special fission chambers were installed in an instrument thimble near the core center to monitor the initial fuel loading

  20. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  1. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  2. Incident reporting to BfArM - regulatory framework, results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robin; Stößlein, Ekkehard; Lauer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Medical devices are manifold and one of the most innovative fields of technology. As technologies advance, former limits cease to exist and complex devices become reality. Medical devices represent a very dynamic field with high economic relevance. The manufacturer of a medical device is obliged to minimize product-related risks as well as to demonstrate compliance with the so-called "essential requirements" regarding safety and performance before placing the device on the market. Any critical incident in relation to the application of a medical device has to be reported to the competent authority for risk assessment, which in Germany is either the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) or the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) depending on the type of device. In this article, the German regulatory framework for medical devices and the resulting tasks for BfArM are described as well as the topics of its recently installed research and development group on prospective risk identification and application safety for medical devices. Results of failure mode and root cause analyses of incident data are presented as well as further data on cases with the result "root-cause analysis not possible". Finally an outlook is given on future challenges regarding risk assessment for medical devices.

  3. Description of a plutonium incident in the Hot Laboratory on May 24, 1983, and the resulting consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, W.; Francioni, W.; Ingold, F.; Ledergerber, G.

    1985-08-01

    At 16.15 on 24 May 1983 a rapid chemical reaction occured in an apparatus in which a routine waste sludge evaporation process was under way. The waste was produced during fuel fabrication. The resulting pressure wave ruptured a number of parts at the glove box in which the equipment was situated leading to an alpha contamination of that and neighboring laboratories. The alarm system activated by the fire alarm, the activity detectors and manualy by the operators functioned correctly. No one was physicaly injured and thanks to immediate protecture measures (e.g. gas masks) the amount of alpha-dust incorporated could be limited in degree and extent. Very time-consuming and costly cleaning and decontamination procedures were found to be necessary but these led to the encouraging result that the greater part of the contaminated equipment (particularly electrical and electronic apparatus) could be released for further unrestricted use in open labs. Detailed tests with the original waste solutions showed that at a certain ammonium nitrate content and at 235 C an exothermic chemical reaction can occur in the sludge. This temperature can only be reached due to a defective apparatus (e.g. a broken glass vessel) allowing the sludge to contact the heating element directly. The external expert agrees that this is the most likely cause of the incident. (author)

  4. Results of calculation of WWER-440 fuel rods (Kol`skaya-3 NPP) at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheglov, A; Proselkov, V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Panin, M; Pitkin, Yu [Kol` skaya NPP, (Russian Federation); Tzibulya, V [AO Mashinostroitelnij Zavod Electrostal (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Thermal-physical characteristics of fuel rods of two fuel assemblies which were operated within 5 - 8 and 5 - 9 core fuel loadings of the Unit 3 of the Kol`skaya NPP are calculated. They have achieved deep burnup during 4-year (> 46 Mwd/kg U) and 5-year (> 48 Mwd/kg U) fuel cycle. Fuel assemblies have been unloaded off the reactor and subjected to a post-irradiation testing. PIN-mod2 code originally designed for modelling of WWER fuel rod behaviour in a quasi-steady-state operation is used. The average fuel rod in the fuel assembly and the fuel rod with maximum burnup are selected. The preliminary comparison of the calculation results with those of the post-irradiation examination shows a satisfactory agreement. On the basis of the results obtained in the post-irradiation experiments an improvement of the model for calculation of fission gas release and creep of the cladding is planned. The results of the analysis performed indicate that the fuel rod completely preserves its working ability; fuel temperature does not exceed 1300{sup o} C; fission gas release does not exceed 4%; maximum gas pressure inside the cladding at the end of campaign does not exceed 2 MPa. 2 tabs., 11 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Operation results of 3-rd generation nuclear fuel WWER-440 in initial period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Panov, A.

    2011-01-01

    On unit 4 of Kola NPP trial operation of 3-rd generation's fuel began in 2010. Fuel assemblies of 3-rd generation (FA-3) have a number of design features that provide better operational characteristics. Concise description of a design and the basic advantages of fuel of 3-rd generation are described in articles. Increasing of efficiency of nuclear fuel usage will be achieved by reduction of the parasitic capture of thermal neutrons in constructional materials (weight of zirconium is reduced), optimization of uranium-water relation (increase in fuel elements step), increasing of uranium loading (usage of fuel pellets with increased diameter and without central hole in them). By results of trial operation mass transition to use of given type of assemblies in WWER-440 is possible. This report presents the basic outcomes of the trial operation, a brief survey of the obtained data. The basic characteristics of the reactor core with fuel of 3-rd generation are resulted in work. (authors)

  6. Incidence and impact: The regional variation of poverty effects due to fossil fuel subsidy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentschler, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks, effective compensation and social protection programs are crucial. Based on the statistical simulation model by Araar and Verme (2012), this study estimates the regional variability of direct welfare effects of removing fuel subsidies in Nigeria. Uncompensated subsidy removal is estimated to increase the national poverty rate by 3–4% on average. However, uniform cash compensation that appears effective at the national average, is found to fail to mitigate price shocks in 16 of 37 states – thus putting livelihoods (and public support for reforms) at risk. States that are estimated to incur the largest welfare shocks, coincide with hotspots of civil unrest following Nigeria's 2012 subsidy reform attempt. The study illustrates how regionally disaggregated compensation can be revenue neutral, and maintain or reduce pre-reform poverty rates in all states. Overall, it highlights the importance of understanding differences in vulnerability, and designing tailored social protection schemes which ensure public support for subsidy reforms. - Highlights: •Fossil fuel subsidy reforms can induce significant distributional shifts and price shocks. •There is significant regional variation of a reform's effects on poverty rates. •Compensation is key to protect livelihoods and win public support for reform. •Compensation schemes must be carefully tailored to account for regional variation.

  7. Incidence, treatment and survival of patients with craniopharyngioma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Brad E.; Bruce, Samuel S.; Goldstein, Hannah; Malone, Hani R.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare primary central nervous system neoplasm. Our objective was to determine factors associated with incidence, treatment, and survival of craniopharyngiomas in the United States. We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program (SEER) database to identify patients who received a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma during 2004–2008. We analyzed clinical and demographic information, including age, race, sex, tumor histology, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates and age, sex, and race-adjusted expected survival rates were calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between covariates and overall survival. We identified 644 patients with a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. Black race was associated with an age-adjusted relative risk for craniopharyngioma of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.59), compared with white race. One- and 3-year survival rates of 91.5% (95% CI, 88.9%–93.5%), and 86.2% (95% CI, 82.7%–89.0%) were observed for the cohort; relative survival rates were 92.1% (95% CI, 89.5%–94.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI, 84.1%–90.4%) for 1- and 3-years, respectively. In the multivariable model, factors associated with prolonged survival included younger age, smaller tumor size, subtotal resection, and radiation therapy. Black race, on the other hand, was associated with worse overall survival in the final model. We demonstrated that >85% of patients survived 3 years after diagnosis and that subtotal resection and radiation therapy were associated with prolonged survival. We also noted a higher incidence rate and worse 1- and 3-year survival rates in the black population. Future investigations should examine these racial disparities and focus on evaluating the efficacy of emerging treatment paradigms. PMID:22735773

  8. Complications following incident stroke resulting in readmissions: an analysis of data from three Scottish health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Miller, Claire; Govan, Lindsay; Haig, Caroline; Wu, Olivia; Langhorne, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Stroke is widely recognized as the major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United Kingdom. We analyzed the data obtained from the three consecutive Scottish Health Surveys and the Scottish Morbidity records, with the aim of identifying risk factors for, and timing of, common poststroke complications. There were 19434 individuals sampled during three Scottish Health Surveys in 1995, 1998, and 2001. For these individuals their morbidity and mortality outcomes were obtained in 2007. Incident stroke prevalence, risk factors for a range of poststroke complications, and average times until such complications in the sample were established. Of the total of 168 incident stroke admissions (0·86% of the survey), 16·1% people died during incident stroke hospitalization. Of the remaining 141 stroke survivors, 75·2% were rehospitalized at least once. The most frequent reason for readmission after stroke was a cardiovascular complication (28·6%), median time until event 1412 days, followed by infection (17·3%, median 1591 days). The risk of cardiovascular readmission was higher in those with 'poor' self-assessed health (odds ratio 7·70; 95% confidence interval 1·64-43·27), smokers (odds ratio 4·24; 95% confidence interval 1·11-21·59), and doubled with every five years increase in age (odds ratio 1·97; 95% confidence interval 1·46-2·65). 'Poor' self-assessed health increased chance of readmission for infection (odds ratio 14·11; 95% confidence interval 2·27-276·56). Cardiovascular events and infections are the most frequent poststroke complications resulting in readmissions. The time period until event provides a possibility to focus monitoring on those people at risk of readmission and introduce preventative measures, thereby reducing readmission-associated costs. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  9. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  10. Critical incidence reporting systems - an option in equine anaesthesia? Results from a panel meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Driessen, Bernd; Pang, Daniel; Wohlfender, Franziska

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief introduction into Critical Incident Reporting Systems (CIRS) as used in human medicine, and to report the discussion from a recent panel meeting discussion with 23 equine anaesthetists in preparation for a new CEPEF-4 (Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities) study. Moderated group discussions, and review of literature. The first group discussion focused on the definition of 'preventable critical incidents' and/or 'near misses' in the context of equine anaesthesia. The second group discussion focused on categorizing critical incidents according to an established framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical medicine. While critical incidents do occur in equine anaesthesia, no critical incident reporting system including systematic collection and analysis of critical incidents is in place. Critical incident reporting systems could be used to improve safety in equine anaesthesia - in addition to other study types such as mortality studies. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  11. Breast Density and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Lebanese Population: Results from a Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the distribution of breast mammogram density in Lebanese women and correlate it with breast cancer (BC incidence. Methods. Data from 1,049 women who had screening or diagnostic mammography were retrospectively reviewed. Age, menopausal status, contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT, parity, breastfeeding, history of BC, breast mammogram density, and final BI-RADS assessment were collected. Breast density was analyzed in each age category and compared according to factors that could influence breast density and BC incidence. Results. 120 (11.4% patients had BC personal history with radiation and/or chemotherapy; 66 patients were postmenopausal under HRT. Mean age was 52.58±11.90 years. 76.4% of the patients (30–39 years had dense breasts. Parity, age, and menopausal status were correlated to breast density whereas breastfeeding and personal/family history of BC and HRT were not. In multivariate analysis, it was shown that the risk of breast cancer significantly increases 3.3% with age (P=0.005, 2.5 times in case of menopause (P=0.004, and 1.4 times when breast density increases (P=0.014. Conclusion. Breast density distribution in Lebanon is similar to the western society. Similarly to other studies, it was shown that high breast density was statistically related to breast cancer, especially in older and menopausal women.

  12. PBF Severe Fuel-Damage Program: results and comparison to analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Buescher, B.J.; Hobbins, R.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Gruen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel-damage research program in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to investigate fuel-rod and core response, and fission-product and hydrogen release and transport under degraded-core-cooling accident conditions. This paper presents a description of Phase I of the PBF Severe Fuel Damage Program, discusses the results of the first experiment, and compares those results with analysis performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code

  13. Analysis of fuel-handling incidents (safety analysis detailed report no. 5). PEC Brasimone reactor design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-15

    The features covered by this report deal with the equipment and cells in which the handling, examination, measurement, conditioning and storage of core elements are carried out. The operations covered range from the receiving of new element shipments to their insertion in the vessel (excluding handling inside the vessel itself, which is covered in report no. 2) and removal of the spent-elements from the vessel, transfer to their final storage and their ultimate loading into containers for transport outside the plant. The incident analysis along the path of the spent fuel was conducted with the same method adopted for other plant systems. It is treated separately here because the operation of the handling system is practically autonomous from reactor operation.

  14. Thermal and in-pile densification of MOX fuels: Some recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillot, L.; Malgouyres, P.P.; Souchon, F.; Gotta, M.J.; Warin, D.; Chotard, A.; Couty, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In-pile densification of PWR fuels is one of the main phenomena which determine the evolution of the pellet-clad gap during the first stage of the irradiation, and thus has consequences onto the thermo-mechanical behaviours of fuel rods. It can be predicted using the results of resintering tests and appropriate correlations. In this context, CEA, FRAMATOME and EDF have undertaken a joint research programme aiming to characterize the densification of MOX fuels. Different fuels were prepared by the MIMAS process using different UO 2 powders as matrix. After a detailed characterization, fuel pellets were submitted to isothermal resintering tests and analytical irradiations. Correlations between in-pile and thermal densification were established. This paper presents the results obtained with two types of MOX fuel: one fabricated wit the AUC UO 2 powder (ammonium uranyl carbonate conversion process) and another one fabricated with the SFEROX powder (peroxide conversion process). 8 refs, 8 figs

  15. Data base and postirradiation examination results of spent WWER-1000 fuel elements and assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.A.; Polenok, V.S.; Smirnov, A.V.; Zhitelev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The report presents the results of the postirradiation shape change examination of standard fuel elements and fuel assemblies irradiated in standard conditions in Russian power reactors of the WWER-1000 type. The information is based on the results obtained at the Fuel Research Department of the Federal Scientific Centre Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (FSC RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russian Federation) within the period from 1987 to 1994. Emphasis is placed on such experimental and calculational data as: length, cross-section dimensions and shape of FAs with wrapper; change of standard FA skeleton members dimensions; fuel bundle elongation; change of the fuel cladding outer diameter; and elongation and change of the fuel stack outer diameter. (author)

  16. Incident factor as a learning aspect to enhance safety culture in the experimental fuel element installation of PTBN - BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Hardiyanti; Agus Sartono; Bambang Herutomo; AS Latief

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear facility depends not only on the fulfillment of all technical requirements, but also on the role of non-technical aspects. The primary causation of incidents or accidents in a nuclear facility is human error which is non-technical. Therefore, in order to enhance safety, efforts from the technical aspects are as important as efforts to deal with the human factor which can be done through the application of safety culture in the facility. Incidents that took place in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation (EFEI) of PTBN - BATAN from 2011 to 2012 were caused by aging instruments and human error. In order to prevent accidents and to enhance safety, non-technical efforts that were done in the EFEI were, interalia, the obligations on all personnel to attend the pre-lab briefing, to prepare a work proposal, to compose a HIRADC (hazard identification, risk assessment, and determining control) document, to utilize self protection devices, to perform a routine maintenance, and to practice safe behavior. All personnel were involved in all those efforts. Safety is the first priority and can always be improved in the facility. A strong commitment of and cooperation between the top management and the staff are needed. (author)

  17. Results from the characterisation of the Futurix-FTA metal alloy transmutation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rory Kennedy, J.; O'Holleran, Th.; Keiser, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Idaho National Laboratory has been developing and irradiation testing a number of fuels and fuel types for actinide transmutation as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Fuel types under consideration include both fertile (fast reactor systems) and fertile-free (accelerator-driven systems) metallic alloys. Most recently, fuel fabrication was completed and the fuel pins shipped to the fast flux Phenix reactor in Marcoule, France for irradiation testing as part of the FUTURIX-FTA experiment: an international experiment involving the USA, France, the European Commission and Japan. The metal alloy fuels for this experiment are the low-fertile U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr and the non-fertile Pu-12Am-40Zr. The fresh fuels have been fully characterised for chemical composition, phase, microstructure, thermal behaviour and fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI). Preliminary FCCI results raised some safety concerns with respect to the formation of low melting phases and cladding degradation, which could preclude a fuel from consideration. Results from diffusion couple experiments between the non-fertile fuel Pu-12Am-40Zr and the ferritic HT9 and 422 stainless steels (SS) used in the AFC experiments in the ATR reactor (USA) compared to the austenitic AIM1 SS used in the FUTURIX-FTA experiments in the Phenix reactor (France) indicate significant inter-diffusion with the AIM1 SS. Up to about a 30-fold increase in the diffusion of iron (and accompanying Ni and Cr) into the fuel at 650 C was observed compared to the 422 SS studies. Comparable studies between the low-fertile U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr fuel alloy and the AIM1 SS show virtually no inter-diffusion. The Fe (along with small amounts of Ni and Cr) appears as small precipitates in the fuel alloy with only minor concentrations identified in the fuel alloy matrix. These results will be discussed in terms of mechanisms of the inter-diffusion and the difference in behaviour between the

  18. Results of experimental investigations for substantiation of WWER cermet fuel pin performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.; Karpin, A.D.; Isupov, I.A.; Rumyantsev, V.N.; Troyanov, V.M.; Subonyaev, V.N.; Melnichenko, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The out-of-pile experiment results on interaction of the cladding and matrix materials and uranium dioxide at cermet fuel temperature for normal operating conditions of the WWER-440 reactor are analyzed. Cermet fuel element behaviour under the maximum designed damage of the WWER-440 reactor is considered. In the AM reactor loop a fission product output from the unsealed cermet fuel elements have been studied. (author). 6 figs, 3 tabs

  19. The results of postirradiation examinations of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 fuel rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovin, K. P.; Ivanov, E. G.; Strijov, P. N.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    1991-02-01

    The paper presents the results of postirradiation examination of the fuel rods having different fuel-cladding gaps, pellet densities, pellet inner diameters and so on. The fuel rods were irradiated in the material science reactor (MR) of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy and at 4 unit of the Novo-Voronezh nuclear powerplant. Some data on fission gas release and rod geometry and compared with computer code predictions.

  20. Comparison of the Transportation Risks Resulting from Accidents during the Transportation of the Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Jong Tae; Cho, Dong Kuen; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    The safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable disposal of high level wastes and spent fuels is becoming a very important issue. The operational safety assessment of a repository including a transportation safety assessment is a fundamental part in order to achieve this goal. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for spent fuels. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from the accidents during the transportation of spent fuels for these four transportation scenarios

  1. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  2. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  3. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  4. Incidence of sulfur based additives to the microstructure of nuclear fuels. Elaboration and characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caranoni, L.

    2002-05-01

    Even though the global reactor working of MOX fuel is good, the fission gas emission now represents the limitative factor of its use at high burn-up. The increase of the average grain size promotes the diffusional length of fission gas inside the grain, slowing down their emission. In this respect, we have studied the influence of sulphur based additives on the crystal grain growth of nuclear oxide ceramics. The first part of this work concerns the preparation and characterisation of sulfur additives and especially the uranium oxy-sulphur, UOS. The study of its thermal behaviour has shown that the partial pressure ratio pH 2 O/pH 2 S controls the reaction kinetics between UOS and H 2 O vapour, which leads to SO 2 emission. After sintering at 1700 deg. C under reducing atmosphere, the UOS grains are strongly anisotropic. Their structure is characterised by (0,0,1) planar defects. The second part presents the study of the incorporation of these additives in UO 2 powder. We have shown that the sulphur has a very favourable action on crystal growth. After sintering at 1700 deg C during 4 hours under Ar-5% H 2 - 1000 ppm H 2 O atmosphere, the average grain size is about 25-30 microns. The samples present a local grain size gradient between a thick peripheral layer (usual grain size) and the core (large grains) which is in accordance with a local sulphur concentration gradient. The sulphur action suddenly appears during the thermal cycle between 1600 deg C and 1700 deg C, whereas its mass concentration is lower than 30 ppm. SIMS analysis have highlighted, in the core, the segregation of sulphur at the grain boundary. According to these observations, a mechanism has been proposed to explain the activation induced by sulphur. The experiences carried out on mixed oxide, especially (U, Pu)O 2 , confirm that the grain growth activation is induced by the presence of sulphur. (authors)

  5. RESULTS OF AIRPLANE TU-204-300 OPERATED BY "VLADIVOSTOK AVIA" COMPANY FUEL FLOW MONITIRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Maslennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results obtained from continuous monitoring of fuel flow on the airplanes Tu-204-300, operated by the aircompany "Vladivostok Avia". The reasons for the change in the cost of each copy of airplane and changes in fuel characteristics due to pilots manner of flying.

  6. Results of Cesar II critical facility with low enriched fuel balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, G; Guerange, J; Laponche, B; Morier, F; Neef, R D; Bock, H J; Kring, F J; Scherer, W

    1972-06-15

    The Cesar facility has been transformed to load in its center a pebble bed fuel. This new Cesar assembly is called Cesar II. The program for the measurements with HTR type fuel balls is managed under a cooperation between physicists of CEA/CADARACHE and KFA/JUELICH. A description of the measuring zones of Cesar II and of the experimental results is given.

  7. Abstract of results of safety study. Nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This report descried the results of studies of nuclear fuel cycle field (nuclear fuel facilities, seismic design, all subjects of environmental radiation and waste disposal, and subjects on nuclear fuel cycle in probabilistic safety assessment) in fiscal 2003 on the basis of the principle project of safety study (from fiscal 2001 to 2005). It consists of four chapters; the first chapter is outline of the principle of project, the second is objects and subjects of safety study in the nuclear fuel cycle field, the third list of questionnaire of results of safety study and the forth investigation of results of safety study in fiscal 2003. There are 49 lists, which include 22 reports on the nuclear fuel facility, one on the seismic design, 4 on the probabilistic safety assessment, 7 on the environmental radiation and 15 on the waste disposal. (S.Y.)

  8. Development and testing of incident detection algorithms. Vol. 2, research methodology and detailed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    The development and testing of incident detection algorithms was based on Los Angeles and Minneapolis freeway surveillance data. Algorithms considered were based on times series and pattern recognition techniques. Attention was given to the effects o...

  9. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchinat, Sybil; Cebrián-Cuenca, Ana M; Bricout, Hélène; Johnson, Robert W

    2013-04-10

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Available data in Europe have shortcomings which make an accurate assessment of HZ incidence and change over time impossible. However, data are indicative that HZ incidence is comparable, and increases with age in the same proportion across Europe.

  10. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  11. Incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans: Results of the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Gladys E; Mena, Luis J; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pino-Ramírez, Gloria; Urribarrí, Milady; Chacon, Inara J; Chávez, Carlos A; Falque-Madrid, Luis; Gaona, Ciro A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Lee, Joseph H; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of dementia in developing countries. We used longitudinal data from the Maracaibo Aging Study to accurately determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) was used to diagnose dementia, which was classified as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or other. Age- and sex-specific incidence was estimated as the number of new cases of dementia divided by person-years (p-y) of follow-up. The incidence of all dementia diagnoses was 9.10 per 1000 p-y (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.13-11.44; 8026 total p-y), 5.18 for Alzheimer's disease (95% CI 3.72-7.03; 7916 total p-y), and 3.35 for vascular dementia (95% CI 2.19-4.91; 7757 total p-y). Among Maracaibo Aging Study participants younger than 65 years, the incidence of dementia was higher than that of US Whites. Among individuals older than 65 years, the incidence was comparable to the mean of previous incidence estimates for other populations worldwide. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  13. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MOX fuel irradiation behaviour: Results from X-ray microbeam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.T.; Goll, W.; Matsumura, T.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of plutonium, xenon and caesium were investigated in two sections of irradiated MOX fuel produced by the OCOM process. In one fuel (OCOM30), the MOX agglomerates contained 18 wt% fissile plutonium, and had a low volume fraction of 0.17; in the other (OCOM15) the agglomerates contained 9 wt% fissile plutonium, and had a high volume fraction of 0.34. Both fuels had been irradiated under normal power reactor conditions to a burn-up of approximately 44 GWd/t. The main aim of the work was to establish whether the above differences in composition affected the percentage fission gas released by the fuels. Since U/Pu interdiffusion did not occurred during the irradiation, both fuels remained inhomogeneous on the microscopic scale. However, the concentration of plutonium in the MOX agglomerates decreases by about 50% as a result of fission, whereas the plutonium content of the UO 2 matrix increased by about a factor of four to approximately 2 wt% due to neutron capture by 238 U. The agglomerates in the OCOM15 fuel generally exhibited a finer structure due to the lower burn-up. More than 80% of the fission gas had been released from the oxide lattice of the MOX agglomerates in both fuels. However, a very high fraction of this gas precipitated and remained in the pore structure of the agglomerates. Consequently, puncturing revealed that for both fuels the percentage of gas released to the rod free volume increased from less than 0.5% at 10 GWd/t to a maximum of 3.5% at 45 GWd/t. The conclusion is that the percentage of gas released by MOX fuel is largely unaffected of the level of inhomogeneity of the fuel. In both fuels caesium showed near complete retention in both the MOX agglomerates and the UO 2 matrix. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  15. PSA predicts development of incident lower urinary tract symptoms: results from the REDUCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Devin N; Feng, Tom; Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Vidal, Adriana C; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Roehrborn, Claus; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-05-23

    The relationship between baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic men is unclear. We sought to determine if PSA predicts incident LUTS in these men. A post-hoc analysis of the 4-year REDUCE study was performed to assess for incident LUTS in 1534 men with mild to no LUTS at baseline. The primary aim was to determine whether PSA independently predicted incident LUTS after adjusting for the key clinical variables of age, prostate size, and baseline International prostate symptom score (IPSS). Incident LUTS was defined as the first report of medical treatment, surgery, or sustained clinically significant symptoms (two IPSS >14). Cox proportional hazards, cumulative incidence curves, and the log-rank test were used to test our hypothesis. A total of 1534 men with baseline IPSS PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL, 589 with PSA 4.1-6 ng/mL, and 610 with PSA 6-10 ng/mL. During the 4-year study, 196 men progressed to incident LUTS (50.5% medical treatment, 9% surgery, and 40.5% new symptoms). As a continuous variable, higher PSA was associated with increased incident LUTS on univariable (HR 1.09, p = 0.019) and multivariable (HR 1.08, p = 0.040) analysis. Likewise, baseline PSA 6-10 ng/mL was associated with increased incident LUTS vs. PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL in adjusted models (HR 1.68, p = 0.016). This association was also observed in men with PSA 4.1-6 ng/mL vs. PSA 2.5-4 ng/mL (HR 1.60, p = 0.032). Men with mild to no LUTS but increased baseline PSA are at increased risk of developing incident LUTS presumed due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  16. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  17. Energy Harvesting From River Sediment Using a Microbial Fuel Cell: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Namour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have built a sedimentary fuel cell or Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC. The device works on the principle of microbial fuel cells by exploiting directly the energy contained in sedimentary organic matter. It converts in electricity the sediment potential, thanks to microorganisms able to waste electrons from their metabolism directly to a solid anode instead of their natural electron acceptors, such as oxygen or nitrate. The sediment microbial fuel cell was made of a non-corrodible anode (graphite buried in anoxic sediments layer and connected via an electrical circuit to a cathode installed in surface water. We present the first results of laboratory sedimentary fuel cell and a prototype installed in the river.

  18. Preliminary test results for post irradiation examination on the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Shohei; Umeda, Masayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sozawa, Shizuo; Shimizu, Michio; Ishigaki, Yoshinobu; Obata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The future post-irradiation program for the first-loading fuel of the HTTR is scheduled using the HTTR fuel handling facilities and the Hot Laboratory in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to confirm its irradiation resistance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the core. This report describes the preliminary test results and the future plan for a post-irradiation examination for the HTTR fuel. In the preliminary test, fuel compacts made with the same SiC-coated fuel particle as the first loading fuel were used. In the preliminary test, dimension, weight, fuel failure fraction, and burnup were measured, and X-ray radiograph, SEM, and EPMA observations were carried out. Finally, it was confirmed that the first-loading fuel of the HTTR showed good quality under an irradiation condition. The future plan for the post-irradiation tests was described to confirm its irradiation performance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the HTTR core. (author)

  19. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  1. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  2. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0 2 ) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations

  3. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  4. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  5. Outline of results of safety research (in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The safety research in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in fiscal year 1996 has been carried out based on the basic plan of safety research (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) which was decided in March, 1996. In this report, on nuclear fuel cycle field, namely all the subjects in the fields of nuclear fuel facilities, environmental radioactivity and waste disposal, and the subjects related to nuclear fuel facilities among the fields of aseismatic and probabilistic safety assessments, the results of research in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5-year project, are summarized together with the outline of the basic plan of safety research. The basic policy, objective and system for promotion of the safety research are described. The objectives of the safety research are the advancement of safety technology, the safety of facilities, stable operation techniques, the safety design and the evaluation techniques of next generation facilities, and the support of transferring nuclear fuel cycle to private businesses. The objects of the research are uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and waste treatment and storage. 52 investigation papers of the results of the safety research in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996 are collected in this report. (K.I.)

  6. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 1990 (Run 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschman, S.C.; Abrefah, J.; Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100-Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basins have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuels in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first of those tests (Run 1), which was conducted on an N-Reactor inner fuel element (1990) that had been stored underwater in the K-West Basin (see Section 2.0). This fuel element was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The testing was conducted in the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 3.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in Section 4.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 5.0. These results are further discussed in Section 6.0

  7. Results from the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti

    2014-06-01

    Modular HTGR designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all design basis accidents and presently envisioned severe accidents. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude and allows potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. This level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high fuel fabrication quality and performance under normal operation and accident conditions. Germany produced and demonstrated high quality fuel for their pebble bed HTGRs in the 1980s, but no U.S. manufactured fuel had exhibited equivalent performance prior to the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The design goal of the modular HTGRs is to allow elimination of an exclusion zone and an emergency planning zone outside the plant boundary fence, typically interpreted as being about 400 meters from the reactor. To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is better than that claimed for all prior US manufactured TRISO fuel, by a few orders of magnitude. The improved performance level is about a factor of three better than qualified for German TRISO fuel in the 1980’s. At the start of the AGR program, without a reactor design concept selected, the AGR fuel program selected to qualify fuel to an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic options. This resulted in needing a fuel form that could survive at peak fuel temperatures of 1250°C on a time-averaged basis and high burnups in the range of 150 to 200 GWd/MTHM (metric tons of heavy metal) or 16.4 to 21.8% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). Although Germany has demonstrated excellent performance of TRISO-coated UO

  8. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  9. Some Main Results of Commissioning of the Dalat Research Reactor with Low Enriched Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien; Luong Ba Vien; Pham Van Lam; Le Vinh Vinh; Huynh Ton Nghiem

    2014-01-01

    After completion of design calculation of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) for conversion from high-enriched uranium fuel (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the commissioning programme for DNRR with entire core loaded with LEU fuel was successfully carried out from 24 November 2011 to 13 January 2012. The experimental results obtained during the implementation of commissioning programme showed a good agreement with design calculations and affirmed that the DNRR with LEU core have met all safety and exploiting requirements. (author)

  10. Development of a recovery process of scraps resulting from the manufacture of metallic uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Kuada, Terezinha A.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.; Cohen, Victor H.; Araujo, Bertha F.; Lobao, Afonso S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the dissolution of natural metallic uranium fuel samples with aluminium cladding is presented, in order to obtain optimized conditions for the system. The aluminium cladding was dissolved in an alkaline solution of Na OH/Na NO 3 and the metallic uranium with HNO 3 . A fumeless dissolution with total recovery of nitrous gases was achieved. The main purpose of this project was the recovery of uranium from scraps resulting from the manufacture of the metallic uranium fuel or other non specified fuels. (author)

  11. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 5744U (Run 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basins have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the fourth of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister 5744U. This element (referred to as Element 5744U) was stored underwater in the K-West Basin from 1983 until 1996. Element 5744U was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections of the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0, and discussed in Section 6.0

  12. Drying Results of K-Basin Fuel Element 2660M (Run 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the seventh of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister 2660M. This element (referred to as Element 2660M) was stored underwater in the K-West Basin from 1983 until 1996. Element 2660M was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections of the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0, and discussed in Section 6.0

  13. Drying Results of K-Basin Fuel Element 6513U (Run 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the eighth of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister 6513U. This element (referred to as Element 6513U) was stored underwater in the K-West Basin from 1983 until 1996. Element 6513U was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections of the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0 and discussed in Section 6.0

  14. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 1164M (run 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-08-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the sixth of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister 1164 M. This element (referred to as Element 1164M) was stored underwater in the K-West Basin from 1983 until 1996. Element 1164M was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections of the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0, and discussed in Section 6.0

  15. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  16. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology, development, use, and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the development and use of the most recent version (Version 1.5) of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with diameters of 10 micrometers or less, and sulfur oxides) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption when various transportation fuels are used. The GREET model includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, dimethyl ether, and Fischer-Tropsch diesel; and landfill gases to methanol. This report also presents the results of the analysis of fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies to be applied to passenger cars and light-duty trucks

  17. Postirradiation examination results from the LP-FP-2 center fuel module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, S.M.; Akers, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The LP-FP-2 experiment was conducted on July 9, 1985 in the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of this experiment was to provide information of the release, transport, and deposition of fission products and aerosols during a sever core damage event performed in a large scale nuclear reactor facility. Postirradiation nondestructive and destructive examinations of the fuel bundle provided information to assist in achieving this objective, as well as providing information on the material behavior and interactions that occurred within the fuel bundle during this sever core damage experiment. This was a large-scale integral test, incorporating an 11 x 11 array of fuel rods, control rods, and instrumentation tubes, with an active core length of 1.68 m. Peak temperatures in the fuel bundle exceeded 2100 K or approximately 4.5 min, with localized peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the UO 2 fuel (3120 K). Large amounts of zircaloy oxidation and material relocation occurred during the experiment. The transient phase was terminated by a rapid reflood of cooling water, which resulted in significant oxidation and hydrogen generation. Zircaloy oxidation during the reflood period caused a rapid temperature excursion to occur in the upper two-thirds of the fuel bundle. This article summarizes the data and analysis from the postirradiation examinations of the LP-FP-2 fuel bundle. 12 refs., 39 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Results from Cycles 1 and 2 of NNWSI Series 2 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1987-05-01

    PWR spent fuel rod segments from the H.B. Robinson Unit 2 and Turkey Point Unit 3 reactors were leach tested in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) reference J-13 water under ambient hot cell conditions. The test matrix included bare fuel plus the cladding, rod segments with artificially induced cladding defects, and undefected rod segments. Radionuclide release results are presented and discussed. The actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np appear to have been released congruently as the UO 2 oxide fuel matrix dissolved. Preferential U release measured in certain tests may be related to dissolution of oxidized UO/sub 2+x/ from the fuel surface, and/or greater solubility (and mobility) of U relative to the other actinides within defected cladding specimens. Uranium solubility measured in the J-13 water was much greater then that measured in deionized water in previous tests. All of the principal fission products analyzed ( 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc and 90 Sr) were released preferentially relative to the actinides. Preferential release of activation product 14 C was also measured, with a portion of the 14 C release appearing to originate from the cladding exterior surface. Much greater fractional fuel dissolution appeared to have occurred with bare fuel particles than from fuel contained in defected cladding. Actinide release from test specimens containing small (∼200 μm) laser-drilled holes through the cladding was not significantly greater than from undefected specimens

  19. A Profile of Criminal Incidents at School: Results from the 2003-05 National Crime Victimization Survey Crime Incident Report NCES 2010-318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Sally A.; Bauer, Lynn; Neiman, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    This report provides estimates of criminal incidents that occur at school. Incident-level data were obtained from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), the nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization and criminal incidents in the United States. The NCVS collects demographic information on respondents in the NCVS…

  20. Diabetes Incidence and Glucose Tolerance after Termination of Pioglitazone Therapy: Results from ACT NOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2016-05-01

    Thiazolidinediones have proven efficacy in preventing diabetes in high-risk individuals. However, the effect of thiazolidinediones on glucose tolerance after cessation of therapy is unclear. To examine the effect of pioglitazone (PIO) on incidence of diabetes after discontinuing therapy in ACT NOW. Design, Settings and Patients: Two-hundred ninety-three subjects (placebo [PLAC], n = 138; PIO, n = 152) completed a median followup of 11.7 mo after study medication was stopped. Diabetes developed in 138 (12.3%) of PLAC vs 17 of 152 PIO patients (11.2%; P = not significant, PIO vs PLAC). However, the cumulative incidence of diabetes from start of study medication to end of washout period remained significantly lower in PIO vs PLAC (10.7 vs 22.3%; P < .005). After therapy was discontinued, 23.0% (35/152) of PIO-treated patients remained normal-glucose tolerant (NGT) vs 13.8% (19/138) of PLAC-treated patients (P = .04). Insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (I0-120/G0-120 × Matsuda index) was markedly lower in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who converted to diabetes during followup vs those who remained IGT or NGT. The decline in-cell function (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) was similar in subjects with IGT who developed diabetes, irrespective of whether they were treated with PIO or PLAC. 1) The protective effect of PIO on incidence of diabetes attenuates after discontinuation of therapy, 2) cumulative incidence of diabetes in individuals exposed to PIO remained significantly (56%) lower than PLAC and a greater number of PIO-treated individuals maintained NGT after median followup of 11.4 mo, and 3) low insulin secretion/insulin resistance index is a strong predictor of future diabetes following PIO discontinuation.

