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Sample records for fuel cells metal

  1. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  2. Bioelectrochemical metal recovery with microbial fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenas Motos, Pau

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to explain the metal recovery through the study of their components using Copper as a model compound of the heavy metals. Different electrochemical cells distribution and sizes were used to improve efficiency and current density. Two different electron donors were tested, acetate

  3. Design of metallic bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This project focused on the design and production of metallic bipolar plates for use in PEM fuel cells. Different metals were explored : and stainless steel was found out to be best suited to our purpose. Following the selection of metal, it was calc...

  4. The use of metal hydrides in fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo V. Lototskyy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews state-of-the-art developments in hydrogen energy systems which integrate fuel cells with metal hydride-based hydrogen storage. The 187 reference papers included in this review provide an overview of all major publications in the field, as well as recent work by several of the authors of the review. The review contains four parts. The first part gives an overview of the existing types of fuel cells and outlines the potential of using metal hydride stores as a source of hydrogen fuel. The second part of the review considers the suitability and optimisation of different metal hydrides based on their energy efficient thermal integration with fuel cells. The performances of metal hydrides are considered from the viewpoint of the reversible heat driven interaction of the metal hydrides with gaseous H2. Efficiencies of hydrogen and heat exchange in hydrogen stores to control H2 charge/discharge flow rates are the focus of the third section of the review and are considered together with metal hydride – fuel cell system integration issues and the corresponding engineering solutions. Finally, the last section of the review describes specific hydrogen-fuelled systems presented in the available reference data.

  5. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO2, SnO2, NbO2, ZrO2, SiO2, Ta2O5 and Nb2O5) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in ...

  6. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  7. Studies on PEM Fuel Cell Noble Metal Catalyst Dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Incredibly vast advance has been achieved in fuel cell technology regarding to catalyst efficiency, improvement of electrolyte conductivity and optimization of cell system. With breathtakingly accelerating progress, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is the most promising and most widely...

  8. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  9. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Leite, D. Will

    2009-01-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  10. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-07

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes.

  11. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  12. Doped Graphene as Non-Metallic Catalyst for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana MARINOIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming a commercial development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, a low cost, sustainable and high performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR with capability to replace/reduce rare metals, are high desirable. In this paper, we present a class of doped graphene, namely iodinated graphene with highly ORR electrochemical performances, synthesized by using the electrophilic substitution method. The prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, Raman spectroscopy, surface area measurement by BET method, that revealed the structure and morphology. The most highly iodinated graphene was tested in a single cell by measuring the cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performances were evaluated and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, when a single cathodic peak at 0.2 V with a current density of – 3.67 mA cm-2 for the Pt/C electrode was obtained. The best electrochemical performances in terms of electrochemical active area, was obtained for a new concept of cathode composed from Pt/C – iodine doped graphene, when a well-defined peak centred at 0.23 V with a current density of approx. – 9.1 mA cm-2 was obtained, indicating a high catalytic activity for ORR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16216

  13. Effects of accelerated degradation on metal supported thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reolon, R. P.; Sanna, S.; Xu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte and nanostruct......A thin film-based solid oxide fuel cell is deposited on a Ni-based metal porous support by pulsed laser deposition with a multi-scale-graded microstructure design. The fuel cell, around 1 μm in thickness, is composed of a stabilized-zirconia/doped-ceria bi-layered dense electrolyte......, electrochemical performances are steady, indicating the stability of the cell. Under electrical load, a progressive degradation is activated. Post-test analysis reveals both mechanical and chemical degradation of the cell. Cracks and delamination of the thin films promote a significant nickel diffusion and new...

  14. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  15. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3...

  16. Corrosion of metal bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Renato A. [Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-170 Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mara Cristina L.; Ett, Gerhard; Ett, Volkmar [Electrocell Ind. Com. Equip. Elet. LTDA, Centro de Inovacao, Empreendedorismo e Tecnologia (CIETEC), 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    PEM fuel cells are of prime interest in transportation applications due to their relatively high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. Bipolar plates are the key components of these devices as they account for significant fractions of their weight and cost. Metallic materials have advantages over graphite-based ones because of their higher mechanical strength and better electrical conductivity. However, corrosion resistance is a major concern that remains to be solved as metals may develop oxide layers that increase electrical resistivity, thus lowering the fuel cell efficiency. This paper aims to present the main results found in recent literature about the corrosion performance of metallic bipolar plates. (author)

  17. Direct ethanol fuel cells with catalysed metal mesh anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Platinum based binary and ternary catalysts prepared by thermal decomposition on titanium mesh were characterised and compared in terms of the electrochemical activity for ethanol oxidation. An enhancement in the catalytic activity was observed for the binary catalyst containing tin and ruthenium in their compositions with platinum. The catalysts were tested in single direct ethanol fuel cells and the result obtained with PtRu and PtSn showed that the mesh based electrodes show competitive performance in comparison to the conventional carbon based anodes

  18. In situ metal ion contamination and the effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulek, Mark; Adams, Jim; Kaberline, Steve; Ricketts, Mark; Waldecker, James R.

    Automotive fuel cell technology has made considerable progress, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are regarded as a possible long-term solution to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, reduce fossil fuel dependency and increase energy efficiency. Even though great strides have been made, durability is still an issue. One key challenge is controlling MEA contamination. Metal ion contamination within the membrane and the effects on fuel cell performance were investigated. Given the possible benefits of using stainless steel or aluminum for balance-of-plant components or bipolar plates, cations of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr were studied. Membranes were immersed in metal sulfide solutions of varying concentration and then assembled into fuel cell MEAs tested in situ. The ranking of the four transition metals tested in terms of the greatest reduction in fuel cell performance was: Al 3+ ≫ Fe 2+ > Ni 2+, Cr 3+. For iron-contaminated membranes, no change in cell performance was detected until the membrane conductivity loss was greater than approximately 15%.

  19. High temperature corrosion of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development has made it possible to use metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) instead of ceramic materials. The use of metallic interconnects was formerly hindered by the high operating temperature, which made the interconnect degrade too much and too fast to be an efficient alternative. When the operating temperature was lowered, the use of metallic interconnects proved to be favourable since they are easier and cheaper to produce than ceramic interconnects. However, metallic interconnects continue to be degraded despite the lowered temperature, and their corrosion products contribute to electrical degradation in the fuel cell. coatings of nickel, chromium, aluminium, zinc, manganese, yttrium or lanthanum between the interconnect and the electrodes reduce this degradation during operation. (Author) 66 refs

  20. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  1. Metal Phosphates as Proton Conducting Materials for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyser Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana

    The present thesis presents the results achieved during my ph.d. project on a subject of intermediate temperature proton conducting metal phosphates as electrolyte materials for fuel cells and electrolysers. Fuel cells and electrolysers are electrochemical devices with high energy conversion...... with a proton conductivity of above 10-2S cm-1. Chapter 1 of the thesis is an introduction to basics of fuel cell and electrolyser technologies as well as proton conducting materials. Extended discussion on the proton conducting materials, a particularly phosphates is made in Chapter 2. Three major types...... starts with synthesis and investigation of three rare earth metal phosphate hydrates, which is first presented in Chapter 5. Structural and surface water as well as its stability has been investigated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses combined with structural modeling calculations...

  2. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Muhl, Thuy Thanh

    2018-01-01

    For use of metal supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast startup, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the Technical...

  3. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmy; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performance and stability of the planar metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFC) with two different electrocatalytically active materials, namely, Ni:GDC and Ru:GDC were investigated. Ru:GDC with an ASR of 0.322 Ωcm2 performed better than Ni:GDC with an ASR of 0.453 Ωc...

  4. Flow channel shape optimum design for hydroformed metal bipolar plate in PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Liu, Dong' an; Hu, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ni, Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Bipolar plate is one of the most important and costliest components of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Micro-hydroforming is a promising process to reduce the manufacturing cost of PEM fuel cell bipolar plates made of metal sheets. As for hydroformed bipolar plates, the main defect is the rupture because of the thinning of metal sheet during the forming process. The flow channel section decides whether high quality hydroformed bipolar plates can be successively achieved or not. Meanwhile, it is also the key factor that is related with the reaction efficiency of the fuel cell stacks. In order to obtain the optimum flow channel section design prior the experimental campaign, some key geometric dimensions (channel depth, channel width, rib width and transition radius) of flow channel section, which are related with both reaction efficiency and formability, are extracted and parameterized as the design variables. By design of experiments (DOE) methods and an adoptive simulated annealing (ASA) optimization method, an optimization model of flow channel section design for hydroformed metal bipolar plate is proposed. Optimization results show that the optimum dimension values for channel depth, channel width, rib width and transition radius are 0.5, 1.0, 1. 6 and 0.5 mm, respectively with the highest reaction efficiency (79%) and the acceptable formability (1.0). Consequently, their use would lead to improved fuel cell efficiency for low cost hydroformed metal bipolar plates. (author)

  5. Metal membrane-type 25-kW methanol fuel processor for fuel-cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Lee, Seok-Min; Chang, Hyuksang

    A 25-kW on-board methanol fuel processor has been developed. It consists of a methanol steam reformer, which converts methanol to hydrogen-rich gas mixture, and two metal membrane modules, which clean-up the gas mixture to high-purity hydrogen. It produces hydrogen at rates up to 25 N m 3/h and the purity of the product hydrogen is over 99.9995% with a CO content of less than 1 ppm. In this fuel processor, the operating condition of the reformer and the metal membrane modules is nearly the same, so that operation is simple and the overall system construction is compact by eliminating the extensive temperature control of the intermediate gas streams. The recovery of hydrogen in the metal membrane units is maintained at 70-75% by the control of the pressure in the system, and the remaining 25-30% hydrogen is recycled to a catalytic combustion zone to supply heat for the methanol steam-reforming reaction. The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor is about 75% and the inlet air pressure is as low as 4 psi. The fuel processor is currently being integrated with 25-kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack developed by the Hyundai Motor Company. The stack exhibits the same performance as those with pure hydrogen, which proves that the maximum power output as well as the minimum stack degradation is possible with this fuel processor. This fuel-cell 'engine' is to be installed in a hybrid passenger vehicle for road testing.

  6. Amorphous metallic alloys for oxygen reduction reaction in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Huerta, R.; Guerra-Martinez, I.; Lopez, J.S. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico City (Mexico). Lab. de Electroquimica; Pierna, A.R. [Basque Country Univ., San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environment; Solorza-Feria, O. [Inst. Politenico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) represent an important, environmentally clean energy source. This has motivated extensive research on the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel and stable oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for the direct four-electron transfer process to water formation. Studies have shown that amorphous alloyed compounds can be used as electrode materials in electrochemical energy conversion devices. Their use in PEMFCs can optimize the electrocatalyst loading in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, amorphous metallic PtSn, PtRu and PtRuSn alloys were synthesized by mechanical milling and used as cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulphuric acid and in a single PEM fuel cell. Two different powder morphologies were observed before and after the chemical activation in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution at 25 degrees C. The kinetics of the ORR on the amorphous catalysts were investigated. The study showed that the amorphous metallic PtSn electrocatalyst was the most active of the 3 electrodes for the cathodic reaction. Fuel cell experiments were conducted at various temperatures at 30 psi for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and at 34 psi for oxygen (O{sub 2}). MEAs made of Nafion 115 and amorphous metallic PtSn dispersed on carbon powder in a PEMFC had a power density of 156 mW per cm{sup 2} at 0.43V and 80 degrees C. 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  8. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin [Export, PA; Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  9. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ki-jeong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kong@krict.re.kr; Choi, Youngmin [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Beyong-Hwan [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-O [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyunju [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT.

  10. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Youngmin; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-O; Chang, Hyunju

    2006-01-01

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

  11. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  12. Mesoporous yttria-zirconia and metal-yttria-zirconia solid solutions for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamak, M.; Coombs, N.; Ozin, G. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-02-03

    A new class of binary mesoporous yttria-zirconia (YZ) and ternary mesoporous metal-YZ materials (M = electroactive Ni/Pt) is presented here that displays the highest surface area of any known form of yttria-stabilized zirconia. These mesoporous materials form as solid solutions and retain their structural integrity to 800 C, which bodes well for their possible utilization in fuel cells. (orig.)

  13. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  14. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  15. Corrosion resistance characteristics of stamped and hydroformed proton exchange membrane fuel cell metallic bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundar, F. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology (Turkey); Dur, Ender; Koc, M. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mahabunphachai, S. [NSF I/UCRC Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2010-06-01

    Metallic bipolar plates have several advantages over bipolar plates made from graphite and composites due to their high conductivity, low material and production costs. Moreover, thin bipolar plates are possible with metallic alloys, and hence low fuel cell stack volume and mass are. Among existing fabrication methods for metallic bipolar plates, stamping and hydroforming are seen as prominent approaches for mass production scales. In this study, the effects of important process parameters of these manufacturing processes on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates made of SS304 were investigated. Specifically, the effects of punch speed, pressure rate, stamping force and hydroforming pressure were studied as they were considered to inevitably affect the bipolar plate micro-channel dimensions, surface topography, and hence the corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance under real fuel cell conditions was examined using both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. The majority of the results exhibited a reduction in the corrosion resistance for both stamped and hydroformed plates when compared with non-deformed blank plates of SS304. In addition, it was observed that there exist an optimal process window for punch speed in stamping and the pressure rate in hydroforming to achieve improved corrosion resistance at a faster production rate. (author)

  16. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  17. Break-down of Losses in High Performing Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromp, Alexander; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Metal supported SOFC designs offer competitive advantages such as reduced material costs and improved mechanical robustness. On the other hand, disadvantages might arise due to possible corrosion of the porous metal parts during processing and operation at high fuel utilization. In this paper we...... in hydrogen. The electrochemically active parts were applied by infiltrating CGO-Ni precursor solution into the porous metal and anode backbone and screenprinting (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-based cathodes. To prevent a solid state reaction between cathode and zirconia electrolyte, CGO buffer layers were applied...... in between cathode and electrolyte. The detailed electrochemical characterization by means of impedance spectroscopy and a subsequent data analysis by the distribution of relaxation times enabled us to separate the different loss contributions in the cell. Based on an appropriate equivalent circuit model...

  18. Ethanol tolerant precious metal free cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, Ilena; Zorn, Paul; Weinberger, Stephan; Grimmer, Christoph; Pichler, Birgit; Cermenek, Bernd; Gebetsroither, Florian; Schenk, Alexander; Mautner, Franz-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective ORR catalysts are presented for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells. • Perovskite based cathode catalysts show high tolerance toward ethanol. • A membrane-free alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell is presented. - Abstract: La 0.7 Sr 0.3 (Fe 0.2 Co 0.8 )O 3 and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 −based cathode catalysts are synthesized by the sol-gel method. These perovskite cathode catalysts are tested in half cell configuration and compared to MnO 2 as reference material in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). The best performing cathode is tested in single cell setup using a standard carbon supported Pt 0.4 Ru 0.2 based anode. A backside Luggin capillary is used in order to register the anode potential during all measurements. Characteristic processes of the electrodes are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Physical characterizations of the perovskite based cathode catalysts are performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction showing phase pure materials. In half cell setup, La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 shows the highest tolerance toward ethanol with a performance of 614 mA cm −2 at 0.65 V vs. RHE in 6 M KOH and 1 M EtOH at RT. This catalyst outperforms the state-of-the-art precious metal-free MnO 2 catalyst in presence of ethanol. In fuel cell setup, the peak power density is 27.6 mW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.345 V and a cathode potential of 0.873 V vs. RHE.

  19. Metallic fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Metallic fuels are capable of achieving high burnup as a result of design modifications instituted in the late 1960's. The gap between the fuel slug and the cladding is fixed such that by the time the fuel swells to the cladding the fission gas bubbles interconnect and release the fission gas to an appropriately sized plenum volume. Interconnected porosity thus provides room for the fuel to deform from further swelling rather than stress the cladding. In addition, the interconnected porosity allows the fuel pin to be tolerant to transient events because as stresses are generated during a transient event the fuel flows rather than applying significant stress to the cladding. Until 1969 a number of metallic fuel alloys were under development in the US. At that time the metallic fuel development program in the US was discontinued in favor of ceramic fuels. However, development had proceeded to the point where it was clear that the zirconium addition to uranium-plutonium fuel would yield a ternary fuel with an adequately high solidus temperature and good compatibility with austenitic stainless steel cladding. Furthermore, several U-Pu-Zr fuel pins had achieved about 6 at.% bu by the late 1960's, without failure, and thus the prospect for high burnup was promising

  20. Performance and properties of anodes reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Grazia; Frattini, Domenico; Yoon, Sung Pil; Ham, Hyung Chul; Nam, Suk Woo

    2017-12-01

    Development of electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells is a fundamental issue as a balance between mechanical and electrochemical properties is required due to the particular operating environments of these cells. As concern the anode, a viable strategy is to use nano-reinforced particles during electrodes' fabrication. Candidate nanomaterials comprise, but are not limited to, ZrO2, CeO2, TiO2, Ti, Mg, Al, etc. This work deals with the characterization and test of two different types of hard oxide nanoparticles as reinforce for NiAl-based anodes in molten carbonate fuel cells. Nano ceria and nano zirconia are compared each other and single cell test performances are presented. Compared to literature, the use of hard metal oxide nanoparticles allows good performance and promising perspectives with respect to the use a third alloying metal. However, nano zirconia performed slightly better than nano ceria as polarization and power curves are higher even if nano ceria has the highest mechanical properties. This means that the choice of nanoparticles to obtain improved anodes performance and properties is not trivial and a trade-off between relevant properties plays a key role.

  1. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  2. Metal fuel safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J. Jr.; Tentner, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to the renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modeling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of the metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation exercises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modeling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated

  3. Optimization of Additive-Powder Characteristics for Metallic Micro-Cell UO{sub 2} Fuel Pellet Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The improvement in the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can enhance the fuel performance in various aspects. The mobility of the fission gases is reduced by the lower temperature gradient in the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet. That is to say, the capability of the fission gas retention of the fuel pellet can increase. In addition, the lower centerline temperature of the fuel pellet affects the accident tolerance for nuclear fuel as well as the enhancement of fuel safety and fuel pellet integrity under normal operation conditions. The nuclear reactor power can be uprated owing to the higher safety margin. Thus, many researches on enhancing the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel pellet for LWRs have been performed. Typically, an enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can be obtained by the addition of a higher thermal conductive material in the fuel pellet. To maximize the effect of the thermal conductivity enhancement, a continuous and uniform channel of the thermal conductive material in the UO{sub 2} matrix must be formed. To enhance the thermal conductivity of a UO{sub 2} fuel pellet, the development of fabrication process of a Cr metallic micro-cell UO{sub 2} pellet with a continuous and uniform channel of the Cr metallic phase was carried out. The formation of the Cr-oxide phases was prevented and the uniformity of the Cr-metal phase distribution was enhanced simultaneously, through the optimization of the additive-powder characteristics. In the results, the Cr metallic micro-cell pellet with continuous and uniform Cr metallic channel could be obtained.

  4. Rapid hydrogen charging on metal hydride negative electrode of Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bokkyu; Lee, Sunmook; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The characteristics of rapid gaseous H{sub 2} charging/electrochemical discharging of the metal hydride negative electrode were investigated for the application in Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems. They were evaluated with the H{sub 2} gas absorption, followed by the subsequent electrochemical discharging in the electrolyte solution (6M KOH). Then, the cyclability of charge-discharge was also examined. It was observed that more than 70% of the theoretical capacity was charged within 10 min with 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa of the initial H{sub 2} pressures. The electrochemical discharge curve showed that more than 86% of the absorbed H{sub 2} was discharged. Furthermore, the cycled charge-discharge process indicated that the H{sub 2} gas charge and electrochemical discharge process is an effective way to rapidly charge and activate the metal hydride without degeneration. (author)

  5. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  6. Surface roughness effect on the metallic bipolar plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Various degrees of roughness are caused by the sandblasting method. ► An improper surface modification depletes the PEMFC performance severely. ► The AC impedance are used to assess the fuel gas transfer effect. ► The Warburg resistance form in the coarse flow channel surface. - Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a promising candidate as energy systems. However, the stability and lifetime of cells are still important issues. The effect of surface roughness on metallic bipolar plate is discussed in this paper. Various roughness on the bulk surface are obtained by the sandblasting method. The grain sizes of sand are selected as 50, 100 and 200 μm. The Ac impedance experiment results show that the bipolar plate roughness and carbon paper porosity are well matched when the surface roughness is within 1–2 μm. Superior condition decreases the contact resistance loss in the fuel cell. The high frequency resistance of the coarse surface was larger than that of the substrate by around 5 mΩ. Furthermore, a new arc was formed at the low frequency region. Hence, the unmatch roughness condition of the bipolar plate significantly increases the contact resistance and mass transfer resistance. This paper develops a sequential approach to study an optimum surface roughness by combining the whole performance (I–V) curve and AC impedance result. It benefits us to quantify the contact and mass transfer resistance exists in the PEMFC. The proposed surface treatment improves the surface effect and promotes the implement of potential metallic bipolar plate in near future

  7. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  8. Research on treatment of wastewater containing heavy metal by microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixuan; Lu, Xun; Yin, Ruixia; Luo, Yunyi; Mai, Hanjian; Zhang, Nan; Xiong, Jingfang; Zhang, Hongguo; Tang, Jinfeng; Luo, Dinggui

    2018-02-01

    With rapid development of social economy, serious problem has been caused by wastewater containing heavy metals, which was difficult to be treated by many kinds of traditional treatment methods, such as complex processes, high cost or easy to cause secondary pollution. As a novel biological treatment technology, microbial fuel cells (MFC) can generate electric energy while dealing with wastewater, which was proposed and extensively studied. This paper introduced the working principle of MFC, the classification of cathode, and the research progress on the treatment of wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ag(I), Mn(II) and Cd(II) by MFC. The study found that different cathode, different heavy metals anddifferent hybrid systems would affect the performance of the system and removal effect for heavy metal in MFC. MFC was a highly potential pollution control technology. Until now, the research was still in the laboratory stage. Its industrial application for recovery of heavy metal ion, improving the energy recovery rate and improvement or innovation of system were worthy of further research.

  9. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  10. Rare earth metal oxides as BH4-tolerance cathode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xuemin; WANG Yadong; GUO Feng; YAO Pei; PAN Mu

    2012-01-01

    Rare earth metal oxides (REMO) as cathode electrocatalysts in direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) were investigated.The REMO electrocatalysts tested showed favorable activity to the oxygen electro-reduction reaction and strong tolerance to the attack of BH4- in alkaline electrolytes.The simple membraneless DBFCs using REMO as cathode electrocatalyst and using hydrogen storage alloy as anodic electrocatalyst exhibited an open circuit of about 1 V and peak power of above 60 mW/cm2.The DBFC using Sm2O3 as cathode electrocatalyst showed a relatively better performance.The maximal power density of 76.2 mW/cm2 was obtained at the cell voltage of 0.52 V.

  11. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  12. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  13. Metal hydride store for hydrogen supply and cooling of fuel cell vehicles; Metallhydridspeicher zur Wasserstoffversorgung und Kuehlung von Brennstoffzellenfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, David

    2009-07-01

    In the context of the author's work, a compact, dynamic metal hydride store was developed which in addition to storing hydrogen can also support the thermomanagement of fuel cell vehicles in extreme situations. The requirements were identified using a semiphysical model of a fuel cell vehicle, and a store was dimensioned accordingly. Additionally, a metal hydride store model was developed on the basis of the balance equations. The model was validated by experiments on a specially designed and constructed store. The simulations enable the optimisation of the store geometry and the prediction of its efficiency in a given operating cycle. (orig.)

  14. Microbial fuel cell driving electrokinetic remediation of toxic metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibul, Nuzahat; Hu, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-11-15

    An investigation of the feasibility of in-situ electrokinetic remediation for toxic metal contaminated soil driven by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is presented. Results revealed that the weak electricity generated from MFC could power the electrokinetic remediation effectively. The metal removal efficiency and its influence on soil physiological properties were also investigated. With the electricity generated through the oxidation of organics in soils by microorganisms, the metals in the soils would mitigate from the anode to the cathode. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils increased gradually through the anode to the cathode regions after remediation. After about 143days and 108 days' operation, the removal efficiencies of 31.0% and 44.1% for Cd and Pb at the anode region could be achieved, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and soil conductivity were also significantly redistributed from the anode to the cathode regions. The study shows that the MFC driving electrokinetic remediation technology is cost-effective and environmental friendly, with a promising application in soil remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary creep of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells by a CDM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, L.; Boccaccini, D. N.; Pucillo, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous iron-chromium alloy used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the secondary creep stage of infiltrated and non-infiltrated porous metal supports (MS) was investigated and theoretically modelled...... as function of temperature, determined by the high temperature impulse excitation technique, was directly used to account for the porosity and the related effective stress acting during the creep tests. The proposed creep rate formulation was used to extend the Crofer® 22 APU Monkman-Grant diagram...... in the viscous creep regime. The influence of oxide scale formation on creep behaviour of the porous MS was assessed by comparing the creep data of pre-oxidised samples tested in reducing atmosphere....

  17. High temperature corrosion of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development has made it possible to use metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC instead of ceramic materials. The use of metallic interconnects was formerly hindered by the high operating temperature, which made the interconnect degrade too much and too fast to be an efficient alternative. When the operating temperature was lowered, the use of metallic interconnects proved to be favourable since they are easier and cheaper to produce than ceramic interconnects. However, metallic interconnects continue to be degraded despite the lowered temperature, and their corrosion products contribute to electrical degradation in the fuel cell. Coatings of nickel, chromium, aluminium, zinc, manganese, yttrium or lanthanum between the interconnect and the electrodes reduce this degradation during operation

    El uso de interconectores metálicos en pilas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFC en sustitución de materiales cerámicos ha sido posible gracias a la investigación y desarrollo de nuevos materiales metálicos. Inicialmente, el uso de interconectores metálicos fue limitado, debido a la elevada temperatura de trabajo, ocasionando de forma rápida la degradación del material, lo que impedía que fuesen una alternativa. A medida que la temperatura de trabajo de las SOFC descendió, el uso de interconectores metálicos demostró ser una buena alternativa, dado que son más fáciles de fabricar y más baratos que los interconectores cerámicos. Sin embargo, los interconectores metálicos continúan degradándose a pesar de descender la temperatura a la que operan las SOFC y, asimismo, los productos de corrosión favorecen las pérdidas eléctricas de la pila de combustible. Recubrimientos de níquel, cromo, aluminio, zinc, manganeso, itrio y lantano entre el interconector y los electrodos reduce dichas pérdidas eléctricas.

  18. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  19. One pot electrochemical synthesis of polymer/CNT/metal nanoparticles for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Zhu, Jingyi; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Nanomaterials center Team

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become a key player in the design of materials for energy applications. They gained their popularity in industrial and scientific research due to their unique properties like excellent conductivity, high surface area, etc. Here we used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to synthesize two types of CNTs namely, helically coiled CNTs and vertically aligned CNTs. These CNTs were subsequently used to make composites with conducting polymers and metal nanoparticles. One pot electrochemical synthesis was designed to electropolymerize aniline, pyrrole etc. on the surface of the electrode with simultaneous deposition of platinum and gold metal nanoparticles, and CNTs in the polymer matrix. The as synthesized composite materials were characterized with scanning electron microscope for surface morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis for functionality. These were used to study electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol and ethanol for alkaline fuel cell applications. Electrodes fabricated from these composites not only showed good kinetics but also exhibited excellent stability. Uniqueness of this composite lies in its simple two step synthesis and it doesn't involve any surfactants unlike conventional chemical synthesis routes.

  20. Influence of platinum group metal-free catalyst synthesis on microbial fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Rojas-Carbonell, Santiago; Awais, Roxanne; Gokhale, Rohan; Kodali, Mounika; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2018-01-01

    Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts from the Fe-N-C family were synthesized using sacrificial support method (SSM) technique. Six experimental steps were used during the synthesis: 1) mixing the precursor, the metal salt, and the silica template; 2) first pyrolysis in hydrogen rich atmosphere; 3) ball milling; 4) etching the silica template using harsh acids environment; 5) the second pyrolysis in ammonia rich atmosphere; 6) final ball milling. Three independent batches were fabricated following the same procedure. The effect of each synthetic parameters on the surface chemistry and the electrocatalytic performance in neutral media was studied. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) experiment showed an increase in half wave potential and limiting current after the pyrolysis steps. The additional improvement was observed after etching and performing the second pyrolysis. A similar trend was seen in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), in which the power output increased from 167 ± 2 μW cm-2 to 214 ± 5 μW cm-2. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to evaluate surface chemistry of catalysts obtained after each synthetic step. The changes in chemical composition were directly correlated with the improvements in performance. We report outstanding reproducibility in both composition and performance among the three different batches.

  1. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l"−"1 (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l"−"1 (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  2. Numerical evaluation of micro-structural parameters of porous supports in metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Georg; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Brandstätter, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Metallic supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are considered as a durable and cost effective alternative to the state-of-the-art ceramic supported cell designs. In order to understand the mass and charge transport in the metal-support of this new type of cell a novel technique involving X......-ray tomography and micro-structural modelling is presented in this work. The simulation technique comprises a novel treatment of the boundary conditions, which leads to more accurate effective transport parameters compared to those, which can be achieved with the conventional homogenisation procedures....... Furthermore, the porosity distribution in the metal-support was determined, which provided information about the inhomogeneous nature of the material. In addition to that, transport parameters for two identified, different dense layers of the metal-support are evaluated separately. The results...

  3. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  4. Metallic fuel design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual design technology on metallic fuel

  5. Retrieval of Au, Ag, Cu precious metals coupled with electric energy production via an unconventional coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Wu, Zu-Cheng

    2017-09-15

    The recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions or e-wastes is of upmost importance. Retrieval of Au, Ag, and Cu with electricity generation through building an ethanol-metal coupled redox fuel cells (CRFCs) is demonstrated. The cell was uniquely assembled on PdNi/C anode the electro-oxidation of ethanol takes place to give electrons and then go through the external circuit reducing metal ions to metallic on the cathode, metals are recovered. Taking an example of removal of 100mgL -1 gold in 0.5M HAc-NaAc buffer solution as the catholyte, 2.0M ethanol in 1.0M alkaline solution as the anolyte, an open circuit voltage of 1.4V, more than 96% of gold removal efficiency in 20h, and equivalent energy production of 2.0kWhkg -1 of gold can be readily achieved in this system. When gold and copper ions coexist, it was confirmed that metallic Cu is formed on the cathodic electrode later than metallic Au formation by XPS analysis. Thus, this system can achieve step by step electrodeposition of gold and copper while the two metal ions coexisting. This work develops a new approach to retrieve valuable metals from aqueous solution or e-wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinel-based coatings for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Elena; Neagu, Dragos; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Metal supports and metal supported half cells developed at DTU are used for the study of a solution infiltration approach to form protective coatings on porous metal scaffolds. The metal particles in the anode layer, and sometimes even in the support may undergo oxidation in realistic operating...... conditions leading to severe cell degradation. Here, a controlled oxidation of the porous metal substrate and infiltration of Mn and/or Ce nitrate solutions are applied for in situ formation of protective coatings. Our approach consists of scavenging the FeCr oxides formed during the controlled oxidation...... into a continuous and well adhered coating. The effectiveness of coatings is the result of composition and structure, but also of the microstructure and surface characteristics of the metal scaffolds....

  7. High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cells with Precious-Metal-Free Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Tanyuan; Havas, Dana; Zhang, Hanguang; Xu, Ping; Han, Jiantao; Cho, Jaephil; Wu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) hold great promise for applications ranging from portable power for electronics to transportation. However, apart from the high costs, current Pt-based cathodes in DMFCs suffer significantly from performance loss due to severe methanol crossover from anode to cathode. The migrated methanol in cathodes tends to contaminate Pt active sites through yielding a mixed potential region resulting from oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction. Therefore, highly methanol-tolerant cathodes must be developed before DMFC technologies become viable. The newly developed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based Fe-N-C cathode exhibits high methanol tolerance and exceeds the performance of current Pt cathodes, as evidenced by both rotating disk electrode and DMFC tests. While the morphology of 2D rGO is largely preserved, the resulting Fe-N-rGO catalyst provides a more unique porous structure. DMFC tests with various methanol concentrations are systematically studied using the best performing Fe-N-rGO catalyst. At feed concentrations greater than 2.0 m, the obtained DMFC performance from the Fe-N-rGO cathode is found to start exceeding that of a Pt/C cathode. This work will open a new avenue to use nonprecious metal cathode for advanced DMFC technologies with increased performance and at significantly reduced cost.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  9. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  10. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  11. Fuel Cell Electrodes Based on Carbon Nanotube/Metallic Nanoparticles Hybrids Formed on Porous Stainless Steel Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khantimerov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of carbon nanotube/metallic particle hybrids using pressed porous stainless steel pellets as a substrate is described. The catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes was carried out by CVD on a nickel catalyst obtained by impregnation of pellets with a highly dispersive colloidal solution of nickel acetate tetrahydrate in ethanol. Granular polyethylene was used as the carbon source. Metallic particles were deposited by thermal evaporation of Pt and Ag using pellets with grown carbon nanotubes as a base. The use of such composites as fuel cell electrodes is discussed.

  12. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  13. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  14. Performance analysis of a membrane humidifier containing porous metal foam as flow distributor in a PEM fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Baharlou Houreh, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three metal foam configurations for the membrane humidifier are introduced. • The performances of the humidifiers containing metal foam are investigated. • A 3D CFD model is developed to compare the introduced humidifiers with one another. • Using metal foam at dry side has no positive effect on the humidifier performance. - Abstract: Using metal foam as flow distributor in membrane humidifier for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has some unique characteristics like more water transfer, low manufacturing complexity and low cost compared to the conventional flow channel plate. Metal foam can be applied at wet side or dry side or both sides of a humidifier. The three-dimensional CFD models are developed to investigate the performance of the above mentioned meanwhile compare them with the conventional humidifier. This model consists of a set of coupled equations including conservations of mass, momentum, species and energy for all regions of the humidifier. The results indicate that with the metal foam installed at wet side and both sides, water recovery ratio and dew point at dry side outlet are more than that of the conventional humidifier, indicating a better humidifier performance; while using metal foam at dry side has no positive effect on humidifier performance. At dry side mass flow rates higher than 10 mgr/s pressure drop in humidifier containing metal foam at wet side is lower than that of the conventional humidifier. As the mass flow rate increases from 9 to 15 mgr/s humidifier containing metal foam at wet side has better performance, while at mass flow rates lower than 9 mgr/s, the humidifier containing metal foam at both sides has better performance. At dry side inlet temperatures lower than 303 K, humidifier containing metal foam at wet side has better performance and at temperatures higher than 303 K, humidifier containing metal foam at both sides has better performance

  15. Metallic Fuels Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, James I. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randall S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frank, Steven M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hartmann, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hyde, Timothy A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keiser, Jr., Dennis D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kennedy, J. Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maddison, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mariani, Robert D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Middlemas, Scott C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Holleran, Thomas P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sencer, Bulent H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Squires, Leah N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-07

    This is not a typical External Report--It is a Handbook. No Abstract is involved. This includes both Parts 1 and 2. The Metallic Fuels Handbook summarizes currently available information about phases and phase diagrams, heat capacity, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity of elements and alloys in the U-Pu-Zr-Np-Am-La-Ce-Pr-Nd system. Although many sections are reviews and updates of material in previous versions of the Handbook [1, 2], this revision is the first to include alloys with four or more elements. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, the handbook attempts to provide information about how well each property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although it includes some results from models, its primary focus is experimental data.

  16. Carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures as support material for nanoparticulate noble-metal catalysts in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Elina, Yli-Rantala

    or platinum-alloy catalysts in the electrodes are required. To maximize the utilization of the noble metal it is frequently deposited as nanoparticles (1–5 nm) on a stabilizing support of carbon black. Carbon black provides good anchoring of the catalyst particles, but is prone to severe destructive oxidation...... at high electrical potentials encountered occasionally in fuel cells. Other nanostructures of carbon are being investigated as alternatives to carbon black as they have several beneficial properties. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNT) are an example of one type of these promising materials. Like...... of the fuel-cell electrodes. However, the low concentration of structural defects also poses challenges with regard to anchoring of the catalyst particles on the CNT surface. Thus, activation treatments introducing surface functional groups may be necessary. Also, the surface properties are responsible...

  17. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  18. Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Käärik, Maike; Kook, Mati; Puust, Laurits; Saar, Rando; Leis, Jaan; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2018-01-01

    The search for an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace platinum in fuel cell cathode materials is one of the hottest topics in electrocatalysis. Among the many non-noble metal catalysts, metal/nitrogen/carbon composites made by pyrolysis of cheap materials are the most promising with control over the porosity and final structure of the catalyst a crucial point. In this work we show a method of producing a highly active ORR catalyst in alkaline media with a controllable porous structure using titanium carbide derived carbon as a base structure and dicyandiamide along with FeCl3 or CoCl2 as the dopants. The resulting transition metal-nitrogen co-doped carbide derived carbon (M/N/CDC) catalyst is highly efficient for ORR electrocatalysis with the activity in 0.1 M KOH approaching that of commercial 46.1 wt.% Pt/C. The catalyst materials are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the changes in morphology and composition causing the raise in electrochemical activity. MEA performance of M/N/CDC cathode materials in H2/O2 alkaline membrane fuel cell is tested with the highest power density reached being 80 mW cm-2 compared to 90 mW cm-2 for Pt/C.

  19. Irradiation performance of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.; Batte, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been working for the past five years to develop and demonstrate the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The concept involves a closed system for fast-reactor power generation and on-site fuel reprocessing, both designed specifically around the use of metallic fuel. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has used metallic fuel for all of its 25-year life. In 1985, tests were begun to examine the irradiation performance of advanced-design metallic fuel systems based on U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr fuels. These tests have demonstrated the viable performance of these fuel systems to high burnup. The initial testing program will be described in this paper. 2 figs

  20. Development of Novel Non-Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barton, Scott [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Nilesh [Nissan Technical Center North America (NTCNA), Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Halevi, Bar [Pajarito Powder LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The objective of this multi-institutional effort was to comprehensively pursue the goal of eliminating noble metal (Pt group metals, PGM) from the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrode thereby providing a quantum leap in lowering the overall PGM loading in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC). The overall project scope encompassed (a) comprehensive materials discovery effort, (b) a concomitant effort to scale up these materials with very high ( ±5%) reproducibility, both intra and inter, (c) understanding mass transport in porous medium both in gas diffusion and micro-porous layers for enhanced areal activity, (d) understanding mechanistic aspects of active site structure and ORR electrocatalytic pathway. Overall project milestones and metrics were (a) first phase effort based on performance in oxygen where the project’s Go/No-Go decision point milestone of 100 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V (internal resistance-free, iR-free) at 80°C, pure H2/O2, with 1.5 bar total pressure was met. Subsequently, the principle objectives were to (a) transition the project from H2/O2 to H2/Air with slated target of exceeding 30 mA/cm2 @ 0.8 V, 2.5 bar total pressure and an end of the project target of 1 A/cm2 @ 0.4 V (same total pressure), both under 100% relative humidity. The target for catalyst material scale up was to achieve 100 g batch size at the end of the program. This scale up target had a quality control milestone of less than 5% variation of activity measured with H2/Air (2.5 bar total pressure) at 0.8 V. In addition, the project also aimed at arriving at a unified understanding of the nature of active sites in these catalysts as well as some preliminary understanding of the mechanistic pathway. Also addressed is the development of an integrated method for determination of mass transport parameters using a combination of Helox experiments and modeling of the gas

  1. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  2. Numerical evaluation of oxide growth in metallic support microstructures of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and its influence on mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Georg; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Persson, Åsa Helen

    2015-01-01

    is evaluated by determining an effective diffusion coefficient and the equivalent electrical area specific resistance (ASR) due to diffusion over time. It is thus possible to assess the applicability (in terms of corrosion behaviour) of potential metallic supports without costly long-term experiments......-temperature corrosion theory, and the required model parameters can be retrieved by standard corrosion weight gain measurements. The microstructure is reconstructed from X-ray computed tomography, and converted into a computational grid. The influence of the changing microstructure on the fuel cell performance...