  1. Complementary results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The results of analysis made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety in the area of the Bonifacio estuary do not reveal any increase of artificial radioactivity following the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine. They confirm the previous published results. (N.C.)

  2. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  3. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  4. Integration of post-irradiation examination results of failed WWER fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Markov, D.; Smirnov, V.; Polenok, V.; Perepelkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to investigate the causes of WWER fuel rod failures and to reveal the dependence of the failed fuel rod behaviour and state on the damage characteristics and duration of their operation in the core. The post-irradiation examination of 12 leaky fuel assemblies (5 for WWER-440 and 7 for WWER-1000) has been done at SSC RF RIAR. The results show that the main mechanism responsible for the majority of cases of the WWER fuel rod perforation is debris-damage of the claddings. Debris fretting of the claddings spread randomly over the fuel assembly cross-section and they are registered in the area of the bundle supporting grid or under the lower spacer grids along the fuel assembly height. In the WWER fuel rods, the areas of secondary hydrogenating of cladding are spaced from the primary defects by ∼2500-3000 mm, as a rule, and are often adjacent closely to the upper welded joints. There is no pronounced dependence of the distance between the primary and secondary cladding defects neither on the linear power, at which the fuel rods were operated, nor on the period of their operation in the leaky state. The time period of the significant secondary damage formation is about 250 ± 50 calendar days for the WWER fuel rods with slight through primary defects (∼0.1 - 0.5 mm 2 ) operated in the linear power range 170-215 W/cm. Cladding degradation, taking place due to the secondary hydrogenating, does not occur in case of large through debris-defects during operation up to 600 calendar days

  5. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the CASCAD plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, P.

    1997-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry repository, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous control of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a repository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (= CASemate CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29, 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concept and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  6. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.; Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet on which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author). 1 fig

  7. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry depositary, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29 th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  8. Drying Results of K-Basin Fuel Element 6603M (Rune 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.M. Oliver; G.A. Ritter; G.S. Klinger; J. Abrefah; L.R. Greenwood; P.J. MacFarlan; S.C. Marschman

    1999-09-24

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium spent nuclear fuels in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the fifth of those tests conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element (6603M) which had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-West basin from 1983 until 1996. This fuel element was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments which were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0. The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections on the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0. Discussion of the results is given in Section 6.0.

  9. Drying Results of K-Basin Fuel Element 6603M (Rune 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Ritter, G.A.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Greenwood, L.R.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Marschman, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium spent nuclear fuels in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the fifth of those tests conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element (6603M) which had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-West basin from 1983 until 1996. This fuel element was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments which were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0. The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections on the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0. Discussion of the results is given in Section 6.0

  10. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  12. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  13. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  14. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  15. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pawlowski, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  16. Skin contamination resulting from an uranyl nitrate burn. An incident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, B.; Auriol, B.; Berard, P.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the circumstances of a burn incident on hand by a mixture of diluted nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. The burn is located on the left hand fingers. After important washings uranium remains on the fingers. During about ten days, the worker is examined and the therapy is going on till the total radioactivity disappearance. Urine collection of twenty four hours is prescribed during the treatment. The whole activity is kept on the burnt skin. The quick desquamation is the elimination way of the skin retention. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the USS Hartford submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    No radiological impact has been revealed in relation with the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine at the north of Sardinia. The analysis have been made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.).The Uss Hartford submarine had hit the bottom of the sea, on the 25. of october 2003, between the islands of Sardinia at a thirty kilometers distance in the south of Bonifacio. The accident had been declared to the public only on the 12. of November 2003. (N.C.)

  18. Fuel safety criteria technical review - Results of OECD/CSNI/PWG2 Task Force on Fuel Safety Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollasky, N.; Valtonen, K.; Hache, G.; Gross, H.; Bakker, K.; Recio, M.; Bart, G.; Zimmermann, M.; Van Doesburg, W.; Killeen, J.; Meyer, R.O.; Speis, T.

    2000-01-01

    of the assessment of the safety criteria, the TF members looked at various issues, as they relate to one or more criteria, that have become of special interest. These topics included high burnup, core management, MOX, mixed cores, incomplete control rod insertion, and axial offset anomaly. Also, an attempt was made to assess the current level of methods and codes, which are used to verify the criteria and margins. As code development activities are widespread, the Task Force could not identify all such activities but focused on those needed to adequately analyse the effects of new design elements. The Task Force did not extensively review all ongoing and future research programs. However, a few examples of research programs are given that contribute to investigating the phenomena and mechanisms of fuel behavior under transient / accident conditions. These include hot-cell testing at Argonne National Laboratory in the U.S., the Halden Reactor Project in Norway, research and development work by Belgonucleaire in Belgium, the Cabri test reactor and related programs in France, and the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor program in Japan. As a result of all above assessments, the Task Force considers that the current framework of fuel safety criteria remains generally applicable, being largely unaffected by the 'new' or modern design elements; the levels (numbers) in the individual safety criteria may, however, change in accordance with the particular fuel and core design features. Some of these levels have already been - or are continuously being - adjusted; level adjustments of several other criteria (RIA, LOCA) also appear to be needed, on the basis of experimental data and the analysis thereof. For this (re)assessment of fuel safety criteria, the following process is recommended: (a) Continue to develop best-estimate (nominal) analysis methods, together with a suitable uncertainty analysis, in all areas of safety analysis (b) Continue to perform experimental verification

  19. Review of Transient Fuel Test Results at Sandia National Laboratories and the Potential for Future Fast Reactor Fuel Transient Testing in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Kelly, John; Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reactor driven transient tests of fast reactor fuels may be required to support the development and certification of new fuels for Fast Reactors. The results of the transient fuel tests will likely be needed to support licensing and to provide validation data to support the safety case for a variety of proposed fast fuel types and reactors. In general reactor driven transient tests are used to identify basic phenomenology during reactor transients and to determine the fuel performance limits and margins to failure during design basis accidents such as loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and reactivity insertion accidents. This paper provides a summary description of the previous Sandia Fuel Disruption and Transient Axial Relocation tests that were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission almost 25 years ago. These tests consisted of a number of capsule tests and flowing gas tests that used fission heating to disrupt fresh and irradiated MOX fuel. The behavior of the fuel disruption, the generation of aerosols and the melting and relocation of fuel and cladding was recorded on high speed cinematography. This paper will present videos of the fuel disruption that was observed in these tests which reveal stark differences in fuel behavior between fresh and irradiated fuel. Even though these tests were performed over 25 years ago, their results are still relevant to today's reactor designs. These types of transient tests are again being considered by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership because of the need to perform tests on metal fuels and transuranic fuels. Because the Annular Core Research Reactor is the only transient test facility available within the US, a brief summary of Sandia's continued capability to perform these tests in the ACRR will also be provided. (authors)

  20. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  1. Incidence of anemia in pediatric cancer patients in Europe: results of a large, international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Jean

    2002-10-01

    Anemia occurs frequently in children with cancer, but there is little information quantifying the incidence of anemia or treatment. A survey was conducted in 1998 in Europe by The Research Partnership with the objective of determining the incidence of anemia, identifying the hemoglobin triggers that initiated anemia treatment, and the current anemia treatment options available to clinicians. The survey was conducted in the 10 largest pediatric oncology centers each in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK, and in the 8 largest centers in both Belgium and The Netherlands. Telephone interviews with the most senior physician available in the institution were used to collect data, which included the numbers of patients treated or under follow-up, cancer types, and treatment practices for anemia. Data were collected for 25,093 patients. Over 80% of patients were anemic (WHO: hemoglobin disadvantages of epoetin alfa as a treatment option for treating anemia in children with cancer, which reflects the limited knowledge of and experience with this agent. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-01-01

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  3. Results of recent reactor-material tests on dispersal of oxide fuel from a disrupted core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Vetter, D.L.; Erickson, E.G.; Dewey, G.

    1985-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations and related analyses are reported addressing the dispersal of molten oxide fuel from a disrupted core via various available pathways for the CRBR system. These investigations included the GAPFLOW tests in which pressure-driven and gravity drainage tests were performed using dispersal pathways mocking up the intersubassembly gaps, the CAMEL C6 and C7 tests in which molten fuel entered sodium-filled control assembly ducts under prototypic thermal-hydraulic conditions, and the Lower Internals Drainage (LID) tests in which molten fuel drained downward through simulated below-core structure (orifice plate stacks) as the bottom of control assembly ducts. The results of SHOTGUN tests addressing basic freezing of molten UO 2 and UO 2 /metal mixtures flowing through circular tubes are also reported. Test results have invariably shown the existance of stable UO 2 crusts on the inside surfaces of the flow paths. Appreciable removal of fuel was indicated prior to freezing-induced immobilization. Application of heat transfer models based upon the presence of stable, insulating fuel crusts tends to overpredict the removal process

  4. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected persons in Asia: results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Young; Boettiger, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Huy, Bui Vu; Wong, Wing Wai; Ditangco, Rossana; Lee, Man Po; Oka, Shinichi; Durier, Nicolas; Choi, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion, defined as a positive non-treponemal test after previously testing negative, was evaluated among patients at sites performing non-treponemal tests at least annually. Factors associated with syphilis seroconversion were investigated at sites doing non-treponemal testing in all new patients and subsequently testing routinely or when patients were suspected of having syphilis. We included 1010 patients from five sites that performed non-treponemal tests in all new patients; those included had negative non-treponemal test results during enrolment and subsequent follow-ups. Among them, 657 patients were from three sites conducting regular non-treponemal testing. The incidence of syphilis seroconversion was 5.38/100 person-years (PY). Incidence was higher in MSM than non-MSM (7.64/100 PY vs. 2.44/100 PY, psyphilis diagnosis (IRR 5.15, 95% CI 3.69-7.17) and younger age (IRR 0.84 for every additional 10 years, 95% CI 0.706-0.997) were significantly associated with syphilis seroconversion. We observed a higher incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected MSM and a trend to increasing annual incidence. Regular screening for syphilis and targeted interventions to limit transmission are needed in this population.

  5. Spent Fuel Drying System Test Results (Dry-Run in Preparation for Run 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a)on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of a test ''dry-run'' conducted prior to the eighth and last of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister6513U. The system used for the dry-run test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 4.0 and discussed Section 5.0

  6. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  7. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O 2 F 2 solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  9. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  10. The Test for Flow Characteristics of Tubular Fuel Assembly(II) - Experimental results and CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2006-12-01

    A test facility had been established for the experiment of velocity distribution and pressure drop in a tubular fuel. A basic test had been conducted to examine the performance of the test loop and to verify the accuracy of measurement by pitot-tube. In this report, test results and CFD analysis for the hydraulic characteristics of a tubular fuel, following the previous tests, are described. Coolant velocities in all channels were measured using pitot-tube and the effect of flow rate change on the velocity distribution was also examined. The pressure drop through the tubular fuel was measured for various flow rates in range of 1 kg/s to 21 kg/s to obtain a correlation of pressure drop with variation of flow rate. In addition, a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was also done to find out the hydraulic characteristics of tubular fuel such as velocity distribution and pressure drop. As the results of CFD analysis can give us a detail insight on coolant flow in the tubular fuel, the CFD method is a very useful tool to understand the flow structure and phenomena induced by fluid flow. The CFX-10, a commercial CFD code, was used in this study. The two results by the experiment and the CFD analysis were investigated and compared with each other. Overall trend of velocity distribution by CFD analysis was somewhat different from that of experiment, but it would be reasonable considering measurement uncertainties. The CFD prediction for pressure drop of a tubular fuel shows a tolerably good agreement with experiment within 8% difference

  11. Reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements in hector experimental techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall, R.B.; Small, V.G.; MacBean, I.J.; Howe, W.D.

    1964-08-01

    The techniques used in making reactivity change measurements on HECTOR are described and discussed. Pile period measurements were used in the majority of oases, though the pile oscillator technique was used occasionally. These two methods are compared. Flux determinations were made in the vicinity of the fuel element samples using manganese foils, and the techniques used are described and an error assessment made. Results of both reactivity change and flux measurements on 1.2 in. diameter uranium and plutonium-uranium alloy fuel elements are presented, these measurements being carried out in a variety of graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 450 deg. C. (author)

  12. Experimental-demonstrative system for energy conversion using hydrogen fuel cell - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Patularu, I.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.E.; Carcadea, E.; Mirica, D. . E-mail address of corresponding author: daniela@icsi.ro; Stoenescu, D.)

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (natural gas, methane, biomass, etc.), it can be burned or chemically react having a high yield of energy conversion, being a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system made by a sequence of hydrogen purification units and a CO removing reactors until a CO level lower than 10ppm, that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stack. (author)

  13. General Atomic HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of initial sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In September 1977, the processing of 20 large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fuel elements was completed sequentially through the head-end cold pilot plant equipment. This report gives a brief description of the equipment and summarizes the results of the sequential operation of the pilot plant. 32 figures, 15 tables

  14. Tracing and analytical results of the dioxin contamination incident in 2008 originating from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Hoogenboom, R; Herbes, R; Traag, W; Urlings, B

    2010-12-01

    High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs. Consequently, very high levels up to 500 pg TEQ g⁻¹ fat were found in pork. The congener pattern clearly pointed to PCB-oil as a source, but the ratio between the non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 152 and 180) and PCDD/Fs was much lower than observed during the Belgian incident, thereby limiting the suitability of indicator PCBs as a marker for the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. This paper describes the tracking and tracing of the incident, the public-private cooperation, the surveillance activities and its results. A major lesson to be learned from this incident is the importance of good private food safety systems. In this incident, it was the private surveillance systems that identified the origin of contamination within 10 days after the first signal of increased dioxin levels in a product. On the other hand, retrospective analyses showed that signals were missed that could have led to an earlier detection of the incident and the source. Above all, the incident would not have occurred when food safety assurance systems had been effectively implemented in the involved feed chain. It is discussed that besides primary responsibility for effective private food safety systems, the competent authorities have to supervise whether the food safety procedures are capable of coping with these kinds of complex food safety issues, while private food companies need to implement the law, and public authorities should supervise and enforce them. Finally, it is discussed whether the health risks derived from consumption of the contaminated batches of meat may have been underestimated during the incident due to the unusually high intake of dioxins.

  15. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  16. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  17. Concussion Incidence and Return-to-Play Time in National Basketball Association Players: Results From 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Cole, Brian J; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-09-01

    Various research efforts have studied concussions in the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and the National Hockey League. However, no study has investigated the incidence and return-to-play trends in the National Basketball Association (NBA), which this study aims to do. Increased media scrutiny and public awareness, in addition to the institution of a league-wide concussion protocol, may have resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions to NBA players that were publicly reported in the media from the beginning of the 2006 NBA season to the end of the 2014 season were included. The incidence and return-to-play statistics were generated by synthesizing information from publicly available records. There were 134 publicly reported concussions to NBA players from the beginning of the 2006 season to the conclusion of the 2014 season, resulting in an average of 14.9 concussions per season. The incidence has not changed significantly during this time span. The average games missed after a concussion from 2006 to 2010 was 1.6, significantly less than the 5.0 games missed from 2011 to 2014, following the institution of the NBA concussion protocol (P = .023). Although the incidence of publicly reported concussions in the NBA has not changed appreciably over the past 9 seasons, the time missed after a concussion has. While players often returned in the same game in the 2006 season, the combination of implemented policy, national coverage, medical staff awareness, and player education may have contributed to players now missing an average of 4 to 6 games after a concussion. A multitude of factors has resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices for NBA players after concussions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Results of a recent crud/corrosion fuel risk assessment at a U.S. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Larry; Pop, Mike; Gregorich, Carola; Harne, Richard; Jones, John

    2012-09-01

    In order to avoid potential fuel reliability issues, specifically crud-related issues, it is necessary to achieve and maintain a crud safe environment. Therefore, the ability to confidently predict risks associated with crud deposition on fuel becomes critically important. AREVA is applying its cutting-edge PWR Fuel Crud (Primary System corrosion products)/Corrosion Tools, i.e. COBRA-FLX (subchannel-by-subchannel T/H tool) coupled with FDIC (crud deposition tool) to subsequently perform PWR Fuel Crud /Corrosion risk assessments for operating plants in the US. After describing the method, the result of one of these assessments is presented for an operating plant in the US that has experienced recent crud observations/concerns. Both Crud Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) and Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) risk assessment methods, as applied to the upcoming cycle (Cycle N), were compared to the current/on-going cycle (Cycle N-1) and to the previous cycle (Cycle N-2). The results allowed the Utility to consider crud risk management changes associated with the upcoming cycle (Cycle-N). Benchmarking of the AREVA tools, using the plant-specific crud information gained from the crud sampling/characterization for the Unit will be presented. The CIPS analysis references boron loading and the amount of insoluble iron-nickel-borates predicted for Cycles N-2, N-1, and N. The results of the CILC evaluation reference FDIC-predicted crud thickness, cladding temperature under deposit, evolution of CILC bearing species and lithium concentration in the zirconium oxide layer. The approach taken by AREVA during the evaluation was to consider both 'risk' and 'margin' to fuel performance impact caused by crud deposits. The conclusion of the assessment, illustrated by the results presented in this paper, is that the example Plant has sufficient margin in worst case conditions for CIPS and CILC risk in Cycle N, based on Cycle N-1 and Cycle N-2 conditions and behavior

  19. Results from Tight and Loose Coupled Multiphysics in Nuclear Fuels Performance Simulations using BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won’t converge and vice versa.

  20. Results of the irradiation of mixed UO2 - PuO2 oxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikailoff, H.; Mustelier, J.P.; Bloch, J.; Ezran, L.; Hayet, L.

    1966-01-01

    In order to study the behaviour of fuel elements used for the first charge of the reactor Rapsodie, a first batch of eleven needles was irradiated in the reactor EL3 and then examined. These needles (having a shape very similar lo that of the actual needles to be used) were made up of a stack of sintered mixed-oxide pellets: UO 2 containing about 10 per cent of PuO 2 . The density was 85 to 97 per cent of the theoretical, value. The diametral gap between the oxide and the stainless steel can was between 0,06 and 0,27 mm. The specific powers varied from 1230 to 2700 W/cm 3 and the can temperature was between 450 and 630 C. The maximum burn-up attained was 22000 MW days/tonne. Examination of the needles (metrology, radiography and γ-spectrography) revealed certain macroscopic changes, and the evolution of the fuel was shown by micrographic studies. These observations were used, together with flux measurements results, to calculate the temperature distribution inside the fuel. The volume of the fission gas produced was measured in some of the samples; the results are interpreted taking into account the temperature distribution in the oxide and the burn-up attained. Finally a study was made both of the behaviour of a fuel element whose central part was molten during irradiation, and of the effect of sodium which had penetrated into some of the samples following can rupture. (author) [fr

  1. Results from tight and loose coupled multiphysics in nuclear fuels performance simulations using BISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Andrs, D.; Williamson, R. L.; Hales, J. D.; Perez, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won't converge and vice versa. (authors)

  2. Health risk factor modification predicts incidence of diabetes in an employee population: results of an 8-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W; McGown, Paula W; Goetzel, Ron Z; Elasy, Tom A; Yarbrough, Mary I

    2013-04-01

    To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Annual health risk assessment data (N = 3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Employees who reduced their body mass index from 30 or more to less than 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (odds ratio = 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (odds ratio = 8.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 31.0). Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits.

  3. Lung function and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after improved cooking fuels and kitchen ventilation: a 9-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters; questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO₂, CO, CO₂, NO₂, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions. Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁: decline in FEV₁ was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV₁, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y. The longer the duration of improved fuel use and

  4. CRBRP design and test results for fuel handling systems, plugs, and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel handling system and reactor rotating plugs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are based primarily on existing technology and, in many respects, follow the concept developed for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The equipment and the development programs initiated to verify its performance are described. Test results obtained from the development program, and the extent to which these results verified original design selections, or suggested potential improvements, are discussed

  5. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  6. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  7. German new onset diabetes in the young incident cohort study: DiMelli study design and first-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümer, Leonore; Adler, Kerstin; Bonifacio, Ezio; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Milz, Christine; Munte, Axel; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes incidence in childhood and youth is increasing worldwide, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune cases. Recent findings suggest that there is a larger than expected proportion of type 2 diabetes in youth, and potential cases of intermediate diabetes phenotypes. Most pediatric diabetes registries focus on type 1 diabetes. Also, there is an absence of reliable data on type 2 diabetes incidence in youth. The DiMelli study aims to establish a diabetes incidence cohort registry of patients in Germany, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before age 20 years. It will be used to characterize diabetes phenotypes by immunologic, metabolic, and genetic markers. DiMelli will assess the contribution of obesity and socio-demographic factors to the development of diabetes in childhood and youth. Recruitment of patients started in 2009, and is expected to continue at a rate of 250 patients per year. 84% of the 216 patients recruited within the first year were positive for multiple islet autoantibodies, 12% for one islet autoantibody, and 4% were islet autoantibody-negative. Patients with multiple islet autoantibodies were younger and had lower fasting C-peptide levels, compared to islet autoantibody-negative patients (median age 10.0 vs. 14.1 years, p < 0.01). Results from the first year of the study show that DiMelli will help to reveal new knowledge on the etiology of diabetes, and the contribution of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors to the different types of diabetes.

  8. Incidence and survival patterns of rare anal canal neoplasms using the surveillance epidemiology and end results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Tran, Thuy; Chang, David; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-10-01

    Small cell, neuroendocrine tumors, and melanoma of the anus are rare. Limited data exist on the incidence and management for these rare tumors. A large, prospective, population-based database was used to determine incidence and survival patterns of rare anal neoplasms. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry was queried to identify patients diagnosed with anal canal neoplasms. Incidence and survival patterns were evaluated with respect to age, sex, race, histology, stage, and therapy. We identified 7078 cases of anal canal neoplasms: melanoma (n = 149), neuroendocrine (n = 61), and small cell neuroendocrine (n = 26). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 6842) served as the comparison group. Anal melanoma (AM) demonstrated the lowest survival rate at 2.5 per cent. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) demonstrated similar survival as SCC (10-year survival for regional disease of 25 and 22.3%, respectively). Ten-year survival of small cell NETs resembled AM (5.3 vs 2.5%). Age 60 years or older, sex, black race, stage, and surgery were independent predictors of survival. This study presents the largest patient series of rare anal neoplasms. NETs of the anal canal demonstrate similar survival patterns to SCC, whereas small cell NETs more closely resemble AM. Accurate histologic diagnosis is vital to determine treatment and surgical management because survival patterns can differ among rare anal neoplasms.

  9. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 3128W (run 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Marshman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.; Flament, T.A.

    1998-07-01

    An N-Reactor outer fuel element that had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-East Basin was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments. These studies are part of a series of tests being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the drying behavior of N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel elements removed from both the K-West and K-East Basins. The drying test series was designed to test fuel elements that ranged from intact to severely damaged. The fuel element discussed in this report was removed from an open K-East canister (3128W) during the first fuel selection campaign conducted in 1995, and has remained in wet storage in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) since that time. Although it was judged to be breached during in-basin (i.e., K-Basin) examinations, visual inspection of this fuel element in the hot cell indicated that it was likely intact. Some scratches on the coating covering the cladding were identified before the furnace test. The drying test was conducted in the Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in G-Cell within the PTL. This test system is composed of three basic systems: the in-cell furnace equipment, the system gas loop, and the analytical instrument package. Element 3128W was subjected to the drying processes based on those proposed under the Integrated Process Strategy, which included a hot drying step. Results of the Pressure Rise and Gas Evolution Tests suggest that most of the free water in the system was released during the extended CVD cycle (68 hr versus 8 hr for the first run). An additional ∼0.34 g of water was released during the subsequent HVD phase, characterized by multiple water release peaks, with a principle peak at ∼180 C. This additional water is attributed to decomposition of a uranium hydrate (UO 4 ·4H 2 O/UO 4 ·2H 2 O) coating that was observed to be covering the surface of the fuel element to a thickness of ∼1.6 mg/cm 2 . A

  10. Report of lower endplug welding, and testing and inspecting result for MONJU 1{sup th} reload core fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiyama, Takasi; Numata, Kazuaki; Ohtani, Seiji [Quality Assuranse Section, Technical Administration Division, Plutonium Fuel Center, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Hiromi; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Goto, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Hideki; Nagasaku, Katsuhiko [Inspection Development Campany Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The procedure and result of lower endplugwelding, Test and Inspection and Shipment of the 1{sup th} reload core fuel assembly (80 Fuel Assemblies) for the fast breeder reactor MONJU are reported, which had been examined and inspected in Tamatsukuri Branch, Material Insurance Office, Quality Assurance Section, Technical Administration Division, Plutonium Fuel Center (before: Inspection Section, Plutonium Fuel Division), from June 1994 to January 1996. The number of cladding tubes welded to the endplug were totally 13,804: 7,418 for Core - Inside of 43 fuel Assemblies and 6,836 for Core-Outside of 37 fuel Assemblies. 13,794 of them, 7,414 Core-Inside and 6,379 Core-Outside, were approved by the test and sent to Plutonium Fuel Center. 10 of them weren't approved mainly because of default welding. Disapproval rating was 0.07%. (author)

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  12. Main results of post-irradiation examinations of new-generation fuel assemblies VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvir, E.; Markov, D.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Kobylyansky, G.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the competitiveness of Russian nuclear fuel at the foreign market and to improve its technical and economic performance in order to provide a necessary level of safety, it is necessary to solve certain important tasks: Increase of fuel burn-up; Extension of operational lifetime of fuel assemblies and operational reliability of nuclear fuel; Introduction of cost-beneficial and flexible fuel cycles. Alternative fuel assemblies TVSA VVER-1000 and TVS-2 are used as a basis to optimize the nuclear fuel and develop advanced fuel cycles for nuclear power plants with VVER-1000 reactor types. Four fuel assemblies TVSA operated during 1 and up to 6 reactor cycles, reference fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during three reactor cycles and achieved an average fuel burnup of 48MW·day/kgU as well as failed fuel assembly TVS-2 operated during one cycle were examined at RIAR in recent years. The main objectives of these examinations were to obtain experimental data in support of operational integrity of products or to find out reasons of their failure. The performed post-irradiation examinations confirmed the operational integrity of alternative fuel assemblies TVSA including their geometrical stability up to the average fuel burnup of 55 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly (FA) (up to the maximal fuel burnup of ∼73 MW·day/kgU in fuel rods) and of TVS-2 up to the average fuel burnup of 48 MW·day/kgU over the fuel assembly. The changes introduced in the design of VVER-1000 fuel assembly during the development of alternative fuel assembly TVSA and TVS-2 did not make any negative effect on fuel rods. It was proved that causes of fuel rod failure were not related to design features of fuel assemblies. The design features and operating conditions of fuel assemblies under examinations are briefly described. Post-irradiation examinations proved the geometrical stability of fuel assemblies TVSA and TVS-2 under operation up to the fuel burnup of ∼50 MW day/kgU, as for the

  13. PHEBUS program: first results on PWR fuel behaviour in LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Negro, R.; Reocreux, M.; Pelce, J.; Legrand, B.; Berna, P.

    1982-09-01

    In the first PHEBUS test with pressurized rods some rods burst and clad temperature reached 1100 0 C in the 25 rods bundle. There is now a lot of valuable experimental results and their analysis is in progress. The phase II on fuel behaviour in case of a large LOCA will start at the beginning of 83. The onset of the SFD program is foreseen to take place on the first months of 85

  14. Cumulative incidence, distribution, and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure in Nepal: results from the living standards survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Mamata; Ayer, Rakesh; Kondo, Masahide

    2018-02-14

    Nepal has committed to the global community to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. Nevertheless, Nepal still has a high proportion of out-of-pocket health payment and a limited risk-pooling mechanism. Out-of-pocket payment for the healthcare services could result in catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). Evidence is required to effectively channel the efforts to lower those expenses in order to achieve universal health coverage. However, little is known about CHE and its determinants in a broad national context in Nepal. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the cumulative incidence, distribution, and determinants of CHE in Nepal. Data were obtained from the nationally representative survey, the Nepal Living Standards Survey-third undertaken in 2010/11. Information from 5988 households was used for the analyses. Households were classified as having CHE when their out-of-pocket health payment was greater than or equal to 40% of their capacity to pay. Remaining households were classified as not having CHE. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify determinants of CHE. Based on household-weighted sample, the cumulative incidence of CHE was 10.3% per month in Nepal. This incidence was concentrated in the far-western region and households in the poorer expenditure quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that households were more likely to face CHE if they; consisted of chronically ill member(s), have a higher burden of acute illness and injuries, have elderly (≥60 years) member(s), belonged to the poor expenditure quartile, and were located in the far-western region. In contrast, households were less likely to incur CHE when their household head was educated. Having children (≤5 years) in households did not significantly affect catastrophic health expenditure. This study identified a high cumulative incidence of CHE. CHE was disproportionately concentrated in the poor households and households located in the far

  15. Incidence and phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease based on results from the Asia-pacific Crohn's and colitis epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew C; Tang, Whitney; Ching, Jessica Y; Wong, May; Chow, Chung Mo; Hui, A J; Wong, T C; Leung, Vincent K; Tsang, Steve W; Yu, Hon Ho; Li, Mo Fong; Ng, Ka Kei; Kamm, Michael A; Studd, Corrie; Bell, Sally; Leong, Rupert; de Silva, H Janaka; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Mufeena, M N F; Ling, Khoon Lin; Ooi, Choon Jin; Tan, Poh Seng; Ong, David; Goh, Khean L; Hilmi, Ida; Pisespongsa, Pises; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Aniwan, Satimai; Wang, Yu Fang; Ouyang, Qin; Zeng, Zhirong; Zhu, Zhenhua; Chen, Min Hu; Hu, Pin Jin; Wu, Kaichun; Wang, Xin; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Wu, Justin Cy; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chan, Francis K L

    2013-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming more common in Asia, but epidemiologic data are lacking. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study aimed to determine the incidence and phenotype of IBD in 8 countries across Asia and in Australia. We performed a prospective, population-based study of IBD incidence in predefined catchment areas, collecting data for 1 year, starting on April 1, 2011. New cases were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources and entered into a Web-based database. Cases were confirmed using standard criteria. Local endoscopy, pathology, and pharmacy records were searched to ensure completeness of case capture. We identified 419 new cases of IBD (232 of ulcerative colitis [UC], 166 of Crohn's disease [CD], and 21 IBD-undetermined). The crude annual overall incidence values per 100,000 individuals were 1.37 for IBD in Asia (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51; 0.76 for UC, 0.54 for CD, and 0.07 for IBD-undetermined) and 23.67 in Australia (95% confidence interval: 18.46-29.85; 7.33 for UC, 14.00 for CD, and 2.33 for IBD-undetermined). China had the highest incidence of IBD in Asia (3.44 per 100,000 individuals). The ratios of UC to CD were 2.0 in Asia and 0.5 in Australia. Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 1.4-15 months). Complicated CD (stricturing, penetrating, or perianal disease) was more common in Asia than Australia (52% vs 24%; P = .001), and a family history of IBD was less common in Asia (3% vs 17%; P incidence of IBD varies throughout Asia, it is still lower than in the West. IBD can be as severe or more severe in Asia than in the West. The emergence of IBD in Asia will result in the need for specific health care resources, and offers a unique opportunity to study etiologic factors in developing nations. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence, predictors, and procedural results of upgrade to resynchronization therapy: the RAFT upgrade substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebag, Vidal; Joza, Jacqueline; Birnie, David H; Sapp, John L; Sterns, Laurence D; Philippon, Francois; Yee, Raymond; Crystal, Eugene; Kus, Teresa; Rinne, Claus; Healey, Jeffrey S; Sami, Magdi; Thibault, Bernard; Exner, Derek V; Coutu, Benoit; Simpson, Chris S; Wulffhart, Zaev; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Wells, George; Tang, Anthony S L

    2015-02-01

    The resynchronization-defibrillation for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT) study demonstrated that adding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in selected patients requiring de novo implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) reduced mortality as compared with ICD therapy alone, despite an increase in procedure-related adverse events. Data are lacking regarding the management of patients with ICD therapy who develop an indication for CRT upgrade. Participating RAFT centers provided data regarding de novo CRT-D (CRT with ICD) implant, upgrade to CRT-D during RAFT (study upgrade), and upgrade within 6 months after presentation of study results (substudy). Substudy centers enrolled 1346 (74.9%) patients in RAFT, including 644 de novo, 80 study upgrade, and 60 substudy CRT attempts. The success rate (initial plus repeat attempts) was 95.2% for de novo versus 96.3% for study upgrade and 90.0% for substudy CRT attempts (P=0.402). Acute complications occurred among 26.2% of de novo versus 18.8% of study upgrade and 3.4% of substudy CRT implantation attempts (PRAFT study and other trials. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Analysis of operating incidents, conclusions to be drawn - modifications as a result of information feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckner, J.-M.