  3. Role of metal/silicon semiconductor contact engineering for enhanced output current in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-11-25

    We show that contact engineering plays an important role to extract the maximum performance from energy harvesters like microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We experimented with Schottky and Ohmic methods of fabricating contact areas on silicon in an MFC contact material study. We utilized the industry standard contact material, aluminum, as well as a metal, whose silicide has recently been recognized for its improved performance in smallest scale integration requirements, cobalt. Our study shows that improvements in contact engineering are not only important for device engineering but also for microsystems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    Even though solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have a high potential with respect to efficiency and fuel flexibility they are not yet competitive in terms of cost and durability with conventional chemical energy conversion technologies. The potential cost reduction can be achieved through...... in tolerating the vibrations, transient loads, thermal and redox cycling [1-2]. The DTU MS-SOFC design based on ferritic stainless steel requires incorporation of electrocatalyst into the anode functional layer by infiltration methods [3]. Previously, the preferred electrocatalyst has been gadolinium doped...... and microstructure of the infiltrated electrocatalyst layer was characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization involved polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the temperature range of 650-750ºC. The polarization curve for Ru...

  5. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  6. Application of La-Doped SrTiO3 in Advanced Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Presto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials frequently allow the drawbacks of single components to be overcome thanks to a synergistic combination of material- and structure-specific features, leading to enhanced and also new properties. This is the case of a metallic-ceramic composite, a nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl foam impregnated with La-doped Strontium Titanate (LST. This particular cermet has very interesting properties that can be used in different fields of application, namely: mechanical robustness provided by the metal foam; and chemical stability in harsh conditions of temperature and atmosphere by promotion of a thin protective layer of alumina (Al2O3; high electronic conductivity given by a percolating ceramic conducting phase, i.e., La-doped Strontium Titanate. In this paper, its application as a current collector in a metal-supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC was studied. Firstly, the electronic properties of different compositions, stoichiometric and under stoichiometric, of LST were analyzed to choose the best one in terms of conductivity and phase purity. Then, LST chemical stability was studied in the presence of Al2O3 at different temperatures, gas compositions and aging times. Finally, stability and conductivity of LST-impregnated NiCrAl foam composite materials were measured, and LST was found to be fully compatible with the NiCrAl foam, as no reactions were detected in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere after up to 300 h operation at 750 °C and 900 °C between the Al2O3 layer and LST. Results showed that the composite is suitable as a current collector in innovative designs of metal-supported SOFC, like the Evolve cell, in which the metallic part is supposed not only to provide the structural stability to the cell, but also to play the role of current collector due to the impregnation of ceramic material.

  7. Creep behaviour of porous metal supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The creep behaviour of porous ironechromium alloy used as solid oxide fuel cell support was investigated, and the creep parameters are compared with those of dense strips of similar composition under different testing conditions. The creep parameters were determined using a thermo......-mechanical analyser with applied stresses in the range from 1 to 15 MPa and temperatures between 650 and 800 _C. The GibsoneAshby and Mueller models developed for uniaxial creep of open-cell foams were used to analyse the results. The influence of scale formation on creep behaviour was assessed by comparing the creep...... data for the samples tested in reducing and oxidising atmospheres. The influence of preoxidation on creep behaviour was also investigated. In-situ oxidation during creep experiments increases the strain rate while pre-oxidation of samples reduces it. Debonding of scales at high stress regime plays...

  8. Development of metallic fuel fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Chong Yak; Lee, Myung Ho and others

    1999-03-01

    With the vacuum melting and casting of the U-10wt%Zr alloy which is metallic fuel for liquid metal fast breeder reactor, we studied the microstructure of the alloy and the parameters of the melting and casting for the fuel rods. Internal defects of the U-10wt%Zr fuel by gravity casting, were inspected by non-destructive test. U-10wt%Zr alloy has been prepared for the thermal stability test in order to estimate the decomposition of the lamellar structure with relation to swelling under irradiation condition. (author)

  9. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  10. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  11. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  12. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  13. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes and Other Nanostructures as Support Material for Nanoparticulate Noble-Metal Catalysts in Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Veltzé, Sune; Skou, Eivind Morten

    In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) a fuel - usually hydrogen - and oxygen are combined to produce electricity and water in an electrochemical process, which is commonly carried out at 60-80 °C. For oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation to occur at such low temperatures platinum or p...

  15. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  16. Reduction of methanol crossover by thin cracked metal barriers at the interface between membrane and electrode in direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Jang, Segeun; Kim, Sang Moon; Ahn, Chi-Yeong; Hwang, Wonchan; Cho, Yong-Hun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-09-01

    This work reports the successful reduction in methanol crossover by creating a thin cracked metal barrier at the interface between a Nafion® membrane and an electrode in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The cracks are generated by simple mechanical stretching of a metal deposited Nafion® membrane as a result of the elastic mismatch between the two attached surfaces. The cracked metal barriers with varying strains (∼0.5 and ∼1.0) are investigated and successfully incorporated into the DMFC. Remarkably, the membrane electrode assembly with the thin metal crack exhibits comparable ohmic resistance as well as reduction of methanol crossover, which enhanced the device performance.

  17. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  18. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  19. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Tsai, H.; Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Hofman, G.L.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960's worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected

  20. Evaluation of Metals (Al, Fe, Zn) in Alternative Fuels by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Two Electrode Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yon Kyun; Lim, Geun Woong; Kim, Hee San

    2010-01-01

    Many kinds of alternative fuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, and natural gas have been developed in order to overcome the limited deposits in fossil fuels. In some cases, the alternative fuels have been reported to cause degrade materials. The corrosion rates of metals were measured by immersion test, a kind of time consuming test because low conductivity of these fuels was not allowed to employ electrochemical tests. With twin two-electrode cell newly designed for the study, however, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test was successfully applied to evaluation of the corrosion resistance (R p ) of zinc, iron, aluminum, and its alloys in an oxidized biodiesel and gasoline/ethanol solutions and the corrosion resistance from EIS was compared with the corrosion rate from immersion test. In biodiesel, R p increased in the order of zinc, iron, and aluminum, which agreed with the corrosion resistance measured from immersion test. In addition, on aluminum showing the best corrosion resistance (R p ), the effect of magnesium as an alloying element was evaluated in gasoline/ethanol solutions as well as the oxidized biodiesel. R p increased with addition of magnesium in gasoline/ethanol solutions containing chloride and the oxidized biodiesel. In the mean while, in gasoline/ethanol solutions containing formic acid, Al-Mg alloy added 1% magnesium had the highest R p and the further addition of magnesium decreased R p . It can be explained with the fact that the addition of more than 1% magnesium increases the passive current density of Al-Mg alloys

  1. Electrical enhancement of direct methanol fuel cells by metal-plasma ion implantation Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chen, Ya-Chi; Lin, Tai-Nan

    2009-02-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have been widely studied owing to their simple cell configuration, high volume energy density, short start-up time, high operational reliability and other favorable characteristics. However, major limitations include high production cost, poisoning of the catalyst and methanol crossover. This study adopts a simple technique for preparing Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts, including magnetron sputtering (MS) and metal-plasma ion implantation (MPII). The Pt catalysts were sputtered onto the gas diffusion layer (GDL), followed by the implantation of Ru catalysts using MPII (at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV and an implantation dose of 1 x 10(16) ions/cm2). Pt-Ru is repeatedly processed to prepare Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts. The catalyst film structure and microstructure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), respectively. The cell performance was tested using a potential stat/galvano-stat. The results reveal that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of four multilayer structures enhances the cell performance of DMFC. The measured power density is 2.2 mW/cm2 at a methanol concentration of 2 M, with an OCV of 0.493 V.

  2. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Patricia Gon; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size ( d), inter-particle distance ( x i ), and metal loading ( y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x i / d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i / d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  3. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  4. Plasma-chemical production of metal-polypyrrole-catalysts for the reduction of oxygen in fuel cells. Precious-metal-free catalysts for fuel cells.; Plasmachemische Erzeugung von Metall-Polypyrrol-Katalysatoren fuer die Sauerstoffreduktion in Brennstoffzellen. Edelmetallfreie Katalysatoren fuer Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Christian

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is about the production of non noble metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Therefore, a novel dual plasma process is developed, constructed and the so-produced films are analysed by various electrochemical (CV, RDE and RRDE) and structural methods (SEM, EDX, IR, XPS, conductivity, XRD, NEXAFS, EXAFS and TEM). It is shown, that by doing this, non noble metal catalysts could be produced without the need of a high temperature treatment. Furthermore, the catalytic activity obtained is superior to that of chemically produced metal-polypyrrole films.

  5. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  6. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  7. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  8. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  9. Advanced cathode materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on pt/ metal oxides: from model electrodes to catalyst systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pătru, Alexandra; Rabis, Annett; Kötz, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The development of stable catalyst systems for application at the cathode side of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires the substitution of the state-of-the-art carbon supports with materials showing high corrosion resistance in a strongly oxidizing environment. Metal oxides in their highest oxidation state can represent viable support materials for the next generation PEFC cathodes. In the present work a multilevel approach has been adopted to investigate the kinetics and the activity of Pt nanoparticles supported on SnO2-based metal oxides. Particularly, model electrodes made of SnO2 thin films supporting Pt nanoparticles, and porous catalyst systems made of Pt nanoparticles supported on Sb-doped SnO2 high surface area powders have been investigated. The present results indicate that SnO2-based supports do not modify the oxygen reduction reaction mechanism on the Pt nanoparticle surface, but rather lead to catalysts with enhanced specific activity compared to Pt/carbon systems. Different reasons for the enhancement in the specific activity are considered and discussed.

  10. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  11. Status of SFR Metal Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Metal fuel recycling in SFR: - Enhanced utilization of uranium resource; - Efficient transmutation of minor actinides; - Inherent passive reactor safety; - Proliferation resistance with pyro-electrochemical fuel recycling. • Demonstration of technical feasibility of recycling TRU metal fuel by 2020: - Remote fuel fabrication; - Irradiation performance up to high burnup

  12. Fuel cells 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.

    2003-06-01

    A capsule history of fuel cells is given, beginning with the first discovery in 1839 by William Grove, a Welsh judge who, when experimenting with electrolysis discovered that by re-combining the two components of electrolysis (water and oxygen) an electric charge was produced. A century later, in 1958, Francis Thomas Bacon, a British scientist demonstrated the first working fuel cell stack, a technology which was licensed and used in the Apollo spacecraft. In Canada, early research on the development of fuel cells was carried out at the University of Toronto, the Defence Research Establishment and the National Research Council. Most of the early work concentrated on alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cells. In 1983, Ballard Research began the development of the electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which marked the beginning of Canada becoming a world leader in fuel cell technology development. The paper provides a brief account of how fuel cells work, describes the distinguishing characteristics of the various types of fuel cells (alkaline, phosphoric acid, molten-carbonate, solid oxide, and proton exchange membrane types) and their principal benefits. The emphasis is on proton exchange membrane fuel cells because they are the only fuel cell technology that is appropriate for providing primary propulsion power onboard a vehicle. Since vehicles are by far the greatest consumers of fossil fuels, it follows that proton exchange membrane fuel cells will have the greatest potential impact on both environmental matters and on our reliance on oil as our primary fuel. Various on-going and planned fuel cell demonstration projects are also described. 1 fig.

  13. Pyroprocessing of IFR Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle features the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as open-quotes pyroprocessingclose quotes featuring fused-salt electrofining of the spent fuel. Electrofining of IFR spent fuel involves uranium recovery by electro-transport to a solid steel cathode. The thermodynamics of the system preclude plutonium recovery in the same way, so a liquid cadmium cathode located in the electrolyte salt phase is utilized. The deposition of Pu, Am, Np, and Cm takes place at the liquid cadmium cathode in the form of cadmium intermetallic compounds (e.g, PuCd 6 ), and uranium deposits as the pure metal when cadmium saturation is reached. A small amount of rare earth fission products deposit together with the heavy metals at both the solid and liquid cadmium cathodes, providing a significant degree of self-protection. A full scope demonstration of the IFR fuel cycle will begin in 1993, using fuel irradiated in EBR-II

  14. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports

  15. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  17. Hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications: Challenges, opportunities and prospects for metal-organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available and release, and cycle life of the materials. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as hydrogen storage materials and significant progress has been made in this regard. The challenges, opportunities...

  18. Metal Oxide-Supported Platinum Overlayers as Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the activity and stability of n=(1, 2, 3) platinum layers supported on a number of rutile metal oxides (MO2; M=Ti, Sn, Ta, Nb, Hf and Zr). A suitable oxide support can alleviate the problem of carbon corrosion and platinum dissolution in Pt/C catalysts. Moreover, it can increase t...

  19. Towards High Power Density Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen; Muhl, Thuy

    2017-01-01

    For use of metal supported SOFC in mobile applications it is important to reduce the thermal mass to enable fast start up, increase stack power density in terms of weight and volume and reduce costs. In the present study, we report on the effect of reducing the support layer thickness of 313 μm...

  20. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985

  1. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  2. Improvements in fabrication of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

    1989-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing a new liquid- metal cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). IFR fuels represent the state-of-the-art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, to be discussed below, will support the fully remote fuel cycle facility that as an integral part of the IFR concept will be demonstrated at the EBR-II site. 3 refs

  3. Ultrapure hydrogen thermal compressor based on metal hydrides for fuel cells and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasan, V.; Biris, A.; Coldea, I.; Lupu, D.; Misan, I.; Popeneciu, G.; Ardelean, O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hydrogen economy, efficient compressors are indispensable elements in the storage, transport and distribution of the produced hydrogen. Energetic efficient technologies can contribute to H 2 pipelines transport to the point of use and to distribute H 2 by refuelling stations. Characteristic for metal hydrides systems is the wide area of possibilities to absorb hydrogen at low pressure from any source of hydrogen, to store and deliver it hydrogen at high pressure (compression ratio more than 30). On the basis of innovative concepts and advanced materials for H 2 storage/compression (and fast thermal transfer), a fast mass (H 2 ) and heat transfer unit will be developed suitable to be integrated in a 3 stage thermal compressor. Metal hydrides used for a three stage hydrogen compression system must have different equilibrium pressures, namely: for stage 1, low pressure H 2 absorption and resistant to poisoning with impurities of hydrogen, for stage 2, medium pressure H 2 absorption and for stage 3, high pressure hydrogen delivery (120 bar). In the case of compression device based on metallic hydrides the most important properties are the hydrogen absorption/desorption rate, a smaller process enthalpy and a great structural stability on long term hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. These properties require metal hydrides with large differences between the hydrogen absorption and desorption pressures at equilibrium, within a rather small temperature range. The main goal of this work is to search and develop metal hydride integrated systems for hydrogen purification, storage and compression. After a careful screening three hydrogen absorbing alloys will be selected. After selection, the work up of the alloys composition on the bases of detailed solid state studies, new multi-component alloys will be developed, with suitable thermodynamic and kinetic properties for a hydrogen compressor. The results of the study are the following: new types of hydrogen

  4. Fuel cells - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, T.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, fuel cell publicity conveys expectations and hopes that are often based on uncritical interpretations of the underlying science. The aim here is to use that science to analyse how the technology has developed and what can realistically be delivered by fuel cells. There have been great achievements in fuel cell technology over the past decade, with most types reaching an advanced stage of engineering development. But there has been some muddled thinking about one critical aspect, fuel cell energy efficiency. The 'Carnot cycle' argument, that fuel cells must be much more efficient than heat engines, is a red herring, of no help in predicting real efficiencies. In practice, fuel cells are not always particularly efficient and there are good scientific reasons for this. Cost reduction is a big issue for fuel cells. They are not in principle especially simple devices. Better engineering and mass production will presumably bring costs down, but because of their inherent complexity there is no reason to expect them to be cheap. It is fair to conclude that predictions of fuel cells as commonplace components of energy systems (including a hydrogen economy) need to be treated with caution, at least until major improvements eventuate. However, one type, the direct methanol fuel cell, is aimed at a clear existing market in consumer electronics

  5. Creep Behavior of Porous Supports in Metal-support Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Creep is the inelastic deformation of a material at high temperatures over long periods of time. It can be defined as timedependent deformation at absolute temperatures greater than one half the absolute melting. Creep resistance is a key parameter for high temperature steel components, e.g. SOFC...... metal supports, where high corrosion resistance is a major design requirement. The four variables affecting creep rate are strain, time, temperature, and stress level and make creep difficult to quantify. In this work, the creep parameters of a SOFC metal support have been determined for the first time...... by means of a thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) for stresses in the range of 1-17 MPa and temperatures between 650-750 °C. The creep parameters of Crofer® 22 APU were also acquired and compared with values obtained from literature to validate the technique....

  6. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  7. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  8. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    Interest in fuel cell technology is rising as a result of the need for more affordable and available fuel sources. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells involve the catalysis of a fuel to release protons and electrons. It requires the use of a polymer electrolyte membrane to transfer protons through the cell, while the electrons pass through an external circuit, producing electricity. The surface modification of the polymer, NafionRTM, commonly researched as a proton exchange membrane, may improve efficiency of a fuel cell. Surface modification can change the chemistry of the surface of a polymer while maintaining bulk properties. Plasma modification techniques such as microwave discharge of an argon and oxygen gas mixture as well as vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis may cause favorable chemical and physical changes on the surface of Nafion for improved fuel cell function. A possible increase in hydrophilicity as a result of microwave discharge experiments may increase proton conductivity. Grafting of acrylic acid from the surface of modified Nafion may decrease the permeation of methanol in a direct methanol fuel cell, a process which can decrease efficiency. Modification of the surface of Nafion samples were carried out using: 1) An indirect Ar/O2 gas mixture plasma investigating the reaction of oxygen radicals with the surface, 2) A direct Ar/O2 gas mixture plasma investigating the reaction of oxygen radicals and VUV radiation with the surface and, 3) VUV photolysis investigating exclusively the interaction of VUV radiation with the surface and any possible oxidation upon exposure to air. Acrylic acid was grafted from the VUV photolysed Nafion samples. All treated surfaces were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the grafted Nafion samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements were used to analyze experiments 2 and 3. Using hydrogen as fuel is a

  9. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  11. Titanium-Niobium Oxides as Non-Noble Metal Cathodes for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Ishihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop noble-metal- and carbon-free cathodes, titanium-niobium oxides were prepared as active materials for oxide-based cathodes and the factors affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR activity were evaluated. The high concentration sol-gel method was employed to prepare the precursor. Heat treatment in Ar containing 4% H2 at 700–900 °C was effective for conferring ORR activity to the oxide. Notably, the onset potential for the ORR of the catalyst prepared at 700 °C was approximately 1.0 V vs. RHE, resulting in high quality active sites for the ORR. X-ray (diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopic analyses and ionization potential measurements suggested that localized electronic energy levels were produced via heat treatment under reductive atmosphere. Adsorption of oxygen molecules on the oxide may be governed by the localized electronic energy levels produced by the valence changes induced by substitutional metal ions and/or oxygen vacancies.

  12. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3... these components add significantly to the overall cost of a PEMFC. 1 We focused our research activities on: 1) The effect of the loading of catalytic ink on cell performance; 2) The effect of the ionomer content in the catalytic ink; 3) Testing...

  13. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  14. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  15. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  16. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  17. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  18. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  19. Manufacturing and characterization of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine

    2011-01-01

    functional layer, oxygen reduction in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting cathode and an additional polarization process with a rather high relaxation frequency, which may be assigned to an insulating corrosion interlayer.The durability of the cells was investigated by means of galvanostatic operation...

  20. Platinum and palladium alloys suitable as fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt and Pd alloyed with an alkaline earth metal....

  1. Platinum and palladium alloys suitable as fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic5 efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt and Pd alloyed with a lanthanide metal....

  2. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Hofman, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Tsai, H.; Walters, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960s worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  4. Power assisted fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, L P; Atwater, T B; Plichta, E J; Cygan, P J [US Army CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Research Development and Engineering Center

    1998-02-01

    A hybrid fuel cell demonstrated pulse power capability at pulse power load simulations synonymous with electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 25.0 W Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a two-cell lead-acid battery. Performance of the hybrid PEMFC was superior to either the battery or fuel cell stack alone at the 18.0 W load. The hybrid delivered a flat discharge voltage profile of about 4.0 V over a 5 h radio continuous transmit mode of 18.0 W. (orig.)

  5. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  6. Improvements in the fabrication of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently developing a new liquid-metal-cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR represents the state of the art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, discussed in this paper, will support ANL-West's (ANL-W) fully remote fuel cycle facility, which is an integral part of the IFR concept

  7. Metallizing porous scaffolds as an alternative fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of electroless and electrolytic techniques is used to incorporate nickel into a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.90 scaffold. First a porous backbone was screen printed into a YSZ electrolyte using an ink that contains sacrificial pore formers. Once sintered, the scaffold was coated with silver using Tollens' reaction followed by electrodeposition of nickel in a Watts bath. At high temperatures the silver forms droplets enabling direct contact between the gadolinia-doped ceria and nickel. Using impedance spectroscopy analysis in a symmetrical cell a total area specific resistance of 1 Ωcm2 at 700 °C in 97% H2 with 3% H2O was found, indicating the potential of this fabrication method for scaling up.

  8. Oxidation Characteristics and Electrical Properties of Doped Mn-Co Spinel Reaction Layer for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Metal Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyi Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent Cr poisoning of the cathode and to retain high conductivity during solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC operation, Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings on a metallic interconnect is deposited and followed by oxidation at 750 °C. Microstructure and composition of coatings after preparation and oxidation is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. High energy micro arc alloying process, a low cost technique, is used to prepare Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings with the metallurgical bond. When coatings oxidized at 750 °C in air for 20 h and 100 h, Co3O4 is the main oxide on the surface of Co-38Mn-2La and Co-40Mn coatings, and (Co,Mn3O4 spinel continues to grow with extended oxidation time. The outmost scales of Co-33Mn-17Cu are mainly composed of cubic MnCo2O4 spinel with Mn2O3 after oxidation for 20 h and 100 h. The average thickness of oxide coatings is about 60–70 μm after oxidation for 100 h, except that Co-40Mn oxide coatings are a little thicker. Area-specific resistance of Cu/La doped Co-Mn coatings are lower than that of Co-40Mn coating. (Mn,Co3O4/MnCo2O4 spinel layer is efficient at blocking the outward diffusion of chromium and iron.

  9. Low Loss Advanced Metallic Fuel Casting Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Ko, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghwan; Song, Hoon; Lee Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of fuel slug casting, loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and the fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycles streams in the fabrication process. Recycle streams include fuel slug reworks, returned scraps, and fuel casting heels, which are a special concern in the counter gravity injection casting process because of the large masses involved. Large recycle and waste streams result in lowering the productivity and the economic efficiency of fuel production. To increase efficiency the fuel losses in the furnace chamber, crucible, and the mold, after casting a considerable amount of fuel alloy in the casting furnace, will be quantitatively evaluated. After evaluation the losses will be identified and minimized. It is expected that this study will contribute to the minimization of fuel losses and the wastes streams in the fabrication process of the fuel slugs. Also through this study the technical readiness level of the metallic fuel fabrication process will be further enhanced. In this study, U-Zr alloy system fuel slugs were fabricated by a gravity casting method. Metallic fuel slugs were successfully fabricated with 19 slugs/batch with diameter of 5mm and length of 300mm. Fuel losses was quantitatively evaluated in casting process for the fuel slugs. Fuel losses of the fuel slugs were so low, 0.1∼1.0%. Injection casting experiments have been performed to reduce the fuel loss and improve the casting method. U-Zr fuel slug having φ5.4-L250mm was soundly fabricated with 0.1% in fuel loss. The fuel losses could be minimized to 0.1%, which showed that casting technology of fuel slugs can be a feasible approach to reach the goal of the fuel losses of 0.1% or less in commercial scale

  10. Recent metal fuel safety tests in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Bauer, T.H.; Lo, R.K.; Robinson, W.R.; Palm, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In-reactor safety tests have been performed on metal-alloy reactor fuel to study its response to transient-overpower conditions, in particular, the margin to cladding breach and the axial self-extrusion of fuel within intact cladding. Uranium-fissium EBR-II driver fuel elements of several burnups were tested, some to cladding breach and others to incipient breach. Transient fuel motions were monitored, and time and location of breach were measured. The test results and computations of fuel extrusion and cladding failure in metal-alloy fuel are described

  11. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  12. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M; Hoehlich, D; Scharf, I; Lampke, T; Hollaender, U; Maier, H J

    2016-01-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W 2 N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing. (paper)

  13. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  14. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Status Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective

  15. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high costs. A researcher monitoring web-line equipment in the Manufacturing Laboratory Many fuel cell

  16. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  17. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma, E-mail: jperez@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, USP (Brazil); Antolini, Ermete [Scuola di Scienza dei Materiali (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x{sub i}), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x{sub i}/d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y < 30 wt%, the optimum values of both d and x{sub i}/d can be always obtained. For y {>=} 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y < 30 wt% is concomitant to a decrease of the effective catalyst surface area due to an increase of d and/or a decrease of x{sub i}/d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x{sub i}/d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x{sub i}/d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  18. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x i ), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5–3 nm) and x i /d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y i /d can be always obtained. For y ≥ 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y i /d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x i /d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i /d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  19. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  20. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  1. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  2. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  3. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  4. An air-breathing single cell small proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with AB5-type metal hydride and an ultra-low voltage input boost converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Akihiro; Shodai, Takahisa [NTT Energy and Environment System Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for increasing the power density of an air-breathing small proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for the main energy source of portable consumer electronics is presented. The small PEMFC system is composed of a single cell. Utilizing the output voltage of the single cell, we introduce a newly designed ultra-low voltage input boost converter. The boost converter can generate 4.1 V output from input sources with low voltage ranges, such as under 1.0 V. The cathode plate is made from a thin SUS 316L stainless steel plate and has ribs that prevent the cathode from bending. The hydrogen is supplied by a metal hydride (MH) tank cartridge. The MH tank contains highly packed AB5-type MH. The MH tank cartridge has a volume of 13.2 cm{sup 3} and can absorb 6.7 L of hydrogen. The maximum power of the small PEMFC is 4.42 W at room temperature. Using 6.7 L of hydrogen, the small PEMFC can generate 11 Wh of electricity. The power density of the small PEMFC reaches 0.51 Wh cm{sup -3}. And the power density of the whole small PEMFC system, which contains the boost converter, a small Li-ion battery for a load absorber, and a case for the system, reaches 0.14 Wh cm{sup -3}. This value matches that of external Li-ion battery chargers for cell phones. We installed the small PEMFC system in a cell phone and confirmed the operations of calling, receiving, videophone, connecting to the Internet, and watching digital TV. And also confirmed that the small PEMFC system provides approximately 8.25 h of talk time, which is about three times as long as that for the original Li-ion battery. (author)

  5. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  6. Conformal bi-layered perovskite/spinel coating on a metallic wire network for solid oxide fuel cells via an electrodeposition-based route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom-Kyeong; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung; Park, Seok-Joo; Jung, WooChul; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require low-cost metallic components for current collection from electrodes as well as electrical connection between unit cells; however, the degradation of their electrical properties and surface stability associated with high-temperature oxidation is of great concern. It is thus important to develop protective conducting oxide coatings capable of mitigating the degradation of metallic components under SOFC operating conditions. Here, we report a conformal bi-layered coating composed of perovskite and spinel oxides on a metallic wire network fabricated by a facile electrodeposition-based route. A highly dense, crack-free, and adhesive bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating of ∼1.2 μm thickness is conformally formed on the surfaces of wires with ∼100 μm diameter. We demonstrate that the bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating plays a key role in improving the power density and durability of a tubular SOFC by stabilizing the surface of the metallic wire network used as a cathode current collector. The electrodeposition-based technique presented in this study offers a low-cost and scalable process to fabricate conformal multi-layered coatings on various metallic structures.

  7. Direct fabrication of metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure as efficient cathode catalysts of fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanqi; Liu, Mingda; Nie, Huagui; Gu, Cancan; Liu, Ming; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Keqin; Chen, Xi’an; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-01-01

    Despite the good progress in developing carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the current metal-free carbon catalysts are still far from satisfactory for large-scale applications of fuel cell. Developing hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure is considered to be an ideal method to inhibit graphene stacking and improve their catalytic performance. Herein, we fabricated metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from assembly of SiO_2 spheres. To our knowledge, although much researches involving the synthesis of graphene balls have been reported, investigations into the direct metal-free catalytic growth of hollow graphene balls are rare. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic performance shows that the resulting hollow graphene balls have significantly high catalytic activity. More importantly, such catalysts also possess much improved stability and better methanol tolerance in alkaline media during the ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The outstanding performances coupled with an easy and inexpensive preparing method indicated the great potential of the hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure in large-scale applications of fuel cell.Graphical AbstractHollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure have been successfully fabricated, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from 3D assembly of SiO_2 spheres. The hollow graphene balls can exhibit a high catalytic activity, long-term stability, and an excellent methanol tolerance for the oxygen reduction reaction

  8. Direct fabrication of metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure as efficient cathode catalysts of fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanqi; Liu, Mingda; Nie, Huagui, E-mail: huaguinie@126.com; Gu, Cancan; Liu, Ming; Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yang201079@126.com; Yang, Keqin; Chen, Xi’an; Huang, Shaoming, E-mail: smhuang@wzu.edu.cn [Wenzhou University, Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory (China)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the good progress in developing carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the current metal-free carbon catalysts are still far from satisfactory for large-scale applications of fuel cell. Developing hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure is considered to be an ideal method to inhibit graphene stacking and improve their catalytic performance. Herein, we fabricated metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. To our knowledge, although much researches involving the synthesis of graphene balls have been reported, investigations into the direct metal-free catalytic growth of hollow graphene balls are rare. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic performance shows that the resulting hollow graphene balls have significantly high catalytic activity. More importantly, such catalysts also possess much improved stability and better methanol tolerance in alkaline media during the ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The outstanding performances coupled with an easy and inexpensive preparing method indicated the great potential of the hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure in large-scale applications of fuel cell.Graphical AbstractHollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure have been successfully fabricated, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from 3D assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. The hollow graphene balls can exhibit a high catalytic activity, long-term stability, and an excellent methanol tolerance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  10. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  11. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  13. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  14. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  15. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Powered by a fuel cell system with light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen tanks, an electric motor, a nickel -metal-hydride battery, and a power-control unit, the Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle has zero tailpipe

  16. Fuel cells (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Macchi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The article, following and completing the issues dealt with in part 1 (CH4 Energia Metano, 1/99, p. 7), describe the operating characteristic and construction features of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). For the latter type, construction cost are evaluated by various authors and research institutes. The article ends by presenting some tables showing the classification and the main characteristics of various fuel cells, and well as the effect of some gases on the behaviour of some of them [it

  17. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications; Anodos multi-metalicos para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais; Leite, D. Will [Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Industriais (IPEI/FEI), Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Industrial

    2009-07-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  18. Metal-free and Oxygen-free Graphene as Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Highly Efficient Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    analysis was carried out by a TA instrument with a heating rate of 10 °C in N2. The Raman spectra were collected on a Raman spectrometer (Renishaw...kinematics viscosity for KOH (v = 0.01 cm 2 s -1 ) and CO2 is concentration of O2 in the solution (CO2 = 1.2 × 10 -6 mol cm -3 ). The constant 0.2 is...functionalizing graphene to impart electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic

  19. Metallic uranium as fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a first overview of the use of metallic uranium and its alloys as an option for fuel for rapid reactors. Aspects are discussed concerning uranium alloys which present high solubility in the gamma phase. (author)

  20. Direct electrical heating of irradiated metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept proposed by Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a metal fuel core. Reactor safety analysis requires information on the potential for fuel axial expansion during severe thermal transients. In addition to a comparatively large thermal expansion coefficient, metallic fuel has a unique potential for enhanced pre-failure expansion driven by retained fission gas and ingested bond sodium. In this paper, the authors present preliminary results from three direct electrical heating (DEH) experiments performed on irradiated metal fuel to investigate axial expansion behavior. The test samples were from Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel ML-11 irradiated to 8 at.% burnup. Preliminary analysis of the results suggest that enhanced expansion driven by trapped fission gas can occur

  1. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  2. Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed

  3. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  5. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  6. 33 CFR 183.562 - Metallic fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.562 Metallic fuel lines. (a) Each metallic fuel line that is mounted to the boat structure must be connected to the engine by a flexible fuel line. (b) Each metallic fuel line must be attached to the boat's structure...

  7. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  8. Development of metallic fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Chong Tak; Yang, Yeoung Seok; Kim, Ki Hwan; Hwang, Sung Chan; Joo, Keun Sik; Ann, Hyun Suk; Chang, Sae Jung.

    1997-09-01

    Through the control of melting and casting parameters, the sound and homogenous U-10wt.%Zr alloy could be fabricated. The yield and segregation of Zr elements were 85% and ±0.1wt.%, and the density of the alloy was about 16.6 g/cm 3 . The major phase were α-U and δ-UZr 2 . The microstructure showed the laminar structure with fiber morphology which was arranged alternatively with uranium and Zr-rich phase. This alloy will be used for KALIMER fuel material through developing the fabrication technology and the characteristics analysis. And electrorefining study was performed to separate uranium from uranium-neodymium and uranium-zirconium alloy by their different free energy for chloride formation. The liquid cadmium phase becomes the anode of the electrorefining cell. Uranium is electrolytically transported through a molten salt electrolyte to a low carbon steel cathode. The electrolyte is composed of KCl-LiCl eutectic and some UCl 3 , which are installed in the salt to facilitate the electrotransport of uranium. In pyrochemical process the reaction condition of chlorination and the maintenance its purity in preparing UCl 4 by chlorination of UO 2 is strongly dependent on the reaction temperature and time. (author).52 refs., 40 tabs., 129 figs

  9. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  10. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  11. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  12. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  14. Fabrication of particulate metal fuel for fast burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Lee, Sun Yong; Kim, Jong Hwan; Woo, Yoon Myung; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Chan Bok

    2012-01-01

    U Zr metallic fuel for sodium cooled fast reactors is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. Therefore, innovative fuel concepts should be developed to address the fabrication challenges pertaining to TRU while maintaining good performances of metallic fuel. Particulate fuel concepts have already been proposed and tested at several experimental fast reactor systems and vipac ceramic fuel of RIAR, Russia is one of the examples. However, much less work has been reported for particulate metallic fuel development. Spherical uranium alloy particles with various diameters can be easily produced by the centrifugal atomization technique developed by KAERI. Using the atomized uranium and uranium zirconium alloy particles, we fabricated various kinds of powder pack, powder compacts and sintered pellets. The microstructures and properties of the powder pack and pellets are presented

  15. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content

  16. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  17. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  18. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  19. Research on plant of metal fuel fabrication using casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Yasuhide; Mori, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the plant concept of metal fuel fabrication system (38tHM/y) using casting process in electrolytic recycle, which based on recent studies of its equipment design and quality control system. And we estimate the cost of its construction and operation, including costs of maintenance, consumed hardware and management of waste. The content of this work is as follows. (1) Designing of fuel fabrication equipment: We make material flow diagrams of the fuel fabrication plant and rough designs of the injection casting furnace, demolder and inspection equipment. (2) Designing of resolution system of liquid waste, which comes from analytical process facility. Increased analytical items, we rearrange analytical process facility, estimate its chemicals and amount of waste. (3) Arrangement of equipments: We made a arrangement diagram of the metal fuel fabrication equipments in cells. (4) Estimation of cost data: We estimated cost to construct the facility and to operate it. (author)

  20. Detailed impedance characterization of a well performing and durable Ni:CGO infiltrated cermet anode for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Klemensø, Trine; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Further knowledge of the novel, well performing and durable Ni:CGO infiltrated cermet anode for metal supported fuel cells has been acquired by means of a detailed impedance spectroscopy study. The anode impedance was shown to consist of three arcs. Porous electrode theory (PET) represented...... as a transmission line response could account for the intermediate frequency arc. The PET model enabled a detailed insight into the effect of adding minor amounts of Ni into the infiltrated CGO and allowed an estimation of important characteristics such as the electrochemical utilization thickness of the anode...... of the infiltrated submicron sized particles was surprisingly robust. TEM analysis revealed the nano sized Ni particles to be trapped within the CGO matrix, which along the self limiting grain growth of the CGO seem to be able to stabilize the submicron structured anode....

  1. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, Stuart I. [Electrochemical Technology Development Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Zhang, X. Gregory [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., 2380 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. (author)

  2. Metal-deactivating additives for liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boneva, M.I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, S.K.; Kalitchin, Z.D. [SciBulCom, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tanielyan, S.K. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States); Terebenina, A.; Todorova, O.I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The metal-deactivating and the antioxidant properties of 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5 derivatives have been investigated both in the model reaction of low temperature oxidation of ethylbenzene and in gasoline oxidation. The study of the ability of these derivatives to reduce the catalytic effect of copper naphthenate demonstrates that they are promising as metal deactivating additives for light fuels. Some of the pyrazolone compounds appear to be of special interest for the long-term storage of liquid fuels due to their action as multifunctional inhibitors.

  3. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  4. Combinatorial discovery of new methanol-tolerant non-noble metal cathode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Sung; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Jung Ho

    2010-12-14

    Combinatorial synthesis and screening were used to identify methanol-tolerant non-platinum cathode electrocatalysts for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Oxygen reduction consumes protons at the surface of DMFC cathode catalysts. In combinatorial screening, this pH change allows one to differentiate active catalysts using fluorescent acid-base indicators. Combinatorial libraries of carbon-supported catalyst compositions containing Ru, Mo, W, Sn, and Se were screened. Ternary and quaternary compositions containing Ru, Sn, Mo, Se were more active than the "standard" Alonso-Vante catalyst, Ru(3)Mo(0.08)Se(2), when tested in liquid-feed DMFCs. Physical characterization of the most active catalysts by powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the predominant crystalline phase was hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ruthenium, and showed a surface mostly covered with oxide. The best new catalyst, Ru(7.0)Sn(1.0)Se(1.0), was significantly more active than Ru(3)Se(2)Mo(0.08), even though the latter contained smaller particles.