    1987-01-01

    The statistics currently available (year 1986) show that 40% of the declared events have a human component. The desire to reduce the number and importance of such events which, in varying degrees, affect the safety and availability of the nuclear installations has lead the Nuclear and Fossil Generation Division (SPT) of EDF to set up a system for gathering data concerning human errors. How does SPT approach this problem? 1. - By gathering data. 2. - By having improvements made. 3. - By making allowance for human factors in new designs. All three stages are described separately, and the first two of them are then analysed in detail. The case studies mentioned in the second part are either completed, in the process of validation or being carried out and integrated, in which case the information available at the present time is not sufficiently complete to enable assessment of information feedback. Nevertheless, insofar as possible, each case is described in terms of methods, results and proposed action. In certain instances, a simplified synopsis is given. 25 refs. (author)

  18. Results on Technical and Consultants Service Meetings on Lessons Learned from Operating Experience in Wet and Dry Spent Fuel Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.; Zou, X.

    2015-01-01

    Spent fuel storage has been and will continue to be a vital portion of the nuclear fuel cycle, regardless of whether a member state has an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle. After removal from the reactor core, spent fuel cools in the spent fuel pool, prior to placement in dry storage or offsite transport for disposal or reprocessing. Additionally, the inventory of spent fuel at many reactors worldwide has or will reach the storage capacity of the spent fuel pool; some facilities are alleviating their need for additional storage capacity by utilizing dry cask storage. While there are numerous differences between wet and dry storage; when done properly both are safe and secure. The nuclear community shares lessons learned worldwide to gain knowledge from one another’s good practices as well as events. Sharing these experiences should minimize the number of incidents worldwide and increase public confidence in the nuclear industry. Over the past 60 years, there have been numerous experiences storing spent fuel, in both wet and dry mediums, that when shared effectively would improve operations and minimize events. These lessons learned will also serve to inform countries, who are new entrants into the nuclear power community, on designs and operations to avoid and include as best practices. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical and several consultants’ meetings to gather these experiences and produce a technical document (TECDOC) to share spent fuel storage lessons learned among member states. This paper will discuss the status of the TECDOC and briefly discuss some lessons learned contained therein. (author)

  19. Results of oscillation experiments on the Cesar and Marius piles - Uranium-Plutonium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard; Brunet, Max; Menessier, Denise; Morier, Francis; Basiuk, Marie-Jose; Tonolli, Jacky; Vanuxeem, Jacqueline

    1969-05-01

    The authors present, comment and discuss results obtained during three measurement campaigns performed on the Cesar and Marius atomic piles between 1965 and 1967 for the determination of some physical quantities (like the Plutonium η or its cross sections) from measurements of two signals which characterize the pile response to a central disturbance caused by the fuel to be studied. They more particularly address mass-corrected signals, the Uranium-235 and Boron calibration of the reactor, the local signal of the equivalent sample to a measured UPu sample. They indicate the different steps of interpretation of these results, present and discuss the measured results

  20. Operating results and simulations on a fuel cell for residential energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yasuhiro; Goto, Ryuichiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kubota, Hideki; Ochifuji, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the performance evaluation of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) prototype and demonstration experiments of the electric power and domestic hot water system using it from a pragmatic view-point. Three types of demonstration experiments were carried out applying standard electric power and hot water demands. It was shown that the primary energy reduction rate of this system as compared to the conventional system reached up to 24% under double daily start and stop (DSS) operation. The amount of primary energy reduction in experiments using the energy demand of a household in Sapporo in winter exceeded the experimental results of the standard energy demand, demonstrating that the effects of the introduction of a fuel cell in cold regions could be considerable, in particular, during the winter season

  1. Initial cathode processing experiences and results for the treatment of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Laug, D.V.; Brunsvold, A.R.; Roach, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation termed ''cathode processing.'' Cathode processing is performed in a retort furnace which enables the production of a stable uranium product that can be isotopically diluted and stored. To date, experiments have been performed with two distillation units; one for prototypical testing and the other for actual spent fuel treatment operations. The results and experiences from these initial experiments with both units will be discussed as well as problems encountered and their resolution

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  3. Fuel and fuel pin behaviour in a high burnup fast breeder fuel subassembly: Results of destructive post-irradiation examinations of the KNK II/1 fuel subassembly NY-205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, G.

    1991-05-01

    The report gives a summarizing overview of the design characteristics, of the irradiation history and of the results of the destructive post-irradiation examinations of the fuel pins of the high-burnup fuel subassembly NY-205 of the KNK II first core. This element was operated for about 10 years and reached a maximum local burnup of 175 MWd/kg(HM) and a maximum neutron dose of 67 dpa-NRT. The main design data of this subassembly agree with those of the SNR 300 Mark-Ia, and it reached more than twice of the burnup and a similar neutron dose as foreseen for the SNR 300 fuel subassemblies [de

  4. Theoretical analysis of the temperature changes and resultant loss of fuel integrity in the IEA-R1 research reactor fuel elements following a loss of coalant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garone, J.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The IEA-R1 core following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is analysed. THe AIRLOCA code was used to calculate fuel temperatures, heat generation due to fission product decay and convective and radiative heat transfer from the fuel elements to the surrounding air both during and following the loss of coolant. The influence of certain critical parameters, such as log time, specific power was studied in detail. Representative results are presented and suggestions made to ensure that fuel integrity is maintained following a LOCA. (Author) [pt

  5. [Combustion zone investigation and modelling in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers]. Result summary and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovmand Hvid, S.

    2011-12-15

    The project has been designed to obtain data from a power plant boiler with co-combustion, partly to gain greater knowledge of particle turnover in the fuel zone, partly to support the development of modeling tools. Data collection occurred at Studstrup Power Station Unit 4, where the fuel is a combination of coal and biomass. The boiler is equipped with 24 dust burners, four of which have been converted to firing with biomass. Measurements have been carried out in the flame zone with different fuels: coal alone, coal + straw and coal + wood. During the experiments velocity fields, temperature fields and gas concentration fields were measured in the firing zone. Also, particle samples from the flame zone ware collected. Several measurements are performed with well-known techniques, but in addition, the project developed new optical measurement methods based on UV spectroscopy. They allow measuring other gases than the hitherto known methods and allow you to gain insight into the dynamic variations beyond just mean fields. The collection of particle samples from the boiler was, as expected, a very challenging task under the given conditions, but was carried out with a largely satisfactory result. Analysis of the samples has initially failed to lead to an increased recognition of the speed of the conversion process, but the samples will be analyzed in more detail in other projects. (LN)

  6. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the 'CASCAD' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, Ph.; Mercier, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    CEA built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Fuel elements are cooled by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. The basic design data of the facility, are reviewed the main techniques used for its construction are outlined the safety concepts are drawn and the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working are presented. (K.A.). 1 tab

  7. Diabetes and risk of cancer incidence: results from a population-based cohort study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Vicentini, Massimo; Manicardi, Valeria; Gallo, Marco; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Greci, Marina; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-10-25

    Aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence in populations with and without diabetes by cancer site. Furthermore, we aimed at comparing excess risk of cancer according to diabetes type, diabetes duration and treatment, the latter as regards Type 2 diabetes. By use of the Reggio Emilia diabetes registry we classified the resident population aged 20-84 at December 31 st 2009 into two groups: with and without diabetes. By linking with the cancer registry we calculated the 2010-2013 cancer incidence in both groups. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) by cancer site, type of diabetes, diabetes duration, and as concerns Type 2 diabetes, by treatment regimen were computed using Poisson regression model and non-diabetic group as reference. The cohort included 383,799 subjects without diabetes and 23,358 with diabetes. During follow-up, we identified 1464 cancer cases in subjects with diabetes and 9858 in the remaining population. Overall cancer incidence was higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (IRR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.15-1.29), with similar results focusing on subjects with at least 2-year diabetes duration. Cancer sites driving overall increased risk were liver, pancreas, Colon rectum, and bladder in both sexes, corpus uteri for females. There was also suggestion of an increased risk for kidney cancer in females and a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Excess risk was found in patients with Type 2 diabetes, more marked among insulin users, especially with combined therapy. We observed an increasing risk for diabetes duration up to 10 years from diagnosis (IRR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.29-1.61) and a subsequent decrease to moderate-higher risk (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04-1.30). Our study indicates that the strength of association depends on specific cancer site. Insulin, monotherapy or combined therapy, per se or as an indication of poor blood glucose control, in addition to diabetes duration, may play a role in the association of diabetes and

  8. Dietary Protein Sources and Risk for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Selvin, Elizabeth; Liang, Menglu; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E; Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebholz, Casey M

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, p trend  = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, p trend protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  10. Some results on development, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations of fuels for fast reactor-actinide burner (MOX and inert matrix fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.; Zabudko, L.; Moseev, L.; Rogozkin, B.; Kurina, I.

    1996-01-01

    Studies performed have shown principal feasibility of the BN-600 and BN-800 cores to achieve high efficiency of Pu burning when MOX fuel with Pu content up to 45% is used. Valuable experience on irradiation behaviour of oxide fuel with high Pu content (100%) was gained as a result of operation of two BR-10 core loadings where the maximum burnup 14 at.% was reached. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) allowed to reveal some specific features of the fuel with high plutonium content. Principal irradiation and PIE results are presented in the paper. Use of new fuel without U-238 provides the maximum burning capability as in this case the conversion ratio is reduced to zero. Technological investigations of inert matrix fuels have been continued now. Zirconium carbide, zirconium nitride, magnesium oxide and other matrix materials are under consideration. Inert matrices selection criteria are discussed in the paper. Results of technological study, of irradiation in the BOR-60 reactor and PIE results of some inert matrix fuels are summarized in this report. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  12. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel performance benchmark. Summary of the results for the PRIMO MOX rod BD8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.; Sartori, E.; Costa, A.; ); Sobolev, V.; Lee, B-H.; Alekseev, P.N.; Shestopalov, A.A.; Mikityuk, K.O.; Fomichenko, P.A.; Shatrova, L.P.; Medvedev, A.V.; Bogatyr, S.M.; Khvostov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Stoenescu, R.; Chatwin, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Expert Group that deals with the status and trends of reactor physics, nuclear fuel performance, and fuel cycle issues related to the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium as MOX fuel. The activities of the NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition are carried out in close cooperation with the NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues in Reactor Systems (WPRS). A major part of these activities includes benchmark studies. This report describes the results of the PRIMO rod BD8 benchmark exercise, the second benchmark by the TFRPD relative to MOX fuel behaviour. The corresponding PRIMO experimental data have been released, compiled and reviewed for the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database. The observed ranges (as noted in the text) in the predicted thermal and FGR responses are reasonable given the variety and combination of thermal conductivity and FGR models employed by the benchmark participants with their respective fuel performance codes

  13. The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  15. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  16. Molten fuel-coolant interactions resulting from power transients in aluminium plate/water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1989-08-01

    The behaviour of two reactors SL1 and SPERT D12, which underwent fast nuclear power transients prior to core destruction by a molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) has been analysed and the results compared with measured data. The calculated spatial melt distribution and the mechanical work done during the events leads to high (∼ 250 kJ/kg) conversion efficiencies for this type of interaction when compared with molten drop experiments. A simple model for the steam explosion, using static thermodynamic properties of high temperature and pressure steam is used to calculate the dynamics of the reactors following the MFCI. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Advanced fuel cycle cost estimation model and its cost estimation results for three nuclear fuel cycles using a dynamic model in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Saerom; Gao, Ruxing [University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sungsig, E-mail: ssbang@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Business and Technology Management, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear fuel cycle cost using a new cost estimation model was analyzed. • The material flows of three nuclear fuel cycle options were calculated. • The generation cost of once-through was estimated to be 66.88 mills/kW h. • The generation cost of pyro-SFR recycling was estimated to be 78.06 mills/kW h. • The reactor cost was identified as the main cost driver of pyro-SFR recycling. - Abstract: The present study analyzes advanced nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation models such as the different discount rate model and its cost estimation results. To do so, an analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle cost of three options (direct disposal (once through), PWR–MOX (Mixed OXide fuel), and Pyro-SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)) from the viewpoint of economic sense, focusing on the cost estimation model, was conducted using a dynamic model. From an analysis of the fuel cycle cost estimation results, it was found that some cost gap exists between the traditional same discount rate model and the advanced different discount rate model. However, this gap does not change the priority of the nuclear fuel cycle option from the viewpoint of economics. In addition, the fuel cycle costs of OT (Once-Through) and Pyro-SFR recycling based on the most likely value using a probabilistic cost estimation except for reactor costs were calculated to be 8.75 mills/kW h and 8.30 mills/kW h, respectively. Namely, the Pyro-SFR recycling option was more economical than the direct disposal option. However, if the reactor cost is considered, the economic sense in the generation cost between the two options (direct disposal vs. Pyro-SFR recycling) can be changed because of the high reactor cost of an SFR.

  18. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  19. Childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark 1979-1994: incidence, clinical features and laboratory results at presentation in 48 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Milman, N; Byg, K E

    2004-01-01

    .7-15). In 1979-1994 the incidence was 0.29 per 100000 person-years incidence was 0.06 in children weight loss, abdominal discomfort, respiratory symptoms, lymphadenopathy......AIM: To describe the incidence, clinical presentation and paraclinical findings in childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark, 1979-1994. METHODS: Patients (n = 5536) with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis were drawn from the nationwide Patient Registry; 81 patients were ... examination (glucose, albumin, haemoglobin) was normal in 96% of the patients; the patient with nephrocalcinosis had albuminuria and haematuria. CONCLUSION: The incidence of sarcoidosis in Danish children is low and increases with age. Sarcoidosis in young children may present clinical features...

  20. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  1. Results of a diesel multiple unit fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into passenger locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dyn...

  2. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25 degree C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 129 I were continuously released at rates between about 5 x 10 -5 and 1 x 10 -4 of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which 14 C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs

  3. Initial results for electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. X.

    1998-01-01

    Initial results are reported for the anode behavior of spent metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefining process. The anode behavior has been characterized in terms of the initial spent fuel composition and the final composition of the residual cladding hulls. A variety of results have been obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Some of the process variables considered are average and maximum cell voltage, average and maximum anode voltage, amount of electrical charge passed (coulombs or amp-hours) during the experiment, and cell resistance. The main goal of the experiments has been the nearly complete dissolution of uranium with the retention of zirconium and noble metal fission products in the cladding hulls. Analysis has shown that the most indicative parameters for determining an endpoint to the process, recognizing the stated goal, are the maximum anode voltage and the amount of electrical charge passed. For the initial experiments reported here, the best result obtained is greater than 98% uranium dissolution with approximately 50% zirconium retention. Noble metal fission product retention appears to be correlated with zirconium retention

  4. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  5. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  6. Shift work and 20-year incidence of acute myocardial infarction: results from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Kauhanen, Jussi; Krause, Niklas

    2016-09-01

    It remains unclear whether different types of shift work impose similar risks for cardiovascular events in middle-aged workers, especially those with pre-existing ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study investigated the relations between different shift types and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among men with and without pre-existing IHD, respectively. We analysed data on 1891 men, aged 42-60 years at baseline, in the prospective Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort, using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for demographic, biological, behavioural and psychosocial job factors. We evaluated the associations of baseline shift work with 20-year incidence of AMI, and their modification by pre-existing IHD, using both stratified analysis and models with product terms between shift work and IHD. Travelling work (at least 3 nights per week away from home) was strongly positively associated with AMI among men with IHD (HR=2.45, 95% CI 1. 08 to 5.59) but not among men without (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.00). No clear associations were found between other types of shift work and AMI for both men with and without IHD. On both additive and multiplicative scales, baseline IHD status positively modified the association of travelling work with AMI (relative excess risk for interaction=3.23, 95% CI -0.50 to 6.97, p for multiplicative interaction=0.044). We found mixed results for the associations between different types of shift work and AMI among those with and without pre-existing IHD. Future research should investigate these associations and effect modification for a broad spectrum of work schedules. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Results of screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a large nursery in Kuwait: Incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and severe ROP and identify the risk factors for their development in a large nursery in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, non-comparative, hospital-based study. Retrospective review of ROP records of premature babies having either birth weight of less than 1501 g or gestational age at birth of 34 weeks or less and born between January 2001 and August 2003. Statistical Analysis: By univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of the 599 babies studied, 38.9% developed ROP and 7.8% needed treatment for severe ROP. Multivariate analysis showed low birth weight (OR 13.753, 95% CI 3.66-51.54; ( P < 0.001, gestational age (OR 13.75, 95% CI 3.66-51.54; P < 0.001, surfactant (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.83; P = 0.032 and stay in the intensive care unit for longer than 15 days (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.05-4.85; P = 0.033 to be significant for the development of any ROP. Low birth weight (OR 22.86, 95% CI 3.86-134.82; P = 0.001, bacterial sepsis (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.51-7.05; P = 0.002 and need for surfactant (OR 4.41, 95% CI 0.94 -20.56; P = 0.059 were found to be the risk factors for severe ROP needing laser treatment. Conclusion: The incidence of both any ROP and ROP needing treatment are comparable to other studies. Low birth weight is the most important risk factor for both any ROP and severe ROP.

  8. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and 3-Year Incidence of Dementia : Results From the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenburg, Astrid; Zuidersma, Marij; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Schoevers, Robert A

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between depressive symptom dimensions and incident dementia in a community sample of older persons. METHODS: Depressive symptoms at baseline and incident dementia at 3-year follow-up were assessed with the Geriatric Mental State (GMS)-Automated Geriatric

  9. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Lauer, P.; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  10. Secondary Electron Emission from Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium Resulting from Incidence of keV Electrons and Hydrogen Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1977-01-01

    are small, in contrast to what is expected for insulating materials. One explanation is that the secondary electrons lose energy inside the target material by exciting vibrational and rotational states of the molecules, so that the number of electrons that may escape as secondary electrons is rather small....... The losses to molecular states will be largest for hydrogen, so that the SEE coefficients are smallest for solid hydrogen, as was observed. For the incidence of ions, the values of δ for the different molecular ions agree when the number of secondary electrons per incident atom is plotted versus the velocity...... or the stopping power of the incident particles. Measurements were also made for oblique incidence of H+ ions on solid deuterium for angles of incidence up to 75°. A correction could be made for the emission of secondary ions by also measuring the current calorimetrically. At largest energies, the angular...

  11. Calculation of stricken to mortality and incidence cancers due to beyond design basis accidents of the Esfahan Fuel Production Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari Azar, A.; Shahshahani, M.; Roshanzamir, M.; Sabouhi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation the amount of absorbed doses by the different pathways of Cloud shine, Ground shine, deposition of radioactive materials on skin and cloths, ingestion, inhalation and the consequences of radioactive material releases due to Beyond Design Basis Accidents such as fire, sintering furnace explosion, criticality and earthquake in Esfahan Fuel Production factory by the residents are evaluated. The calculations related to atomic cloud distribution, estimation of delivered dose and decay chains are performed by PCCOSYMA dose. These computations are based on radioactive source terms, distribution height of radioactive materials. actions for reducing the absorbed dose, human body physiological characteristics, metrological condition and population distribution. Finally, the number of peoples who are stricken to mortality and morbidity cancers and risk values are calculated for 1 year and 50 years

  12. Transport - mountain or molehill? The transport of spent fuel - How a minor incident became a major issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, Karen

    1999-01-01

    On May 6, 1998 the national newspaper 'Liberation' published a story revealing that some of the spent fuel casks shipped from Electricite de France's NPPs would arrive at Cogema's rail terminal at Valognes with some surface contamination at levels above the authorized limits. Even though the contamination never represented a health hazard to either the population or to the operatives due to its very low levels, the story turned into a communication crisis for the nuclear industry. Despite the best laid out plans, events can take one by surprise as illustrated in the transport of spent fuel issue. So, it is now a question of anticipating better, putting in place an improved alert system, monitoring events and being able to make the proper analysis in order to prevent benign situations from getting out of hand. Adaptation to an ever evolving environment is another important factor. Knowing your opposition, not just those that are familiar like clearly identified foes such as environmental groups, but also groups or individuals that can be in the mainstream of society, including members of the government. Experience has showed that openness is the key to a relationship of trust at all levels, with the general public, politicians and the media. It does not mean total disclosure at all times because of the risk of overwhelming one's target audience with information without them being able to either evaluate its importance or sometimes fully comprehend it if it is complex. As for the media, it is crucial to built a strong relationship with journalists. It is a painstaking operation not only necessary but crucial. Following-up is a must as it permits to make sure there are no misunderstandings and helps put information into the proper perspective

  13. Influence of FGR complexity modelling on the practical results in gas pressure calculation of selected fuel elements from Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, M.

    2001-01-01

    A modernization fuel system and advanced fuel for operation up to the high burnup are used in present time in Dukovany NPP. Reloading of the cores are evaluated using computer codes for thermomechanical behavior of the most loaded fuel rods. The paper presents results of parametric calculations performed by the NRI Rez integral code PIN, version 2000 (PIN2k) to assess influence of fission gas release modelling complexity on achieved results. The representative Dukovany NPP fuel rod irradiation history data are used and two cases of fuel parameter variables (soft and hard) are chosen for the comparison. Involved FGR models where the GASREL diffusion model developed in the NRI Rez plc and standard Weisman model that is recommended in the previous version of the PIN integral code. FGR calculation by PIN2k with GASREL model represents more realistic results than standard Weisman's model. Results for linear power, fuel centre temperature, FGR and gas pressure versus burnup are given for two fuel rods

  14. Results of the German alternative fuel cycle evaluation and further efforts geared toward demonstration of direct disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In a comparative study initiated by the German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology which was carried out by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in the period from 1981 to 1985, direct disposal of spent fuel was contrasted to the traditional fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycle. The results of the study did not exhibit decisive advantages of direct disposal over fuel reprocessing. Due to this face and legal requirements of the German Atomic Energy Act, the cabinet concluded to continue to adhere to fuel reprocessing as the preferred version of ''Entsorgung''. But the door was left ajar for the direct disposal alternative that, under present atomic law, is permissible for fuel for which reprocessing is neither technically feasible nor economically justified. An ambitious program has been launched in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), geared to bring direct disposal to a point of technical maturity

  15. Nuclear fuels technologies Fiscal Year 1996 research and development test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.; Blair, H.T.; Buksa, J.J.; Butt, D.P.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Farish, T.J.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1996-11-01

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) funded Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to investigate issues associated with the fabrication of plutonium from dismantled weapons into mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel for disposition in nuclear power reactors. These issues can be divided into two main categories: issues associated with the fact that the plutonium from dismantled weapons contains gallium, and issues associated with the unique characteristics of the PuO[sub 2] produced by the dry conversion process that OFMD is proposing to convert the weapons material. Initial descriptions of the experimental work performed in fiscal year 1996 to address these issues can be found in Nuclear Fuels Technologies Fiscal Year 1996 Research and Development Test Matrices. However, in some instances the change in programmatic emphasis towards the Parallex program either altered the manner in which some of these experiments were performed (i.e., the work was done as part of the Parallex fabrication development and not as individual separate-effects tests as originally envisioned) or delayed the experiments into Fiscal Year 1997. This report reviews the experiments that were conducted and presents the results

  16. Analysis of cold flow fluidization test results for various biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.Z.; Husain, Z.; Pong, S.L.Y. [University Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A systematic theoretical and experimental study was conducted to obtain hydrodynamic properties such as particle size diameter, bulk density, fluidizing velocity, etc. for locally available biomass residue fuels in Malaysia like rice husk, sawdust, peanut shell, coconut shell, palm fiber as well as coal and bottom ash. The tests were carried out in a cold flow fluidization bed chamber of internal diameter 60 mm with air as fluidizing medium. Bed-pressure drop was measured as a function of superficial air velocity over a range of bed heights for each individual type of particle. The data were used to determine minimum fluidization velocity, which could be used to compare with theoretical values. The particle size of biomass residue fuel was classified according to Gildart's distribution diagram. The results show that Gildart's particle size (B) for sawdust, coal bottom ash, coconut shell have good fluidizing properties compared to rice husk, type (D) or palm fiber, type (A). The bulk density and voidage are found to be main factors contributing to fluidizing quality of the bed.

  17. In-reactor fuel cladding external corrosion measurement process and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Musante, Y.; Pigelet, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the zirconium alloy cladding behaviour calls for an on-site corrosion measurement device. In the 80's, a FISCHER probe was used and allowed oxide layer measurements to be taken along the outer generating lines of the peripheral fuel rods. In order to allow measurements on inner rods, a thin Eddy current probe called SABRE was developed by FRAMATOME. The SABRE is a blade equipped with two E.C coils is moved through the assembly rows. A spring allows the measurement coil to be clamped on each of the generating lines of the scanned rods. By inserting this blade on all four assembly faces, measurements can also be performed along several generating lines of the same rod. Standard rings are fitted on the device and allow on-line calibration for each measured row. Signal acquisition and processing are performed by LAGOS, a dedicated software program developed by FRAMATOME. The measurements are generally taken at the cycle outage, in the spent fuel pool. On average, data acquisition calls for one shift per assembly (eight hours): this corresponds to more than 2500 measurement points. These measurements are processed statistically by the utility program SAN REMO. All the results are collected in a database for subsequent behaviour analysis: examples of investigated parameters are the thermal/hydraulic conditions of the reactors, the irradiation history, the cladding material, the water chemistry This analysis can be made easier by comparing the behaviour measurement and prediction by means of the COROS-2 corrosion code. (author)

  18. Nuclear fuels technologies fiscal year 1996 research and research development test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.; Blair, H.T.; Buksa, J.J.; Butt, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) funded Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to investigate issues associated with the fabrication of plutonium from dismantled weapons into mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel for disposition in nuclear power reactors. These issues can be divided into two main categories: issues associated with the fact that the plutonium from dismantled weapons contains gallium, and issues associated with the unique characteristics of the PuO 2 produced by the dry conversion process that OFMD is proposing to convert the weapons material. Initial descriptions of the experimental work performed in fiscal year 1996 to address these issues can be found in Nuclear Fuels Technologies Fiscal Year 1996 Research and Development Test Matrices'. However, in some instances the change in programmatic emphasis towards the Parallex program either altered the manner in which some of these experiments were performed (i.e., the work was done as part of the Parallex fabrication development and not as individual separate-effects tests as originally envisioned) or delayed the experiments into Fiscal Year 1997. This report reviews the experiments that were conducted and presents the results. 7 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Full-sized plates irradiation with high UMo fuel loading. Final results of IRIS 1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Marelle, V.; Noirot, J.; Sacristan, P.; Lemoine, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the French UMo Group qualification program, IRIS 1 experiment contained full-sized plates with high uranium loading in the meat of 8 g.cm -3 . The fuel particles consisted of 7 and 9 wt% Mo-uranium alloys ground powders. The plate were irradiated at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device up to 67.5% peak burnup within the range of 136 W.cm - '2 for the heat flux and 72 deg. C for the cladding temperature. After each reactor cycle the plates thickness were measured. The results show no swelling behaviour differences versus burnup between UMo7 and UMo9 plates. The maximum plate swelling for peak burnup location remains lower than 6%. The wide set of PIE has shown that, within the studied irradiation conditions, the interaction product have a global formulation of '(U-Mo)Al -7 ' and that there is no aluminium dissolution in UMo particles. IRIS1 experiment, as the first step of the UMo fuel qualification for research reactor, has established the good behaviour of UMo7 and UMo9 high uranium loading full-sized plate within the tested conditions. (author)

  20. The influence of a non-uniform radial temperature distribution in the fuel on the results of calculation of transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltsev, A.O.; Davidenko, V.D.; Tsibulsky, V.F.; Lekomtsev, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the discussion of results of computational studies of transients for different ways of accounting the temperature of the fuel in the full-scale comprehensive calculations of neutron physics. The paper demonstrates that in calculation of the neutron physics, it is necessary to use the effective temperature of the fuel in order to provide for correct accounting of the fuel temperature feedback, since the value of volume-averaged temperature being used in calculations of neutron physics with feedbacks would result in underestimation of consequences of accidents, especially accidents involving the dispersion of radiation

  1. TVSA-T fuel assembly for 'Temelin' NPP. Main results of design and safety analyses. Trends of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, O.B.; Kajdalov, V.B.; Falkov, A.A.; Bolnov, V.A.; Morozkin, O.N.; Molchanov, V.L.; Ugryumov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    TVSA is a fuel assembly with rigid skeleton formed by 6 angle pieces and SG is successfully operated at 17 VVER-1000 power units of Kalinin NPP, as well as at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPPs. Based on a contract for fuel supply to the Temelin NPP, the TVSA-T fuel assembly was developed, building on proven solutions confirmed by operation of TVSA modifications during 4-6 years and by the results of post-irradiation examination. The TVSA-T design includes combined spacer grids (SG+MG) and by fuel column elongation by 150 mm. A set of analyses and experiments was performed to validate the design, including thermal hydraulic tests, validation of critical heat flux correlation for TVSA-T, integrated mechanical, vibration and lifetime tests. A licence to use the fuel has been granted by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety. The TVSA-T core is currently in operation at the Temelin-1 reactor unit. The presentation is concluded as follows: TVSA-T fuel assembly for Temelin has been validated. The TVSA-T design is based on approved technical decisions and meets the current requirements for lifetime, operational maneuverability and safety. The results of post-irradiation examination of TVSA-T operated at the Kalinin-1 unit for 4 years confirm the assembly operability, skeleton stiffness, geometric stability and normal fuel rod cladding condition. The properties of the TVSA fuel with MG allow the core power to be increased up to 3300 MW to match the envisaged future VVER (MIR-1200) design, providing allowable fuel rod power FΔh =1.63 (to implement effective fuel cycles). (P.A.)

  2. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  3. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time

  5. Quantifying Fire's Impacts on Total and Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks in Mixed-Conifer Forests: Results from Pre- and Post-Fire Measurements in Active Wildfire Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, J. R.; Reiner, A. L.; Ewell, C. M.; Sanderman, J.; Maestrini, B.; Adkins, J.

    2016-12-01

    Widespread US fire suppression policy has contributed to an accumulation of vegetation in many western forests relative to historic conditions, and these changes can exacerbate wildfire severity and carbon (C) emissions. Serious concern exists about positive feedbacks between wildfire emissions and global climate; however, fires not only release C from terrestrial to atmospheric pools, they also create "black" or pyrogenic C (PyC) which contributes to longer-term C stability. Our objective was to quantify wildfire impacts on aboveground and belowground total C and PyC stocks in California mixed-conifer forests. We worked with incident management teams to access five active wildfires to establish and measure plots within days before and after fire. We measured pre- and post-fire aboveground forest structure and woody fuels to calculate aboveground biomass, biomass C, and PyC, and we collected pre- and post-fire forest floor and 0-5 cm mineral soil samples to measure belowground C and PyC stocks. Our preliminary results show that fire had minimal impact on the number of trees per hectare, whereas C losses from the tree layer occurred via consumption of foliage, and PyC gain occurred in tree bark. Fire released 54% to 100% of surface fuel C. In the forest floor layer, we observed 33 to 100% C loss, whereas changes in PyC stocks ranged from 100% loss to 186% gain relative to pre-fire samples. In general, fire had minimal to no impact on 0-5 cm mineral soil C. We will present relationships between total C, PyC and post-fire C and N dynamics in one of the five wildfire sites. Our data are unique because they represent nearly immediate pre- and post-fire measurements in major wildfires in a widespread western U.S. forest type. This research advances understanding of the role of fire on forest C fluxes and C sequestration potential as PyC.

  6. Development of computer code SIMPSEX for simulation of FBR fuel reprocessing flowsheets: II. additional benchmarking results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Koganti, S.B.