  5. The Ovonic regenerative fuel cell, a fundamentally new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Venkatesan, S.; Corrigan, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Ovonic Regenerative Fuel Cell utilizes Ovonic metal hydride materials in place of traditional noble metal catalysts in the hydrogen fuel electrode. This provides unique features including the ability to capture and utilize regenerative braking energy at high efficiency and the ability to operate for a significant period upon interruption of the hydrogen fuel supply. Additionally, this novel fuel cell does not use high price components, such as platinum catalysts, microporous membranes, and graphite bipolar plates, used in PEM fuel cells. Proof of concept has been demonstrated in full-size multicell prototypes delivering about 100 W power. The Ovonic Regenerative Fuel Cell is yet another component of ECD Ovonic technology contributing to the emerging hydrogen economy which already includes Uni-Solar PV solar cells, Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage devices, and Ovonic nickel-metal hydride batteries from Cobasys, a joint venture between ECD Ovonics and ChevronTexaco. (author)

  6. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  7. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5 wt. % Fs) are presented. (The symbol 'Fs' designates fissium, a 'pseudo-element' which, in reality, is an alloy whose composition is representative of fission products that remain in reprocessed fuel). The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations with the measurements shows quantitative agreement in both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content. (orig.)

  8. Progress on the Application of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J. Rory; Fielding, Randall; Janney, Dawn; Mariani, Robert; Teague, Melissa; Egeland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing actinide bearing alloy metallic fuels intended for effecting the transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fast reactor application as part of a partitioning and transmutation strategy. This presentation will report on progress in three areas of this effort: demonstration of the fabrication of fuels under remote (hot cell) conditions directly coupled to the product from the Pyro-processing of spent fuel as part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Studies (JFCS) collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI); the chemical sequestration of lanthanide fission products to mitigate fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) studies on the as-cast microstructure of the metallic fuel alloy. For the JFCS efforts, we report on the implementation of the Glove-box Advanced Casting System (GACS) as a prototype casting furnace for eventual installation into the INL Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) where the recycled fuel will be cast. Results from optimising process parameters with respect to fuel characteristics, americium volatility, materials interaction, and lanthanide fission product carry over distribution will be discussed. With respect to the lanthanide carry over from the Pyro-processing product, encouraging studies on concepts to chemically sequester the FCCI promoting lanthanides within the fuel matrix thus inhibiting migration and interaction with the cladding will be presented. Finally, in relation to advanced modelling and simulation efforts, detailed investigations and interpretation on the nano-scale as cast microstructure of possible recycle fuel composition containing U, Pu, Am, Np as well as carry-over lanthanide species will be discussed. These studies are important for establishing the initial conditions from which advanced physics based fuel performance codes will run. (authors)

  9. Investigations on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) - understanding the effects of material, coating and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems are promising technology for contributing to meet the deficiency of world`s clean and sustainable energy requirements in the near future. Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) as one of the most significant components of PEMFC device accounts for the largest part of the fuel cell`s stack. Corrosion for metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue, which influences the performance and durability of PEMFC. Corrosion causes adverse impacts on the PEMFC`s performance jeopardizing commercialization. This research is aimed at determining the corrosion resistance of metallic BPPs, particularly stainless steels, used in PEMFC from different aspects. Material selection, coating selection, manufacturing process development and cost considerations need to be addressed in terms of the corrosion behavior to justify the use of stainless steels as a BPP material in PEMFC and to make them commercially feasible in industrial applications. In this study, Ti, Ni, SS304, SS316L, and SS 430 blanks, and BPPs comprised of SS304 and SS316L were examined in terms of the corrosion behavior. SS316L plates were coated to investigate the effect of coatings on the corrosion resistance performance. Stamping and hydroforming as manufacturing processes, and three different coatings (TiN, CrN, ZrN) applied via the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method in three different thicknesses were selected to observe the effects of manufacturing processes, coating types and coating thicknesses on the corrosion resistance of BPP, respectively. Uncoated-coated blank and formed BPP were subjected to two different corrosion tests: potentiostatic and potentiodynamic. Some of the substantial results: 1- Manufacturing processes have an adverse impact on the corrosion resistance. 2- Hydroformed plates have slightly higher corrosion resistance than stamped samples. 3- BPPs with higher channel size showed better corrosion resistance. 4- Since none of the uncoated samples

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  12. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  13. Nickel oxide and carbon nanotube composite (NiO/CNT) as a novel cathode non-precious metal catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjian; Zhu, Nengwu; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Taiping; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi

    2015-10-15

    Comparing with the precious metal catalysts, non-precious metal catalysts were preferred to use in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to the low cost and high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) efficiency. In this study, the transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction as well as Raman investigation revealed that the prepared nanoscale NiO was attached on the surface of CNT. Cyclic voltammogram and rotating ring-disk electrode tests showed that the NiO/CNT composite catalyst had an apparent oxygen reduction peak and 3.5 electron transfer pathway was acquired under oxygen atmosphere. The catalyst performance was highly dependent on the percentage of NiO in the CNT nanocomposites. When 77% NiO/CNT nano-sized composite was applied as cathode catalyst in membrane free single-chamber air cathode MFC, a maximum power density of 670 mW/m(2) and 0.772 V of OCV was obtained. Moreover, the MFC with pure NiO (control) could not achieve more than 0.1 V. All findings suggested that NiO/CNT could be a potential cathode catalyst for ORR in MFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Platinum and Palladium Alloys Suitable as Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt, Pd and mixtures thereof alloyed with a further element selected from Sc, Y and La as well as any mixtures thereof, wherein said alloy is supported on a conductive...

  15. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  16. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  17. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  18. Hydrogen and fuel cell research: Institute for Integrated Energy Systems (IESVic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, L.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: IESVic's mission is to chart feasible paths to sustainable energy. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Energy system analysis 2. Computational fuel cell engineering; Fuel cell parameter measurement; Microscale fuel cells 3. Hydrogen dispersion studies for safety codes 4. Active magnetic refrigeration for hydrogen liquifaction and heat transfer in metal hydrides 5. Hydrogen and fuel cell system integration (author)

  19. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  20. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  1. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  2. Role of metal/silicon semiconductor contact engineering for enhanced output current in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Rader, Kelly; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    contact material study. We utilized the industry standard contact material, aluminum, as well as a metal, whose silicide has recently been recognized for its improved performance in smallest scale integration requirements, cobalt. Our study shows

  3. The Synthesis and Characterization of Ionic Liquids for Alkali-Metal Batteries and a Novel Electrolyte for Non-Humidified Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Telpriore G.

    This thesis focused on physicochemical and electrochemical projects directed towards two electrolyte types: 1) class of ionic liquids serving as electrolytes in the catholyte for alkali-metal ion conduction in batteries and 2) gel membrane for proton conduction in fuel cells; where overall aims were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy. Large-scale, sodium-ion batteries are seen as global solutions to providing undisrupted electricity from sustainable, but power-fluctuating, energy production in the near future. Foreseen ideal advantages are lower cost without sacrifice of desired high-energy densities relative to present lithium-ion and lead-acid battery systems. Na/NiCl2 (ZEBRA) and Na/S battery chemistries, suffer from high operation temperature (>300ºC) and safety concerns following major fires consequent of fuel mixing after cell-separator rupturing. Initial interest was utilizing low-melting organic ionic liquid, [EMI+][AlCl 4-], with well-known molten salt, NaAlCl4, to create a low-to-moderate operating temperature version of ZEBRA batteries; which have been subject of prior sodium battery research spanning decades. Isothermal conductivities of these electrolytes revealed a fundamental kinetic problem arisen from "alkali cation-trapping effect" yet relived by heat-ramping >140ºC. Battery testing based on [EMI+][FeCl4 -] with NaAlCl4 functioned exceptional (range 150-180ºC) at an impressive energy efficiency >96%. Newly prepared inorganic ionic liquid, [PBr4+][Al2Br7-]:NaAl2Br 7, melted at 94ºC. NaAl2Br7 exhibited super-ionic conductivity 10-1.75 Scm-1 at 62ºC ensued by solid-state rotator phase transition. Also improved thermal stability when tested to 265ºC and less expensive chemical synthesis. [PBr4 +][Al2Br7-] demonstrated remarkable, ionic decoupling in the liquid-state due to incomplete bromide-ion transfer depicted in NMR measurements. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices generating electrical energy reacting hydrogen/oxygen gases

  4. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Vargas G, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H 2 SO 4 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  5. Studies of Lanthanide Transport in Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Taylor, Christopher

    2018-04-02

    Metallic nuclear fuels were tested in fast reactor programs and performed well. However, metallic fuels have shown the phenomenon of FCCI that are due to deleterious reactions between lanthanide fission products and cladding material. As the burnup is increased, lanthanide fission products that contact with the cladding could react with cladding constituents such as iron and chrome. These reactions produce higher-melting intermetallic compounds and low-melting alloys, and weaken the mechanical integrity. The lanthanide interaction with clad in metallic fuels is recognized as a long-term, high-burnup cause of the clad failures. Therefore, one of the key concerns of using metallic fuels is the redistribution of lanthanide fission products and migration to the fuel surface. It is believed that lanthanide migration is in part due to the thermal gradient between the center and the fuel-cladding interface, but also largely in part due to the low solubility of lanthanides within the uranium-based metal fuel. PIE of EBR-II fuels shows that lanthanides precipitate directly and do not dissolve to an appreciable extent in the fuel matrix. Based on the PIE data from EBR-II, a recent study recommended a so-called “liquid-like” transport mechanism for lanthanides and certain other species. The liquid-like transport model readily accounts for redistribution of Ln, noble metal fission products, and cladding components in the fuel matrix. According to the novel mechanism, fission products can transport as solutes in liquid metals, such as liquid cesium or liquid cesium–sodium, and on pore surfaces and fracture surfaces for metals near their melting temperatures. Transport in such solutions is expected to be much more rapid than solid-state diffusion. The mechanism could explain the Ln migration to the fuel slug peripheral surface and their deposition with a sludge-like form. Lanthanides have high solubility in liquid cesium but have low solubility in liquid sodium. As a

  6. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  7. Design study on metal fuel FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for metal fuel FBR core to maintain fuel integrity during transient events by limiting eutectic/liquid phase formation is proposed based on the current status of metallic fuel development. Its impact as the limitation on the core outlet temperature is assessed through its application to two of CRIEPI's core concepts, high linear power 1000 MWe homogeneous design and medium linear power 300 MWe radially heterogeneous design. SESAME/SALT code is used in this study to analyze steady state and transient fuel behavior. SE2-FA code is developed based on SUPERENERGY-2 and used to analyze core thermal-hydraulics with uncertainties. As the result, the core outlet temperatures of both designs are found to be limited to ≤500degC if it is required to prevent eutectic/liquid phase formation during operational transients in order to guarantee the fuel integrity. Additional assessment is made assuming an advanced limiting condition that allows small liquid phase formation based on the liquid phase penetration rate derived from existing experimental results. The result indicates possibility of raising core outlet temperature to ∼ 530degC. Also, it is found that core design technology improvements such as hot spot factors reduction can contribute to the core outlet temperature extension by 10 ∼ 20degC. (author)

  8. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  9. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  10. Fuel cells fuelled by Saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechner, P.; Mor, L.; Sabag, N.; Rubin, Z.; Bubis, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Saccharides, like glucose, fructose and lactose, are ideal renewable fuels. They have high energy content, are safe, transportable, easy to store, non-flammable, non poisonous, non-volatile, odorless, easy to produce anywhere and abundant. Fuel Cells are electro-chemical devices capable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy from fuels, with theoretical efficiencies higher than 0.8 at room temperatures and with low pollutant emissions. Fuel Cells that can produce electricity form saccharides will be able to replace batteries, power electrical plants from biomass wastes, and serve as engines for transportation. In spite of these advantages, saccharide fuelled fuel cells are no available yet. Two obstacles hinder the feasibility of this potentially revolutionary device. The first is the high stability of the saccharides, which requires a good catalyst to extract the electrons from the saccharide fuel. The second is related to the nature of the Fuel Cells: the physical process takes place at the interface surface between the fuel and the electrode. In order to obtain high densities, materials with high surface to volume ratio are needed. Efforts to overcome these obstacles will be described. The use of saccharides as a fuel was treated from the thermodynamic point of view and compared with other common fuels currently used in fuel cells. We summarize measurements performed in a membrane less Alkaline Fuel Cell, using glucose as a fuel and KOH as electrolyte. The anode has incorporated platinum particles and operated at room temperature. Measurements were done, at different concentrations of glucose, of the Open Circuit Voltage, Polarization Curves and Power Density as function of the Current Density. The maximum Power Density reached was 0.61 mW/cm 2 when the Current density was 2.13 mA/cm 2 and the measured Open Circuit Voltage was 0.771 V

  11. Effect of dimensional error of metallic bipolar plate on the GDL pressure distribution in the PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong' an; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Recently, the metallic bipolar plate (BPP) has received considerable attention because of its advantageous electrical and mechanical properties. In this study, a methodology based on FEA model and Monte Carlo simulation is developed to investigate the effect of dimensional error of the metallic BPP on the pressure distribution of gas diffusion layer (GDL). At first, a parameterized FEA model of metallic BPP/GDL assembly is established, and heights of the channel and rib are considered to be randomly varying parameters of normal distribution due to the dimensional error. Then, GDL pressure distributions with different dimensional errors are obtained respectively based on the Monte Carlo simulation, and the desirability function method is employed to evaluate them. At last, a regression equation between the GDL pressure distribution and the dimensional error is modeled. With the regression equation, the allowed maximum dimensional error for the metallic BPP is calculated. The methodology in this study can be applied to guide the design and manufacturing of the metallic BPP. (author)

  12. Surface noble metal modified PdM/C (M = Ru, Pt, Au) as anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Han; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we studied the surface noble metal modification on Pd nanoparticles, other than the homogeneous or core-shell structure. The surface modification will lead to the uneven constitution within the nanoparticles and thus more obvious optimization effect toward the catalyst brought by the lattice deformation. The surface of the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles was modified with Ru, Pt or Au by a moderate and green approach, respectively. XPS results confirm the interactive electron effects between Pd and the modified noble metal. Electrochemical measurements show that the surface noble metal modified catalysts not only show higher catalytic activity, but also better stability and durability. The PdM/C catalysts all exhibit good dispersion and very little agglomeration after long-term potential cycles toward ethanol oxidation. With only 10% metallic atomic ratio of Au, PdAu/C catalyst shows extraordinary catalytic activity and stability, the peak current reaches 1700 mA mg"−"1 Pd, about 2.5 times that of Pd/C. Moreover, the PdAu/C maintains 40% of the catalytic activity after 4500 potential cycles. - Highlights: • Pd-based catalysts with complicated exposed facets. • Much enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability with about 10% noble metal M (M = Ru, Pt, Au) on Pd nanoparticles. • The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of PdAu/C towards ethanol oxidation after the Au modification.

  13. Surface noble metal modified PdM/C (M = Ru, Pt, Au) as anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Han; Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt@fudan.edu.cn; Yu, Aishui, E-mail: asyu@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we studied the surface noble metal modification on Pd nanoparticles, other than the homogeneous or core-shell structure. The surface modification will lead to the uneven constitution within the nanoparticles and thus more obvious optimization effect toward the catalyst brought by the lattice deformation. The surface of the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles was modified with Ru, Pt or Au by a moderate and green approach, respectively. XPS results confirm the interactive electron effects between Pd and the modified noble metal. Electrochemical measurements show that the surface noble metal modified catalysts not only show higher catalytic activity, but also better stability and durability. The PdM/C catalysts all exhibit good dispersion and very little agglomeration after long-term potential cycles toward ethanol oxidation. With only 10% metallic atomic ratio of Au, PdAu/C catalyst shows extraordinary catalytic activity and stability, the peak current reaches 1700 mA mg{sup −1} Pd, about 2.5 times that of Pd/C. Moreover, the PdAu/C maintains 40% of the catalytic activity after 4500 potential cycles. - Highlights: • Pd-based catalysts with complicated exposed facets. • Much enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability with about 10% noble metal M (M = Ru, Pt, Au) on Pd nanoparticles. • The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of PdAu/C towards ethanol oxidation after the Au modification.

  14. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  15. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  16. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  17. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  18. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  19. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  20. Characterization of IFR metal fuel fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (IFR) employs a reactor design that has inherent safety features. An important safety advantage is derived from its pool configuration, which facilitates passive decay heat removal and isolates the core from accidents that might occur elsewhere in the plant. The metal-alloy fuel has superior heat transfer properties compared to oxide fuels. While the IFR design has these inherent safety features, a complete analysis of reactor safety requires assessment of the consequences of the melting of the uranium alloy fuel in the core and the contact of molten core materials with sodium. A series of eight tests was conducted in which the fragmentation and interaction behavior of kilogram quantities of uranium-zirconium alloy in sodium was studied

  1. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  2. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  3. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  4. Power generation in microbial fuel cells using platinum group metal-free cathode catalyst: Effect of the catalyst loading on performance and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Kodali, Mounika; Herrera, Sergio; Serov, Alexey; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Atanassov, Plamen

    2018-02-28

    Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalyst with different loadings was investigated in air breathing electrodes microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Firstly, the electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of the catalyst was investigated by rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) setup with different catalyst loadings. The results showed that higher loading led to an increased in the half wave potential and the limiting current and to a further decrease in the peroxide production. The electrons transferred also slightly increased with the catalyst loading up to the value of ≈3.75. This variation probably indicates that the catalyst investigated follow a 2x2e - transfer mechanism. The catalyst was integrated within activated carbon pellet-like air-breathing cathode in eight different loadings varying between 0.1 mgcm -2 and 10 mgcm -2 . Performance were enhanced gradually with the increase in catalyst content. Power densities varied between 90 ± 9 μWcm -2 and 262 ± 4 μWcm -2 with catalyst loading of 0.1 mgcm -2 and 10 mgcm -2 respectively. Cost assessments related to the catalyst performance are presented. An increase in catalyst utilization led to an increase in power generated with a substantial increase in the whole costs. Also a decrease in performance due to cathode/catalyst deterioration over time led to a further increase in the costs.

  5. Investigation of the effects of process sequence on the contact resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Cabir; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2013-12-01

    In this study, results of an investigation on the effects of manufacturing and coating process sequence on the contact resistance (ICR) of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are presented. Firstly, uncoated stainless steel 316L blanks were formed into BPP through hydroforming and stamping processes. Then, these formed BPP samples were coated with three different PVD coatings (CrN, TiN and ZrN) at three different thicknesses (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μm). Secondly, blanks of the same alloy were coated first with the same coatings, thickness and technique; then, they were formed into BPPs of the same shape and dimensions using the manufacturing methods as in the first group. Finally, these two groups of BPP samples were tested for their ICR to reveal the effect of process sequence. ICR tests were also conducted on the BPP plates both before and after exposure to corrosion to disclose the effect of corrosion on ICR. Coated-then-formed BPP samples exhibited similar or even better ICR performance than formed-then-coated BPP samples. Thus, manufacturing of coated blanks can be concluded to be more favorable and worth further investigation in quest of making cost effective BPPs for mass production of PEMFC.

  6. Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Ryohji; Katayama, Masao; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    Two vacuum methods, reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and arc plasma deposition, were used to prepare niobium-based catalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as non-noble metal cathodes for polymer electrode fuel cells (PEFCs). Thin films with various N and O contents, denoted as NbO x and Nb-O-N, were prepared on glassy carbon plates by RF magnetron sputtering with controlled partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the introduction of the nitrogen species into the thin film resulted in improved ORR activity compared to the oxide-only film. Using an arc plasma method, niobium was deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, and the sub-nanoscale surface morphology of the deposited particles was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). To prepare practical cathode catalysts, niobium was deposited on carbon black (CB) powders by arc plasma method. STM and transmission electron microscopy observations of samples on HOPG and CB indicated that the prepared catalysts were highly dispersed at the atomic level. The onset potential of oxygen reduction on Nb-O-N/CB was 0.86 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode, and the apparent current density was drastically improved by the introduction of nitrogen.

  7. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  8. Irradiation performance of full-length metallic IFR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    An assembly irradiation of 169 full-length U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel pins was successfully completed in FFTF to a goal burnup of 10 at.%. All test fuel pins maintained their cladding integrity during the irradiation. Postirradiation examination showed minimal fuel/cladding mechanical interaction and excellent stability of the fuel column. Fission-gas release was normal and consistent with the existing data base from irradiation testing of shorter metallic fuel pins in EBR-II

  9. FFTF metal fuel pin sodium bond quality verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O.

    1988-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Series III driver fuel design consists of U-10Zr fuel slugs contained in a ferritic alloy cladding. A liquid metal, sodium bond between the fuel and cladding is required to prevent unacceptable temperatures during operation. Excessive voiding or porosity in the sodium thermal bond could result in localized fuel melting during irradiation. It is therefore imperative that bond quality be verified during fabrication of these metal fuel pins prior to irradiation. This document discusses this verification

  10. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  11. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  12. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  13. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  14. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    when demand for power exceeds supply. The SWB solar hydrogen project in Germany is testing PAFC and AFC stacks in this application. Several problems remain before fuel cell technology can fulfil its maximum potential market. For PAFC there is a need to reduce plant capital costs and to verify lifetimes and reliability. KTI's 25 kW demonstration at Delft and the Milan 1 MW plant will increase European knowledge and experience of PAFC plant operation. For MCFC there are materials problems to be solved and work needs to be carried out on the best way to scale up plants. Projects underway in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and elsewhere should bring Europe to the forefront of MCFC technology. SOFC requires further study in the area of design configurations and fabrication techniques. Research on these aspects is underway in Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. For PEM technology work on reducing precious metal loadings and selecting the best polymer membrane is required — an area in which Johnson Matthey is involved. For all fuel cell technologies there needs to be a greater awareness among power suppliers, consumers, legislators and environmentalists of the advantages that fuel cells can offer. The increase in activity among European organisations in developing, demonstrating, testing and optimising fuel cell systems will encourage a greater awareness of the technology and bring commercialisation closer to reality.

  15. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  16. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  17. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  18. Performance Factors and Sulfur Tolerance of Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Nanostructured Ni:GDC Infiltrated Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. The ceria can be incorporated as a Ni:GDC cermet anode, but also via infiltration of ceria and doped ceria into the conventional Ni:YSZ cermet anode. Both approaches have been reported to improve the tolerance towards sulfur poisoning [1-3]. In the present study we report the performance...... concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 ppm in hydrogen fuel, during galvanostatic operation at a current load of 0.25 Acm-2. The results are illustrated and compared with the conventional SOFC Ni:YSZ cermet anode in figure 1, where the relative increase in anode polarization resistance as a function of Ni sulfur coverage...... is shown. The comparison indicate the MS-SOFC anode of the present study to be more tolerant towards sulfur poisoning than the conventional Ni:YSZ cermet anode. [1] K. Sasaki et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 153, A2023–A2029 (2006). [2] L. Zhang et al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 12359...

  19. Performance Factors and Sulfur Tolerance of Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Nanostructured Ni:GDC Infiltrated Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Hagen, Anke

    2015-01-01

    at a current load of 0.25Acm-2. The results were compared with literature on the sulfur tolerance of the conventional SOFC Ni/YSZ cermet anode. The comparison in terms of absolute cell resistance increase and relative anode polarization resistance increase indicate, that the nanostructured Ni:GDC MS-SOFC based...... anode is significantly more sulfur tolerant than the conventional Ni/YSZ cermet anode. © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  20. Demonstration of pyrometallurgical processing for metal fuel and HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadafumi, Koyama; Kensuke, Kinoshita; Takatoshi, Hizikata; Tadashi, Inoue; Ougier, M.; Rikard, Malmbeck; Glatz, J.P.; Lothar, Koch

    2001-01-01

    CRIEPI and JRC-ITU have started a joint study on pyrometallurgical processing to demonstrate the capability of this type of process for separating actinide elements from spent fuel and HLW. The equipment dedicated for this experiments has been developed and installed in JRC-ITU. The stainless steel box equipped with tele-manipulators is operated under pure Ar atmosphere, and prepared for later installation in a hot cell. Experiments on pyro-processing of un-irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel by molten salt electrorefining has been carried out. Recovery of U and Pu from this type alloy fuel was first demonstrated with using solid iron cathode and liquid Cd cathode, respectively. (author)

  1. Performance Factors and Sulfur Tolerance of Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Nanostructured Ni:GDC Infiltrated Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Hagen, Anke

    2016-01-01

    galvanostatic operation at a current load of 0.25 Acm−2. The results were compared with literature on the sulfur tolerance of conventional SOFC Ni/YSZ cermet anode. The comparison in terms of absolute cell resistance increase and relative anode polarization resistance increase indicates, that the nanostructured...... Ni:GDC MS-SOFC based anode is significantly more sulfur tolerant than the conventional Ni/YSZ cermet anode. Furthermore, it was shown that the believed extension of the electrochemical three-phase-boundary reaction zone in the presence of GDC must be very limited and cannot account for the higher...

  2. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  3. Releasing metal catalysts via phase transition: (NiO)0.05-(SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3)0.95 as a redox stable anode material for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guoliang; Wang, Siwei; Lin, Ye; Zhang, Yanxiang; An, Ke; Chen, Fanglin

    2014-11-26

    Donor-doped perovskite-type SrTiO3 experiences stoichiometric changes at high temperatures in different Po2 involving the formation of Sr or Ti-rich impurities. NiO is incorporated into the stoichiometric strontium titanate, SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3-δ (STN), to form an A-site deficient perovskite material, (NiO)0.05-(SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3)0.95 (Ni-STN), for balancing the phase transition. Metallic Ni nanoparticles can be released upon reduction instead of forming undesired secondary phases. This material design introduces a simple catalytic modification method with good compositional control of the ceramic backbones, by which transport property and durability of solid oxide fuel cell anodes are largely determined. Using Ni-STN as anodes for solid oxide fuel cells, enhanced catalytic activity and remarkable stability in redox cycling have been achieved. Electrolyte-supported cells with the cell configuration of Ni-STN-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.87Mg0.13O3 (LSGM) electrolyte, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode produce peak power densities of 612, 794, and 922 mW cm(-2) at 800, 850, and 900 °C, respectively, using H2 as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Minor degradation in fuel cell performance resulted from redox cycling can be recovered upon operating the fuel cells in H2. Such property makes Ni-STN a promising regenerative anode candidate for solid oxide fuel cells.

  4. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  6. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  7. hydrogel membrane as electrolyte for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) is reported. The DBFC employs an AB5 Misch metal alloy as anode and a goldplated stainless steel mesh as cathode in conjunction with aqueous alkaline solution of sodium borohydride as fuel and aqueous ...

  8. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.; Kaufman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  10. Enhanced Proton Conductivity of Sulfonated Hybrid Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes by Incorporating an Amino-Sulfo Bifunctionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Chunyu; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chengji; Duan, Yuting; Zhuang, Zhuang; Bu, Fanzhe; Na, Hui

    2018-03-07

    Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH 2 -SO 3 H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and postmodification. Then, MNS was incorporated into a SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry, and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. We found that the mechanical strength and methanol resistances of these hybrid membranes were improved by the formation of an ionic cross-linking structure between -NH 2 of MNS and -SO 3 H on the side chain of SNF-PAEK. Particularly, the proton conductivity of these hybrid membranes increased obviously after the addition of MNS. MNS@SNF-PAEK-3% exhibited the proton conductivity of 0.192 S·cm -1 , which was much higher than those of the pristine membrane (0.145 S·cm -1 ) and recast Nafion (0.134 S·cm -1 ) at 80 °C. This result indicated that bifunctionalized MNS rearranged the microstructure of hybrid membranes, which could accelerate the transfer of protons. The hybrid membrane (MNS@SNF-PAEK-3%) showed a better direct methanol fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density of 125.7 mW/cm 2 at 80 °C and a higher open-circuit voltage (0.839 V) than the pristine membrane.

  11. Atomistic Modeling of Cation Diffusion in Transition Metal Perovskites La1-xSrxMnO3+/-δfor Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Duan, Yuhua; Morgan, Dane; Sorescu, Dan; Abernathy, Harry

    Cation diffusion in La1-xSrxMnO3+/-δ (LSM) and in related perovskite materials play an important role in controlling long term performance and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCs) cathodes. Due to sluggish rates of cation diffusion and complex coupling between defect chemistry and cation diffusion pathways, currently there is still lack of quantitative theoretical model predictions on cation diffusivity vs. T and P(O2) to describe experimental cation tracer diffusivities. In this work, based on ab initio modeling of LSM defect chemistry and migration barriers of the possible cation diffusion pathways, we assess the rates of A-site and B-site cation diffusion in a wide range of T and P(O2) at x =0.0 and 0.2 for SOFC applications. We demonstrate the active cation diffusion pathways in LSM involve cation defect clusters as cation transport carriers, where reduction in the cation migration barriers, which are governed by the steric effect associated with the metal-oxygen cage in the perovskite lattice, is much greater than the penalty of repulsive interaction in the A-site and B-site cation vacancy clusters, leading to higher cation diffusion rates as compared to those of single cation vacancy hopping mechanisms. The predicted Mn and La/Sr cation self-diffusion coefficients of LSM at at x =0.0 and 0.2 along with their 1/T and P(O2) dependences, are in good agreement with the experimental tracer diffusion coefficients.

  12. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  13. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  14. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  15. Infiltrated La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3 based anodes for all ceramic and metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Sudireddy, Bhaskar R.; Irvine, John T. S.; Thydén, Karl

    2017-12-01

    For improved robustness, durability and to avoid severe processing challenges alternatives to the Ni:YSZ composite electrode is highly desirable. The Ni:YSZ composite electrode is conventionally used for solid oxide fuel cell and solid oxide electrolysis cell. In the present study we report on high performing nanostructured Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coated A site deficient Lanthanum doped Strontium Titanate (La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3) based anodes. The anodes were incorporated into the co-sintered DTU metal supported solid oxide fuel cell design and large sized 12 cm × 12 cm cells were fabricated. The titanate material showed good processing characteristics and surface wetting properties towards the Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coating. The cell performances were evaluated on single cell level (active area 16 cm2) and a power density at 0.7 V and 700 °C of 0.650 Wcm-2 with a fuel utilization of 31% was achieved. Taking the temperature into account the performances of the studied anodes are among the best reported for redox stable and corrosion resistant alternatives to the conventional Ni:YSZ composite solid oxide cell electrode.

  16. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  17. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  18. Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have recently received increasing attention since in principle they allow for the use of non-precious metal catalysts, which dramatically reduces the cost per kilowatt of power in fuel cell devices. Until not long ago, the main barrier in the development of AEMFCs was the availability of highly conductive anion exchange membranes (AEMs); however, improvements on this front in the past decade show that newly developed AEMs have already reached high levels of conductivity, leading to satisfactory cell performance. In recent years, a growing number of research studies have reported AEMFC performance results. In the last three years, new records in performance were achieved. Most of the literature reporting cell performance is based on hydrogen-AEMFCs, although an increasing number of studies have also reported the use of fuels others than hydrogen - such as alcohols, non-alcohol C-based fuels, as well as N-based fuels. This article reviews the cell performance and performance stability achieved in AEMFCs through the years since the first reports in the early 2000s.

  19. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  20. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  1. Recent progress in the development of metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Tsai, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tests to date demonstrate that metallic fuel for advanced liquid metal reactors performs well, is easily reprocessed and refabricated and provides inherent reactor safety within an economic design. The behavior and performance of metallic fuel is key to the demonstration of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept at Argonne National Laboratory. Since 1985, more than 40 assemblies of experimental fuel in addition to the standard metallic driver fuel for Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2)have been irradiated; several more continue to be designed and fabricated. Results have characterized the influence of a wide range of fabrication, design and material variables upon irradiation behavior throughout the fuel lifetime under normal and upset conditions including operation with breached cladding. Results of test, both in- and out-of-reactor, indicate that metallic fuel is readily and economically fabricated, capable of achieving high exposure and long reactor residence times, and possesses unique and promising safety features. 9 refs., 6 figs

  2. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  3. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  4. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  5. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  6. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    logo, Direct FuelCell and “DFC” are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Applications •On-site self generation of combined heat... of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency

  7. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  8. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control

  9. Fabrication of metallic channel-containing UO2 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Song, Kun Woo; Kim, Keon Sik; Jung, Youn Ho

    2004-01-01

    The uranium dioxide is widely used as a fuel material in the nuclear industry, owing to many advantages. But it has a disadvantage of having the lowest thermal conductivity of all kinds of nuclear fuels; metal, carbide, nitride. It is well known that the thermal conductivity of UO 2 fuel is enhanced by making, so called, the CERMET (ceramic-metal) composite which consists of both continuous body of highly thermal-conducting metal and UO 2 islands. The CERMET fuel fabrication technique needs metal phase of at least 30%, mostly more than 50%, of the volume of the pellet in order to keep the metal phase interconnected. This high volume fraction of metal requires such a high enrichment of U that the parasitic effect of metal should be compensated. Therefore, it is attractive to develop an innovative composite fuel that can form continuous metal phase with a small amount of metal. In this investigation, a feasibility study was made on how to make such an innovative fuel. Candidate metals (W, Mo, Cr) were selected, and fabrication process was conceptually designed from thermodynamic calculations. We have experimentally found that a metal phase envelops perfectly UO 2 grains, forming continuous channel throughout the pellet, and improving the thermal conductivity of pellet

  10. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  11. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  12. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  14. A state of the art on metallic fuel technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, Hee Young; Nam, Cheol; Kim, Jong Oh

    1997-01-01

    Since worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved in the late 1960's, the development of metallic fuels continued throughout the 1970's at ANL's experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II) because EBR-II continued to be fueled with the metallic uranium-fissium alloy, U-5Fs. During this decade the performance limitations of metallic fuel were satisfactorily resolved resolved at EBR-II. The concept of the IFR developed at ANL since 1984. The technical feasibility had been demonstrated and the technology database had been established to support its practicality. One key features of the IFR is that the fuel is metallic, which brings pronounced benefits over oxide in improved inherent safety and lower processing costs. At the outset of the 1980's, it appeared that metallic fuels are recognized as a professed viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last score and summarizes the state-of the art on metallic fuel technology development. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab

  15. A state of the art on metallic fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, Hee Young; Nam, Cheol; Kim, Jong Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Since worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved in the late 1960`s, the development of metallic fuels continued throughout the 1970`s at ANL`s experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II) because EBR-II continued to be fueled with the metallic uranium-fissium alloy, U-5Fs. During this decade the performance limitations of metallic fuel were satisfactorily resolved resolved at EBR-II. The concept of the IFR developed at ANL since 1984. The technical feasibility had been demonstrated and the technology database had been established to support its practicality. One key features of the IFR is that the fuel is metallic, which brings pronounced benefits over oxide in improved inherent safety and lower processing costs. At the outset of the 1980`s, it appeared that metallic fuels are recognized as a professed viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last score and summarizes the state-of the art on metallic fuel technology development. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  17. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  18. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Heng [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  19. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  20. Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.; Beitel, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases

  1. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  2. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  3. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  4. XAS Investigations of PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christina; Ramaker, David E.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are still far from an area-wide market launch due in part to long-term stability, reliability and cost issues. A more detailed knowledge of the underlying reaction mechanisms is expected to further their application, as it would allow for the design of tailor-made catalysts. However, this will only be possible by complementing traditional in situ studies on single-crystals in electrochemical cells with more sophisticated metal/electrolyte interfacial studies by novel spectroscopic methodologies, which can provide complementary insights into the behaviour of commercial catalysts under real fuel cell operating conditions. This review will focus on the advances of Xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in applied fuel cell research utilizing several examples. XAS enables both the nanoparticle morphology and the adsorbate coverage and binding site to be investigated with just one technique. The latter is possible when complementing the conventional extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis with the more novel Δμ XANES approach.

  5. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  6. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  8. Galvanic cell for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2017-02-07

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  9. Fuel cells for electricity generation from carbonaceous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K; Formanski, V; Roes, J [Gerhard-Mercator- Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Fachgebiet Energietechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Heinzel, A [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel cells, which are electrochemical systems converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy with water and heat as by-products, are of interest as a means of generating electricity which is environmentally friendly, clean and highly efficient. They are classified according to the electrolyte used. The main types of cell in order of operating temperature are described. These are: alkaline fuel cells, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC); the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Applications depend on the type of cell and may range from power generation on a large scale to mobile application in cars or portable systems. One of the most promising options is the PEM-fuel cell stack where there has been significant improvement in power density in recent years. The production from carbonaceous fuels and purification of the cell fuel, hydrogen, is considered. Of the purification methods available, hydrogen separation by means of palladium alloy membranes seems particular effective in reducing CO concentrations to the low levels required for PEM cells. (UK)

  10. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  11. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  15. The analysis of fuel constituent redistribution for ternary metallic fuel slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Kyun; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2004-02-01

    U-TRU-Zr metallic alloy is being considered as the fuel slug for the proliferation resistance core of KALIMER. The radial fuel constituent migration is a general phenomenon in the metallic alloys. This phenomenon may affect the in-reactor performance of metallic fuel rods, influencing such factors as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, power generation rate, phase boundaries and eutectic melting of the fuel slug. Thus, constituent redistribution modeling is essential when developing a metallic fuel performance code. The constituent migration model adopted in this report was based on the Ishida's model and Hofman's theory. A subroutine program has been made and installed into the MACSIS code to simulate constituent redistribution. The radial profile of Zr redistribution was calculated for the ternary metallic fuel, and compared with the measured data.

  16. Fuel cell hardware-in-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.; Randolf, G.; Virji, M. [University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Hauer, K.H. [Xcellvision (Germany)

    2006-11-08

    Hardware-in-loop (HiL) methodology is well established in the automotive industry. One typical application is the development and validation of control algorithms for drive systems by simulating the vehicle plus the vehicle environment in combination with specific control hardware as the HiL component. This paper introduces the use of a fuel cell HiL methodology for fuel cell and fuel cell system design and evaluation-where the fuel cell (or stack) is the unique HiL component that requires evaluation and development within the context of a fuel cell system designed for a specific application (e.g., a fuel cell vehicle) in a typical use pattern (e.g., a standard drive cycle). Initial experimental results are presented for the example of a fuel cell within a fuel cell vehicle simulation under a dynamic drive cycle. (author)

  17. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  19. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  20. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  1. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  2. Natural uranium metallic fuel elements: fabrication and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.; Abou-Zahra, A.A.; Sharkawy, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The main reactor types based on natural uranium metallic fuel element, particularly the early types, are reviewed in this report. The reactor types are: graphite moderated air cooled, graphite moderated gas cooled and heavy water moderated reactors. The design features, fabrication technology of these reactor fuel elements and the operating experience gained during reactor operation are described and discussed. The interrelation between operating experience, fuel design and fabrication was also discussed with emphasis on improving fuel performance. (author)

  3. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  4. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  5. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  6. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  7. Pre-Licensing Evaluation of Legacy SFR Metallic Fuel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Billone, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-09-16

    The US sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) metallic fuel performance data that are of interest to advanced fast reactors applications, can be attributed mostly to the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program between 1984 and 1994. Metallic fuel data collected prior to the IFR program were associated with types of fuel that are not of interest to future advanced reactors deployment (e.g., previous U-Fissium alloy fuel). The IFR fuels data were collected from irradiation of U-Zr based fuel alloy, with and without Pu additions, and clad in different types of steels, including HT9, D9, and 316 stainless-steel. Different types of data were generated during the program, and were based on the requirements associated with the DOE Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program.