    2003-07-01

    Benchmarking and application of a computer code SIMPSEX for high plutonium FBR flowsheets was reported recently in an earlier report (IGC-234). Improvements and recompilation of the code (Version 4.01, March 2003) required re-validation with the existing benchmarks as well as additional benchmark flowsheets. Improvements in the high Pu region (Pu Aq >30 g/L) resulted in better results in the 75% Pu flowsheet benchmark. Below 30 g/L Pu Aq concentration, results were identical to those from the earlier version (SIMPSEX Version 3, code compiled in 1999). In addition, 13 published flowsheets were taken as additional benchmarks. Eleven of these flowsheets have a wide range of feed concentrations and few of them are β-γ active runs with FBR fuels having a wide distribution of burnup and Pu ratios. A published total partitioning flowsheet using externally generated U(IV) was also simulated using SIMPSEX. SIMPSEX predictions were compared with listed predictions from conventional SEPHIS, PUMA, PUNE and PUBG. SIMPSEX results were found to be comparable and better than the result from above listed codes. In addition, recently reported UREX demo results along with AMUSE simulations are also compared with SIMPSEX predictions. Results of the benchmarking SIMPSEX with these 14 benchmark flowsheets are discussed in this report. (author)

  7. An evaluation of the results of the HTR fuel programme conducted in the Dragon reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Dragon Reactor Experiment was used over a period of ten years to investigate the behaviour of HTR fuel elements under realistic service conditions. The purpose of the work was to develop fuel capable of meeting the requirements of commercial power reactors. The studies divided into areas concerned with the mechanical behaviour of the graphite core structure under fast neutron irradiation and the ability of the coated particle fuel to retain fissile products over commercially viable life-cycles. (author)

  8. Phebus program main results and status for severe fuel damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1986-06-01

    A large experimental in-pile program has been set up at the PHEBUS facility to investigate the actual behavior of .8 m active height, 25-rod PWR-type pressurized fresh fuel bundles under typical accident conditions. The program consists of four stages. Stage 1 was devoted to the adjustment of the operational procedure for stage 2. Stage 2 refers to the simulation of conservatively calculated L.B. LOCA 2 - peak transients. Stages 3/4 refer to four PWR severe accident scenarios retained for in-pile simulation at PHEBUS: a) a large break LOCA with injection failure; b) a small break LOCA associated with an injection failure; c) a prolonged total loss of the steam generator feedwater; and, d) a prolonged core uncovery a few days after reactor shutdown. The main PHEBUS stage 2 results are presented and finally interpreted

  9. Results of transient overpower events on breached and unbreached fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Tsai, H.C.; Neimark, L.A.; Aratani, K.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of the extended overpower tests on intact pins was to determine the pin cladding breaching thresholds vis-a-vis the Plant Protection System (PPS) trip settings, typically at ∼10 to 15% overpower. These tests emphasize slow operational-type transients in light of earlier work which suggested that irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins may be particularly vulnerable in the slow ramp-rate regime. An overview of the extended overpower test series was previously reported. More recent results on two of the tests in this series are included in this paper. These two tests, designated TOPI-1A and TOPI-1B, were each conducted on a 19-pin assembly with various pin design, operation and burnup variables. The overpower ramp rates for the TOPI-1A and -1B tests were 0.1%/s and 10%/s, respectively

  10. Recent results from CEC cost sharing research programme on LWR fuel behaviour under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present structure and intentions of the CEC sponsored cost sharing programme for LWR safety research are outlined. Detailed results are reported for two projects from this programme. The first project concerns experimental data on the thermohydraulic effects of flow diversion around ballooned fuel rods. Data are presented on single and two phase heat transfer in an electrically heated rod bundle. Detailed photographic data on droplet behaviour are also given. The second project is an investigation of the effects of zircaloy oxidation on rewetting during reflood. It is shown that as oxide thickness increases from 1μm to 76μm that rewet rates can increase by up to 40%. A systematic effect of oxidation on rewet temperatures is also noted. (author)

  11. Results of the first nuclear blowdown test on single fuel rods (LOC-11 Series in PBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.R.; Evans, D.R.; McCardell, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first nuclear blowdown tests (LOC-11A, LOC-11B, LOC-11C) ever conducted. The Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Test Series is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objective of the LOC-11 tests was to obtain data on the behavior of pressurized and unpressurized rods when exposed to a blowdown similar to that expected in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a hypothesized double-ended cold-leg break. The data are being used for the development and verification of analytical models that are used to predict coolant and fuel rod pressure during a LOCA in a PWR

  12. HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.; Fields, D.E.; Kergis, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles were fractured and reburned in a fluid bed to remove the inner carbon coatings. The remaining products are ready for dissolution and solvent extraction fuel recovery

  13. The risk of an air accident as a result of a serious incident of the hybrid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Safety in air traffic is a multilayered concept and consists of many safety barriers. The practical side of increasing safety is mainly based on analysing the causes of accidents and incidents. This analysis leads to finding gaps in the safety structure and to developing corrective recommendations in order to eliminate them. In this paper we indicate that this practice is insufficient. Most incidents could transform into accidents with fatalities. The standard method of investigating incidents does not answer the question as to whether safety barrier is permanent or whether it was activated accidentally. This paper proposes a new method for analysing incidents aimed at finding their consequences rather than their causes. This makes it possible to find areas that need improvement. Stochastic, timed, coloured Petri nets were used for the analysis. There are three types of air traffic incidents, distinguished according to events that lead to a transformation of an incident into an accident: causal and temporal. The hybrid case, in which both types are important, has been discussed in detail. The method is useful in evaluating the current level of safety in air traffic. Applicability of this method has been shown on the example of the runway incursion problem. - Highlights: • Current accident investigation procedure is not sufficient. • New method aimed to study incident’s conversion into accident was proposed. • The Petri net model of air traffic accident was developed. • Method allows calculating accident probability. • The hybrid case in which both causal and temporal events are important is discussed

  14. Periodontal Disease and Incident Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, Ngozi N; Marshall, James R; Moysich, Kirsten; Genco, Robert J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been isolated from precancerous and cancerous lesions and also shown to promote a procarcinogenic microenvironment. Few studies have examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for total cancer, and none have focused on older women. We examined whether periodontal disease is associated with incident cancer among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Our prospective cohort study comprised 65,869 women, ages 54 to 86 years. Periodontal disease information was obtained via self-report questionnaires administered between 1999 and 2003, whereas ascertainment of cancer outcomes occurred through September 2013, with a maximum follow-up period of 15 years. Physician-adjudicated incident total cancers were the main outcomes and site-specific cancers were secondary outcomes. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were conducted two-sided. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.32 years, 7,149 cancers were identified. Periodontal disease history was associated with increased total cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20); findings were similar in analyses limited to 34,097 never-smokers (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). Associations were observed for breast (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), lung (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51), esophagus (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.64-6.53), gallbladder (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.95), and melanoma skin (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48) cancers. Stomach cancer was borderline (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.94-2.67). Conclusions: Periodontal disease increases risk of total cancer among older women, irrespective of smoking, and certain anatomic sites appear to be vulnerable. Impact: Our findings support the need for further understanding of the effect of periodontal disease on cancer outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1255-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer

  15. Major results and lessons learned for performance assessments of spent fuel geological disposal: the SPA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, P.; Serres, C.; Certes, C.; Gay, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the results obtained in the framework of the SPA (spent fuel disposal performance assessment) project. The project was undertaken by ENRESA, E; GRS, D; IPSN, F; NRG, NL; SCK.CEN, B and VTT, FIN between May 1996 and April 1999. Devoted to the study of spent fuel disposal in various host rock formations (clay, crystalline rocks and salt formation), it notably had the objective to evaluate the long-term performance of different repository systems and to identify the most influential elements. The variety of concepts, sites and scenarios considered in the framework of this project provides a wide range of information from which some general conclusions can be drawn. Focusing on the work done in the case of granite host rock formations, this paper describes the various approaches adopted and states the main sources of differences. It particularly stresses the differences related to the geosphere and biosphere modelling. For the geosphere modelling, ENRESA, GRS and VTT use one dimensional discrete approaches to model the migration of contaminants through the geosphere taking into account for matrix diffusion, whereas IPSN uses a three dimensional continuum approach based on a single porosity model. The comparison of the biosphere conversion factors shows the high influence on the calculated radionuclide dose contributions that can results from biosphere modelling assumptions. It notably points out the differences existing between a simplified ''water drinking'' approach as implemented by VTT and a more classical one in which a wider range of exposure pathways are taken into account. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Markus; Kroetz, Michael M.; Wirth, Stefan; Boehm, Holger F.; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich [University Hospital Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg [University Hospital Munich, Department of Surgery, Munich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated ''critical'' by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, Markus; Kroetz, Michael M.; Wirth, Stefan; Boehm, Holger F.; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated ''critical'' by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol. (orig.)

  18. Improvement in operating characteristics resulting from the addition of FLIP fuel to a standard TRIGA core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.D.; Feltz, D.E.; Godsey, T.A.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1974-01-01

    To overcome problems associated with fuel burnup the Nuclear Science Center of Texas A and M University decided to convert from standard TRIGA fuel to FLIP-TRIGA fuel. FLIP fuel, which incorporates erbium as a burnable poison and is enriched to 70 percent in U-235, has a calculated lifetime of 9/MW-years. Due to limited funds a core was designed with a central region of 35 FLIP elements surrounded by 63 standard elements. Calculations indicated that the core excess and neutron fluxes were satisfactory, but no prediction was made of the improvements in core lifetime. The reactivity loss due to burnup for a standard core was measured to be 1.54 cents/MW-day. The addition of 35 FLIP fuel elements has reduced this value to approximately 0.5 cents/MW-day. The incorporation of FLIP fuel has, therefore, increased the lifetime of the core by a factor of three using fuel that is only 20 percent more expensive. The mixed core has other advantages as well. The power coefficient is less, the effect of xenon is less, and the fluxes in experimental facilities are higher. Thus, the mixed core has significant advantages over standard TRIGA fuel. (U.S.)

  19. Wildfire fuel harvesting and resultant biomass utilization using a cut-to-length/small chipper system

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Chad Bolding; Bobby L. Lanford

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of information concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of ground-based mechanical harvesting to reduce forest fuel buildup and produce energywood. Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting coupled with a small in-woods chipper provided a low impact way to harvest pre-commercial trees and tops along...

  20. Preparation results for lifetime test of conversion LEU fuel in plutonium production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetskiy, Yu.; Kukharkin, N.; Kalougin, A.; Gavrilov, P.; Ivanov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The program of converting Russian production reactors for the purpose to stop their plutonium fabrication is currently in progress. The program also provides for operation of these reactors under the conversion mode with using of low-enriched fuel (LEU). LEU fuel elements were developed and activities related to their preparation for reactor tests were carried out. (author)

  1. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 0309M (Run 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    An N-Reactor outer fuel element that had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-West Basin was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments. These studies are part of a series of tests being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel elements removed from both the K-West and K-East Basins. The drying test series was designed to test fuel elements that ranged from intact to severely damaged. The fuel element discussed in this report was removed from K-West canister 0309M during the second fuel selection campaign, conducted in 1996, and has remained in wet storage in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) since that time. The fuel element was broken in two pieces, with a relatively clean fracture, and the larger piece was tested. A gray/white coating was observed. This was the first test of a damaged fuel element in the furnace. K-West canisters can hold up to seven complete fuel assemblies, but, for purposes of this report, the element tested here is designated as Element 0309M. Element 0309M was subjected to drying processes based on those proposed under the Integrated Process Strategy, which included a hot drying step

  2. Heterogeneity in rebound effects: Estimated results and impact of China’s fossil-fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rebound effects for China’s sectors are estimated. • The input–output model is a suitable model to analysis energy rebound effects across sectors. • The impacts of fossil-fuel subsidies on rebound effects are evaluated. • Technological progress has varies impactions on energy conservation, thereby rebound effects. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement has become a primary measure to achieve energy conservation targets in China. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. From sectors perspective, technological advancement is not a necessary condition for energy conservation for a given sector because of varied rates of technological advancement and dependence among sectors. Adopting the input–output model, this article presents a detailed analysis of energy rebound effects in China’s economy at the aggregate and sectoral level over 2006–2010. The results show that the aggregate sectors’ rebound effect is about 11.31%, which is larger than without considering the interaction among sectors (11.25%); and strongly suggests that technological advancement has varied impacts on energy conservation and rebound effects. Thus various strategies of technological advancement and incorporated mitigation measures are necessary for energy conservation across sectors. Furthermore, the current study confirms that China’s total value of fossil-fuel subsidies reached 160.23 billion US$ (constant 2005 price) in 2006–2010; and after removal of subsidies, the energy use is expected to save 411.35 million toe and the rebound effects for aggregate sectors become 10.64%. Finally, some relevant policy issues are discussed in depth

  3. Does diabetes appear in distinct phenotypes in young people? Results of the diabetes mellitus incidence Cohort Registry (DiMelli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Warncke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diabetes mellitus Incidence Cohort Registry (DiMelli aims to characterize diabetes phenotypes by immunologic, metabolic, and genetic markers. We classified patients into three groups according to islet autoantibody status and examined whether patients with multiple diabetes-associated autoantibodies, one autoantibody, or without autoantibodies differed with respect to clinical, metabolic, and genetic parameters, including an insulin sensitivity (IS score based on waist, HbA1c, and triglycerides. We also assessed whether metabolic markers predicted the immune status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As of June 2012, 630 patients in Bavaria, Germany, aged <20 years diagnosed with any type of diabetes within the preceding 6 months were registered in DiMelli. We compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between islet autoantibody status defined patient groups. Parameters showing the strongest associations were included in principal component analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the ability of the IS Score to predict islet autoantibody status. RESULTS: Patients with multiple islet autoantibodies, one autoantibody, or without autoantibodies were significantly different in terms of BMI percentile, weight loss before diagnosis, fasting C-peptide (all, P<0.001, and IS Score (P=0.034. However, principal component analysis revealed no distinct patterns according to autoantibody status. At the optimal IS Score cut-off for predicting islet autoantibody positivity (single compared to none, the specificity was 52.0% and the sensitivity was 86.8%. With respect to prediction of multiple autoantibodies (compared to none, specificity and sensitivity were slightly lower and in combination inferior to those obtained using the BMI percentile and fasting C-peptide. DISCUSSION: The DiMelli study indicated that patients with and without islet autoantibodies differed with respect to metabolic and genetic markers but there

  4. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85 degree C and 25 degree C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs

  5. The Cost of SOx Limits to Marine Operators; Results from Exploring Marine Fuel Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestis Schinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine operators are confronted with the new air emissions regulations that determine the limits of sulfur content in marine fuels. The low-sulfur (LS marine fuels have a higher price, and their fluctuation is almost similar to the fluctuation of high-sulfur (HS fuels. The price difference between HS and LS might also determine the decision of operators for alternative technical means, such as scrubbers, in order to comply with the new limits. This paper aims to provide a thorough statistical analysis of the currently available LS and HS marine fuels time series, as well as to present the analysis of the differential of the HS and LS fuel prices. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research.

  6. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang [Dept. of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  7. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang

    2013-01-01

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  8. Results of VVER fuel rods tests in the MIR.M1 reactor under power cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burukin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Kalygin, V.; Markov, D.; Pimenov, Y.; Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Nesterov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of the 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER fuel rods tests performed in the MIR.M1 reactor loop facilities under power cycling. The non-destructive PIE results are presented as well. A series of experiments was performed, including overall measurement of fuel rod parameters test, in one of which 300 cycles were done. Irradiation under power cycling conditions and PIE of high-burnup VVER fuel rods showed the following: 1) all fuel rods claddings preserved their integrity under irradiation at linear heat rate (LHR) higher than the NPP operating one; 2) experimental data were obtained on the axial and radial cladding strain and fission gas release (FGR) from 50 ... 60 MWd/kgU burnup VVER-440 and VVER-1000 fuel rods as well as on the kinetics of the change in these parameters and fuel temperature under the power cycling; 3) non-destructive PIE results are in a satisfactory correlation with the data obtained by means of in-pile measurement gages during irradiation. (authors)

  9. Childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark 1979-1994: incidence, clinical features and laboratory results at presentation in 48 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Milman, N; Byg, K E

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence, clinical presentation and paraclinical findings in childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark, 1979-1994. METHODS: Patients (n = 5536) with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis were drawn from the nationwide Patient Registry; 81 patients were ... examination (glucose, albumin, haemoglobin) was normal in 96% of the patients; the patient with nephrocalcinosis had albuminuria and haematuria. CONCLUSION: The incidence of sarcoidosis in Danish children is low and increases with age. Sarcoidosis in young children may present clinical features...... that are different from the appearance of those in older children and often constitute a diagnostic challenge. In older children, the clinical appearance has many features in common with the presentation in adults....

  10. [Preliminary results of an anonymous internet-based reporting system for critical incidents in ambulatory primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, A

    2005-03-01

    To learn from errors is not always easy, especially if they happened to others! This paper describes the organization and management of a critical incident reporting system for primary care physicians in Switzerland and reports about the difficulties and experiences during the first 18 months since the start of the program. It seems to be particularly difficult to enhance the attentiveness of physicians for apparently harmless daily critical incidents and to motivate them to report it even in an anonymous reporting system. As incentives for more intensive participation there are the hope for comments on reported cases by other participants and the expectation that reported errors will be avoided by the readers.

  11. Results of post-irradiation examination of WWER fuel assembly structural components made of E110 and E635 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Markov, D.; Smirnov, V.; Polenok, V.; Ivashchenko, A.; Strozhuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the main examination results on the condition of fuel rods claddings, guide tubes and spacer grids of the WWER FA made of E110 and E635 alloys operated under standard operating conditions. The paper is based on the data obtained during the examination of 28 WWER-1000 FA and 12 WWER-400 FA. E110 alloy is shown to be suitable material for the WWER fuel rod claddings under the normal operating conditions. E635 alloy is attractive to manufacturing of the skeleton components. The currently used combination (E110 as a material of fuel rods claddings and E635 - as a material of the skeleton components) is the optimal solution for the WWER fuel assembly because the advantages of the both alloys are used. (authors)

  12. Experimental results on the MOX fuel. Study of the calculus/measures divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1997-01-01

    For each nuclear plant unit restart, all safety criterion have to be respected. Various parameters as boron concentration, temperature coefficient, worth or power and activity distributions related to fuel assemblies, have to be calculated. To compute these parameters Framatome uses the neutronic channel Science. Before the validation they are compare to experimental measures. For UO 2 fuel the divergence calculus/measures are correct. But for MOX fuels the divergence worsening. This paper discusses tis divergence and research the origin. (A.L.B.)

  13. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Norat, T.; Wark, P.A.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Schulze, M.B.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft

  14. The incidence and outcome of allied disorders of Hirschsprung's disease in Japan: Results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Taguchi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Almost all Japanese cases of ADHD in the past 10 years were collected. Congenital HG and CIIP showed relatively high incidence, whereas acquired HG and IASA were extremely rare in Japan. The criteria of each disorder were also collected and summarized. Prognosis was poor in congenital HG, MMIHS, and CIIP.

  15. Impetigo: incidence and treatment in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001: results from two national surveys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S.; Mohammedamin, R.S.A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Thomas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Impetigo is a common skin infection in children. The epidemiology is relatively unkown, and the choice of treatment is subject to debate. Objective: The objective of our study was to determine the incidence and treatment of impetigo in Dutch general practice, and to assess trends between

  16. Interpretation of the results from individual monitoring of workers at the Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marcelo Xavier de

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Although in this kind of facility the main route of intake is inhalation, ingestion may occur in some situations, and also a mixture of both. The interpretation of the bioassay data is very complex, since it is necessary taking into account all the different parameters, which is a big challenge. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this study, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference of measurement methodologies in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. Results of monitoring of working environment may provide information that assists in the interpretation on particle size, chemical form, solubility and date of intake. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the studied nuclear fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary and faecal excretion (collected over a period of 3 consecutive days), chest counting and personal air sampling. The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown to be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. The chest counting methodology has not shown

  17. Syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men in China: results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohong; Cao, Ya; Yao, Yuan; Li, Ming; Tang, Weiming; Li, Jianjun; Babu, Giridhara R; Jia, Yue; Huan, Xiping; Xu, Genxing; Yang, Haitao; Fu, Gengfeng; Li, Lei

    2017-02-01

    The recent upsurge of syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is one of the major challenges facing China. However, the overall burden is still not clear. This study aims to summarize the incidence of syphilis among MSM in China by using meta-analysis. We comprehensively searched PubMed-MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang databases. Articles published between December 2009 and March 2015 that met the inclusion criteria were considerably involved in this meta-analysis. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating the overall syphilis incidence. STATA 12.0 was used to summarize the overall incidence of syphilis. In all, 14 studies from 13 papers were included in this study. Follow-up duration of these studies ranged from six to 36 months, while drop-out rates ranged from 11.9% to 83.6%. The individual incidence rates of the included studies varied from 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) to 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), with a pooled incidence of 9.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-12.2/100 person-years). The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that incidence estimates were 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9-48.1/100 person-years), 12.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-17.2/100 person-years), 11.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.7-23.1/100 person-years), 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI, 6.5-11.2/100 person-years), 5.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 3.4-8.0/100 person-years) and 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8-5.3/100 person-years) in Northeast, North, Southwest, East, South and Northwest China, respectively. Syphilis incidence among Chinese MSM is high, and this may increase the spread of other sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. It is essential to integrate syphilis control programs with HIV control programs. This can be achieved by establishing public health response systems to monitor and control

  18. Orthostatic change in blood pressure and incidence of atrial fibrillation: results from a bi-ethnic population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Agarwal

    Full Text Available Autonomic fluctuations are associated with the initiation and possibly maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF. However, little is known about the relationship between orthostatic blood pressure change, a common manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, and incident AF.We examined whether supine-to-standing changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP are associated with incident AF in 12,071 African American and white men and women aged 45-64 years, enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC study. Orthostatic hypotension (OH was defined as a supine-standing drop in SBP by ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by ≥10 mmHg. AF cases were identified based on study scheduled 12-lead ECG, hospital discharge ICD codes, and death certificates through 2009.OH was seen in 603 (5% at baseline. During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 1438 (11.9% study participants developed AF. Incident AF occurred more commonly among those with OH than those without, a rate of 9.3 vs. 6.3 per 1000 person years, (p<0.001. The age, gender, and race adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI of AF among those with OH compared to those without was 1.62 (1.34, 2.14. This association was attenuated after adjustment for common AF risk factors to HR 1.40 (1.15, 1.71, a strength similar to that of diabetes or hypertension with AF in the same model. A non-linear relationship between orthostatic change in SBP and incident AF was present after multivariable adjustment.OH is associated with higher AF incidence. Whether interventions that decrease OH can reduce AF risk remains unknown.

  19. Prophylactic Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen Results in Equivalent Acute Mountain Sickness Incidence at High Altitude: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Peterson, Alicia L; Pun, Matiram; Holck, Peter S; Starling, Jennifer; Basyal, Bikash; Freeman, Thomas F; Gehner, Jessica R; Keyes, Linda; Levin, Dana R; O'Leary, Catherine J; Stuart, Katherine E; Thapa, Ghan B; Tiwari, Aditya; Velgersdyk, Jared L; Zafren, Ken; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-06-01

    Recent trials have demonstrated the usefulness of ibuprofen in the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS), yet the proposed anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unconfirmed. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were tested for AMS prevention. We hypothesized that a greater clinical effect would be seen from ibuprofen due to its anti-inflammatory effects compared with acetaminophen's mechanism of possible symptom reduction by predominantly mediating nociception in the brain. A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted testing acetaminophen vs ibuprofen for the prevention of AMS. A total of 332 non-Nepali participants were recruited at Pheriche (4371 m) and Dingboche (4410 m) on the Everest Base Camp trek. The participants were randomized to either acetaminophen 1000 mg or ibuprofen 600 mg 3 times a day until they reached Lobuche (4940 m), where they were reassessed. The primary outcome was AMS incidence measured by the Lake Louise Questionnaire score. Data from 225 participants who met inclusion criteria were analyzed. Twenty-five participants (22.1%) in the acetaminophen group and 18 (16.1%) in the ibuprofen group developed AMS (P = .235). The combined AMS incidence was 19.1% (43 participants), 14 percentage points lower than the expected AMS incidence of untreated trekkers in prior studies at this location, suggesting that both interventions reduced the incidence of AMS. We found little evidence of any difference between acetaminophen and ibuprofen groups in AMS incidence. This suggests that AMS prevention may be multifactorial, affected by anti-inflammatory inhibition of the arachidonic-acid pathway as well as other analgesic mechanisms that mediate nociception. Additional study is needed. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Main results on pilot operation during 5 years of the 3rd generation fuel in VVER-440 reactors of Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, V.; Sumarokov, M.; Gagarinskiy, A.; Sumarokova, A.; Adeev, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the report the results of comparison of main neutron-physical data of exploitation of nuclear fuel are presented for the average enrichment (on U - 235) of 4.87 for the 2nd and 3rd (12 piece) generations with the results of calculations by the complex of the programs KASKAD for 5 fuel loadings of Kola NPP Unit 4 with the reactor VVER- 440. The basic feature of fuel of the 3rd generation as compared with the 2nd is a presence of ribs of inflexibility at corners instead of cover of the fuel assembly and also the increased amount of uranium. The arrangement of fuel rods with different enrichment in fuel assemblies of the 2nd and 3rd generations is chosen identical for the convenient comparison of neutronic and thermohydraulic characteristics of the fuel of different generations. The fuel of 3rd generation was situated in the core symmetrically to the fuel of 2nd one

  1. Status and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on the LWR fuel rod behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Hofmann, P.; Leistikow, S.; Class, G.; Meyder, R.; Raff, S.; Erbacher, F.; Hofmann, G.; Ihle, P.; Karb, E.; Fiege, A.

    1978-09-01

    In this report the status of knowledge is described which has been gathered up to the end of 1977 of the LWR fuel rod behavior in loss-of-coolant accidents. The majority of results indicated have been derived from studies on the fuel rod behavior performed within the framework of the Nuclear Safety Project (PNS); partly, also the results of cooperating research establishments and fm international exchange of experience are referred to. The report has been subdivided into two complete parts: Part I provides a survey of the most significant results of the theoretical and experimental research projects on fuel rod behavior. Part II describes by detailed individual presentations the status as well as the results with respect to the major central subjects. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP [de

  2. Cesium relocation in mixed-oxide fuel pins resulting from increased temperature reirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Woodley, R.E.; Weber, E.T.

    1976-06-01

    Mixed-oxide fuel pins from EBR-II test subassemblies PNL-3 and PNL-4 were reirradiated in the GETR to study effects of increased fuel and cladding temperatures on chemical and thermomechanical behavior. Radial and axial distributions of cesium were obtained using postirradiation nondestructive precision gamma-scanning techniques. Data presented relate to the dependence of cesium distribution and transport processes on temperature gradients which were altered after substantial steady-state operation

  3. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel

  4. Airflow Obstruction and Use of Solid Fuels for Cooking or Heating: BOLD Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Kato, Bernet S; Obaseki, Daniel O; Lawin, Hervé; Tan, Wan C; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Harrabi, Imed; Studnicka, Michael; Wouters, Emiel F M; Loh, Li-Cher; Bateman, Eric D; Mortimer, Kevin; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-09-12

    Evidence supporting the association of COPD or airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels is conflicting and inconsistent. To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating. We analysed 18,554 adults from the BOLD study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analysed. We carried out similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough and chronic phlegm. We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (ORmen=1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53; ORwomen=0.88, 95%CI 0.67-1.15). This was true for low/middle and high income sites. Among never smokers there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (ORmen=1.00, 95%CI 0.57-1.76; ORwomen=1.00, 95%CI 0.76-1.32). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never smokers and those who had been exposed for ≥20 years. Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.

  5. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral.

  6. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wing-Yee; de Kwaadsteniet, Marjolein CE; Harmsen, Mirjam; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette WA; Schellevis, François G; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral. PMID:16584577

  7. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Results of The Mexico City Diabetes Study after 18 years of follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clicerio González-Villalpando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in Mexican population. Materials and methods. Population based prospective study. At baseline (1990, the population at risk (1939 non-diabetic adults 35-64 years was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance test. Subsequent similar evaluations were done (1994, 1998, 2008. American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria were applied. Results. The period of observation was 27842 person-years, the cumulative incidence of T2D was 14.4 and 13.7 per 1000 person-years for men and women, respectively. Incidence was 15.8, 15.7 and 12.7 per 1 000 person-years for the second (1994, third (1998 and fourth (2008 follow-up phases, respectively. The mean age at diagnosis was 44 years for prevalent cases and 56 years for incident cases. Conclusions. This is the first estimate of long-term incidence of T2D in Mexican population. The incidence is among the highest reported worldwide. It remained with few changes throughout the study period.

  8. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  9. Results on safety research for five years (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000). A field of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This safety research carried out by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) for five years ranged from fiscal year 1996 to 2000, was performed according to the safety research basic plan (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) established on March, 1996 (revised again on May, 2000). This report was arranged on a field on nuclear fuel cycle (all subjects on fields of nuclear fuel facility, environmental radioactivity and radioactive wastes and a subject on nuclear fuel cycle in a field of seismic resistant and probabilistic safety assessment) by combining its research results for five years ranged from 1996 to 2000 fiscal year with general outlines on the safety research basic plan. Here were shown outlines on the safety research basic plan, aims and subjects on safety research at a field of nuclear fuel cycle, a list of survey sheets on safety research result, and survey sheets on safety research results. The survey sheets containing research field, title, organization, researcher name, researching period, names of cooperative organization, using facilities, research outline, research results, established contents, application, and research trends, are ranged to 21 items on nuclear fuel facility, 1 item on seismic resistance, 2 items on probabilistic safety assessment, 8 items on environmental radioactivity, and 20 items on radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  10. Fast reactors fuel cycle core physics results from the CAPRA-CADRA programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Rimpault, G.; Tommasi, J.; Saint Jean, C. de; Delpech, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Hesketh, K. [BNFL, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Beaumont, H.M.; Sunderland, R.E. [NNC Ltd. (United Kingdom); Newton, T.; Smith, P. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Raedt, Ch. de [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Vambenepe, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Lefevre, J.C. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Maschek, W.; Haas, D

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of fast reactor core physics results obtained in the context of the CAPRA-CADRA European collaborative programme, whose aim is to investigate a broad range of possible options for plutonium and radioactive waste management. Different types of fast reactors have been studied to evaluate their potential capabilities with respect to the long term management of plutonium, minor actinides (MAs) and long- lived fission products (LLFPs). Among the several options aiming at reducing waste and consequently radio toxicity are: homogeneous recycling of Minor Actinides, heterogeneous recycling of Minor Actinides either without or with moderation, dedicated critical cores (fuelled mainly with Minor Actinides) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS) variants. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the potential of the various options, advanced core physics methods have been implemented and tested and applied, for example, to improving control rod modeling and to studying safety aspects. There has also been code development and experimental work carried out to improve the understanding of fuel performance behaviors. (author)

  11. Fast reactors fuel cycle core physics results from the CAPRA-CADRA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.; Rimpault, G.; Tommasi, J.; Saint Jean, C. de; Delpech, M.; Hesketh, K.; Beaumont, H.M.; Sunderland, R.E.; Newton, T.; Smith, P.; Raedt, Ch. de; Vambenepe, G.; Lefevre, J.C.; Maschek, W.; Haas, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of fast reactor core physics results obtained in the context of the CAPRA-CADRA European collaborative programme, whose aim is to investigate a broad range of possible options for plutonium and radioactive waste management. Different types of fast reactors have been studied to evaluate their potential capabilities with respect to the long term management of plutonium, minor actinides (MAs) and long- lived fission products (LLFPs). Among the several options aiming at reducing waste and consequently radio toxicity are: homogeneous recycling of Minor Actinides, heterogeneous recycling of Minor Actinides either without or with moderation, dedicated critical cores (fuelled mainly with Minor Actinides) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS) variants. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the potential of the various options, advanced core physics methods have been implemented and tested and applied, for example, to improving control rod modeling and to studying safety aspects. There has also been code development and experimental work carried out to improve the understanding of fuel performance behaviors. (author)

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a)

  13. Can Patient Safety Incident Reports Be Used to Compare Hospital Safety? Results from a Quantitative Analysis of the English National Reporting and Learning System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ann-Marie; Burns, Elaine M; Bouras, George; Donaldson, Liam J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    significantly negatively associated with incident reports. Patient satisfaction and mortality outcomes were not significantly associated with reporting rates. Staff survey responses revealed that keeping reports confidential, keeping staff informed about incidents and giving feedback on safety initiatives increased reporting rates [r = 0.26 (p<0.01), r = 0.17 (p = 0.04), r = 0.23 (p = 0.01), r = 0.20 (p = 0.02)]. The NRLS is the largest patient safety reporting system in the world. This study did not demonstrate many hospital characteristics to significantly influence overall reporting rate. There were no association between size of hospital, number of staff, mortality outcomes or patient satisfaction outcomes and incident reporting rate. The study did show that hospitals where staff reported more incidents had reduced litigation claims and when clinician staffing is increased fewer incidents reporting patient harm are reported, whilst near misses remain the same. Certain specialties report more near misses than others, and doctors report more harm incidents than near misses. Staff survey results showed that open environments and reduced fear of punitive response increases incident reporting. We suggest that reporting rates should not be used to assess hospital safety. Different healthcare professionals focus on different types of safety incidents and focusing on these areas whilst creating a responsive, confidential learning environment will increase staff engagement with error disclosure.

  14. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  15. Coffee intake and risk of incident diabetes in Puerto Rican men: results from the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, B J; Smit, E; Crespo, C J; Garcia-Palmieri, M R

    2009-06-01

    To study prospectively the association of coffee intake with incident diabetes in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program cohort, comprising 9824 middle-aged men (aged 35-79 years). Of 9824 men, 3869 did not provide a fasting blood sample at baseline, 1095 had prevalent diabetes and 131 were not given fasting glucose tests at any subsequent study visit. Thus, the present analysis includes 4685 participants. Diabetes was ascertained at baseline and at two study visits between 1968 and 1975 using fasting glucose tests and self-reports of physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of insulin or hypoglycaemic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of coffee intake with risk of incident diabetes while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, intakes of milk and sugar). Five hundred and nineteen participants met the criteria for incident diabetes. Compared with those reporting intake of 1-2 servings of coffee/d, coffee abstainers were at reduced risk (OR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.94). Among coffee drinkers, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk by intake (P = 0.02); intake of >/=4 servings/d was associated with an odds ratio of 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.97). Study findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on diabetes risk, while also suggesting that abstainers may be at reduced risk.

  16. Results after implementation of a protocol on the incidence of urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Anna Letícia; Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Nacer, Daiana Terra; Aguiar, Cynthia Adalgisa Mesojedovas

    2016-09-09

    to compare the results of urinary tract infection incidence, by means of the rate of indwelling urethral catheter use, and to identify microorganisms in urine cultures and surveillance cultures before and after the implementation of a clinical protocol for intensive care unit patients . urinary tract infection is defined as a positive urine culture > 105 CFU/mL, notified by the hospital infection control service, six months before and after the implementation of the protocol. The sample consisted of 47 patients, 28 reported before and 19 after implementation. The protocol established in the institution is based on the Ministry of Health manual to prevent healthcare-related infections; the goal is patient safety and improving the quality of health services. a negative linear correlation was observed between the later months of implementation and the reduction of reported cases of urinary tract infection, using the Spearman rank order coefficient (p = 0.045), and a reduction in the number of urine culture microorganisms (p = 0.026) using the Fisher exact test. educational interventions with implementation protocols in health institutions favor the standardization of maintenance of the invasive devices, which may reduce colonization and subsequent infections. comparar os resultados da incidência de infecção do trato urinário, por meio da taxa de utilização do cateter vesical de demora e identificar os micro-organismos na urocultura e cultura de vigilância antes e após a implementação de um protocolo assistencial em pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. definiu-se infecção do trato urinário pacientes com urocultura positiva >105 UFC/mL, notificados pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, seis meses antes e após a implementação do protocolo. A amostra foi constituída por 47 pacientes, sendo 28 notificados antes e 19 após. O protocolo, criado na instituição, é baseado no manual do Ministério da Saúde na prevenção de

  17. Life cycle inventory and external costs of the gas fuel cycle. An overview of the main results and a brief comparison with other fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Wouters, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of a research project funded by the Belgian electricity utilities Electrabel/SPE, VITO made a life cycle inventory of the primary energy use and airborne emissions (including greenhouse gases, SO2 and NOx) of different fuels. Consequently, the impacts of these pollutants on human health, manmade and the natural environment are quantified and these impacts are valued in monetary terms. This analysis is based on the European ExternE methodology to estimate the external costs of energy. The LCI and external cost analysis confirm clearly that natural gas is a relative clean fossil fuel cycle. External cost are in the range of 1.2 to 2.6 EUROcent /kWh, which roughly corresponds from 30 % to 80 % of the private production costs. These results are introduced into a software module, which allows the utilities to compare economic costs and environmental benefits of different measures to reduce CO2 emissions. (author)

  18. Results from a Field Trial of the Radio Frequency Based Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D.; Martyn, Rose; Pickett, Chris A.; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.; Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) is a tool designed for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve overall inspector efficiency through real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, site specific rules-based event detection, and the capability to integrate many types of monitoring technologies. The system is based on the tracking of cylinder movements using (radio frequency) RF tags, and the collection of data, such as accountability weights, that can be associated with the cylinders. This presentation will cover the installation and evaluation of the CATS at the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC. This system was installed to evaluate its safeguards applicability, operational durability under operating conditions, and overall performance. An overview of the system design and elements specific to the GNF deployment will be presented along with lessons learned from the installation process and results from the field trial.

  19. Some elaborating methods of gamma scanning results on irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma scanning, as a post-irradiation examination, is a technique which provides a large number of informations on irradiated nuclear fuels. Power profile, fission products distribution, average and local burn-up of single elements structural and nuclear behaviour of fuel materials are examples of the obtained informations. In the present work experimental methods and theoretical calculations used at the CNEN hot cell laboratory for the mentioned purposes are described. Errors arising from the application of the gamma scanning technique are also discussed

  20. Ohio's First Ethanol-Fueled Light-Duty Fleet: Final Study Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1998-10-01

    In 1996, the State of Ohio established a project to demonstrate the use of an ethanol blend (E85, which is 85% transportation-grade ethanol and 15% gasoline) as a transportation fuel in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The study included ten FFVs and three gasoline vehicles (used as control vehicles) operated by five state agencies. The project included 24 months of data collection on vehicle operations. This report presents the data collection and analysis from the study, with a focus on the last year.

  1. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  2. Incidence and risk factors for severe and symptomatic hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Results of the HYPOS-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Carlo B; Ozzello, Alessandro; Gentile, Sandro; Aglialoro, Alberto; Chiambretti, Anna; Baccetti, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco M; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Rossi, Maria Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We aimed to update the incidence of severe and symptomatic hypoglycemia and investigate several correlated factors. In this multicenter, observational retrospective study, the data of 206 T1DM patients from a sample of 2,229 consecutive patients seen at 18 diabetes clinics were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, severe hypoglycemia in the past 12 months, and symptomatic hypoglycemia in the past 4 weeks were recorded with a self-report questionnaire and a clinical form during a routine visit. Poisson multivariate models were applied. A minority of patients accounted for the majority of both severe and symptomatic episodes. The incidence rate (IR) of severe hypoglycemia was 0.49 (0.40-0.60) events/person-years. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was higher in patients with previous severe hypoglycemia (3.71; 2.28-6.04), neuropathy (4.16; 2.14-8.05), long duration (>20 years, 2.96; 1.60-5.45), and on polypharmacy (1.24; 1.13-1.36), but it was lower when a complication was present. The IR of symptomatic hypoglycemia was 53.3 events/person-years, with an IRR significantly higher among women or patients with better education, or shorter duration or on pumps. The IRR was lower in patients with higher BMI or neuropathy or aged more than 50 years. Fewer than 20 % of T1DM patients are free from hypoglycemia, with one in six having experienced at least one severe episode in the last year. The distribution is uneven, with a tendency of episodes to cluster in some patients. Severe and symptomatic episodes have different correlates and reflect different conditions.

  3. Study of core characteristics on fuel and coolant type. Results of F/S phase-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Makoto; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Yamadate, Megumi; Takaki, Naoyuki; Kurosawa, Norifumi; Sakashita, Yoshiaki; Naganuma, Masayuki

    2001-03-01

    The phase-I of the Feasibility Study of Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S) were started from July, 1999 and terminated at the end of FY2000 in order to executed examination about technology alternatives of various commercialized fast reactor (FR) recycle concepts, in response to the JNC middle long term enterprise plan. In the phase-I of this F/S, a number of conceptual candidates have been selected from the following 5 viewpoints: a) ensuring safety, b) economic competitiveness to future LWRs, c) efficient utilization of resources, d) reduction of environmental burden, e) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. As for this study from the above viewpoints, core characteristics of many kinds of reactors have been investigated, analyzed and examined a core / a fuel characteristic in the combinations of fuel and coolant types and power output scales. Based on these results, R and D plans of the phase-II to be performed have been proposed, and a database to select candidate reactor concepts has been prepared. The conclusions have been obtained in the phase-I are as follows: (1) Evaluation of a fuel form in every each coolant was compared. A promising fuel form was extracted as follows: an oxide and a metal fuel for sodium coolant cores, a metal and a nitride fuel for heavy metal coolant cores, an oxide and a nitride fuel for carbon dioxide coolant cores and a nitride fuel for He gas coolant cores. (2) As the general idea that performance of a core nucleus can be compatible with re-criticality evasion in sodium coolant large-sized oxide fuel cores, a axial blanket particle elimination radial heterogeneous core is one influential candidate. (3) In case of Pb-Bi coolant nature circulation medium size core with an oxide fuel, it is difficult to simultaneously achieve higher discharged burn-up and higher breeding ratio according to the viewpoints of the phase-I. (4) Core characteristics of a carbon dioxide coolant core shows to be almost equivalent to that of

  4. Association of Dual-Task Gait With Incident Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual

  5. The Normal-incidence Vacuum-ultraviolet Spectrometer for the TJ-II and First Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2002-01-01

    A normal-incidence spectrometer, operating in the extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet wavelength regions, has been commissioned for the TJ-II stellarator. The instrument has been custom built by McPherson, Chelmsford, MA, and has several unique features and accessories that are described here. The instrument and CCD detector has been tested and calibrated, and its performance evaluated, using spectral lines from glow discharges and a RF excited flow lamp. Finally, the first spectra collected with the instrument of TJ-II plasmas are presented and a preliminary estimation of an oxygen ion temperature is made. (Author) 23 refs

  6. The Normal-incidence Vacuum-ultraviolet Spectrometer for the TJ-II and First Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K.J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2002-07-01

    A normal-incidence spectrometer, operating in the extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet wavelength regions, has been commissioned for the TJ-II stellarator. The instrument has been custom built by McPherson, Chelmsford, MA, and has several unique features and accessories that are described here. The instrument and CCD detector has been tested and calibrated, and its performance evaluated, using spectral lines from glow discharges and a RF excited flow lamp. Finally, the first spectra collected with the instrument of TJ-II plasmas are presented and a preliminary estimation of an oxygen ion temperature is made. (Author) 23 refs.

  7. The French program on the spent nuclear fuel long term evolution: Major results, uncertainties and new requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, Cecile; Poinssot, Christophe; Gras, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    conditions; oxidation kinetics of UO 2 and spent fuel are assessed by coupling a microscopic approach with macroscopic classical methods; - in water, this boundary condition corresponds to the nominal scenario after the breaching of the canister during geological disposal; in this case, the effect of water a radiolysis on the spent fuel matrix dissolution is investigated. An overview of the state of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of spent fuel under these various conditions has been provided by Ferry et al. (2005). This report constitutes the scientific synthesis due at the term of the law. This state of the art was derived from the results obtained under the PRECCI project as well as from a review of the literature and some of the data issued from the 5. PRDC European project 'Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions' (Poinssot et al, 2005). Regarding these results, this paper presents for each initial operational question and concept, the main scientific issues, the major results obtained since 1999, and the remaining uncertainties. The new requirements in the frame of a broader context which includes transport and in-pool storage issues are also identified. The contents of this paper is as follows: 1 Introduction; 2 The retrievability of spent fuel assemblies after storage; 2.1 Main scientific issues; 2.2 Major results; 2.2.1 Mechanical evolution of the cladding and structural materials; 2.2.2 Specific case of the defected fuel rods - Evolution of the spent fuel pellets; 2.3 Remaining uncertainties and new requirements for each operational context; 3 The treatment of spent fuel after a long period of storage; 3.1 Main scientific issues; 3.2 Major results; 3.3 Remaining uncertainties and new requirements; 4 The definition of the radionuclide source terms; 4.1 Main scientific issues; 4.2 Major results; 4.3 Remaining uncertainties and new requirements for each operational context; 5 The compatibility between dry storage and subsequent disposal; 5.1 Main

  8. Understanding the nature of errors in nursing: using a model to analyse critical incident reports of errors which had resulted in an adverse or potentially adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurier, C E

    2000-07-01

    Human errors are common in clinical practice, but they are under-reported. As a result, very little is known of the types, antecedents and consequences of errors in nursing practice. This limits the potential to learn from errors and to make improvement in the quality and safety of nursing care. The aim of this study was to use an Organizational Accident Model to analyse critical incidents of errors in nursing. Twenty registered nurses were invited to produce a critical incident report of an error (which had led to an adverse event or potentially could have led to an adverse event) they had made in their professional practice and to write down their responses to the error using a structured format. Using Reason's Organizational Accident Model, supplemental information was then collected from five of the participants by means of an individual in-depth interview to explore further issues relating to the incidents they had reported. The detailed analysis of one of the incidents is discussed in this paper, demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach in providing insight into the chain of events which may lead to an adverse event. The case study approach using critical incidents of clinical errors was shown to provide relevant information regarding the interaction of organizational factors, local circumstances and active failures (errors) in producing an adverse or potentially adverse event. It is suggested that more use should be made of this approach to understand how errors are made in practice and to take appropriate preventative measures.

  9. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  10. Measurement of gamma ray from fuel of high temperature engineering test reactor. Method of measurement and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takada, Eiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-02-01

    To obtain information in the HTTR core directly, gamma ray from fuel blocks was measured when fuel blocks were discharged from the core and reloaded to the core. Gamma ray was measured using GM detector, CZT semiconductor detector installed in a door valve and area monitors installed in a stand pipe compartment. The measurement was carried out for 20 fuel blocks in 4 columns considering the symmetry of uranium enrichment distribution in the core. Relative axial distribution in each column obtained by the GM detector and CZT detector agreed with calculated results. However, calculation values showed higher values than measured values in upper region of the core, lower those in lower region of the core. The axial distributions were also evaluated by the area monitors. The measured values agreed with calculated values. It became clear that it was possible to obtain the data inside the core by this method. (author)

  11. [INCIDENCE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN COMBINATION WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS ESTIMATED FROM RESULTS OF AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 20-59 YEAR OLD WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, S S; Kasumova, E N; Mamedova, R N

    2015-01-01

    We report evaluation of the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in combination with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) estimated from results of an epidemiological study of 20-59 year old women. CPD was shown to occur twice more frequently in association with DM2 especilly in the age groups of 30-39 and 50-59 years.

  12. A fuel thermal conductivity correlation based on the latest experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontheimer, F.; Landskron, H.; Billaux, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    A new fuel thermal conductivity (ftc) correlation for UO 2 and (U,Gd)O 2 is presented, which is based on the relaxation-time theory of Klemens. The correlation is chosen because of its validity in a wide range of defect concentrations as for instance encountered in fuel with a wide range of burnup and gadolinia additions, as has been shown by Ishimoto. The phonon term of the new correlation has the form 1/x·arctan(x) , where x is a measure of the defect concentration introduced by burnup and gadolinia additions. For low defect concentrations, this term is identical with the classical form for the phonon term 1/(A+B.T). At high defect concentrations, however, when phonon-point defect scattering starts dominating over phonon-phonon scattering, the new correlation deviates from the classical formulation and has a distinctly weaker dependence on temperature and defect concentration than the classical form. The new arctan correlation in combination with an appropriate electronic ftc term is fitted to the Halden data base of fuel centre-line temperature measurements (represented by the ''Halden ftc correlation recommendation''). Agreement is very good up to a burnup of about 60 MWd/kgU; beyond, the arctan form has a saturating burnup degradation. The new arctan correlation in combination with an appropriate electronic ftc term is also shown to describe very well our latest ftc measurements on unirradiated gadolinia fuel up to 9% gadolinia content. Application to Halden measurements up to very high burnup is successful, when combined with the so-called ''rim-effect'', which counteracts the saturation tendency of the new correlation at high burnup. Latest laser thermal diffusivity measurements on irradiated gadolinia fuel in the frame of the NFIR program, although not yet open for literature and not discussed in the paper, indicate very good agreement with the new arctan correlation. (author)

  13. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  14. Overview of fuel behaviour and core degradation, based on modelling analyses. Overview of fuel behaviour and core degradation, on the basis of modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massara, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Since the very first hours after the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi, numerical simulations by means of severe accident codes have been carried out, aiming at highlighting the key physical phenomena allowing a correct understanding of the sequence of events, and - on a long enough timeline - improving models and methods, in order to reduce the discrepancy between calculated and measured data. A last long-term objective is to support the future decommissioning phase. The presentation summarises some of the available elements on the role of the fuel/cladding-water interaction, which became available only through modelling because of the absence of measured data directly related to the cladding-steam interaction. This presentation also aims at drawing some conclusions on the status of the modelling capabilities of current tools, particularly for the purpose of the foreseen application to ATF fuels: - analyses with MELCOR, MAAP, THALES2 and RELAP5 are presented; - input data are taken from BWR Mark-I Fukushima-Daiichi Units 1, 2 and 3, completed with operational data published by TEPCO. In the case of missing or incomplete data or hypotheses, these are adjusted to reduce the calculation/measurement discrepancy. The behaviour of the accident is well understood on a qualitative level (major trends on RPV pressure and water level, dry-wet and PCV pressure are well represented), allowing a certain level of confidence in the results of the analysis of the zirconium-steam reaction - which is accessible only through numerical simulations. These show an extremely fast sequence of events (here for Unit 1): - the top of fuel is uncovered in 3 hours (after the tsunami); - the steam line breaks at 6.5 hours. Vessel dries at 10 hours, with a heat-up rate in a first moment driven by the decay heat only (∼7 K/min) and afterwards by the chemical heat from Zr-oxidation (over 30 K/min), associated with massive hydrogen production. It appears that the level of uncertainty increases with

  15. AGR-1 Fuel Compact 6-3-2 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul demkowicz; jason Harp; Scott Ploger

    2012-12-01

    Destructive post-irradiation examination was performed on fuel Compact 6-3-2, which was irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment to a final compact average burnup of 11.3% FIMA and a time-average, volume-average temperature of 1070°C. The analysis of this compact was focused on characterizing the extent of fission product release from the particles and examining particles to determine the condition of the kernels and coating layers. The work included deconsolidation of the compact and leach-burn-leach analysis, visual inspection and gamma counting of individual particles, measurement of fuel burnup by several methods, metallurgical preparation of selected particles, and examination of particle cross-sections with optical microscopy. A single particle with a defective SiC layer was identified during deconsolidation-leach-burn-leach analysis, which is in agreement with previous measurements showing elevated cesium in the Capsule 6 graphite fuel holder associated with this fuel compact. The fraction of the compact europium inventory released from the particles and retained in the matrix was relatively high (approximately 6E-3), indicating release from intact particle coatings. The Ag-110m inventory in individual particles exhibited a very broad distribution, with some particles retaining =80% of the predicted inventory and others retaining less than 25%. The average degree of Ag-110m retention in 60 gamma counted particles was approximately 50%. This elevated silver release is in agreement with analysis of silver on the Capsule 6 components, which indicated an average release of 38% of the Capsule 6 inventory from the fuel compacts. In spite of the relatively high degree of silver release from the particles, virtually none of the Ag-110m released was found in the compact matrix, and presumably migrated out of the compact and was deposited on the irradiation capsule components. Release of all other fission products from the particles appears to be less than a single

  16. Association of PM2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and high blood pressure incidence in Canada: A spatiotemporal analysis of the impacts of the energy generation and fuel sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requia, Weeberb J; Adams, Matthew D; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-04-15

    Numerous studies have reported an association between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and human health. Often these relationships are influenced by environmental factor that varies spatially and/or temporally. To our knowledge, there are no studies in Canada that have considered energy generation and fuel sales as PM 2.5 effects modifiers. Determining exposure and disease-specific risk factors over space and time is crucial for disease prevention and control. In this study, we evaluated the association of PM 2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and High Blood Pressure (HBP) incidence in Canada. Then we explored the impact of the energy generation and fuel sales on association changes. We fit an age-period-cohort as the study design, and we applied an over-dispersed Poisson regression model to estimate the risk. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to explore the impact of variation in clean energy rates and fuel sales on outcomes changes. The study included 117 health regions in Canada between 2007 and 2014. Our findings showed strong association of PM 2.5 with diabetes, asthma, and HBP incidence. A two-year increase of 10μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 was associated with an increased risk of 5.34% (95% CI: 2.28%; 12.53%) in diabetes incidence, 2.24% (95% CI: 0.93%; 5.38%) in asthma incidence, and 8.29% (95% CI: 3.44%; 19.98%) in HBP incidence. Our sensitivity analysis findings suggest higher risks of diabetes, asthma and HBP incidence when there is low clean energy generation. On the other hand, we found lower risk when we considered high rate of clean energy generation. For example, considering only diabetes incidence, we found that the risk in health regions with low rates of clean electricity is approximately 700% higher than the risk in health regions with high rates of clean electricity. Furthermore, our analysis suggested that the risk in regions with low fuel sales is 66% lower than the risk is health regions with low rates of clean electricity. Our study provides support for

  17. Incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during permanent pacemaker therapy in low-risk patients results from the German multicentre EVENTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Thomas S; Gradinger, Robert; Treusch, Sven; Morkel, Carsten; Brachmann, Johannes; Bode, Christoph; Zehender, Manfred

    2007-09-01

    Current studies found an incidence of 12-31% ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death during cardiac pacing months or even years after pacemaker insertion. MADIT(12) and MUSTT(13) demonstrated that patients with poor LV function after Myocardial infarction (MI) showing non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT) and inducibility during electrophysiologic testing benefit from an ICD. The present study was dedicated to assess the global incidence of non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias in a general population of pacemaker patients. Special regard was on patients with a potential ICD indication, e.g. those matching the MADIT/MUSTT criteria. Two hundred and thirty-one patients (72 +/- 11 years; 134 men) with an indication for dual chamber pacing entered the study. In all patients pacemaker systems capable of automatic storing of intracardiac electrocardiograms were implanted (Pulsar, Discovery, Guidant). Follow-up time was 15 months after inclusion. In 54 (25.7%) of 210 patients with at least one follow-up, episodes of nsVT were documented by stored electrocardiograms (up to >30 beats, >200 b.p.m.). Multiple-up to nine-episodes of ventricular tachycardia were retrieved in 31 of these patients. Three out of 14 patients with an LVEF <40% after MI presented nsVT during the follow-up. One of these patients received an ICD. A significant number of pacemaker patients present with ventricular tachycardia. Intracardiac electrocardiograms and alert functions from pacemakers may enhance physicians' awareness of the patient's intrinsic arrhythmic profile and help uncover underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias by storing the initiation of the arrhythmia.

  18. Results of screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a large nursery in Kuwait: Incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Vivek B; Kumar, Niranjan; Sabti, Khalid; Raizada, Seemant; Rashwan, Nabeel; Shukkur, Mumtaz M; Harbi, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe ROP and identify the risk factors for their development in a large nursery in Kuwait. This was a retrospective, interventional, non-comparative, hospital-based study. Retrospective review of ROP records of premature babies having either birth weight of less than 1501 g or gestational age at birth of 34 weeks or less and born between January 2001 and August 2003. By univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Out of the 599 babies studied, 38.9% developed ROP and 7.8% needed treatment for severe ROP. Multivariate analysis showed low birth weight (OR 13.753, 95% CI 3.66-51.54; ( P < 0.001), gestational age (OR 13.75, 95% CI 3.66-51.54; P < 0.001), surfactant (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.83; P = 0.032) and stay in the intensive care unit for longer than 15 days (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.05-4.85; P = 0.033) to be significant for the development of any ROP. Low birth weight (OR 22.86, 95% CI 3.86-134.82; P = 0.001), bacterial sepsis (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.51-7.05; P = 0.002) and need for surfactant (OR 4.41, 95% CI 0.94 -20.56; P = 0.059) were found to be the risk factors for severe ROP needing laser treatment. The incidence of both any ROP and ROP needing treatment are comparable to other studies. Low birth weight is the most important risk factor for both any ROP and severe ROP.

  19. Does Peak Urine Flow Rate Predict the Development of Incident Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Mild to No Current Symptoms? Results from REDUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Vidal, Adriana; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    We determined whether decreased peak urine flow is associated with future incident lower urinary tract symptoms in men with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms. Our population consisted of 3,140 men from the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) less than 8. REDUCE was a randomized trial of dutasteride vs placebo for prostate cancer prevention in men with elevated prostate specific antigen and negative biopsy. I-PSS measures were obtained every 6 months throughout the 4-year study. The association between peak urine flow rate and progression to incident lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as the first of medical treatment, surgery or sustained and clinically significant lower urinary tract symptoms, was tested by multivariable Cox models, adjusting for various baseline characteristics and treatment arm. On multivariable analysis as a continuous variable, decreased peak urine flow rate was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (p = 0.002). Results were similar in the dutasteride and placebo arms. On univariable analysis when peak flow was categorized as 15 or greater, 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second, flow rates of 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second were associated with a significantly increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (HR 1.39, p = 0.011 and 1.67, p urinary tract symptoms a decreased peak urine flow rate is independently associated with incident lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these men should be followed closer for incident lower urinary tract symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of fuel management at Embalse nuclear power plant. Analysis of performance at other plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, A.O. de; Moreno, C.A.; Vinez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience of fuel management at the Embalse nuclear power plant from new core to the present situation (approximately 937 days at full power) is described. The average core burnup is about 4000 MW d/t U and the monthly averaged discharge burnup about 7800 MW d/t U. The neutron flux distribution is calculated by means of program PUMA-C, which is periodically checked by comparison between calculated and measured values of 102 vanadium detectors. A comparison of the performance of other reactors type CANDU 600 (Point Lepreau, Gentilly 2, Wolsung) from the point of view of fuel strategy is also presented. The data to perform the comparison were obtained by means of the CANDU system of information exchange between users (COG). (Author)

  1. Is current smoking still an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases? Results from a population-based incident cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter L; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara D; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Szita, Istvan; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Golovics, Petra A; Mandel, Michael; Horvath, Agnes; Szathmari, Miklos; Kiss, Lajos S; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that smoking is an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with dichotomous effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between smoking and IBD risk in a population-based database from Veszprem Province, which included incident cases diagnosed between January 1, 1977, and December 31, 2008. Data from 1420 incident patients were analyzed (UC: 914, age at diagnosis: 38.9 years; CD: 506, age at diagnosis: 31.5 years). Both inpatient and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Overall, smoking frequency in the adult general population was 36.1%. Of patients with CD, 47.2% were current smokers at diagnosis. Smoking was more frequent in male patients (P = 0.002) and was associated with an increased risk of CD (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.37; P < 0.001). In contrast, current smoking was protective against UC (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.41). The effect of smoking was linked to gender (in CD, more deleterious in male patients) and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults, with a difference already being seen in 18- to 19-year-olds. In CD, a change in disease behavior (P = 0.02), location from ileal or colonic to ileocolonic (P = 0.003), arthritis/arthropathy (P = 0.002), need for steroids (P = 0.06), or AZA (P = 0.038) was more common in current smokers. Smoking in UC was associated with more extensive disease (P = 0.01) and a tendency for decreased need for colectomy (P = 0.06). Current smoking was associated with the risk of IBD. This effect was linked to gender and age at diagnosis and was most prominent in young adults. No association was observed in pediatric or elderly patients. The deleterious and protective effects of smoking on the course in CD and UC were partially confirmed.

  2. Alternative Fuel Reduction Treatments in the Gunflint Corridor of the Superior National Forest: Second year results and sampling recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Gilmore; Douglas N. Kastendick; John C. Zasada; Paula J. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Fuel loadings need to be considered in two ways: 1) the total fuel loadings of various size classes and 2) their distribution across a site. Fuel treatments in this study affected both. We conclude that 1) mechanical treatments of machine piling and salvage logging reduced fine and heavy fuel loadings and 2) prescribed fire was successful in reducing fine fuel...

  3. Ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infection incidence in Dutch hospitals is not associated with provincial pig farming: Results from a national sentinel surveillance, 2009-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie M van Dorp

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the high incidence of ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infections (CDI in the Netherlands is related to pig farming.We used data of hospitalised CDI patients (>2yrs of age diagnosed between May 2009 and May 2015 in 26 hospitals participating in a national sentinel surveillance. We compared clinical and geographical characteristics of 078 CDI to other CDI. We investigated the association between 078 CDI incidence and four indicators of pig farming (piglet, pig, piglet farm and pig farm density by mixed-effects Poisson regression. We used a space-time permutation model to search for community-onset 078 CDI clusters (using SaTScan.A total of 4,691 CDI were identified. Ribotype 078 was isolated in 493 of 3,756 patients (13.1% including a typing result. These patients had slightly higher community-onset disease and a 35% increase of 30-day mortality compared to non-078 CDI patients. The pooled overall and 078 incidence rates were 2.82 (95% CI, 2.42-3.29 and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.31 CDI per 10,000 patients-days respectively. Hospital 078 CDI incidence was not associated with provincial pig (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.08, piglet (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75-1.19, pig farm (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84-1.39, or piglet farm density (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.56-1.79. No clusters of community-onset ribotype 078 CDI were found.Our results do not indicate that the ribotype 078 CDI incidence in hospitals is related to pig (farm or piglet (farm density. However, transmission beyond provincial borders or in non-hospitalised patients cannot be excluded.

  4. Experienced dilemmas of everyday life in chronic neuropathic pain patients--results from a critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, Gunnel K E; Sverker, Annette M; Leijon, Göran S

    2007-06-01

    Neuropathic pain is a disabling chronic condition with limited therapeutic options. Few studies have addressed patient's experience and strategies. The aim of this study was to explore dilemmas experienced in order to improve care and rehabilitation. An interview study with 39 patients suffering from neuropathic pain of different origin was performed. We used the critical incident technique to collect data. Questions on occasions when patients had been hindered by or reminded of their neuropathic pain were included, and the self-perceived consequences and management of such occasions. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. A broad range of experiences categorised into dilemmas, disturbances, consequences and managements from most parts of everyday life was identified. The dilemmas were 'housework', 'sitting', 'physical activity', 'personal hygiene', 'sleeping difficulties', 'hypersensitivity to external stimuli', 'social relationships', 'transportation' and 'leisure time'. Disturbances were 'failures', 'inabilities' and 'restrictions'. Consequences were 'increased pain', 'psychological reactions' and 'physical symptoms'. The majority of the patients used activity-oriented strategies to manage their pain such as alternative ways of performing the task, a cognitive approach or simply ignoring the pain. This is one of the first studies presenting detailed data on everyday dilemmas, disturbances and consequences of patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Such information is important in clinical settings to improve care and rehabilitation.

  5. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, N.P.; Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Roadarmel, G.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Mullin, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  6. Primary water chemistry optimization for extended fuel cycle operation. Results of the 'Duo experimentation' after three cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viricel, L.; Andrieu, C.; Segura, J.C.; Rocher, A.; Thomazet, J.; Clinard, M.H.; Dacquait, F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary coolant conditioning in French nuclear power plants is essentially based on the boron-lithium coordinated chemistry, with a target pH of 7.2 at 300 C and a maximum lithium concentration of 2.2 mg/kg. In 1996, EDF 1300 MWe units began operating 18-month fuel cycles, increasing boron concentrations at the beginning of the cycles. Since today the maximum lithium concentration in normal operation is 2.2 mg/kg, extended cycle operation results in a decrease in the pH at the beginning of the cycles, which may possibly lead to deposits in RCS, and particularly on the fuel cladding, and increased dose rates. It has to be noted that today, the fuel assemblies maximum burnup is set at 52 GWd/tU. One solution is to adjust the pH by increasing the lithium content at the beginning of the cycles, which is easy to implement and does not require any modification on the units. Hence, EDF is testing a ''modified'' chemistry regime in the > during 4 fuel cycles, with a maximum authorized lithium content of 3.5 mg/kg at the beginning of the cycles in the Cattenom 2 pilot unit. The Golfech 1 reference unit implements a standard boron-lithium coordination pH 300 7.2. The major goal of the experimentation is to assess the impact of elevated lithium concentrations at the beginning of the cycles on fuel cladding oxide behavior, mass transport and dose rates. This paper presents the results of the first three cycles of the Duo experimentation. (author)

  7. Results and comments on the gamma spectrometry examinations carried out on PWR and fast neutron fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineira, Thomas; Mouchnino, Michel; Juste, Guy; Vignesoult, Nicole.

    1980-05-01

    The gamma spectrometry analyses on the fuel elements of PWR and fast neutron systems have experienced a significant growth in the CEA. This nondestructive, quick, inexpensive and quantitative method, seems to us particularly advantageous for qualifying the behavior of fuel under irradiation. However, in order to use it to the maximum, it must have reached a high degree of automation and the interpretation of the results must be the outcome of a coherent team that includes gamma spectrometry and fuel element specialists, since the growth of hot cell gamma spectrometry involves the processing of a considerable number of data upon which the quality of the results depends (large number of spectra per pencil analyzed, dimension of the 2000 or 4000 channel spectra, number of lines studied, etc.). Therefore the need to make the most of the information and, in particular, to present the results in a form suitable for direct processing in a minimum response time, requires a highly automated system. Further, the more specific results of gamma spectrometry correlated to the metallurgical results obtained in the laboratories should contribute efficiently to obtaining major information [fr

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  9. Association of tobacco habits, including bidi smoking, with overall and site-specific cancer incidence: results from the Mumbai cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Yeole, Balkrishna B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bidis are hand-rolled cigarettes commonly smoked in South Asia and are marketed to Western populations as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. This study examined the association between bidis and other forms of tobacco use and cancer incidence in an urban developing country population. Methods Using data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai cohort study, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from Cox proportional hazards regression models in order to compare the relative effect of various forms of tobacco use on cancer incidence. Results During 649,228 person-years of follow-up 1,267 incident cancers occurred in 87,222 male cohort members. Incident oral cancer in bidi smokers (HR = 3.55; 95% CI = 2.40,5.24) was 42% higher than in cigarette smokers (HR = 2.50;95% CI = 1.65,3.78). For all respiratory and intrathoracic organs combined, the increase was 69% (HR = 5.54; 95% CI = 3.46,8.87 vs. HR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.99,5.39); for lung and larynx, the increases were 35 and 112%, respectively. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive, respiratory, and intrathoracic organs. Conclusions Despite marketing claims to the contrary, we found that smokeless tobacco use and bidi smoking are at least as harmful as cigarette smoking for all incident cancers and are associated with increased risk of oral and respiratory/intrathoracic cancers. PMID:21431915

  10. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  11. Results of experiments with flare type igniters on diesel fuel and crude oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, C.; Hankins, P.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a hand-deployable igniter that could ignite contained diesel fuel and crude oil emulsions on water was described. The igniter was developed as part of the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage (SUPSALV) In-Situ Burn (ISB) system. It is a manually operated, electrically fired, high temperature flare type igniter. It is 41 cm long, 10 cm in diameter, weighs 1.5 kg, and is packaged and shipped with the ISB system. The chemical and mineral composition of the flair allows for a three minute burn of up to 1370 degrees C (2500 degrees F) at the center. The flare is most effective when used in conjunction with a shroud of sorbent material which traps and holds oil around the burning flare aiding the ignition process by increasing the initial propagation area. In small-scale tank experiments the flare ignited diesel fuel in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C, with winds of 8 to 10 m/sec. The flare also ignited 22.5 per cent water-in crude oil emulsion in 3 degrees C temperatures. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  13. Nondestructive determination of plutonium mass in spent fuel: preliminary modeling results using the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Schear, Melissa A.; Menlove, Howard O.; Lee, Sang Y.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capability of the International Atomic Energy Agency (LAEA) to safeguard nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at pyrochemical processing facilities, providing quantitative input to burnup credit and final safeguards measurements at a long-term repository. In order to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, thirteen NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key motivation of the present research is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of rods. It is therefore anticipated that a combination of techniques will be required. A 5 year effort funded by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE was recently started in pursuit of these goals. The first two years involves researching all thirteen techniques using Monte Carlo modeling while the final three years involves fabricating hardware and measuring spent fuel. Here, we present the work in two main parts: (1) an overview of this NGSI effort describing the motivations and approach being taken; (2) The preliminary results for one of the NDA techniques - Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR). The PNAR technique functions by using the intrinsic neutron emission of the fuel (primarily from the spontaneous fission of curium) to self-interrogate any fissile material present. Two separate measurements of the spent fuel are made, both with and without cadmium (Cd) present. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are analyzed; known as the Cd ratio. The primary differences between the two measurements are the neutron energy spectrum

  14. In-pile test results of U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-7Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, J. M.; Lee, K. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Ryu, H. J.; Ye, B.