  8. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  9. Activation of charcoal made from japanese cypress as oxygen electrode in fuel cell by deposition of Pd-metal/Heteropolyacids of the micropores; Kinzokuparajiumu-heteroporisan no bunsan tanzi niyoru hinoki mokutan no nenryo denchisansokyoku to shiteno kinouka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumine, Takuya.; Kominami, Hiroshi.; Kera, Yoshiya. [Kinki University, osaka (Japan); Abe, Ikuo. [Osaka Municipal Technology Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Pd- and Pt-metal were observed by TEM to be highly disperdsed on charcoal prepared from Japanese Cypress [Hinoki] at 900degreeC (Pd, Pt/H2). Nafion-sheet was hot-pressed with Pd/H2 and Pt/H2 disc-pellets placed in the other sides to make a fuel cell-electrode unit. The 1-V curve in the H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel were measured : The voltage certainly grew with increase in the amount of Pd-metal (1{yields}13wt%) and with a mixing of [Nafion] powder (11wt%). The discharge character was greatly improved with the addition of heteropolyacid (H{sub 3}PMo{sub 11}VO{sub 42};PVMo{sub 11}). When a charcoal prepared from Hinoki at 2400degreeC (HG) was used, the inner resistivity was about 10-times lower than the case of H2 used, although the dispersed states of Pd-metal became considerably poor on HG rather than H2. The actuvuty also increased further with the addition of Nafion and PVMo{sub 11}. (author)

  10. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  11. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  12. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  13. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  14. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  15. Performance of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Hayes, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Steady-state testing of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperatures was initiated in EBR-II in November of 1987. At that time U-10 wt. % Zr fuel clad with the low-swelling ferritic/martensitic alloy HT9 was being considered as driver fuel options for both EBR-II and FFTF. The objective of the X447 test described here was to determine the lifetime of HT9 cladding when operated with metallic fuel at beginning of life inside wall temperatures approaching ∼660 degree C. Though stress-temperature design limits for HT9 preclude its use for high burnup applications under these conditions due to excessive thermal creep, the X447 test was carried out to obtain data on high temperature breach phenomena involving metallic fuel since little data existed in that area

  16. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The development of microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Karube, Isao [University of Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-02-01

    The production of electricity by biocatalytic fuel cells has been feasible for almost two decades and can produce electric power at a practical level. These fuel cells use immobilized microorganisms or enzymes as catalysts, and glucose as a fuel. A microfabricated enzyme battery has recently been made that is designed to function as a power supply for microsurgery robots or artificial organs. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  19. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr

  20. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  1. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  2. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  3. Behavior of metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Robinson, W.R.; Klickman, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Results and analyses are reported for TREAT in-pile transient overpower tests of margin to cladding failure and pre-failure axial expansion of metallic fuel. In all cases the power rise was exponential on an 8 s period until either incipient or actual cladding failure was achieved. Test fuel included EBR-II driver fuel and ternary alloy, the reference fuel of the Intergral Fast Reactor concept. Test pin burnup spanned the widest range available. The nature of the observed cladding failure and resultant fuel dispersals is described. Simple models are presented which describe observed cladding failures and pre-failure axial expansions yet are general enough to apply to all metal fuel types

  4. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  5. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  6. Arrangement of fuel cell system for TNRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Takehiro; Yasuda, Ryo; Iikura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takuro; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hayashida, Hirotoshi

    2012-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (fuel cells) can be potentially employed as sources of clean energy because they discharge only water as by-products. Fuel cells generate electricity with supply of oxygen and hydrogen gases. However, the water produced by the fuel cells blocks the gas supply, thereby degrading their performances. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of the water produced by the fuel cells in order to facilitate their development. Neutron radiography is a useful tool for visualizing the distribution of water in fuel cells. We have designed fuel cell operation system for TNRF (Thermal Neutron Radiography Facility) at JRR-3. The fuel cell operation system consists of various components such as gas flow and humidification systems, hydrogen-diluting system, purge system, and safety system for hydrogen gas. We tested this system using a Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) standard cell. The system performed stably and efficiently. In addition, neutron radiography tests were carried out to visualize the water distribution. The water produced by the fuel cell was observed during the fuel cell operation. (author)

  7. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established

  8. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  9. Weld Joint Design for SFR Metallic Fuel Element Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system is among the six systems selected for Gen-IV promising systems and expected to become available for commercial introduction around 2030. In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the joint designs for endplug welding were investigated. For the irradiation test of SFR metallic fuel element, the TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed based on the welding conditions and parameters established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the weld joint design was developed based on the TIG welding technique.

  10. Endplug Welding Techniques developed for SFR Metallic Fuel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make SFR metallic fuel elements. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the welding technique, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed. The TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established.

  11. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  12. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  13. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  14. Techno-economic assessment of fuel cell vehicles for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manish S; Rangan Banerjee

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative vehicle technologies for a typical small family car in India (Maruti 800) - two conventional i) Petrol driven internal combustion (IC) engine, ii) Compressed natural gas (CNG) driven IC engine and two based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with different storage iii) Compressed hydrogen storage and iv) Metal hydride (FeTi) storage. Each technology option is simulated in MATLAB using a backward facing algorithm to calculate the force and power requirement for the Indian urban drive cycle. The storage for the CNG and the fuel cell vehicles is designed to have driving range of 50% of the existing petrol vehicle. The simulation considers the part load efficiency vs. load characteristics for the computed ratings of the IC engine and the fuel cell. The analysis includes the transmission efficiency, motor efficiency and storage efficiencies. The comparison criteria used are the primary energy consumption (MJ/km), the cost (Rs./km) obtained by computing the annualized life cycle cost and dividing this by the annual vehicle travel and carbon dioxide emissions (g/km). For the primary energy analysis the energy required for extraction, processing of the fuel is also included. For the fuel cell vehicles, it is assumed that hydrogen is produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming. It is found that the fuel cell vehicles have the lowest primary energy consumption (1.3 MJ/km) as compared to the petrol and CNG vehicles (2.3 and 2.5 MJ/km respectively). The cost analysis is done based on existing prices in India and reveals that the CNG vehicle has the lowest cost (2.3 Rs./km) as compared to petrol (4.5 Rs./km). The fuel cell vehicles have a higher cost of 26 Rs./km mainly due to the higher fuel cell system cost (93% of the total cost). The CO 2 emissions are lowest for the fuel cell vehicle with compressed hydrogen storage (98 g/km) as compared to the petrol vehicle (162 g/km). If the incremental annual cost of the fuel

  15. Activity and Stability of Dispersed Multi Metallic Pt-based Catalysts for CO Tolerance in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Ticianelli, Edson A

    2018-01-01

    Studies aiming at improving the activity and stability of dispersed W and Mo containing Pt catalysts for the CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) anodes are revised for the following catalyst systems: (1) a carbon supported PtMo electrocatalyst submitted to heat treatments; (2) Pt and PtMo nanoparticles deposited on carbon-supported molybdenum carbides (Mo2C/C); (3) ternary and quaternary materials formed by PtMoFe/C, PtMoRu/C and PtMoRuFe/C and; (4) Pt nanoparticles supported on tungsten carbide/carbon catalysts and its parallel evaluation with carbon supported PtW catalyst. The heat-treated (600 oC) Pt-Mo/C catalyst showed higher hydrogen oxidation activity in the absence and in the presence of CO and better stability, compared to all other Mo-containing catalysts. PtMoRuFe, PtMoFe, PtMoRu supported on carbon and Pt supported on Mo2C/C exhibited similar CO tolerances but better stability, as compared to as-prepared PtMo supported on carbon. Among the tungsten-based catalysts, tungsten carbide supported Pt catalyst showed reasonable performance and reliable stability in comparison to simple carbon supported PtW catalyst, though an uneven level of catalytic activity towards H2 oxidation in presence of CO is observed for the former as compared to Mo containing catalyst. However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved.

  16. Activity and Stability of Dispersed Multi Metallic Pt-based Catalysts for CO Tolerance in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYAZ HASSAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies aiming at improving the activity and stability of dispersed W and Mo containing Pt catalysts for the CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC anodes are revised for the following catalyst systems: (1 a carbon supported PtMo electrocatalyst submitted to heat treatments; (2 Pt and PtMo nanoparticles deposited on carbon-supported molybdenum carbides (Mo2C/C; (3 ternary and quaternary materials formed by PtMoFe/C, PtMoRu/C and PtMoRuFe/C and; (4 Pt nanoparticles supported on tungsten carbide/carbon catalysts and its parallel evaluation with carbon supported PtW catalyst. The heat-treated (600 oC Pt-Mo/C catalyst showed higher hydrogen oxidation activity in the absence and in the presence of CO and better stability, compared to all other Mo-containing catalysts. PtMoRuFe, PtMoFe, PtMoRu supported on carbon and Pt supported on Mo2C/C exhibited similar CO tolerances but better stability, as compared to as-prepared PtMo supported on carbon. Among the tungsten-based catalysts, tungsten carbide supported Pt catalyst showed reasonable performance and reliable stability in comparison to simple carbon supported PtW catalyst, though an uneven level of catalytic activity towards H2 oxidation in presence of CO is observed for the former as compared to Mo containing catalyst. However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved.

  17. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  18. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  19. Recent progress in electrocatalysts with mesoporous structures for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Zucheng; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recently mesoporous materials have drawn great attention in fuel cell related applications, such as preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes and catalysts, hydrogen storage and purification. In this mini-review, we focus on recent developments in mesoporous electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including metallic and metal-free catalysts for use as either anode or cathode catalysts. Mesoporous Pt-based metals have been synthesized as anode catalysts with improved a...

  20. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  1. Structure of fuel performance audit code for SFR metal fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Hyo Chan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Dong; Shin, An Dong; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is a promising option to solve the spent fuel problems, but, there are still much technical issues to commercialize a SFR. One of issues is a development of advanced fuel which can solve the safety and the economic issues at the same time. Since a nuclear fuel is the first barrier to protect radioactive isotope release, the fuel's integrity must be secured. In Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), the new project has been started to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. To evaluate the fuel integrity and safety during an irradiation, the fuel performance code must be used for audit calculation. To develop the new code system, the code structure design and its requirements need to be studied. Various performance models and code systems are reviewed and their characteristics are analyzed in this paper. Based on this study, the fundamental performance models are deduced and basic code requirements and structure are established.

  2. Possibility of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, B.; Mihajlovic, A.; Drobnjak, Dj.

    1965-01-01

    The review of metal uranium properties including irradiation in the reactor core lead to the following conclusions. Using metal uranium in the heavy water reactors would be favourable from economic point of view for ita high density, i.e. high conversion factor and low cost of fuel elements fabrication. Most important constraint is swelling during burnup and corrosion

  3. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  4. Principles and Materials Aspects of Direct Alkaline Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Hao Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs have attracted increasing interest over the past decade because of their favourable reaction kinetics in alkaline media, higher energy densities achievable and the easy handling of the liquid fuels. In this review, principles and mechanisms of DAAFCs in alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction are discussed. Despite the high energy densities available during the oxidation of polycarbon alcohols they are difficult to oxidise. Apart from methanol, the complete oxidation of other polycarbon alcohols to CO2 has not been achieved with current catalysts. Different types of catalysts, from conventional precious metal catalyst of Pt and Pt alloys to other lower cost Pd, Au and Ag metal catalysts are compared. Non precious metal catalysts, and lanthanum, strontium oxides and perovskite-type oxides are also discussed. Membranes like the ones used as polymer electrolytes and developed for DAAFCs are reviewed. Unlike conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells, anion exchange membranes are used in present DAAFCs. Fuel cell performance with DAAFCs using different alcohols, catalysts and membranes, as well as operating parameters are summarised. In order to improve the power output of the DAAFCs, further developments in catalysts, membrane materials and fuel cell systems are essential.

  5. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  6. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  7. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  8. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  9. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  10. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  11. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  12. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities

  14. Posttest examination results of recent treat tests on metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; Bauer, T.H.; Goldman, A.J.; Klickman, A.E.; Sevy, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    A series of in-reactor transient tests is underway to study the characteristics of metal-alloy fuel during transient-overpower-without-scam conditions. The initial tests focused on determining the margin to cladding breach and the axial fuel motions that would mitigate the power excursion. The tests were conducted in flowing-sodium loops with uranium - 5% fissium EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel elements in the TREAT facility. Posttest examination of the tests evaluated fuel elongation in intact pins and postfailure fuel motion. Microscopic examination of the intact pins studied the nature and extent of fuel/cladding interaction, fuel melt fraction and mass distribution, and distribution of porosity. Eutectic penetration and failure of the cladding were also examined in the failed pins

  15. Evaluation of Metal-Fueled Surface Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-01

    Surface fission power systems for use on the Moon and Mars may provide the first use of near-term reactor technology in space. Most near-term surface reactor concepts specify reactor temperatures <1000 K to allow the use of established material and power conversion technology and minimize the impact of the in-situ environment. Metal alloy fuels (e.g. U-10Zr and U-10Mo) have not traditionally been considered for space reactors because of high-temperature requirements, but they might be an attractive option for these lower temperature surface power missions. In addition to temperature limitations, metal fuels are also known to swell significantly at rather low fuel burnups (∼1 a/o), but near-term surface missions can mitigate this concern as well, because power and lifetime requirements generally keep fuel burnups <1 a/o. If temperature and swelling issues are not a concern, then a surface reactor concept may be able to benefit from the high uranium density and relative ease of manufacture of metal fuels. This paper investigates two reactor concepts that utilize metal fuels. It is found that these concepts compare very well to concepts that utilize other fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH) on a mass basis, while also providing the potential to simplify material safeguards issues

  16. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  17. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  18. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  19. Metal-fuel modeling for inherently safe reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Current development of breeder reactor systems has led to the renewed interest in metal fuels. These fuels have properties that enhance the inherent safety of the system, such as high thermal conductivity, compatibility with liquid sodium, and low fuel/cladding mechanical interaction. While metal-fuel irradiation behavior is well understood, there are some areas where more information is needed to fully understand the various safety-related phenomena, such as fuel/cladding chemical interaction, eutectic melting and penetration, and axial relocation of molten fuel prior to cladding breach. Because many of these phenomena can cause changes in the reactivity state of the system, their effects on whole-core normal, anticipated, and hypothetical accident scenarios need to be studied. The metal-fuel behavior model DEFORM-5 is being developed to provide the necessary phenomenological basis for these studies. The first stage in the DEFORM-5 development has been completed. Presently, DEFORM-5 calculates the cladding strain, life fraction, and eutectic penetration thinning for Types D9, HT9, or 316 steels. This first stage of DEFORM-5 has been used to analyze the TREAT M2, M3, and M4 transients with irradiated Experimental Breeder Reactor-II driver fuel. The paper shows the DEFORM-5 and experimental results for failure times for the test pins. The results provide confidence and validation of the DEFORM-5 modeling of the cladding behavior

  20. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  1. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  2. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  3. Evaluation report(1): on design criteria for KALIMER metal fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Il

    2001-04-01

    Fuel rods, assembly ducts and their components in KALIMER should be designed to maintain the integrities and to assure their reliable in-reactor performances under the steady state and operational transient conditions which are included in design basis category. And the fuel system must be designed with enough engineering margin to minimize and prevent the failures under ab-normal operational condition, like an accident.In this report, some design limits and the criteria for the fuel assembly ducts for KALIMER are driven by evaluating the irradiation data of metallic fuel based on experimental data from ANL in USA, CRIEPI in Japan and RIAR in Russia.

  4. Evaluation report(1): on design criteria for KALIMER metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Il

    2001-04-01

    Fuel rods, assembly ducts and their components in KALIMER should be designed to maintain the integrities and to assure their reliable in-reactor performances under the steady state and operational transient conditions which are included in design basis category. And the fuel system must be designed with enough engineering margin to minimize and prevent the failures under ab-normal operational condition, like an accident.In this report, some design limits and the criteria for the fuel assembly ducts for KALIMER are driven by evaluating the irradiation data of metallic fuel based on experimental data from ANL in USA, CRIEPI in Japan and RIAR in Russia

  5. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for LWR Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Bell, Gary L.; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for the specific LWR application has been provided. Basic fuel properties and characteristics that aim to improve operational reliability, enlarge performance envelope, and enhance safety margins under design-basis accident scenarios are summarized. Fabrication of M3 rodlets with various coated fuel particles over a temperature range of 800-1300 C is discussed. Results from preliminary irradiation testing of LWR M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles are also reported.

  6. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  7. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  8. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  9. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  10. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  11. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  12. Development of metallic fuel fabrication - A study on the interdiffusion behavior between ternary metallic fuel and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Soo; Seol, Kyung Won; Shon, In Jin [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To study a new ternary metallic fuel for liquid metal reactor, various U-Zr-X alloys have been made by induction melting. The specimens were prepared for thermal stability tests at 630 deg. C upto 5000 hours in order to estimate the decomposition of the lamellar structure. Interdiffusion studies were carried out at 700 deg. C for 200 hours for the diffusion couples assembled with U-Zr-X ternary fuel versus austenitic stainless steel D9 and martensitic stainless steel HT9, respectively, to investigate the fuel-cladding compatibility. The ternary alloy, especially U-Zr-Mo and U-Zr-Nb alloys showed relatively good thermal stability as long as 5000hrs at 630 deg. C. From the composition profiles of the interdiffusion study, Fe penetrated deeper to the fuel side than other cladding elements such as Ni and Cr, whereas U did to the cladding side of fuel elements in the fuel/D9 couples. On the contrary, the reaction layers of Fuel/HT9 couple were thinner than that of Fuel/D9 couples and were less affected by cladding element, which was believed to be due to Zr rich layer between the fuel-cladding interface. HT9 is considered to be superior to D9 and a favorable choice as a cladding material in terms of fuel-cladding compatibility. 21 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  13. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  14. Deoxyribonucleic acid directed metallization of platinum nanoparticles on graphite nanofibers as a durable oxygen reduction catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peera, S. Gouse; Sahu, A. K.; Arunchander, A.; Nath, Krishna; Bhat, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    Effective surface functionalization to the hydrophobic graphite nanofibers (GNF) is performed with the biomolecule, namely deoxy-ribo-nucleic-acid (DNA) via π-π interactions. Pt nanoparticles are impregnated on GNF-DNA composite by ethylene glycol reduction method (Pt/GNF-DNA) and its effect on electro catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is systemically studied. Excellent dispersion of Pt nanoparticles over GNF-DNA surfaces with no evidence on particle aggregation is a remarkable achievement in this study. This result in higher electro chemical surface area of the catalyst, enhanced ORR behavior with significant enhancement in mass activity. The catalyst is validated in H2-O2 polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a peak power density of 675 mW cm-2 is achieved at a load current density of 1320 mA cm-2 with a minimal catalyst loading of 0.1 mg cm-2 at a cell temperature of 70 °C and 2 bar absolute pressure. Repeated potential cycling up to 10000 cycles in acidic media is also performed for this catalyst and found excellent stability with only 60 mV drop in the ORR half wave potential. The superior behavior of Pt/GNF-DNA catalyst is credited to the robust fibrous structure of GNF and its effective surface functionalization process via π-π interaction.