    2014-11-01

    U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al (U-Mo/Al) was in-pile tested to examine the effectiveness of the coating as a diffusion barrier between the U-7Mo fuel kernels and Al matrix. This paper reports the PIE data and analyses focusing on the effectiveness of the coating in terms of interaction layer (IL) growth and general fuel performance. The U-silicide coating showed considerable success, but it also provided evidence for additional improvement for coating process. The U-nitride coated specimen showed largely inefficient results in reducing IL growth. From the test, important observations were also made that can be utilized to improve U-Mo/Al fuel performance. The heating process for coating turned out to be beneficial to suppress fuel swelling. The use of larger fuel particles confirmed favorable effects on fuel performance.

  15. In-pile test results of U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-7Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Park, J.M.; Lee, K.H.; Yoo, B.O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al (U-Mo/Al) was in-pile tested to examine the effectiveness of the coating as a diffusion barrier between the U-7Mo fuel kernels and Al matrix. This paper reports the PIE data and analyses focusing on the effectiveness of the coating in terms of interaction layer (IL) growth and general fuel performance. The U-silicide coating showed considerable success, but it also provided evidence for additional improvement for coating process. The U-nitride coated specimen showed largely inefficient results in reducing IL growth. From the test, important observations were also made that can be utilized to improve U-Mo/Al fuel performance. The heating process for coating turned out to be beneficial to suppress fuel swelling. The use of larger fuel particles confirmed favorable effects on fuel performance.

  16. Short term endurance results on a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.

  17. Thermal-hydraulically controlled blowdown tests in the experimental facility COSIMA to study PWR fuel behavior: experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.; Hain, K.; Meyder, R.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel behavior in the blow-down phase of a LOCA is of importance for fuel rods with high internal pressure and high rod power, because of the effects on clad failure of the small cladding deformations occurring. The operating results of the COSIMA facility show that, on the basis of the new developments for measuring technique and fuel rod simulators performed, reactor relevant blow-down performances can be conducted in a controlled and reproduceable manner. The mechanical and thermal-hydraulic states occurring in the test bed may be subject to computational checking. This permits on one hand to improve the computing models and on the other yields a confirmation of the high state of development of the available computer codes. Therefore it appears that, with the results from COSIMA and the associated theoretical work in the field of the blow-down process, difficult to treat experimentally, an essential contribution to verifying the models for accident calculations is given. The work scheduled for the next about 1 1/2 years will serve to further support the rather preliminary results and to extend the range of then application. (orig.) [de

  18. Distribution of uranium in environmental samples: Effects of the January 4, 1986, incident of the Sequoyah Fuel Corporation at Gore, Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the background distribution of uranium in the environment is important not only from health physics research point of view, but also to geoscientific research as well. Background contents of uranium in soils are based on the geologic properties of their mother rocks. The concentration of uranium in the soil is dependent on the particle size. In order to determine the background levels of uranium isotopes in the soils environment, soil samples from different locations of similar geological formation are analyzed. Since the Amazon River is almost free of contaminations, it may be reasonable to consider these levels to be the background concentrations in waters. Since rivers are not all alike and do not run over the same geological formations, however, it would be wise to take a range to represent the background concentrations of river waters. This range would be from 0.043 μg/1 to 1 μg/1. Concentrations of uranium isotopes in the atmosphere are studied in the author's laboratories extensively. Uranium levels in soil samples in the downwind direction from the plant show that the uranium released in the atmosphere from the January 4, 1986, incident, had its effect in the immediate area south of the plant. It should be noted that most of the results obtained pose little or no health effects as far as the radioactivity exposure from the uranium concentration is concerned. However, contamination to the environment in the region should not be overlooked. Levels of uranium such as the ones reported in soil, sediment or water could have a detrimental effect on the surface and ground waters. Further investigation of the area is needed in order to evaluate the full effects of an incident of this type

  19. Molten fuel/coolant interaction studies: some results obtained with the Windscale small shock tube rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, E.J.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1978-02-01

    Experiments are described in which water has been brought into contact with various molten metals in a shock tube, thus simulating the fall of coolant into molten uranium dioxide in a postulated reactor accident. Impact velocities of the water on to the molten material were in the range 5 to 7 m/s. Shock-pulse pressures in the water column after impact and particle size distributions of the dispersed resolidified material that was recovered were measured. The proportion of dispersed material and the size of the shock pulse (by comparison with that expected from water hammer alone) have been used as criteria for the occurrence of a molten fuel/coolant interaction and such interactions of varying degrees of violence have been found for water/aluminium, water/bismuth, water/tin, over a range of temperatures from 350 0 C to 950 0 C, for water/boric oxide, but not for water/magnesium. (author)

  20. Stand alone power system coupling a PV field and a fuel cell: first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.; Labbe, J.; Leroux, P.; Metkemeijer, R.; Mayer, D. [ENSMP-CENERG, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the work, through the PVFC-SYS project, is to optimise the operation of a system coupling a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser, a gas storage, a fuel cell and a power management unit. A test bench is at present finalised in the Laboratory. All components have been selected for an optimal, automatic, safe and reliable operation of the complete system. Fully instrumented, this test bench furnishes new data concerning each component and the complete system behaviour for variable real weather conditions and different load demands. The paper describes the test bench, the simulation tool based on empirical model fitted to the component experimental data and the complete system performance for different load profiles along a year of operation. (orig.)

  1. An incident leading to contamination of the beaches near to the British Nuclear Fuels Limited Windscale and Calder Works, Sellafield November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls into the sections: executive summary; the inquiry; background to Sellafield operations (history; statutory control); the incident in the reprocessing plant (B205) (plant description; plant procedure; lead up to the incident; detection of the incident; conclusions concerning the incident); the effect on operations in the effluent treatment plant and sea discharge plant (B242/B241) (plant description; plant procedure; events in B242/B241 following the incident in B205; conclusions concerning operations in B242/B241); the effect on operations in the medium active liquid storage plant (B211) (plant description; events in B211 following transfer of waste from B242/B241; conclusions concerning the transfer of waste to B211); environmental aspects (description of events; conclusions concerning environmental aspects); compliance with the liquid waste disposal authorisation; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  2. Population-based incidence of Type 2 diabetes and its associated risk factors: results from a six-year cohort study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Navid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middle East is estimated to have the largest increase in prevalence of diabetes by 2030; yet there is lack of published data on the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in this region. This study aimed to estimate Type 2 diabetes incidence and its associated risk factors in an Iranian urban population. Methods Among 3307 non-diabetics ≥ 20 years (mean age 42 ± 13 years, 42% males, glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline in 1999–2001 and at two consecutive phases in 2001–2005 and 2005–2008. Diabetes and glucose tolerance status were defined according to the ADA 1997 criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent variables associated with incident diabetes and their odds ratios (OR. Results After median follow-up of 6 years, 237 new cases of diabetes were ascertained corresponding to an age and sex standardized cumulative incidence of 6.4% (95%CI: 5.6–7.2 and incidence rate of 10.6 (9.2–12.1 per 1000 person years. Besides classical diabetes risk factors, female sex and low education level significantly increased risk of diabetes in age adjusted models. In full model, the independent predictors were age [OR, 95%CI: 1.2 (1.1–1.3], family history of diabetes [1.8 (1.3–2.5], body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 [2.3 (1.5–3.6], abdominal obesity [1.9 (1.4–2.6], high triglyceride [1.4 (1.1–1.9], Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG [7.4 (3.6–15.0], Isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT [5.9 (4.2–8.4] and combined IFG and IGT [42.2 (23.8–74.9]. Conclusion More than 1% of the Iranian urban population older than 20 years develops Type 2 diabetes each year. Combination of IFG and IGT was the strongest predictor of incident diabetes among the modifiable risk factors.

  3. Releases of radioiodine from the Karlsruhe nuclear fuel reprocessing plant as a result of spontaneous fission of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1977-02-01

    Fro, 23,7,1976 to 28.7.76 and from 8.3.76 to 9.16.76 50 pCi 131 I/m 3 , 116 pCi 133 I/m 3 und 195 pCi 135 I/m 3 were measured on an average in 11 samples of waste air from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant (WAK). During these time intervals no dissolution of fuel material was performed. From 16.9.76 to 27.10.76 18 charges of nuclear fuel were dissolved. During this period 3.3 pCi 131 I/m 3 and 7.9 pCi 133 I/m 3 were obtained as mean waste air concentrations which were higher than the lower detection limit of the method of measurement used. 244 Cm, 242 Cm, 242 Pu, 240 Pu and 238 Pu are responsible for the production of radioiodine in nuclear fuel by spontaneous fission. 244 Cm is the most important nuclide in highly active waste solutions (HAL). The cumulative fission yield is well approximated by 3% for 13 I and by 6% for 133 I. The radioiodine is set free during fuel dissolution by venting of tanks and HAL pipes and during the vritification of such solutions. The radioiodine produced by spontaneous fission is released from WAK only by venting of tanks and HAL pipes. Corresponding to the conditions of venting, air concentrations as high as 4.4 pCi 131 I/m 3 and 8.2 pCi 133 I/m 3 are expected. These concentrations agree well with air concentrations measured during the period of fuel dissolution. Based on plausible assumptions the 131 I and 133 I waste air concentrations for the period of outage are calculated from an evaporated volume of HAL in the pipes corresponding to about 10 g of 244 Cm and with 40% equilibrium between I 2 in evaporated HAL and in waste air. In the worst case 131 I-concentrations in the waste air of WAK result in an annual release of 0.2 mCi 131 I. This value is less than 1% of the authorized annual releases of 1976. For a reprocessing plant of 1,400 t/a capacity the annual expected release of 131 I lies in the mCi range. (orig.) [de

  4. Fuel handling problems at KANUPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, I; Mazhar Hasan, S; Mugtadir, A [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Karachi (Pakistan)

    1991-04-01

    KANUPP experienced two abnormal fuel and fuel handling related problems during the year 1990. One of these had arisen due to development of end plate to end plate coupling between the two bundles at the leading end of the fuel string in channel HO2-S. The incident occurred when attempts were being made to fuel this channel. Due to pulling of sticking bundles into the acceptor fuelling machine (north) magazine, which was not designed to accommodate two bundles, a magazine rotary stop occurred. The forward motion of the charge tube was simultaneously discovered to be restricted. The incident led to stalling of fuelling machine locked on to the channel HO2, necessitating a reactor shut down. Removal of the fuelling machine was accomplished sometime later after draining of the channel. The second incident which made the fuelling of channel KO5-N temporarily inexecutable, occurred during attempts to remove its north end shield plug when this channel came up for fuelling. The incident resulted due to breaking of the lugs of the shield plug, making its withdrawal impossible. The Plant however kept operating with suspended fuelling of channel KO5, until it could no longer sustain a further increase in fuel burnup at the maximum rating position. Resolving both these problems necessitated draining of the respective channels, leaving the resident fuel uncovered for the duration of the associated operation. Due to substantial difference in the oxidation temperatures Of UO{sub 2} and Zircaloy and its influence as such on the cooling requirement, it was necessary either to determine explicitly that the respective channels did not contain defective fuel bundles or wait for time long enough to allow the decay heat to reduce to manageable proportions. This had a significant bearing on the Plant down time necessary for the rectification of the problems. This paper describes the two incidents in detail and dwells upon the measures adopted to resolve the related problems. (author)

  5. Fuel handling problems at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Mazhar Hasan, S.; Mugtadir, A.

    1991-01-01

    KANUPP experienced two abnormal fuel and fuel handling related problems during the year 1990. One of these had arisen due to development of end plate to end plate coupling between the two bundles at the leading end of the fuel string in channel HO2-S. The incident occurred when attempts were being made to fuel this channel. Due to pulling of sticking bundles into the acceptor fuelling machine (north) magazine, which was not designed to accommodate two bundles, a magazine rotary stop occurred. The forward motion of the charge tube was simultaneously discovered to be restricted. The incident led to stalling of fuelling machine locked on to the channel HO2, necessitating a reactor shut down. Removal of the fuelling machine was accomplished sometime later after draining of the channel. The second incident which made the fuelling of channel KO5-N temporarily inexecutable, occurred during attempts to remove its north end shield plug when this channel came up for fuelling. The incident resulted due to breaking of the lugs of the shield plug, making its withdrawal impossible. The Plant however kept operating with suspended fuelling of channel KO5, until it could no longer sustain a further increase in fuel burnup at the maximum rating position. Resolving both these problems necessitated draining of the respective channels, leaving the resident fuel uncovered for the duration of the associated operation. Due to substantial difference in the oxidation temperatures Of UO 2 and Zircaloy and its influence as such on the cooling requirement, it was necessary either to determine explicitly that the respective channels did not contain defective fuel bundles or wait for time long enough to allow the decay heat to reduce to manageable proportions. This had a significant bearing on the Plant down time necessary for the rectification of the problems. This paper describes the two incidents in detail and dwells upon the measures adopted to resolve the related problems. (author)

  6. Atmospheric 14C changes resulting from fossil fuel CO2 release and cosmic ray flux variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuiver, M.; Quay, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A high-precision tree-ring record of the atmospheric 14 C levels between 1820 and 1954 is presented. Good agreement is obtained between measured and model calculated 19th and 20th century atmospheric δ 14 C levels when both fossil fuel CO 2 release and predicted natural variations in 14 C production are taken into account. The best fit is obtained by using a box-diffusion model with an oceanic eddy diffusion coefficient of 3 cm 2 /s, a CO 2 atmosphere-ocean gas exchange rate of 21 moles msup(-2) yrsup(-1) and biospheric residence time of 60 years. For trees in the state of Washington the measured 1949-1951 atmospheric δ 14 C level was 20.0 +- 1.2per mille below the 1855-1864 level. Model calculations indicate that in 1950 industrial CO 2 emissions are responsible for at least 85% of the δ 14 C decline, whereas natural variability accounts for the remaining 15%. (orig.)

  7. Irradiation of Argentine MOX fuels: Post-irradiation results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Perez, E.; Adelfang, P.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of the first Argentine prototypes of PHWR MOX fuels began in 1986. These experiments were made in the HFR-Petten reactor, Holland. The rods were prepared and controlled in the CNEA's facility. The postirradiation examinations were performed in the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany and in the JRC, Petten. The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis. The second one as a pathfinder to adjust systems in the HFR. Two additional rods including iodine doped pellets were intended to simulate 15000 MWd/T(M) burnup. The remaining two rods were irradiated until 15000 MWd/T(M) (BU15 experiment). One of them underwent a final ramp with the aim of verifying fabrication processes and studying the behaviour under power transients. BACO code was used to define the power histories and to analyze the experiments. This paper presents the postirradiation examinations for the BU15 experiments and a comparison with the BACO outputs for the rod that presented a failure during the ramp test of the BU15 experiment. (author). 17 refs, 30 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Socio-economic and policy aspects of changes in incidence and intensity of extreme weather events. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorland, C.; Maunder, W.J.; Olsthoorn, A.A.; Tol, R.S.J.; Van der Werff, P.E.; Vellinga, P.

    1995-01-01

    Climate change results in an alteration of spatial and temporal patterns of climate hazards. The trend in weather related disaster seems upward. Various socio-economic sectors are affected by these changes, e.g. the disaster reduction institutions and the insurance industry. We report about an ongoing project addressing the vulnerabilities of sectors affected and policy options in various sectors, notably 'Storms over NW-Europe', 'the insurance sector' (both as a sector impacted by change and as a mechanism to cope with risk) and 'cyclones in the South Pacific'. 5 refs

  9. Preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment: an in-reactor test of fuel behaviour and fission-product release and transport under LOCA/LOECC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, L W; Elder, P H; Devaal, J W; Irish, J D; Yamazaki, A R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The BTF-104 experiment is one of a series of in-reactor tests being performed to measure fuel behaviour and fission-product release from nuclear fuel subjected to accident conditions. The primary objective of the BTF-104 experiment was to measure fission-product releases from a CANDU-sized fuel element under combined Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Loss-of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) conditions at an average fuel temperature of about 1550 deg C. The preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment are presented in this paper. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Hormonal replacement therapy reduces forearm fracture incidence in recent postmenopausal women - results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sørensen, O.H.

    2000-01-01

    -to-treat analysis (n=2016), overall fracture risk was borderline statistically significantly reduced (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.05), and forearm fracture risk was significantly reduced (RR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.90) with HRT. Restricting the analysis to women who had adhered to their initial allocation of either HRT (n......OBJECTIVES: To study the fracture reducing potential of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in recent postmenopausal women in a primary preventive scenario. METHODS: Prospective controlled comprehensive cohort trial: 2016 healthy women aged 45-58 years, from three to 24 months past last menstrual...... by own choice). First line HRT was oral sequential oestradiol/norethisterone in women with intact uterus and oral continuous oestradiol in hysterectomised women. RESULTS: After five years, a total of 156 fractures were sustained by 140 women. There were 51 forearm fractures in 51 women. By intention...

  11. The results of the “Blue Cards” questionnaire analysis with respect to the incidence of violence among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giezek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Implementation of the “Blue Cards” procedure has resulted in an increase in reported acts of violence, including those concerning the elderly, not because violence has become more widespread, but because the principles of the fight against domestic violence have been established and competencies of the relevant services have been distributed. Objectives. The aim of the study is to review the “Blue Cards” questionnaires of people over the age of 60 involved in domestic violence. Material and methods . The study involved 1,299 “Blue Cards” questionnaires, which were obtained in the years 2012–2013 by the Interdisciplinary Team dealing with domestic violence prevention in Szczecin. From this sample, 312 forms obtained from individuals above the age of 60 were analyzed. Results . Elderly people are involved in violence in three ways: as individuals experiencing violence, as those who use violence or as individuals who witnesses violence. Without a doubt, the majority of people who are affected by violence are women who are harmed by their husbands. Domestic violence amongst elderly people is usually disclosed after 1–3 years of its duration; however, it occasionally happens after more than 7 years. The dominant emotion in victims of domestic violence is fear, and in perpetrators – aggression. Conclusions . There are still many cases of domestic violence amongst people over 60 years of age that remain undisclosed, hence co-operation amongst services is extremely important, as well as continuously raising the competence of police officers, education, social assistance and health care specialists. The aim is to counteract violence amongst the elderly and to restore balance to their daily functioning.

  12. Influence of fuel pin bowing on the temperature distribution in fuel pin cladding tubes in case of sodium cooling; experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Tschoeke, H.; Kolodziej, M.

    1978-09-01

    The influence of rod bowing on the local temperature distribution was measured with turbulent sodium flow in the cladding tubes of a 19-rod bundle mock-up of the SNR 300 Mark Ia fuel element. Such measurements have been carried out for the first time. The results presented in this report are part 1 of the experimental evaluation not yet completed. The major results are: 1. When a rod on the first ring gets deformed towards a neighbour on the second ring with a gap reduction from the nominal value of 100 % down to 20 %, the maximum azimuthal temperature difference of the outer rod increases by about 60 %. 2. The maximum azimuthal temperature difference of a rod on the first ring increases by a factor of 2, if it is approached by a neighbour on the same ring. 3. The reduction in cross section of a subchannel by rod bowing results only locally in distinct temperature rises, i.e. in the adjacent cladding tubes. Rods of the next but one row are no more subject to noticeable changes in temperature [de

  13. [Incidence of infection from catheter procedures for regional anesthesia: first results from the network of DGAI and BDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, T; Engelhardt, L; Spies, C; Steinfeldt, T; Gruenewald, D; Kutter, B; Heller, A; Werner, C; Heid, F; Bürkle, H; Gastmeier, P; Wernecke, K-D; Koch, T; Vicent, O; Geiger, P; Wulf, H

    2009-11-01

    To analyze safety issues of regional anaesthesia and analgesia in Germany only a few single center studies are available. Therefore, the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, DGAI) and the Professional Association of German Anaesthetists (Berufsverband Deutscher Anästhesisten, BDA) initiated a network for safety in regional anaesthesia. From this the first results on infectious complications will be reported. In a Delphi process the documentation of the setup and maintenance of regional anaesthesia and analgesia was agreed with the participants in a working group from the DGAI. After approval by the officially authorized representative for patient data privacy protection a registry was programmed to collect anonymous data. Up to October 2008 data from 6 centers could be analyzed. After testing for plausibility 8,781 regional anaesthesia procedures (22,112 catheter days) could be analyzed. The 5,057 neuraxial and 3,724 peripheral catheter-based procedures were in place for a median of 2.48 days (range 1.0-3.0 days) and 4 severe, 15 moderate and 128 mild infections were recorded. Diabetics were not found to show a statistically significant increase in risk (2.6% compared to 1.9% for non-diabetics: n.s.). Neuraxial procedures seem to have a higher rate of infections than peripheral procedures (2.7% vs. 1.3%, p<0.0001). Multiple punctures of the skin also seem to be associated with a higher infection rate than single skin punctures (4.1% vs. 1.6%, p<0.0001). Infectious complications of catheter-based regional anaesthesia are common. Strict hygienic standards must therefore be complied with. More data are necessary to calculate risk factors. The registry provided can also be used as a benchmark to reduce these rates further.

  14. Results from In-pile experiments on LWR fuel rod behavior under LOCA conditions with unirradiated rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepold, L.; Karb, E.H.; Pruessmann, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the FR2-in-pile tests at KfK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe) with unirradiated test rods. The in-pile tests with the objective of investigating the influence of a nuclear environment on the mechanisms of fuel rod failure were being performed with irradiated and unirradiated single rods of a PWR design in the DK loop of the FR2 reactor. The main parameter of the test program was the burnup, ranging from 2.500 to 35.000 MWd/t. The program with unirradiated specimens comprised the series A and B with a total of 14 tests. (orig.) [de

  15. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  16. Incidence, patterns and severity of reported unintentional injuries in Pakistan for persons five years and older: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan 1990–94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Huma I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National level estimates of injuries are not readily available for developing countries. This study estimated the annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. Methods National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP 1990–94 is a nationally representative survey of the household. Through a two-stage stratified design, 18, 315 persons over 5 years of age were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, patterns and severity of unintentional injuries for males and females in urban and rural areas over the preceding one year. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design using surveyfreq and surveylogistic option of SAS 9.1 software. Results The overall annual incidence of all unintentional injuries was 45.9 (CI: 39.3–52.5 per 1000 per year; 59.2 (CI: 49.2–69.2 and 33.2 (CI: 27.0–39.4 per 1000 per year among males and females over five years of age, respectively. An estimated 6.16 million unintentional injuries occur in Pakistan annually among persons over five years of age. Urban and rural injuries were 55.9 (95% CI: 48.1–63.7 and 41.2 (95% CI: 32.2–50.0 per 1000 per year, respectively. The annual incidence of injuries due to falls were 22.2 (95% CI: 18.0–26.4, poisoning 3.3 (95%CI: 0.5–6.1 and burn was 1.5 (95%CI: 0.9–2.1 per 1000 per year. The majority of injuries occurred at home 19.2 (95%CI: 16.0–22.4 or on the roads 17.0 (95%CI: 13.8–20.2. Road traffic/street, school and urban injuries were more likely to result in handicap. Conclusion There is high burden of unintentional injuries among persons over five years of age in Pakistan. These results are useful to plan further studies and prioritizing prevention programs on injuries nationally and other developing countries with similar situation.

  17. The new revision of NPP Krsko decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management program: analyses and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Lokner, Vladimir; Levanat, Ivica; Rapic, Andrea; Mele, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of the new revision of the Decommissioning and Spent Fuel (SF) and Low and Intermediate level Waste (LILW) Disposal Program for the NPP Krsko (Program) started in September 2008 after the acceptance of the Term of Reference for the work by Intergovernmental Committee responsible for implementation of the Agreement between the governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the status and other legal issues related to investment, exploitation, and decommissioning of the Nuclear power plant Krsko. The responsible organizations, APO and ARAO together with NEK prepared all new technical and financial data and relevant inputs for the new revision in which several scenarios based on the accepted boundary conditions were investigated. The strategy of immediate dismantling was analyzed for planned and extended NPP life time together with linked radioactive waste and spent fuel management to calculate yearly annuity to be paid by the owners into the decommissioning funds in Slovenia and Croatia. The new Program incorporated among others new data on the LILW repository including the costs for siting, construction and operation of silos at the location Vrbina in Krsko municipality, the site specific Preliminary Decommissioning Plan for NPP Krsko which included besides dismantling and decontamination approaches also site specific activated and contaminated radioactive waste, and results from the referenced scenario for spent fuel disposal but at very early stage. Important inputs for calculations presented also new amounts of compensations to the local communities for different nuclear facilities which were taken from the supplemented Slovenian regulation and updated fiscal parameters (inflation, interest, discount factors) used in the financial model based on the current development in economical environment. From the obtained data the nominal and discounted costs for the whole nuclear program related to NPP Krsko which is jointly owned by Slovenia and Croatia have

  18. A Simulation Tool for Geometrical Analysis and Optimization of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Development, Validation and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar plates (BPs are one of the most important components in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC due to the numerous functions they perform. The objective of the research work described in this paper was to develop a simplified and validated method based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, aimed at the analysis and study of the influence of geometrical parameters of BPs on the operation of a cell. A complete sensibility analysis of the influence of dimensions and shape of the BP can be obtained through a simplified CFD model without including the complexity of other components of the PEMFC. This model is compared with the PEM Fuel Cell Module of the FLUENT software, which includes the physical and chemical phenomena relevant in PEMFCs. Results with both models regarding the flow field inside the channels and local current densities are obtained and compared. The results show that it is possible to use the simple model as a standard tool for geometrical analysis of BPs, and results of a sensitivity analysis using the simplified model are presented and discussed.

  19. State of the VVER-1000 spent U-Gd fuel rods based on the results of post-irradiation examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevlyakov, G.; Zvir, E.; Strozhuk, A.; Polenok, V.; Sidorenko, O.; Volkova, I.; Nikitin, O.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of U-Gd fuel rods with different geometry of the fuel pellets irradiated as part of the VVER-1000 fuel assembly. As evidenced by their PIE data, they did not exhaust their service life based on the main parameters (geometrical dimensions, corrosion state, and release of fission product gases). (author)

  20. Fuel behaviour and fission product release under realistic hydrogen conditions comparisons between HEVA 06 test results and Vulcain computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.M.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1989-07-01

    The HEVA 06 test was designed to simulate the conditions existing at the time when fission products are released from irradiated fuel under hydrogen conditions occurring in a PWR core at low pressure. The test conditions were defined from results provided by the core degradation module of the ESCADRE system (1): VULCAIN. This computer code has been recently used to analyse the early core degradation of a 900 MWe PWR in the AF accident sequence (as defined in WASH - 1400, USNRC - 1975). In this scenario, the core would begin to uncover about one day after scram with the system pressure at about 0.4 MPa. The fission product release starts 70 minutes after core dewatering. The F.P. are transferred to the core outlet in an increasingly hydrogen-rich steam atmosphere. The carrier gas is nearly pure hydrogen in the time period 100 - 130 minutes after core uncovering. A large release of F.P. is predicted in the upper part of the core when the steam starvation occurs. At that time, two thirds of the cladding have been oxidised on an average. Before each HEVA test a fuel sample with a burn-up of 36 GWd/tU is reirradiated in order to observe the release of short-lived fission products. A pre-oxidation was primarely conducted in the HEVA 06 test at a temperature of 1300 0 C and controlled to reach a 2/3 cladding oxidation state. Then the steam was progressively replaced by hydrogen and a heat-up rate of 1.5 0 C/s was induced to reach a temperature of 2100 0 C. The fuel was maintained at this temperature for half an hour in hydrogen. The volatile F.P. release kinetics were observed by on-line gamma spectrometry. Pre test calculations of F.P. release kinetics performed with the EMIS module based on the CORSOR models (3) are compared with the test results. Measured releases of cesium and iodine are really lower than those predicted. Axial and radial F.P. distributions in the fuel pellets are available from gamma tomography measurements performed after the test. Tellurium seems

  1. Incidence of traumatic carotid and vertebral artery dissections: results of cervical vessel computed tomography angiogram as a mandatory scan component in severely injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schicho A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Schicho,1 Lukas Luerken,1 Ramona Meier,1 Antonio Ernstberger,2 Christian Stroszczynski,1 Andreas Schreyer,1 Lena-Marie Dendl,1 Stephan Schleder1 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the true incidence of cervical artery dissections (CeADs in trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS of ≥16, since head-and-neck computed tomography angiogram (CTA is not a compulsory component of whole-body trauma computed tomography (CT protocols. Patients and methods: A total of 230 consecutive trauma patients with an ISS of ≥16 admitted to our Level I trauma center during a 24-month period were prospectively included. Standardized whole-body CT in a 256-detector row scanner included a head-and-neck CTA. Incidence, mortality, patient and trauma characteristics, and concomitant injuries were recorded and analyzed retrospectively in patients with carotid artery dissection (CAD and vertebral artery dissection (VAD. Results: Of the 230 patients included, 6.5% had a CeAD, 5.2% had a CAD, and 1.7% had a VAD. One patient had both CAD and VAD. For both, CAD and VAD, mortality is 25%. One death was caused by fatal cerebral ischemia due to high-grade CAD. A total of 41.6% of the patients with traumatic CAD and 25% of the patients with VAD had neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Mandatory head-and-neck CTA yields higher CeAD incidence than reported before. We highly recommend the compulsory inclusion of a head-and-neck CTA to whole-body CT routines for severely injured patients. Keywords: polytrauma, carotid artery, vertebral artery, dissection, blunt trauma, computed tomography angiogram

  2. Incidence of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica in an inland area of central Italy: results of the CAMPO-RHE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Antonia; Perrotta, Fabio Massimo; Grasso, Guido Maria; Lubrano, Ennio

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the CAMPO-RHE study was to determine the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in patients attending a rheumatologic outpatient's clinic of a new institution in Campobasso, Italy. Campobasso is a small town of approximately 50,000 inhabitants located in the inland territory of central Italy (Molise), and Public Health is managed from a single health authority. In Italy, all citizens are registered with a National Health System of General Practitioner (GP) Physicians. Between the 1 st of June 2014 and the 31 st of May 2016, all consecutive adult patients, sent by a GP, of Campobasso with any diagnosis of musculoskeletal symptoms/signs/complaints were evaluated in a single rheumatology outpatient clinic of our Academic Unit. The clinic represents the first and unique reference for GPs about rheumatic diseases in the territory. Subjects were classified using the 2010 EULAR criteria for RA, the CASPAR criteria for PsA and the 2012 ACR classification criteria for PMR. 1003 adult patients, sent by GPs, with articular or musculoskeletal complaints visited our clinic. Of these, 409 inhabitants of the municipality of Campobasso were evaluated for the study. During the 2-year study period we diagnosed 18, 19 and 12 new cases of RA, PsA and PMR respectively, with a new incident cases rate of 21.4, 22.59 and 27.43/100,000/year on the population at risk. The results of our study could contribute to better define the incidence of these rheumatic diseases classified with the new classification criteria.

  3. Regional Versus General Anesthesia and the Incidence of Unplanned Health Care Resource Utilization for Postoperative Pain After Wrist Fracture Surgery: Results From a Retrospective Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Sarah; Yarnold, Cynthia H; Head, Stephen J; Osborn, Jill A; Purssell, Andrew; Peel, John K; Schwarz, Stephan K W

    2016-01-01

    The establishment at our center of a dedicated regional anesthesia service in 2008-2009 has resulted in a marked increase in single-shot brachial plexus blocks (sBPBs) for ambulatory wrist fracture surgery. Despite the documented benefits of regional over general anesthesia (GA), there has been a perceived increase among sBPB patients in postoperative return rates for pain at our institution. We conducted a retrospective quality improvement project to examine this. After exemption from human ethics board review, we sought to identify and contact all wrist fracture surgery patients treated at our center between 2003 and 2012. Our primary outcome was the incidence of unplanned physician visits (office/clinic or emergency department) for pain in the first 48 hours after surgery. Other main outcomes included the incidence of seeking any form of medical attention for pain and self-reporting of severe pain in the first 48 hours. Of 1008 identified patients, 419 could be contacted; 195 qualified for analysis. The incidence of unplanned physician visits in the first 48 hours was 12% (13 of 118) among sBPB patients versus 4% (3 of 77) in GA patients (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-11.1; P = 0.11). More sBPB versus GA patients sought any form of medical attention for pain (20% vs 5%; OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-10.9; P = 0.003). Similarly, more sBPB patients reported severe postoperative pain (41% vs 10%; OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.6-13.4; P resource utilization caused by pain after hospital discharge than those undergoing GA. These findings warrant confirmation in a prospective trial and emphasize the need for a defined postdischarge analgesic pathway as well as the potential merits of perineural home catheters.

  4. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  5. From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression. Results from the perinatal depression-research & screening unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, Susanna; Mauri, Mauro; Oppo, Annalisa; Borri, Chiara; Rambelli, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Daniele; Montagnani, Maria S; Camilleri, Valeria; Cortopassi, Sonia; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a particular challenge to clinicians, and its prevalence estimates are difficult to compare across studies. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there are no studies that systematically assessed the incidence of perinatal depression. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, minor and major depression (mMD) in an unselected population of women recruited at the third month of pregnancy and followed up until the 12th month postpartum. One thousand sixty-six pregnant women were recruited. Minor and major depression was assessed in a naturalistic, longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders were administered at different time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The period prevalence of mMD was 12.4% in pregnancy and 9.6% in the postpartum period. The cumulative incidence of mMD in pregnancy and in the postpartum period was 2.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Thirty-two (7.3%) women had their first episode in the perinatal period: 1.6% had a new onset of depression during pregnancy, 5.7% in the postpartum period. Our postpartum prevalence figures, which are lower than those reported in the literature, may reflect treatment during the study, suggesting that casting a multiprofessional network around women in need of support may be potentially useful for reducing the effects of this disorder on the mother and the newborn child. Furthermore, our results indicate that women with a history of depression have a 2-fold risk of developing mMD in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  7. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Gascoyne, M.; Onagi, D.; Thomas, D.A.; Hamon, C.J.; Watson, R.; Porth, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced 'intentionally' with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added 'inadvertently' to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Gascoyne, M; Onagi, D; Thomas, D A; Hamon, C J; Watson, R; Porth, R J

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced `intentionally` with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added `inadvertently` to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Design of durability test protocol for vehicular fuel cell systems operated in power-follow mode based on statistical results of on-road data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-02-01

    City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.

  10. LWR mox fuel experience in Belgium and France with special emphasis on results obtained in BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Haas, D.; Lippens, M.; Motte, F.; Lebastard, G.; Marin, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The course of the paper reflects two main topics: LWR MOX fuel experience in Belgium and France, summarizing the fabrication techniques, the references, the underlying MOX fuel technology and the current R and D programs for expanding the data base; behaviour of MOX fuel rods irradiated under steady state and transient operating conditions, focusing on MOX fuel technology features acquired through the irradiations performed in the BR3 PWR, supplemented by tests in the BR2 MTR. This paper focuses on the thermomechanical behaviour of LWR MOX fuel rods, which is intimately related to the fabrication technique and vice-versa. 22 refs

  11. Incremental predictive value of sarcopenia for incident fracture in an elderly Chinese cohort: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether sarcopenia is predictive of incident fractures among older men, whether the inclusion of sarcopenia in models adds any incremental value to bone mineral density (BMD), and whether sarcopenia is associated with a higher risk of fractures in elderly with osteoporosis. A cohort of 2000 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years were examined for which detailed information regarding demographics, socioeconomic, medical history, clinical, and lifestyle factors were documented. Body composition and BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) algorithm. Incident fractures were documented during the follow-up period from 2001 to 2013, and related to sarcopenia and its component measures using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The contribution of sarcopenia for predicting fracture risk was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 226 (11.3%) men sustained at least 1 incident fracture, making the incidence of fractures 1200.6/100,000 person-years. After multivariate adjustments, sarcopenia was associated with increased fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.79) independent of BMD and other clinical risk factors. The addition of sarcopenia did not significantly increase area under curve or IDI but significantly improved the predictive ability on fracture risk over BMD and other clinical risk factors by 5.12% (P sarcopenia (sarco-osteoporosis) resulted in a significantly increased risk of fractures (HR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.76-6.90) compared with those with normal BMD and without sarcopenia. This study confirms that sarcopenia is a predictor of fracture risk in this elderly men cohort, establishes that sarcopenia provides incremental predictive value for fractures over the

  12. Major results on the development of high density U-Mo fuel and pin-type fuel elements executed under the Russian RERTR program and in cooperation with ANL (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Morozov, A.; Stetsky, Y.; Suprun, V.; Dobrikova, I.; Trifonov, Y.; Mishunin, V.; Sorokin, V.

    2003-01-01

    VNIINM is active participant of 'Russian program on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors'. Institute Works in two main directions: 1) development of new high-density fuels (HDF) and 2) development of new design of fuel elements with LEU. The development of the new type fuel element is carried out both for existing reactors, and for developing new advanced reactors. The 'TVEL' concern is coordinator of works of this program. The majority enterprises of branch (NIIAR, PIYaF, RRC KI, NZChK) take part in this work. Since 2000 these works are being conducted in cooperation with Argonne National Laboratory (USA) within the RERTR program under VNIINM with ANL contract. At the present, a large set of pre-pile investigations has been completed. All necessary fabrication procedures have been developed for utilization of U-Mo dispersion fuel in Russian-designed research reactors. For irradiation tests the pin-type mini-fuel elements with HDF dispersion fuel with LEU and the uranium density equaled to 4,0 and 6,0 g/cm 3 (up to 40 vol.%) have been manufactured. Their irradiation began in August 2003 in the MIR reactor (NIIAR, Dimitrovgrad). A large set of works for preparation of lifetime tests (WWR-M reactor in Gatchina) of two full-scale fuel assemblies with new pin-type fuel elements on basis LEU UO 2 -Al and UMo-Al fuels has been completed. The in-pile tests of fuel assemblies began in September 2003. The summary of important results of performed works and their near-term future are presented in paper. (author)

  13. 11 th fuel reload of the Unit 1, leadership with results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    At the moment the companies with world class, the formation of intellectual capital is a strategy to reach the excellence; the Management of Nucleo electric Centrals (GCN), aware of this strategy to achieve the mission commended, it establishes that it is decisive the leadership among their collaborators for the achievement of the goals. The obtained results in the 11 th reload of the Unit 1 are a sample of as how the leaders and collaborators when making work in team they have achieved the best results (collective dose and reload duration), until today in what is the history of the commercial operation of the Unit 1. (Author)

  14. 3D computation of the shape of etched tracks in CR-39 for oblique particle incidence and comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Reichelt, U.; Starke, S.; Wang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Computation of the shape of etch pits needs to know the varying track etch rate along the particle trajectories. Experiments with alpha particles and 7 Li ions entering CR-39 detectors under different angles showed that this function is not affected by the inclination of the particle trajectory with respect to the normal on the detector surface. Track formation for oblique particle incidence can, therefore, be simulated using the track etch rates determined for perpendicular incidence. 3D computation of the track shape was performed applying a model recently described in literature. A special program has been written for computing the x,y,z coordinates of points on the etch pit walls. In addition, the etch pit profiles in sagittal sections as well as the contours of the etch pit openings on the detector surface have been determined experimentally. Computed and experimental results were in good agreement confirming the applicability of the 3D computational model in combination with the functions for the depth-dependent track etch rates determined experimentally

  15. Analysis of simulation results of damaged nuclear fuel accidents at NPPs with shell-type nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kozlov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP made it necessary to reevaluate and intensificate the work on modeling and analyzing various scenarios of severe accidents with damage to the nuclear fuel in the reactor, containment and spent nuclear fuel storage pool with the expansion of the primary initiating event causes group listing. Further development of computational tools for modeling the explosion prevention criteria as to steam and gas mixtures, considering the specific thermal-hydrodynamic conditions and mechanisms of explosive situations arrival at different stages of a severe accident development, is substantiated. Based on the analysis of the known shell-type nuclear reactors accidents results the explosion safety thermodynamic criteria are presented, the parameters defining the steam and gas explosions conditions are found, the need to perform the further verification and validation of deterministic codes serving to simulate general accident processes behavior as well as phase-to-phase interaction calculated dependencies is established. The main parameters controlling and defining the criteria explosion safety effective regulation areas and their optimization conditions are found.

  16. Concerning results of environmental monitoring around the reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Central Evaluation Expert Group for Environmental radiation Monitoring has been engaged in examinations of plants for and results of the environmental radiation monitoring performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation around its reprocessing facilities. The present report outlines an examination of the results of monitoring carried out in 1987 (January to December). It is concluded that the methods used for the monitoring and its technical level are satisfactory in meeting the objectives of the monitoring plans. Expept for tritium in seawater, the level of radiations stays within the normal variation determined based on preliminary measurements of the background radiation. The procedure used for the calculation of exposure dose is also satisfactory in meeting the requirements specified in the monitoring plants. It is confirmed that the exposure dose of the residents around the facilities is well below the permissible exposure dose limite specified in law. (Nogami. K.)

  17. Results of tritium experiments on ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium diffusers for application to fusion reactor fuel cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium tests at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly have demonstrated that ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium alloy diffuser developed in Japan are possible components for a fusion reactor fuel cleanup system. Both components have been successfully operated with tritium for over a year. A failure of the first electrolysis cell was most likely the result of an over voltage on the ceramic. A simple circuit was developed to eliminate this mode of failure. The palladium diffusers tubes exhibited some degradation of mechanical properties as a result of the build up of helium from the tritium decay, after 450 days of operation with tritium, however the effects were not significant enough to affect the performance. New models of the diffuser and electrolysis cell, providing higher flow rates and more tritium compatible designs are currently being tested with tritium. 8 refs., 5 figs

  18. Unintended possible consequences of fuel input taxes for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Klingelhöfer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is planning to introduce a carbon tax as a Pigouvian measure for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, one of the tax bases designed as a fuel input tax. In this form, it is supposed to incentivise users to reduce and/or substitute fossil fuels, leading to a reduction of CO2 emissions. Aim: This article examines how such a carbon tax regime may affect the individual willingness to invest in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies. Setting: Mathematical derivation, using methods of linear programming, duality theory and sensitivity analysis. Methods: By employing a two-step evaluation approach, it allows to identify the factors determining the maximum price an individual investor would pay for such an investment, given the conditions of imperfect markets. Results: This price ceiling depends on the (corrected net present values of the payments and on the interdependencies arising from changes in the optimal investment and production programmes. Although the well-established results of environmental economics usually can be confirmed for a single investment, increasing carbon taxes may entail sometimes contradictory and unexpected consequences for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions. Under certain circumstances, they may discourage such investments and, when still undertaken, even lead to higher emissions. However, these results can be interpreted in an economically comprehensible manner. Conclusion: Under the usually given conditions of imperfect markets, the impact of a carbon tax regime on individual investment decisions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is not as straight forward as under the usually assumed, but unrealistically simplifying perfect market conditions. To avoid undesired and discouraging effects, policy makers cannot make solitary decisions, but have to take interdependencies on the addressee´s side into account. The individual investor

  19. Loading of fuel and reflector elements in the Fort St. Vrain initial core (results of start-up test A-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Brown, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    R A description is given of the experimental equipment and techniques used in the fuel and reflector loading. The analysis methods are described and test data are compared with predicted results. (U.S.)

  20. Modeling fuel succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Davis; Jan van Wagtendonk; Jen Beck; Kent van Wagtendonk

    2009-01-01

    Surface fuels data are of critical importance for supporting fire incident management, risk assessment, and fuel management planning, but the development of surface fuels data can be expensive and time consuming. The data development process is extensive, generally beginning with acquisition of remotely sensed spatial data such as aerial photography or satellite...

  1. Status of disposal techniques for spent fuel in Germany: Results of demonstration tests for direct disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.; Filbert, W.

    1993-01-01

    According to the Atomic Energy Act (1985) the Federal Government is responsible for establishing facilities to indemnify and dispose radioactive waste. According to Art. 9b of the Atomic Energy Act (1986) the construction and operation of such a repository requires approval of a plan. According to safety criteria applicable for disposing radioactive waste in mines, construction and operation of repository mines require application of acknowledged rules of technology, laws, ordinances and other regulations to protect operating staff and population from radiation damages. Shaft hoisting equipment for the transportation of radioactive waste in a repository mine must satisfy normal operational tasks and meet special safety-requirements. Its failure may result in danger for persons, release of radioactive substances into the plant and environment. That means, shaft hoisting equipment must be designed to satisfy the necessary safety requirements and be state of the art of science and technology. The aim of these demonstration tests is verification of technical feasibility of a shaft hoisting equipment with a payload of 85 t, underground for drift disposal of POLLUX-casks, and essential machine and mine-technical systems and components. The demonstration also includes safe radiation protection during transport and disposal operations. Investigations assume that radioactive waste is transported in containers that satisfy transport requirements for dangerous goods and have a type-B-certificate

  2. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  3. Experimental results on J/psi production by πsup(+-), Ksup(+-), p and anti p incident on hydrogen at 39.5 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Garvey, J.; Homer, R.J.; Jobes, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.; Owen, R.C.; Sumorok, K.C.T.; Vallance, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    J/psi production at 40 GeV/c by πsup(+-), Ksup(+-), p and anti p incident on hydrogen has been studied and results compared with those obtained on tungsten in the same experiment. On hydrogen, J/psi cross-section ratios relative to π - have been measured to be (for xsub(F) > 0) sigma(π - ) : sigma(π + ) : sigma(anti p) : sigma(p) = 1 : (0.78 +- 0.09) : (0.83 +- 0.35) : (0.07 +- 0.04). The suppression of the proton induced cross sections shows the importance of calence quark-antiquark fusion in J/psi production at this energy (i.e., M 2 sub(J)sub(/)sub(psi)/s = 0.13). (orig.)

  4. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  5. FARO test L-14 on fuel coolant interaction and quenching. Comparison report, volume 1 + 2, analysis of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C.; Yerkess, A.; Silverii, R.; Brewka, W.; Leva, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a comparative analysis of the results from the ISP-39 exercise promoted by OECD-CSNI in the frame of the NEA activities. ISP-39 has been conceived to benchmark the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in the evaluation of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) and quenching phenomenologies of relevance in water cooled reactors severe accidents safety analysis. The ISP-39 reference case is FARO test L-14, a non-energetic FCI test performed under realistic melt composition and prototypical accident conditions in the FARO experimental installation (Ispra, Italy). Thirteen research organizations from ten countries participated in the exercise submitting 15 prediction calculations with 8 different codes or code versions (COMETA, MC3D, IVA, IFCI, JASMINE, TEXAS, THIRMAL, VAPEX). ISP-39 was conducted as an open exercise. Conclusions are given concerning code capabilities, users effect and sensitivity analyses, numerical accuracy quantification of the predictions, code improvements, general considerations

  6. Summary of estimated doses and risks resulting from routine radionuclide releases from fast breeder reactor fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Meyer, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    A project is underway at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assess the human health and environment effects associated with operation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor fuel cycle. In this first phase of the work, emphasis was focused on routine radionuclide releases from reactor and reprocessing facilities. For this study, sites for fifty 1-GW(e) capacity reactors and three reprocessing plants were selected to develop scenarios representative of US power requirements. For both the reactor and reprocessing facility siting schemes selected, relatively small impacts were calculated for locality-specific populations residing within 100 km. Also, the results of these analyses are being used in the identification of research priorities. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Comparison of calculated and experimental results of fuel bunching in VERA assemblies 1B, 3A and 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.D.

    1964-12-01

    Comparison is made of experimental and calculated reactivity changes when the fuel plates of the VERA assemblies are bunched from 1/8 in. thickness to 1/2 in. In addition, U238 fine structure reaction rates are studied. The method used is that investigated in detail by James and Matthews ('A Perturbation Method for Multigroup Neutron Transport Calculations in Plane Lattices', AEEW - R 219), while the multigroup data sets used are both those of Yiftah, Okrent and Moldauer, and Roach. The method and data give only rough agreement with experimental reactivity changes, with a tendency to over-predict the results. U238 fission rates are in better agreement, though the method predicts too small a variation for the U238 capture rate across a cell. (author)

  8. Results of the implementation of a learning system with incidents in an radiotherapy department; Resultados da implementacao de um sistema de aprendizagem com incidentes em um Departamento de Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicchi, Lucas Augusto; Vilela, Ellen Pedroso Severino; Faustino, Fabio de Lima C.; Rodrigues, Fernanda Arantes C.; Gomes, Franciele N.; Souza, Guilherme Vicente de; Silva, Rose Marta S. [Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil); Toledo, Jose Carlos de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    An incident learning system (ILS) is an important tool for improving aspects of patient and staff safety. In radiation oncology, ILS has been implemented both at the institutional level as at the national level, allowing to share lessons learned from incidents that have already occurred. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the ILS implemented in a radiation oncology department. In total, 128 incidents were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee, and the professional groups that registered more were medical physicists, radiation oncologists and radiation therapists. In addition, incidents have occurred and have been detected mainly in the treatment step. The incident learning system proved to be an important process improvement tool, according to the results shown,the improvement actions proposed and the perception of the people involved. (author)

  9. Results of physics start-up tests of Mochovce and Bohunice units with 2-nd generation Gd fuel (average enrichment 4.87 %)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polakovic, F.

    2015-01-01

    There are presented main features of the fuel and the list of experimental neutron-physical characteristics measured during physics start-up tests.All together there were carried out 14 physics start-ups at Bohunice and Mochovce Units with the new type of fuel. Differences between theoretical and experimental neutron-physical characteristics were statistically processed and compared with the tests acceptance criteria. There are summarized results of reactor physics start-ups with 2-nd generation Gd fuel usage [ru

  10. Fuel- and wood consumption surveys in developing countries: a proposal of an efficient low-cost method and the results of its application in eastern Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschen, P.; Eiche, G.

    1986-01-01

    The method involves a preliminary survey to establish areas homogeneous for temperature and rainfall regime, natural vegetation, agricultural systems, wood fuel substitutes, housing and cooking habits. Locations are sampled within such areas to reflect variability in presence of forests and other fuel and wood resources, population density, and access to markets. Households are sampled within a location to cover variation in social structure. Results from a survey in the Hararghe highlands differ markedly from previous Ethiopia-wide estimates and show that remaining wood resources supply less than half of the fuel requirements. An effective community forestry programme is urgently required. (Refs. 9).

  11. Gender and age-specific first incidence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the general population - Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Ravelli, A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in the general population are needed to identify risk factors for mental disorders. Samples of sufficient size are needed, but large-scale studies that assess the incidence of psychopathology are rare. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month first

  12. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  13. Additional Cost Because of Pneumonia in Nursing Home Residents: Results From the Incidence of Pneumonia and Related Consequences in Nursing Home Resident Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nadège; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Mounié, Michael; Bourrel, Robert; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno; Molinier, Laurent; Cesari, Matteo

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is a frequent condition in older people. Our aim was to examine the total healthcare cost related to pneumonia in nursing home (NH) residents over a 1-year follow-up period. This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational, and multicenter study that was a part of the Incidence of Pneumonia and related Consequences in Nursing Home Resident study. Thirteen NHs located in Languedoc Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées regions in France were included. Resident in NH, older than 60 years and had a group iso-resource score ranging from 2 to 5. Pneumonia events were characterized according to the Observatoire du Risque Infectieux en Geriatrie criteria. Direct medical and nonmedical costs were assessed from the French health insurance perspective. Healthcare resources was retrospectively gathered from the French Social Health Insurance database and valued using the tariffs reimbursed by the French health insurance. Sociodemographic variables, clinical factors, vaccinations, cognition, depression, functional status, frailty index, as well as group iso-resource score were also recorded. Among the 800 patients initially included in the Incidence of Pneumonia and Related Consequences in Nursing Home Resident study, 345 which were listed in the database of the French Social Health Insurance were included in this economic study. Among them, 64 (18%) experienced at least 1 episode of pneumonia during the 1-year follow-up period. Mean annual total additional cost for a patient who experienced at least 1 episode of pneumonia during the 1 year follow-up period is 2813€. On average, total annual costs increased by 60% to 93% when a patient experienced at least 1 episode of pneumonia. NH-acquired pneumonia has a great impact on total cost of care for NH residents. Our results suggest the potential economic savings that could be achieved if pneumonia could be prevented in NHs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

  15. Does an Immigrant Background Affect the Indication, Incidence or Outcome of Emergency Cesarean Section? Results of the Prospective Data Collection of 111 Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matthias; Scherer, Katrin Alexandra; Henrich, Wolfgang; Breckenkamp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Does the incidence and/or indication(s) for emergency cesarean section differ if the pregnant woman has an immigrant background (IB)? Does a lack of language proficiency (communication problems) and a low acculturation level result in a longer decision-to-delivery interval (D-D interval)? Are neonates born to women with IB by emergency cesarean section in a poorer condition post delivery? Standardized interviews were carried out before or immediately after delivery in three Berlin obstetric hospitals. Questions were asked about the sociodemographic background and care aspects as well as about immigration and level of acculturation. Collected data were linked to information obtained from the expectant mother's antenatal records and to care data and perinatal data routinely recorded by the hospitals. Data was analyzed using regression models which adjusted for age, parity, and socio-economic status. The total patient population consisted of 7100 women (rate of response: 89.6%); of these women, 111 required emergency cesarean section (50 women without IB, 61 immigrant women). Risk factors such as late first antenatal check-up, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal macrosomia, smoking, and weight gain were similar in both patient cohorts. The incidence of and indications for emergency cesarean section and the D-D interval were similar for both groups. Limited German language proficiency and low levels of acculturation among immigrant women did not prolong the D-D interval. There were no statistically relevant differences between immigrant and non-immigrant cohorts with regard to adverse neonatal conditions (5-minute Apgar score ≤ 7, umbilical cord arterial pH cesarean section. The factor "immigrant background" did not affect the indication or obstetric outcome following emergency cesarean section.

  16. Data for FUMEX: Results from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project for model validation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, W.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of phenomena associated with extended or high burn-up are an important part of the fuel and materials testing programme carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The in-core studies comprise long term fuel rod behavior as well as the response to power ramps. Performance is assessed through measurements of fuel centre temperature, rod pressure, elongation of cladding and fuel stack, and cladding diameter changes obtained during full power reactor operation. Data from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, provided for the IAEA co-ordinated research programme FUMEX, are used to elucidate short and long-term developments of fuel behavior. The examples comprise: fuel conductivity degradation manifested as a gradual temperature increase with burn-up; the influence of a combination of small gap/high fission gas release on fuel centre temperature (situation at high burn-up); fission gas release during normal operation and power ramps, and the possibility of a burn-up enhancement; PCMI reflected by cladding elongation, also for the case of a nominally open gap, and the change of interaction onset with burn-up. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  17. Data for FUMEX: Results from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project for model validation and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenack, W [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-08-01

    Investigations of phenomena associated with extended or high burn-up are an important part of the fuel and materials testing programme carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The in-core studies comprise long term fuel rod behavior as well as the response to power ramps. Performance is assessed through measurements of fuel centre temperature, rod pressure, elongation of cladding and fuel stack, and cladding diameter changes obtained during full power reactor operation. Data from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, provided for the IAEA co-ordinated research programme FUMEX, are used to elucidate short and long-term developments of fuel behavior. The examples comprise: fuel conductivity degradation manifested as a gradual temperature increase with burn-up; the influence of a combination of small gap/high fission gas release on fuel centre temperature (situation at high burn-up); fission gas release during normal operation and power ramps, and the possibility of a burn-up enhancement; PCMI reflected by cladding elongation, also for the case of a nominally open gap, and the change of interaction onset with burn-up. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  18. A laboratory-scale comparison of rate of spread model predictions using chaparral fuel beds – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weise; E. Koo; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam

    2011-01-01

    Observed fire spread rates from 240 laboratory fires in horizontally-oriented single-species live fuel beds were compared to predictions from various implementations and modifications of the Rothermel rate of spread model and a physical fire spread model developed by Pagni and Koo. Packing ratio of the laboratory fuel beds was generally greater than that observed in...

  19. Run-Beyond-Cladding-Breach (RBCB) test results for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metallic fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, G.L.; Hoffman, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    In 1984 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) began an aggressive program of research and development based on the concept of a closed system for fast-reactor power generation and on-site fuel reprocessing, exclusively designed around the use of metallic fuel. This is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Although the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has used metallic fuel since its creation 25 yeas ago, in 1985 ANL began a study of the characteristics and behavior of an advanced-design metallic fuel based on uranium-zirconium (U-Zr) and uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) alloys. During the past five years several areas were addressed concerning the performance of this fuel system. In all instances of testing the metallic fuel has demonstrated its ability to perform reliably to high burnups under varying design conditions. This paper will present one area of testing which concerns the fuel system's performance under breach conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to document the observed post-breach behavior of this advanced-design metallic fuel. 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Dose estimation and prediction of radiation effects on aquatic biota resulting from radioactive releases from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to radionuclides released to the environment during various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. Routine releases from these processes are limited in compliance with technical specifications and requirements of federal regulations. These regulations reflect I.C.R.P. recommendations which are designed to provide an environment considered safe for man. It is generally accepted that aquatic organisms will not receive damaging external radiation doses in such environments; however, because of possible bioaccumulation of radionuclides there is concern that aquatic organisms might be adversely affected by internal doses. The objectives of this paper are: to estimate the radiation dose received by aquatic biota from the different processes and determine the major dose-contributing radionuclides, and to assess the impact of estimated doses on aquatic biota. Dose estimates are made by using radionuclide concentration measured in the liquid effluents of representative facilities. This evaluation indicates the potential for the greatest radiation dose to aquatic biota from the nuclear fuel supply facilities (i.e., uranium mining and milling). The effects of chronic low-level radiation on aquatic organisms are discussed from somatic and genetic viewpoints. Based on the body of radiobiological evidence accumulated up to the present time, no significant deleterious effects are predicted for populations of aquatic organisms exposed to the estimated dose rates resulting from routine releases from conversion, enrichment, fabrication, reactors and reprocessing facilities. At the doses estimated for milling and mining operations it would be difficult to detect radiation effects on aquatic populations; however, the significance of such radiation exposures to aquatic populations cannot be fully evaluated without further research on effects of chronic low-level radiation. (U.S.)

  1. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.J.; Fensin, M.L.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Quiter, B.J.; Sandoval, N.P.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Thompson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of 'Pu isotopic correlation' is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  2. [Results of provisional use of a system for voluntary anonymous reporting of incidents that threaten patient safety in the emergency medical services of Asturias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván Núñez, Pablo; Santander Barrios, María Dolores; Villa Álvarez, María Cristina; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Alonso Lorenzo, Julio C; Arcos González, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    To describe the reported incidents and adverse events in the emergency medical services of Asturias, Spain, and assess their consequences, delays caused, and preventability. Prospective, observational study of incidents reported by the staff of the emergency medical services of Asturias after implementation of a system devised by the researchers. Incident reports were received for 0.48% (95% CI, 0.41%-0.54%) of the emergencies attended. Patient safety was compromised in 74.7% of the reported incidents. Problems arising in the emergency response coordination center (ERCC) accounted for 37.6% of the incidents, transport problems for 13.4%, vehicular problems for 10.8%, and communication problems for 8.8%. Seventy percent of the reported incidents caused delays in care; 55% of the reported incidents that put patients at risk (according to severity assessment code ratings) corresponded to problems related to human or material resources. A total of 88.1% of the incidents reported were considered avoidable. Some type of intervention was required to attenuate the effects of 46.2% of the adverse events reported. The measures that staff members most often proposed to prevent adverse events were to increase human and material resources (28.3%), establish protocols (14.5%), and comply with quality of care recommendations (9.7%). It is important to promote a culture of safety and incident reporting among health care staff in Asturias given the number of serious adverse events. Reporting is necessary for understanding the errors made and taking steps to prevent them. The ERCC is the point in the system where incidents are particularly likely to appear and be noticed and reported.

  3. An investigation on the material effect on the result of fuel coolant interactions in the TROI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. K.; Kim, J. H.; Min, B. T.; Hong, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    One of the findings from the TROI experiments is that the results of the fuel coolant interaction (FCI) are strongly dependent on the composition of the corium, which is composed of UO 2 , ZrO 2 , Zr, steel. TEXAS- V simulation for the TROI experiments indicated that a relatively low void fraction seems to have resulted in a strong steam explosion and the low voided mixture must be induced by big size particles. The particle sizes of the non-explosive TROI tests were analyzed because the explosive tests do not represent the particles during mixing. It indicates that the debris size seems to reflect the material difference, and the trend is the same as the debris size in the TEXAS-V simulation. TEXAS-V calculation for the alumina/water system indicates that the conductivity is also related to the material effect on the FCI result. The heat loss evaluation using a single sphere film boiling model shows that a reasonable conductivity and particle size give a reliable estimation for the FCI result. Thus reliable values for the physical properties such as the surface tension and a better understanding for the breakup process would be necessary for a more convincible nuclear safety analysis. (authors)

  4. The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) and prehospital emergency care safety: results from an incident report (IR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaro, Alberto; Pascu, Diana; Zerman, Tamara; Vallaperta, Enrico; Schönsberg, Alberto; Tardivo, Stefano; Pancheri, Serena; Romano, Gabriele; Moretti, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) is essential to ensure coordinated and safe prehospital care. The aim of this study was to implement an incident report (IR) system in prehospital emergency care management with a view to detecting errors occurring in this setting and guiding the implementation of safety improvement initiatives. An ad hoc IR form for the prehospital setting was developed and implemented within the EMDC of Verona. The form included six phases (from the emergency call to hospital admission) with the relevant list of potential error modes (30 items). This descriptive observational study considered the results from 268 consecutive days between February and November 2010. During the study period, 161 error modes were detected. The majority of these errors occurred in the resource allocation and timing phase (34.2%) and in the dispatch phase (31.0%). Most of the errors were due to human factors (77.6%), and almost half of them were classified as either moderate (27.9%) or severe (19.9%). These results guided the implementation of specific corrective actions, such as the adoption of a more efficient Medical Priority Dispatch System and the development of educational initiatives targeted at both EMDC staff and the population. Despite the intrinsic limits of IR methodology, results suggest how the implementation of an IR system dedicated to the emergency prehospital setting can act as a major driver for the development of a "learning organization" and improve both efficacy and safety of first aid care.

  5. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    remove short term atmospheric variability; and direct measurement of the background signal from towers immediately upwind of the urban area and from the boundary layer. We find that CO2ff and other anthropogenic trace gases are consistently enhanced at a tower site downwind of the city. Measurements made directly over or very close to the urban area show only weak correlations between CO2ff and trace gases associated with combustion, likely because the urban plume is not yet well mixed. Total CO2 is also consistently enhanced in the downwind samples, even in summer. In winter, total CO2 enhancement is slightly higher than the fossil fuel CO2 enhancement, in agreement with Indiana's requirement for 10% bioethanol use in gasoline. This result implies that the enhancement in total CO2 can be used to infer CO2ff emissions for Indianapolis during winter. We therefore use the high resolution in situ total CO2 measurements in a simple mass balance model to estimate the urban CO2ff emissions. An initial comparison shows a ~20% difference between the top-down and bottom-up methods.

  6. Incidence of sulfur based additives to the microstructure of nuclear fuels. Elaboration and characterizations; Incidence d'additifs a base de soufre sur la microstructure des combustibles nucleaires. Elaboration et caracterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranoni, L

    2002-05-01

    Even though the global reactor working of MOX fuel is good, the fission gas emission now represents the limitative factor of its use at high burn-up. The increase of the average grain size promotes the diffusional length of fission gas inside the grain, slowing down their emission. In this respect, we have studied the influence of sulphur based additives on the crystal grain growth of nuclear oxide ceramics. The first part of this work concerns the preparation and characterisation of sulfur additives and especially the uranium oxy-sulphur, UOS. The study of its thermal behaviour has shown that the partial pressure ratio pH{sub 2}O/pH{sub 2}S controls the reaction kinetics between UOS and H{sub 2}O vapour, which leads to SO{sub 2} emission. After sintering at 1700 deg. C under reducing atmosphere, the UOS grains are strongly anisotropic. Their structure is characterised by (0,0,1) planar defects. The second part presents the study of the incorporation of these additives in UO{sub 2} powder. We have shown that the sulphur has a very favourable action on crystal growth. After sintering at 1700 deg C during 4 hours under Ar-5% H{sub 2} - 1000 ppm H{sub 2}O atmosphere, the average grain size is about 25-30 microns. The samples present a local grain size gradient between a thick peripheral layer (usual grain size) and the core (large grains) which is in accordance with a local sulphur concentration gradient. The sulphur action suddenly appears during the thermal cycle between 1600 deg C and 1700 deg C, whereas its mass concentration is lower than 30 ppm. SIMS analysis have highlighted, in the core, the segregation of sulphur at the grain boundary. According to these observations, a mechanism has been proposed to explain the activation induced by sulphur. The experiences carried out on mixed oxide, especially (U, Pu)O{sub 2}, confirm that the grain growth activation is induced by the presence of sulphur. (authors)

  7. Fire and explosion incident at bituminization demonstration facility of PNC Tokai works, on march 11, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, A.; Sato, Y.; Koyama, T.; Omori, E.; Kato, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Norjiri, I.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    On March 11, a fire and explosion incident occurred at the Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) of Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Soon after the incident, PNC (now reorganized to JNC) started to investigate the facility damage, operational records around the incident, technical notes including facility design and reviews of R and D results, operators witness and to perform several analysis, tests and calculations. This paper describes outline and cause of the incident which were concluded based on the results of continuous serious investigation, analysis and calculation. (author)

  8. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates

  9. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  10. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  11. Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, B.L.H.; Franklin, B.M.; Small, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

  12. Experience and results of material science research conducted on spent fuel assemblies from the BN-350 fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Turubarova, L.G.; Tsai, K.V.; Yarovchuk, A.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The BN-350 fast reactor was commissioned in 1973, ran successfully for many years and is now in the decommission stage. Its unique operational parameters (low temperature of sodium at the input, wide range of damage rates, etc. ) allowed the investigation of a number of new radiation effects on both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels. The latter class of steel was extensively employed as wrappers for fuel assemblies. Much of the accumulated experience in BN-350 is relevant to development of fusion devices. Results are presented on post-operational research of steels 12Cr18Ni10Ti, 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, and 12Cr13Mo2BFR, all serving as hexagonal shrouds of fuel assemblies. Structural materials in the active core zone operated at temperatures of 280-430 deg. C, and were irradiated the range of 0.25-83 dpa with damage rates of 10{sup -9} - 10{sup -6} dpa/s). Investigations of irradiated hexagonal shroud materials were performed with using traditional techniques of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, metallography, mechanical tests, hydrostatic weighing, magnetometry, etc. Additionally, new techniques have been developed and employed with great success on these highly irradiated materials, such as optical computer extensometry, and magnetization cartography. Typical results to be covered in this presentation are: a) In 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel irradiated at a low dose rate of 0.12 x 10{sup -8} dpa/s voids were found at 281 deg. C after only 0.65 dpa, demonstrating once again the acceleration of swelling at low dpa rates observed in other steels. b) Data on helium release during annealing of highly irradiated sample are presented. c) Differences in deformation-induced hardening between the shroud's corners and faces leads to post-irradiation differences in swelling and mechanical properties. d) During room temperature mechanical tests of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel at {approx}56 dpa at 350 deg. C it was found that ductility lost at

  13. Adult Brain Cancer in the U.S. Black Population: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Analysis of Incidence, Survival, and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Abigail; Batey, Jason; Capogreco, Joseph; Kimball, David; Walters, Andy; Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite much epidemiological research on brain cancer in the United States, the etiology for the various subtypes remains elusive. The black population in the United States currently experiences lower incidence but higher survival rates when compared to other races. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the trends in incidence and survival for the 6 most common primary brain tumors in the black population of the United States. Material/Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, an...

  14. A first study on the incidence and prevalence of IBD in Malaysia--results from the Kinta Valley IBD Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Ida; Jaya, Fauziah; Chua, Andrew; Heng, Wong Choon; Singh, Harjinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is known to be rare in the Asia Pacific region but epidemiological studies are scarce. Kinta Valley [Ipoh] was chosen as the sample population. Malaysia has a multiethnic population consisting of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. New cases over 2 years were prospectively captured as well as all known existing cases. Total numbers of the population as a whole and of each ethnic group were obtained. Incidence, prevalence, and mean incidence over two decades were then calculated. There were 10 new cases of IBD diagnosed from April 2011 to April 2013. The crude incidence rates of IBD, ulcerative colitis [UC], and Crohn's disease[CD], respectively, were 0.68, 0.46, and 0.20 per 100,000 persons. The highest incidence was among the Indians, 1.91 compared with 0.35 and 0.63 per 100,000 persons among the Malays and the Chinese, respectively. The mean incidence of IBD has increased steadily from 0.07 to 0.69 per 100,000 person-years over the past two decades. The UC:CD ratio was 8:1 from 1990 to 2000 and 3.6:1 from 2000 to 2010. The prevalence rates of IBD, UC, and CD, respectively, were 9.24, 6.67, and 2.17 per 100,000 persons. The highest prevalence also was among the Indians: 24.91 compared with 7.00 and 6.90 per 100,000 persons among the Malay and Chinese races, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD are low in Malaysia but the incidence appears to be increasing and marked racial differences exist. As in other Asian countries, the incidence of CD is increasing at a more rapid rate relative to UC. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. About calculation results of heat transfer in the fuel assembly clusters cooled by water with supercritical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabezhnaya, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Paper reviews the numerical investigation into the heat transfer in the supercritical water cooled fuel assemblies on the basis of the various commercial codes. The turbulence available models specified in the codes describe adequately the experimental data in tubes within the range of flow temperatures away from the pseudocritical point, as well as under high mass velocities. There are k-ε type turbulence models that show qualitatively the local acceleration (slowdown) of the heat transfer in tubes, but they fail to describe the mentioned phenomena quantitatively. To determine the effect of grid spacers on the suppression of the heat transfer local slowdown and on the heat transfer acceleration in fuel assemblies and to ensure more accurate calculation of the fuel element cladding maximum temperature one should perform a number of the experiments making use of the fuel assembly models [ru

  16. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  17. Performance of MOX fuel: An overview of the experimental programme of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and review of selected results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, W.; McGrath, M.

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has defined an extensive experimental programme related to MOX fuels which is being executed with the objective to provide a performance data base similar to that available for UO 2 . In addition to utilising fresh MOX fuel and re-instrumented segments from LWR irradiations to high burnup, the concept of inert matrix fuel is being addressed. The irradiation in the Halden reactor is performed in rigs allowing steady state, power ramping and cyclic operation. In-pile data are obtained from instrumentation such as fuel centreline thermocouples, pressure transducers, fuel and cladding elongation detectors, and movable gauges for measuring the diametral deformation. Various phenomena can be assessed in this way, e.g. thermal performance, swelling and densification, PCMI and fission gas release. The paper describes the objectives of various experiments and provides examples of temperature, pressure and cladding elongation measurements performed on MOX fuel. Salient results are related to the threshold for the onset of significant fission gas release and the relaxation behaviour in a power ramp-PCMI situation. (author)

  18. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  19. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM

  20. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  1. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  2. Lessons learned from recent safety related incidents at A Canadian uranium conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaferi, Jafir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory requirements for nuclear fuel facility licensees to report any situation or incident that results or is likely to result in a hazard to the health or safety of any person or the environment and to submit its incident investigation report with cause(s) of the incident and corrective actions taken or planned. In addition, the paper presents two recent safety-related incidents that occurred at a uranium conversion facility in Canada along with their consequences, causes, corrective actions and any lessons learned. The first incident resulted in a release of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) inside the UF6 cylinder filling station and the second one resulted in a spill of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) slurry inside the UF6 plant. Both incidents had no impact on the workers or the environment. (authors)

  3. Incidence and Contributing Factors of Persistent Hyperglycemia at 6–12 Weeks Postpartum in Iranian Women with Gestational Diabetes: Results from LAGA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Nouhjah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A history of gestational diabetes is an important predictor of many metabolic disturbances later in life. Method. Life after gestational diabetes Ahvaz Study (LAGAs is an ongoing population-based cohort study. Up to February 2016, 176 women with gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at 6–12 weeks postpartum in Ahvaz (southwestern of Iran. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG criteria and the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria applied for diagnosis of postpartum prediabetes and diabetes. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were done. Results. Overall incidence of early postpartum glucose intolerance was 22.2% (95% CI, 16.3–29.0, 17.6% prediabetes (95% CI, 12.3–24.1 and 4.5% diabetes (95% CI, 2.0–8.8%. Independent risk factors for glucose intolerance were FPG ≥ 100 at the time of OGTT (OR 3.86; 95% CI; 1.60–9.32, earlier diagnosis of GDM (OR 0.92; 95% CI; 0.88–0.97, systolic blood pressure (OR 1.02; 95% CI; 1.002–1.04, and insulin or metformin therapy (OR 3.14; 95% CI; 1.20–8.21. Conclusion. Results determined a relatively high rate of glucose intolerance at 6–12 weeks after GDM pregnancy. Early postpartum screening of type 2 diabetes is needed particularly in women at high risk of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Results of the post-irradiation examination of a highly-rated mixed oxide fuel rod from the Mol 7B experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquerelle, M.; Walker, C.T.; Whitlow, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The experiment MOL 7B was carried out in a epithermal flux in the Belgian reactor BR2. The pin examined contained fuel of initial composition (Usub(0.7)Pusub(0.3))Osub(1.98). It had been irradiated to a maximum burn-up of 13.2 at% at a maximum linear power of 568Wcm -1 . The fuel was clad with coldworked stainless steel. Electron microprobe analysis indicated that a Cr 2 O 3 type oxide was the main constituent of the grey phases in the gap. A metallic phase on the fuel surface had apparently resulted from the mechanical compaction of fragments of cladding that had been depleted in chromium by oxidation. Thus the main components of the phase were iron and nickel. Chromium loss from the inner cladding surface was significant only in the upper regions of the pin. In pin sections that were metallographically examined sigma phase and carbides of the type M 23 C 6 were present at the grain boundaries of the cladding. Cladding corrosion was not an Arrhenius function of the cladding temperature: the amount of metal lost from the inner cladding surface decreased with rise in cladding temperature above 910 K. A contributor to metal loss was the mechanical detachment of fragments of cladding which reformed as a metallic layer on the surface of the fuel. Chromium depletion and sigma phase formation at grain boundaries lowered the cohesive forces between grains which were then mechanically detached. Chromium loss from grain boundaries is mainly the results of oxidation of the cladding by the mixed oxide fuel. Data are presented to support the view that the local average O/M of the fuel determined the rate of oxidation and consequently the extent of chromium depletion. Fuel-cladding mechanical interactions were weak in the upper regions of the pin where metal loss was small

  5. Development of optimized advanced austenitic steels (II). Evaluation of out-of-pile testing results of the test fuel claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-03-01

    14Cr-25Ni optimized advanced austenitic steels have been developed to improve the swelling resistance of 15Cr-20Ni austenitic stainless steels used for FBR fuel cladding. In this improvement, Ti, Nb, V and P were dissolved into 14Cr-25Ni matrix by means of the high-temperature solution treatment to make finely distributed and stabilized precipitates in the operation. Furthermore, at the final stage of cold-working, cold-working level increased and residual stress was reduced. In this study, as fabricated microstructure observation, solubility of alloying elements and grain size test in the manufacturing process were evaluated. Following results were obtained. (1) Spherical precipitates were observed in the grain. Most of them were identified as complexed carbide-nitride [Ti,Nb(C,N)] by EDX analysis. (2) The dissolved percentages of Ti and Ni in the matrix were about 70% and 30% respectively. Undissolved Ti and Nb may react with undissolved carbon and precipitate as MC carbides. (3) High-temperature solution treatment is effective for the sufficient solubility of alloying elements, but it is likely to induce very large grains, which is the cause of defective signal in the ultrasonic alloy testing. The results of the grain size test showed that the large grain size is reduced in low Nb (0.1wt%) alloy compared with the standard alloy (0.2wt% Nb), and the effectiveness for the grain size control by reducing the Nb content was confirmed. Also, it was suggested that the intermediate heat treatment and cold work conditions would possibly avoid the occurrence of the large grain at the final heat treatment. (author)

  6. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  7. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  8. Psychosocial and organizational work factors and incidence of arterial hypertension among female healthcare workers: results of the Organisation des Soins et Santé des Soignants cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sébastien; De Gaudemaris, Régis; Lepage, Benoit; Sobaszek, Annie; Caroly, Sandrine; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lang, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have supported the role of organizational work factors (OWFs) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and CVD risk factors, including arterial hypertension. However, a little information is available concerning the role of collective stressors deriving from work organization on nurse's risk of hypertension. This study aimed to test the independent longitudinal relationships linking the 2-year incidence of arterial hypertension to collective stressors at the work unit level, among baseline normotensive female hospital registered nurses and nursing assistants, after adjusting for known individual predictors of CVDs and for occupational stress. Arterial hypertension was defined as the intake of antihypertensive drug or as blood pressure (BP) measures higher than 140  mmHg (SBP) or 90  mmHg (DBP) at both the clinical visit and 1 month later. We analyzed the effect of OWFs at the work unit level, constraints related to the physical work environment and the individual perception of the work environment in 2006 on the risk of arterial hypertension in 2008 among 1882 initially normotensive female healthcare workers followed in the French Organisation des soins et santé des soignants (ORSOSA) cohort. We showed that OWFs at the work unit level may influence the 2-year risk of arterial hypertension independently of work factors at the worker level, baseline BP, age and BMI. In this study, OWFs affected 2-year risk of arterial hypertension only through direct effects. Our results pointed out the possibility of a primary prevention of arterial hypertension through interventions based at the work unit level among healthcare workers.

  9. The effect of major adverse renal cardiovascular event (MARCE) incidence, procedure volume, and unit cost on the hospital savings resulting from contrast media use in inpatient angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; McCullough, Peter A; Todoran, Thomas M; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Palli, Swetha R; Ryan, Michael P; Gunnarsson, Candace

    2018-04-01

    To determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015). A previously estimated relative risk reduction in MARCE associated with IOCM usage (9.3%) was applied. The higher cost of IOCM was included when calculating the net impact estimates at the aggregate, hospital type, and per hospital levels. One-way (±25%) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses identified the model's most important inputs. Based on weighted analysis, 513,882 US inpatient angioplasties and 35,610 MARCE cases were estimated annually. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" strategy increases contrast media cost, but prevents 2,900 MARCE events. The annual budget impact was an estimated saving of $30.71 million, aggregated across all US hospitals, $6,316 per hospital, or $60 per procedure. Net savings were maintained across all univariate sensitivity analyses. While MARCE/event-free cost differential was the most important factor driving total net savings for hospitals in the Northeast and West, procedural volume was important in the Midwest and rural locations. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" approach yields substantial net global savings to hospitals, both at the national level and within hospital sub-groups. Hospital administrators should maintain awareness of the factors that are likely to be more influential for their hospital and recognize that purchasing on the basis of lower contrast media cost may result in higher overall costs for patients undergoing inpatient

  10. Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection in Children with Chronic Diseases of the Nasopharynx Reduces the Incidence of Other Respiratory Tract Infections: Results of a Comparative Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vavilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A promising approach to solving the problem of widespread infections of the respiratory tract in children is the use ofspecific prophylaxis against the pneumococcus.Objective: Our aim was to examine the clinical efficacy of PCV13 of children with chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx and the changes of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract.Methods: We have evaluated the incidence of respiratory tract and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. Research period: January 2011 — January 2015. Upper airway function examination included cytologic analysis — counting the main cell populations ratio in the common cytoplasm, lysozym activity and secretory immunoglobulin of class A (sIgA in nasal secretions.Results: The study involved 876 children 2–5 years old. Main group (PCV13 amounted to 448 patients, and the control group (unvaccinated 428. Annual dynamic observation showed a significant reduction of acute morbidity by 2 times (p < 0.001, pneumonia by 2.4 times (p = 0.042, acute bronchitis by 2.5 times (p = 0.008, concomitant ENT pathology (acute otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic sinusitis by 2.2 times (p = 0.001 and 2.3 times (p = 0.004, respectively. There was a positive effect of vaccination on the level of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract (lysozyme, sIgA, the somatic cell count in nasal secretions.Conclusion: PCV13 vaccination reduces the risk of developing acute respiratory infections and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. This is against the background of recovery in the levels of factors of local immunity.

  11. Results of TVSA fuel assemblies development and 10-years operation in WWER-1000 reactors cores. Development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.; Sharikov, A.; Samoilov, O.; Kaidalov, V.; Falkov, A.; Romanov, A.; Shishkin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The basic TVSA design is now operating successfully in 17 VVER-1000 power units of Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria. TVSA design is characterized by reliability and validity of designs and resource characteristics. TVSA possesses light hydraulics and peak ratio for implementation of effective fuel cycles. Unique parameters on time of maintenance and burnup are achieved. The basic design - TVSA-5M - has been introduced into commercial operation. It is necessary to expand heading TVSA with debris filter and temperature control tubes. Two directions of evolution of a design - TVSA-ALPHA and TVSAPLUS are realized. Evolution is directed on increasing uranium content and realization of 5x1 and 3x1.5 fuel cycles with operation at raised power. The TVSA design offers a great optimization potential based on a series of proven (reference) technical solutions. TVSA is competitive and cost effective and ensures the market advantages of Russian nuclear fuel

  12. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  13. Sodium boiling and mixed oxide fuel thermal behavior in FBR undercooling transients; W-1 SLSF experiment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.M.; Wood, S.A.; Knight, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) Experiment was conducted to study fuel pin heat release characteristics during a series of LMFBR Loss-of-Piping Integrity (LOPI) transients and to investigate a regime of coolant boiling during a second series of transients at low, medium and high bundle power levels. The LOPI transients produced no coolant boiling and showed only small changes in coolant temperatures as the test fuel microstructure changed from a fresh, unrestructured to a low burnup, restructured condition. During the last of seven boiling transients, intense coolant boiling produced inlet flow reversal, cladding dryout and moderate cladding melting

  14. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  15. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities: Results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.E.; Oktay, S.; Santschi, P.H.; Schink, D.R.; Fehn, U.; Snyder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129 I, from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129 I/ 127 I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129 I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129 I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129 I in freshwater. (author)

  16. A method for recovering and separating palladium, technetium, rhodium and ruthenium contained in solutions resulting from nuclear fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for recovering and separating technetium and metals of the platinum group, i.e. palladium, rhodium and ruthenium existing as fission products. The method according to the invention is characterized by contacting a residuary acid aqueous solution provided by nuclear fuel recycling with successive carbon beds which have adsorbed different chelating agents specific for the metals to be recovered in order that said metals be selectively chelated and extracted from the solution. This method is suitable for recovering the above metals from solutions provided by reprocessing spent fuels [fr

  17. Radiological impact of a spent fuel disposal in a deep geological granite formation - results of the european spa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, P.; Gay, D.; Certes, C.; Serres, C.

    2000-01-01

    The SPA project (Spent fuel disposal Performance Assessment) is the latest of four integrated performance assessment exercises on nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, carried out in the framework of the European Community 'Nuclear Fission' Research Programmes. The SPA project, which was undertaken by ENRESA, GRS, IPSN, NRG, SCK.CEN and VTT between May 1996 and April 1999, was devoted to the study of disposal of spent fuel in various host rock formations (clay, crystalline rocks and salt formation). This project is a direct continuation of the efforts made by the European Community since 1982 to build a common understanding of the methods applicable to deep disposal performance assessment. (authors)

  18. Preliminary results on σZ and τint fluctuations as a function of incident energy in dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, I.; Andronic, A.; Duma, M.

    1998-01-01

    processes, the charge distribution and DNS lifetime are related as follows: σ Z 2 2D Z ·τ int , where D Z represents charge diffusion coefficient. Correlated fluctuations should be observed in τ int as a function of E lab . The values of the product ω·τ int were extracted from the angular distributions of the Z = 7, 8 fragments for W1 and W2 windows. Extension of these studies to whole incident energy and other Z values are required in order to confirm these preliminary results giving support to a transport model description of the dissipative processes in light heavy ion collisions. (authors)

  19. Incidence of postpartum haemorrhage in women receiving therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin: results of a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, Sara; Cohn, Danny M.; Stehouwer, Alexander C.; Wolf, Hans; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Büller, Harry R.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is the drug of choice to prevent venous thrombosis in pregnancy, but the optimal dose for prevention while avoiding bleeding is unclear. This study investigated whether therapeutic doses of LMWH increase the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in

  20. Incidence of postpartum haemorrhage in women receiving therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin : results of a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, Sara; Cohn, Danny M; Stehouwer, Alexander C; Wolf, Hans; van der Post, Joris A M; Büller, Harry R; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is the drug of choice to prevent venous thrombosis in pregnancy, but the optimal dose for prevention while avoiding bleeding is unclear. This study investigated whether therapeutic doses of LMWH increase the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in

  1. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.Y. Kwok (Wing-Yee); M.C. Kwaadsteniet (Marjolein); M. Harmsen (Mirjam); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195

  2. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, W.Y.; Kwaadsteniet, M.C. de; Harmsen, M.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195 general

  3. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker-Collo, S.; Bennett, D.; Krishnamurthi, R.V.; Parmar, P.; Feigin, V.L.; Naghavi, M.R.; Forouzanfar, M.H.; Johnson, C.; Nguyen, G.; Mensah, G.A.; Vos, T.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality

  4. Behaviour of fission gas in the rim region of high burn-up UO2 fuel pellets with particular reference to results from an XRF investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, M.; Walker, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    XRF and EPMA results for retained xenon from Battelle's high burn-up effects program are re-evaluated. The data reviewed are from commercial low enriched BWR fuel with burn-ups of 44.8-54.9 GWd/tU and high enriched PWR fuel with burn-ups from 62.5 to 83.1 GWd/tU. It is found that the high burn-up structure penetrated much deeper than initially reported. The local burn-up threshold for the formation of the high burn-up structure in those fuels with grain sizes in the normal range lay between 60 and 75 GWd/tU. The high burn-up structure was not detected by EPMA in a fuel that had a grain size of 78 μm although the local burn-up at the pellet rim had exceeded 80 GWd/tU. It is concluded that fission gas had been released from the high burn-up structure in three PWR fuel sections with burn-ups of 70.4, 72.2 and 83.1 GWd/tU. In the rim region of the last two sections at the locations where XRF indicated gas release the local burn-up was higher than 75 GWd/tU. (orig.)

  5. Comparing a Fischer-Tropsch Alternate Fuel to JP-8 and Their 50-50 Blend: Flow and Flame Visualization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combustion performance of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel manufactured by Sasol was compared to JP-8 and a 50-50 blend of the two fuels, using the NASA/Woodward 9 point Lean Direct Injector (LDI) in its baseline configuration. The baseline LDI configuration uses 60deg axial air-swirlers, whose vanes generate clockwise swirl, in the streamwise sense. For all cases, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was 0.455, and the combustor inlet pressure and pressure drop were 10-bar and 4 percent. The three inlet temperatures used were 828, 728, and 617 K. The objectives of this experiment were to visually compare JP-8 flames with FT flames for gross features. Specifically, we sought to ascertain in a simple way visible luminosity, sooting, and primary flame length of the FT compared to a standard JP grade fuel. We used color video imaging and high-speed imaging to achieve these goals. The flame color provided a way to qualitatively compare soot formation. The length of the luminous signal measured using the high speed camera allowed an assessment of primary flame length. It was determined that the shortest flames resulted from the FT fuel.

  6. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  7. PBF [Power Burst Facility] severe fuel damage test 1-1: Volume 2, Test results report, Appendices A through I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Z.R.; Petti, D.A.; Cook, B.A.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on: fuel rod characteristics; instrumentation identification, location, and performance; effluent sampling and monitoring system; bundle power; test SFD 1-1 data qualification, uncertainties, and data plots; postirradiation examinations; chemical kinetics predictions; SCDAP analysis model; and coolant level measurements

  8. A summary of the results from the DOE advanced gas reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all licensing basis events. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. The required level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude relative to source terms for other reactor types and allows a graded approach to emergency planning and the potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. Achieving this level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high coated-particle fuel fabrication quality and excellent performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The design goal of modular HTGRs is to meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for offsite dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB). To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is far better than that achieved for all prior U.S.-manufactured tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel.

  9. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of hazard and risk generated by different fuel cycles of electric energy production - results of completed and ongoing EU programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Garanty, I.; Kozubal, A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of international organizations and research institutions attempted to develop recommended approaches to holistic assessment of hazards and risk generated by fuel cycles of electrical energy production from fuel mining, transportation, plant construction and operation, wastes generation to installation decommissioning. It includes an interagency project coordinated by IAEA and series of projects completed in the EU programme: ExternE and a new project: NEEDS extending the methodology of ExternE for more comprehensive treatment various factors impacting health, environment, economy and energy security. The paper is a brief overview methods used in these projects and the results obtained. (author)

  11. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part I: Experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Würenlingen and Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel test section and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 and 900 mm) of the 1-m long test section are presented in this paper. Material interactions leading to local corium formation were identified: firstly between fuel and Zircaloy-4 cladding, notably at 823 mm, where the cladding melting temperature was reached, and secondly between fuel and stainless steel oxides. Regarding fission products, molybdenum left so-called metallic precipitates mainly composed of ruthenium. Xenon and caesium behave similarly whereas barium and molybdenum often seems to be associated in precipitates.

  12. Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; McCloskey, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel assemblies from light water reactors are typically stored for one year or more in the reactor spent fuel pool and then transported for long-term storage at an off-site location. Because of the design, construction, and operation features of spent fuel storage pools, an accident that might drain most of the water from a pool is assessed as being extremely improbable. As a limiting case, however, a hypothetical incident involving instantaneous draining of all the water from a storage pool has been postulated, and the subsequent heatup of the spent fuel elements has been evaluated. The model is analyzed, and results are summarized

  13. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  14. Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon dioxide emissions: bottom-up estimates for the world as a whole and for major developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    We present and apply a simple bottom–up model for estimating non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions.We apply this model for the year 2000: (1) to the world as a whole, (2) to the aggregate of Annex I countries and non-Annex I countries, and (3) to the ten

  15. Different interest group views of fuels treatments: survey results from fire and fire surrogate treatments in a Sierran mixed conifer forest, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses results from a survey about the acceptance of and preferences for fuels treatments of participants following a field tour of the University of California Blodgett Forest Fire and Fire Surrogate Study Site. Although original expectations were that tours would be composed of general members of the public, individual tour groups ultimately were...

  16. The SKB spent fuel corrosion programme. An evaluation of results from the experimental programme performed in the Studsvik Hot Cell Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R. [Forsyth Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years, many of the specimens in the SKB programme on the corrosion of spent fuel have been analysed by the ICP-MS technique, shortly after conclusion of the corrosion tests, or by the analysis of archive samples. Together with the previous results, this has made available a much more extended analytical data base than that available before, and this has been used in a new evaluation which complements those published earlier. Some of the new analytical data is for tests performed on fuel specimens (from two reference fuel rods, one BWR and one PWR) which have been corrosion tested for over ten years. Most of the data refers to 16 fuel/clad specimens from a short BWR fuel rod, which had burnups over a range of 27.0 to 48.8 MWd/kg U. Detailed examination and characterisation of three other fuel specimens from the rod had shown that the specimens with the higher burnups in this series would have a fuel microstructure and alpha activity content and distribution which, theoretically, may promote enhanced corrosion. These specimens had been exposed to over 5 years of corrosion during nine water contact periods. The corrodants used were a simulated bicarbonate groundwater and de-ionised water, and both oxic and nominally anoxic conditions were included in the test matrix. Most of the emphasis in the evaluation has, therefore, been on the possible effects on corrosion behaviour of the linear heat rating and burnup of the fuels. However, examination of the variation with water contact time of the fractional release rates of selected fission products and their total release over the five years of corrosion, have shown that the corrosion rates during the first few weeks of corrosion of the specimens with the higher burnups were lower than those for specimens with slightly lower burnup. Later, the corrosion rates converged for all specimens. This has been interpreted to be due to burnup-related differences in the fuel microstructure, particularly in the

  17. Incidence and 30-day case fatality rate of first-ever stroke in urban Nigeria: the prospective community based Epidemiology of Stroke in Lagos (EPISIL) phase II results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Mustapha A; Okubadejo, Njideka U; Ojini, Frank I; Ojo, Oluwadamilola O

    2013-08-15

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major contributor to global disease burden. Although epidemiologic information from a community perspective is important in determining the magnitude of the burden in specific regions, and directing equitable distribution of health resources, data on the incidence of stroke in developing countries in Africa are scarce. To determine the current incidence rate and short-term (30-day) case fatality rate (CFR) of stroke in urban Nigeria, and provide age-adjusted and gender-specific incidence rates to enable comparison with global populations. The study was a prospective community-based stroke registry enrolling hospitalized and non-hospitalized first-ever in a lifetime stroke cases presenting at all health facilities (hospitals, homeopathic caregivers, physiotherapy clinics) located in the designated community. Pre-hospitalization deaths due to stroke were not included in our study. The study was conducted between January 1st and December 31st 2007 in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, south western Nigeria, a mixed-income urban locality with a population of approximately 750,000 based on data from the National Population Commission. Stroke was defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria. Case fatality at 30-days post stroke was determined at follow-up on 160 hospitalized stroke cases. 189 first-ever strokes, comprised of 112 men and 77 women (mean±SD age 58.5±13.5 years) were documented, giving a crude incidence rate of 25.2 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 21.6- 28.8). The gender-specific rates were 28.3/100,000 and 21.3/100,000 for males and females respectively. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 54.08 per 100,000 per year (adjusted to the WHO New World Population). Hospitalization rate was 84.6%, while the CFR (hospitalized) was 16.2%. The stroke incidence in this urban sub-Saharan African community remains lower than that in emerging and developed economies

  18. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  19. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  20. Risk factors for incident peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes: results from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Andrew D; Abbott, J Dawn; Forker, Alan D; Bertolet, Marnie; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Thurston, Rebecca C; Mulukutla, Suresh; Aboyans, Victor; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define risk factors for incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overall and within the context of differing glycemic control strategies. The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) randomized controlled trial assigned participants to insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy. A total of 1,479 participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at study entry were eligible for analysis. PAD outcomes included new ABI ≤0.9 with decrease at least 0.1 from baseline, lower extremity revascularization, or lower extremity amputation. Baseline risk factors within the overall cohort and time-varying risk factors within each assigned glycemic control arm were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants (20.5%) experienced an incident case of PAD. Age, sex, race, and baseline smoking status were all significantly associated with incident PAD in the BARI 2D cohort. Additional baseline risk factors included pulse pressure, HbA1c, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each). In stratified analyses of time-varying covariates, changes in BMI, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were most predictive among IS patients, while change in HbA1c was most predictive among IP patients. Among patients with T2DM, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main predictors of incident PAD cases. Stratified analyses showed different risk factors were predictive for patients treated with IS medications versus those treated with IP medications.

  1. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood: results from 8 European Birth Cohorts--a Global Allergy and Asthma European Network initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Smit, Henriette A; Weyler, Joost; Dom, Sandra; Sunyer, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Torrent, Maties; Vall, Oriol; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Schaaf, Beate; Chen, Chih-Mei; Bergström, Anna; Fantini, Maria P; Mommers, Monique; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-06-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed are lacking. We sought to investigate whether the course of BMI predicts incident asthma in childhood. Data from 12,050 subjects of 8 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies were combined. BMI and doctor-diagnosed asthma were modeled during the first 6 years of life with latent growth mixture modeling and discrete time hazard models. Subpopulations of children were identified with similar standardized BMI trajectories according to age- and sex-specific "World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards" and "WHO growth standards for school aged children and adolescents" for children up to age 5 years and older than 5 years, respectively (BMI-SDS). These types of growth profiles were analyzed as predictors for incident asthma. Children with a rapid BMI-SDS gain in the first 2 years of life had a higher risk for incident asthma up to age 6 years than children with a less pronounced weight gain slope in early childhood. The hazard ratio was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) after adjustment for birth weight, weight-for-length at birth, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking in pregnancy, breast-feeding, and family history of asthma or allergies. A rapid BMI gain at 2 to 6 years of age in addition to rapid gain in the first 2 years of life did not significantly enhance the risk of asthma. Rapid growth in BMI during the first 2 years of life increases the risk of asthma up to age 6 years. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting fuel poverty at a small-area level in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Eldin; Gordon, David; Patsios, Demi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a series of models for predicting the incidence of fuel poverty in England at a small-area level and examines the adequacy of the modelled results in informing our understanding of the geography of fuel poverty. This paper summarises the development of alternative approaches to model specification based upon different approaches to the treatment of household income. Since 2003 small-area fuel poverty estimates have been widely used to inform affordable warmth policies and local targeting of fuel poverty programs. Whilst improvements in data sources and methods in recent years provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial distribution of fuel poverty, these analyses suggest that our understanding of the incidence and spatial distribution of fuel poverty is highly sensitive to the way in which household incomes are measured. - Highlights: → The proposed models estimate fuel poverty incidence at a small-area level. → This is necessary in order to accurately target local fuel poverty interventions. → Fuel poverty estimates are highly sensitive to differences in income measurement. → Fewer children and more pensioners are fuel poor using EHCS income measures. → More children and fewer pensioners are fuel poor using HBAI income measures.

  3. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  5. Modelling of OGTT curve identifies 1 h plasma glucose level as a strong predictor of incident type 2 diabetes: results from two prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyass, Akram; Almgren, Peter; Akerlund, Mikael; Dushoff, Jonathan; Isomaa, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Meyre, David

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the OGTT in predicting type 2 diabetes is unclear. We assessed the performance of 14 OGTT glucose traits in type 2 diabetes prediction. We studied 2,603 and 2,386 Europeans from the Botnia study and Malmö Prevention Project (MPP) cohorts with baseline OGTT data. Over a follow-up period of 4.94 years and 23.5 years, 155 (5.95%) and 467 (19.57%) participants, respectively, developed type 2 diabetes. The main outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. One-hour plasma glucose (1h-PG) was a fair/good predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in the Botnia study and MPP (AUC for receiver operating characteristic [AUCROC] 0.80 [0.77, 0.84] and 0.70 [0.68, 0.73]). 1h-PG alone outperformed the prediction model of multiple clinical risk factors (age, sex, BMI, family history of type 2 diabetes) in the Botnia study and MPP (AUCROC 0.75 [0.72, 0.79] and 0.67 [0.64, 0.70]). The same clinical risk factors added to 1h-PG modestly increased prediction for incident type 2 diabetes (Botnia, AUCROC 0.83 [0.80, 0.86]; MPP, AUCROC 0.74 [0.72, 0.77]). 1h-PG also outperformed HbA1c in predicting type 2 diabetes in the Botnia cohort. A 1h-PG value of 8.9 mmol/l and 8.4 mmol/l was the optimal cut-point for initial screening and selection of high-risk individuals in the Botnia study and MPP, respectively, and represented 30% and 37% of all participants in these cohorts. High-risk individuals had a substantially increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (OR 8.0 [5.5, 11.6] and 3.8 [3.1, 4.7]) and captured 75% and 62% of all incident type 2 diabetes in the Botnia study and MPP. 1h-PG is a valuable prediction tool for identifying adults at risk for future type 2 diabetes.

  6. Nupec thermal hydraulic test to evaluate post-DNB characteristics for PWR fuel assemblies (1. general test plan and results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norio, Kono; Kenji, Murai; Kaichiro, Misima; Takayuki, Suemura; Yoshiei, Akiyama; Keiichi, Hori

    2001-01-01

    In the present thermal hydraulic design of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) under anticipated transient conditions is not allowed. However, it is recognized that the DNB dose not cause a fuel rod failure immediately, and a suitable reactor trip can prevent the core from severe damages. If the fuel rod temperature under the post-DNB conditions can be accurately evaluated, the potentially existing margin in the present design method will be quantitatively assessed. To establish the heat transfer evaluation method on post-DNB event for PWR thermal hydraulic design, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) started a program, NUPEC Thermal Hydraulic Test to Evaluate Post-DNB Characteristics for PWR Fuel Assemblies (NUPEC-TH-P), in 1995 (hereinafter the year means fiscal year) under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and industry (METI). This program is now under going until 2001. This paper is to show the overall plan and the status of NUPEC-TH-P. (authors)

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  8. Probabilistic analysis of fuel pin behaviour during an eventual loss of coolant in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Brief description of the development of the coolant loss incident in a pressurized water reactor and analysis of its significance for the behaviour of the fuel rods. Description of a probalistic method for estimating the effects of the accident on the fuel rods and results obtained [fr

  9. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  10. The intersection of sex, marital status, and cardiovascular risk factors in shaping stroke incidence: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Bates, Lisa M; Avendaño, Mauricio; Glymour, M Maria

    2009-12-01

    To examine the role of sex and marital status in the distribution and consequences of cardiovascular risk factors for stroke. Longitudinal cohort. U.S. national sample, community based. U.S. adults aged 50 and older and their spouses. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants born between 1900 and 1947 (N=22,818), aged 50 and older, and stroke-free at baseline were followed an average of 9.4 years for self- or proxy-reported stroke (2,372 events). Financial resources, behavioral risk factors, and cardiovascular conditions were used to predict incident stroke in Cox proportional hazard models stratified according to sex and marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married). Women were less likely to be married than men. The distribution of risk factors differed according to sex and marital status. Men had higher incident stroke rates than women, even after full risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio (HR)=1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-1.34). For both sexes, being never married or widowed predicted greater risk, associations that were attenuated after adjustment for financial resources. Widowed men had the highest risk (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.12-1.74 vs married women). Lower income and wealth were associated with similarly high risk across subgroups, although this risk factor especially affected unmarried women, with this group reporting the lowest income and wealth levels. Most other risk factors had similar HRs across subgro