  15. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  16. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  17. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.; Kucernak, Anthony R.; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F.; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J.; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due

  18. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  19. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  20. Process and equipment qualification of the ceramic and metal waste forms for spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Ken; Knight, Collin; Bateman, Kenneth; Westphal, Brian; Lind, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The electrometallurgical process for treating sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel at the Materials and Fuels Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory separates actinides and partitions fission products into two waste forms. The first is the metal waste form, which is primarily composed of stainless steel from the fuel cladding. This stainless steel is alloyed with 15w% zirconium to produce a very corrosion-resistant metal which binds noble metal fission products and residual actinides. The second is the ceramic waste form which stabilizes fission product-loaded chloride salts in a sodalite and glass composite. These two waste forms will be packaged together for disposal at the Yucca Mountain repository. Two production-scale metal waste furnaces have been constructed. The first is in a large argon-atmosphere glovebox and has been used for equipment qualification, process development, and process qualification - the demonstration of process reliability for production of the DOE-qualified metal waste form. The second furnace will be transferred into a hot cell for production of metal waste. Prototype production-scale ceramic waste equipment has been constructed or procured; some equipment has been qualified with fission product-loaded salt in the hot cell. Qualification of the remaining equipment with surrogate materials is underway. (author)

  1. Fabrication of metallic fuel for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Abdulla, K.K.; Kumar, Arbind; Mittal, R.K.; Prasad, R.S.; Mahule, N.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural uranium oxide fuelled PHWRs comprises of first stage of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid metal fast breeder reactors fuelled by Pu (from PHWR's) form the second stage. A shorter reactor doubling time is essential in order to accelerate the nuclear power growth in India. Metallic fuels are known to provide shorter doubling times, necessitating to be used as driver fuel for fast breeder reactors. One of the fabrication routes for metallic fuels having random grain orientation, is injection casting technique. The technique finds its basis in an elementary physical concept - the possibility of supporting a liquid column within a tube, by the application of a pressure difference across the liquid interface inside and outside the tube. At AFD, BARC a facility has been set-up for injection casting of uranium rods in quartz tube moulds, demoulding of cast rods, end-shearing of rods and an automated inspection system for inspection of fuel rods with respect to mass, length, diameter and diameter variation along the length and internal and external porosities/voids. All the above facilities have been set-up in glove boxes and have successfully been used for fabrication of uranium bearing fuel rods. The facility has been designed for fabrication and inspection of Pu-bearing metallic fuels also, if required

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  3. A design study of high breeding ratio sodium cooled metal fuel core without blanket fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noboru; Ogawa, Takashi; Ohki, Shigeo; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Ogata, Takanari

    2009-01-01

    The metal fuel core is superior to the mixed oxide fuel core because of its high breeding ratio and compact core size resulting from hard neutron spectrum and high heavy metal densities. Utilizing these characteristics, a conceptual design for a high breeding ratio was performed without blanket fuels. The design conditions were set so a sodium void worth of less than 8 $, a core height of less than 150 cm, the maximum cladding temperature of 650degC, and the maximum fuel pin bundle pressure drop of 0.4 MPa. The breeding ratio of the resultant core was 1.34 with 6wt% zirconium content fuel. Applying 3wt% zirconium content fuel enhanced the breeding ratio up to 1.40. (author)

  4. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  5. Non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Zhang, L.; Shi, Z.; Hui, R.; Zhang, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. For Fuel Cell Innovation

    2008-07-01

    High cost, low reliability and durability are the main barriers preventing widespread commercialization of fuel cells. In particular, the platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are major contributors to the high cost of PEM fuel cells. The Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation at the National Research Council of Canada has developed several new non-Pt electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell applications. This paper presented the research results on these catalysts, including transition metal macrocycles, chalcogenides, and Ir- or Pd-based alloys. It also described catalyst structure modes via theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Research activities on these electrocatalysts was summarized in terms of catalytic activity and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Typical catalysts such as cobalt(Co)-polypyrrole (PPy) and the chalcogenides show promising results in terms of catalytic activity and a 4-electron reaction mechanism. Efforts are underway to modify both catalyst structure and synthesis methods in order to further improve catalyst performance. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Reduced size fuel cell for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flat pack type fuel cell includes a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies. Each membrane electrode assembly is formed of an anode, an electrolyte, and an cathode with appropriate catalysts thereon. The anode is directly into contact with fuel via a wicking element. The fuel reservoir may extend along the same axis as the membrane electrode assemblies, so that fuel can be applied to each of the anodes. Each of the fuel cell elements is interconnected together to provide the voltage outputs in series.

  7. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  8. Electrocatalyst advances for hydrogen oxidation in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1984-01-01

    The important considerations that presently exist for achieving commercial acceptance of fuel cells are centered on cost (which translates to efficiency) and lifetime. This paper addresses the questions of electrocatalyst utilization within porous electrode structures and the preparation of low-cost noble metal electrocatalyst combinations with extreme dispersions of the metal. Now that electrocatalyst particles can be prepared with dimensions of 10 A, either singly or in alloy combinations, a very large percentage of the noble metal atoms in a crystallite are available for reaction. The cost savings for such electrocatalysts in the present commercially driven environment are considerable.

  9. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Macdonald, Charles L. B.; Northwood, Derek O.; Gyenge, Elod L.

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20 wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bönneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH 4 -, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH 4 - oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5 mg cm -2 colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47 V at 100 mA cm -2 and 333 K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17 V.

  10. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Department of Mechanical, Auto and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Macdonald, Charles L.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Gyenge, Elod L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1Z4)

    2006-07-14

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bonneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH{sub 4}{sup -}, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH{sub 4}{sup -} oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5mgcm{sup -2} colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47V at 100mAcm{sup -2} and 333K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17V. (author)

  11. From the pile of Volta to fuel cells

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Volta designed his pile by associating two different metals and liquid conducting electricity. He recognized the possibility of increasing the "voltage" by placing cells in series (a pile). This invention led to a wonderful development of science and technology, including the concept of fuel cell in 1839 by GROVE. But efficient research began only in the 20th century after the development of electrochemical thermodynamics by Nemst. His assistants conducted research on fuel cell designed by Bacon before world warII, developed NASA for the Apollo space flights. Research for effecient and clean electricity generation has led to the defferent kinds of fuel cells now under development (APC, PAPC, PAMPC, MCPC and SOPC) which will be briefly described with their applications.

  12. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  13. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  14. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  15. Preliminary study on metallic inclusion in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Imoto, Shosuke

    1984-01-01

    In recent postirradiation tests, metallic fission products such as Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd are known to precipitate as metallic inclusions in the fuel. These inclusions remain as insoluble residues and provide various problems in different fields of the reprocessing. In this report are presented preliminary results of the study on the ternary phase diagram of Mo-Ru-Pd system and on their properties in nitric acid or various oxidative environments. It is concluded that (1) most of metallic inclusions which are insoluble in nitric acid show epsilon phase, Ru base hcp alloy, in which a large amount of Mo and Pd are soluble, (2) Pd, however, seems to deposit separately in the fuel pin because of its high vapor pressure, (3) Mo fraction in the inclusion would be highly dependent on oxygen potential in the fuel pin. (author)

  16. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  18. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  19. Mitigation of chromium poisoning of cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells employing CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating on metallic interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruofan; Sun, Zhihao; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Basu, Soumendra N.

    2018-02-01

    Chromium poisoning is one of the major reasons for cathode performance degradation in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To mitigate the effect of Cr-poisoning, a protective coating on the surface of interconnect for suppressing Cr vaporization is necessary. Among the various coating materials, Cu-Mn spinel coating is considered to be a potential candidate due to their good thermal compatibility, high stability and good electronic conductivity at high temperature. In this study, Crofer 22 H meshes with no protective coating, those with commercial CuMn2O4 spinel coating and the ones with lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were investigated. The lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were deposited on Crofer 22 H mesh by electrophoretic deposition and densified by a reduction and re-oxidation process. With these different Crofer 22 H meshes (bare, CuMn2O4-coated, and CuMn1.8O4-coated), anode-supported SOFCs with Sr-doped LaMnO3-based cathode were electrochemically tested at 800 °C for total durations of up to 288 h. Comparing the mitigating effects of the two types of Cu-Mn spinel coatings on Cr-poisoning, it was found that the performance of the denser lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating was distinctly better, showing no degradation in the cell electrochemical performance and significantly less Cr deposition near the cathode/electrolyte interface after the test.

  20. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  1. Microbial fuel cell: A green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Muhamad Lebai Juri; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Leo Kwee Wah; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) was developed which was able to generate bio energy continuously while consuming wastewater containing organic matters. Even though the bio energy generated is not as high as hydrogen fuel cell, the MFC demonstrated great potential in bio-treating wastewater while using it as fuel source. Thus far, the dual-ability of the MFC to generate bio energy and bio-treating organic wastewater has been examined successfully using synthetic acetate and POME wastewaters. (author)

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risø National Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels; Hansen, J B.; Larsen, H H.

    2007-01-01

    The consortium of Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Riso National Laboratory has up-scaled its production capacity of anode-supported cells to about 1100 per week. Stacks are based on a compact thin plate multilayer design with metallic interconnects and 12x12 cm(2) or 18x18 cm(2) foot print. Larger (500 ...... to include ethanol and coal syngas by development of a new coke resistant catalyst suitable for future SOFC technology....

  3. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  4. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  5. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  6. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  7. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  8. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  9. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  10. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  11. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  12. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  13. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  14. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  15. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  16. Inherent safe fast breeder reactors and actinide burners, metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, S.; Schumacher, G.

    1991-04-01

    Nuclear power without breeder strategy uses the possibilities for the energy supply only to a small extend compared to the possibilities of fast breeder reactors, which offer an energy supply for thousands of years. Moreover, a fast neutron device offers the opportunity to run an actinide-burner that could improve the situation of waste management. Within this concept metallic fuel could play a key role. The present report shows some important aspects of the concept like the pyrometallic reprocessing, the behaviour of metallic fuel during a core meltdown accident and others. The report should contribute to the discussion of these problems and initialize further work

  17. Irradiation experience with HT9-clad metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The safe and reliable performance of metallic fuel is currently under study and demonstration in the Integral Fast Reactor program. In-reactor tests of HT9-clad metallic fuel have now reached maturity and have all shown good performance characteristics to burnups exceeding 17.5 at. % in the lead assembly. Because this low-swelling tempered martensitic alloy is the cladding of choice for high fluence applications, the experimental observations and performance modelling efforts reported in this paper play an important role in demonstrating reliability

  18. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  19. Cumulative damage fraction design approach for LMFBR metallic fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Huchman, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The cumulative damage fraction (CDF) analytical technique is currently being used to analyze the performance of metallic fuel elements for proliferation-resistant LMFBRs. In this technique, the fraction of the total time to rupture of the cladding is calculated as a function of the thermal, stress, and neutronic history. Cladding breach or rupture is implied by CDF = 1. Cladding wastage, caused by interactions with both the fuel and sodium coolant, is assumed to uniformly thin the cladding wall. The irradiation experience of the EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel with solution-annealed Type 316 stainless steel cladding provides an excellent data base for testing the applicability of the CDF technique to metallic fuel. The advanced metal fuels being considered for use in LMFBRs are U-15-Pu-10Zr, Th-20Pu and Th-2OU (compositions are given in weight percent). The two cladding alloys being considered are Type 316 stainless steel and a titanium-stabilized Type 316 stainless steel. Both are in the cold-worked condition. The CDF technique was applied to these fuels and claddings under the assumed steady-state operating conditions

  20. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  1. Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To

  2. The neutronic and fuel cycle performance of interchangeable 3500 MWth metal and oxide fueled LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study summarizes the neutronic and fuel cycle analysis performed at Argonne National Laboratory for an oxide and a metal fueled 3500 MWth LMR. These reactor designs formed the basis for a joint US/European study of LMR ATWS events. The oxide and metal core designs were developed to meet reactor performance specifications that are constrained by requirements for core loading interchangeability and for a small burnup reactivity swing. Differences in the computed performance parameters of the oxide and metal cores, arising from basic differences in their neutronic characteristics, are identified and discussed. It is shown that metal and oxide cores designed to the same ground rules exhibit many similar performance characteristics; however, they differ substantially in reactivity coefficients, control strategies, and fuel cycle options. 12 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Possibilities of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, B.; Mihajlovic, A.; Drobnjak, Dj.

    1965-11-01

    There are serious economic reasons for using metal uranium in heavy water reactors, because of its high density, i.e. high conversion factor, and low cost of fuel elements production. Most important disadvantages are swelling at high burnup and corrosion risk. Some design concepts and application of improved uranium obtained by alloying are promising for achievement of satisfactory stability of metal uranium under reactor operation conditions [sr

  4. Fuel upgrading and reforming with metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods for separating hydrocarbons on an internal combustion powered vehicle via one or more metal organic frameworks are disclosed. Systems and methods can further include utilizing separated hydrocarbons and exhaust to generate hydrogen gas for use as fuel. In one aspect, a method for separating hydrocarbons can include contacting a first component containing a first metal organic framework with a flow of hydrocarbons and separating hydrocarbons by size. In certain embodiments, the hydrocarbons can include alkanes.

  5. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  6. Failed fuel identification techniques for liquid-metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Mikaili, R.; Frank, S.M.; Cutforth, D.C.; Angelo, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), located in Idaho and operated for the US Department of Energy by Argonne National Laboratory, has been used as an irradiation testbed for LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many endurance tests have been carried out with experimental LMR metal, oxide, carbide and nitride fuel elements, in which cladding failures were intentionally allowed to occur. This paper describes methods that have been developed for the detection, identification and verification of fuel failures

  7. Recent progresses in materials for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C; Leger, J M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1998-12-31

    Research programs are being conducted worldwide to develop a clean, zero emissions electric vehicle. However, even with the most advanced batteries, such as nickel/metal hydride, or lithium ion batteries, the driving range is limited and the recharging time is long. Only fuel cells which can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy can compete with internal combustion engines. This paper reviewed the recent progress made in the development of a direct methanol fuel cell using the concept developed for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It was noted that the electrode materials, at the methanol anode and oxygen cathode need to be improved by using multifunctional electrocatalysts. The development of new temperature resistant proton exchange membranes with good ionic conductivity and low methanol cross-over, which resulted from the need to increase operating temperatures above 100 degrees C was also reviewed. 35 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  9. High temperature fuel cell with ceria-based solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Eguchi, K.; Yahiro, H.; Baba, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cation-doped ceria is investigated as an electrolyte for the solid oxide fuel cell. As for application to the fuel cells, the electrolyte are desired to have high ionic conductivity in deriving a large electrical power. A series of cation-doped ceria has higher ionic conductivity than zirconia-based oxides. In the present study, the basic electrochemical properties of cation-doped ceria were studied in relation to the application of fuel cells. The performance of fuel cell with yttria-doped ceria electrolyte was evaluated. Ceria-based oxides were prepared by calcination of oxide mixtures of the components or calcination of co-precipitated hydroxide mixtures from the metal nitrate solution. The oxide mixtures thus obtained were sintered at 1650 0 C for 15 hr in air into disks. Ionic transference number, t/sub i/, was estimated from emf of oxygen concentration cell. Electrical conductivities were measured by dc-4 probe method by varying the oxygen partial pressure. The fuel cell was operated by oxygen and hydrogen

  10. High Efficiency Semi-Fuel Cell Incorporating an Ion Exchange Membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medeiros, Maria G; Dow, Eric G; Bessette, Russell R; Yan, Susan G; Dischert, Dwayne W

    2004-01-01

    It is a general purpose and object of the present invention to eliminate the parasitic direct reaction of the catholyte with the metal anode in a semi-fuel cell, thereby improving the overall energy...

  11. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  12. Micro-Fuel Cells{sup TM} for portable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockaday, R.G.; DeJohn, M.; Navas, C.; Turner, P.S.; Vaz, H.L.; Vazul, L.L. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is a new power supply which provides a superior alternative compared to rechargeable batteries. A prototype has been developed by Manhattan Scientifics Inc. in collaboration with Energy Related Devices Inc. This mass-producible high-energy power supply can be used for cellular telephones, portable computers and other portable devices. Instead of being recharged, it can be easily refueled with methanol. The approach taken in designing this product was to develop a competitive product with definite advantages over existing products. The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is based on the idea that a fuel cell can be built onto an engineered microplastic substrate. In this case, the integrated design makes use of thin film vacuum deposition techniques to coat patterned, etched-nuclear-particle-track plastic membranes. This process forms catalytically active surface area electrodes on either side of a single structured proton-exchange-membrane electrolyte. Methanol was the choice fuel for this system because compared to hydrogen and metal hydrides, it was considered to be safer and more compact. In addition, the theoretical specific energy of methanol is significantly higher than for lithium-ion batteries. The problem of crossover, whereby methanol fuel diffuses across the fuel cell from the anode to the cathode, has also been solved by using a selectively permeable membrane. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2 3. FUELLING FUEL CELLS ...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical...UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1360 UNCLASSIFIED 4 3. Fuelling Fuel Cells 3.1 Hydrogen Hydrogen, either in its pure form or as reformate from another fuel is

  14. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  15. Irradiation performance of U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Cohen, A.B.; Billone, M.C.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses a fuel system utilizing metallic U-Pu-Zr alloys which has been developed for advanced liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMRs). Result's from extensive irradiation testing conducted in EBR-II show a design having the following key features can achieve both high reliability and high burnup capability: a cast nominally U-20wt %Pu-10wt %Zr slug with the diameter sized to yield a fuel smear density of ∼75% theoretical density, low-swelling tempered martensitic stainless steel cladding, sodium bond filling the initial fuel/cladding gap, and an as-built plenum/fuel volume ratio of ∼1.5. The robust performance capability of this design stems primarily from the negligible loading on the cladding from either fuel/cladding mechanical interaction or fission-gas pressure during the irradiation. The effects of these individual design parameters, e.g., fuel smear density, zirconium content in fuel, plenum volume, and cladding types, on fuel element performance were investigated in a systematic irradiation experiment in EBR-II. The results show that, at the discharge burnup of ∼11 at. %, variations on zirconium content or plenum volume in the ranges tested have no substantial effects on performance. Fuel smear density, on the other hand, has pronounced but countervailing effects: increased density results in greater cladding strain, but lesser cladding wastage from fuel/cladding chemical interaction

  16. Simplified fuel cell system model identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caux, S.; Fadel, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France); Hankache, W. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France)]|[Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France); Hissel, D. [Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed a simplified physical fuel cell model used to study fuel cell and supercap energy applications for vehicles. Anode, cathode, membrane, and electrode elements of the cell were modelled. A quasi-static Amphlett model was used to predict voltage responses of the fuel cell as a function of the current, temperature, and partial pressures of the reactive gases. The potential of each cell was multiplied by the number of cells in order to model a fuel cell stack. The model was used to describe the main phenomena associated with current voltage behaviour. Data were then compared with data from laboratory tests conducted on a 20 cell stack subjected to a current and time profile developed using speed data from a vehicle operating in an urban environment. The validated model was used to develop iterative optimization algorithms for an energy management strategy that linked 3 voltage sources with fuel cell parameters. It was concluded that classic state and dynamic measurements using a simple least square algorithm can be used to identify the most important parameters for optimal fuel cell operation. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  17. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin

  18. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    of the products. The observation of internal reforming was indirectly confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, where the best fits were obtained when a Gerischer element describing preceding chemical reaction and diffusion was included in the equivalent circuit of a methanol/air operated cell...... evaporated liquid stream supply to either of the electrodes. A large number of MEAs with different component compositions have been prepared and tested in different conditions using the constructed setups to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of direct DME HT-PEM FC, to map the processes occurring...... inside the cells and to determine the lifetime. Additionally, comparison was made with methanol as fuel, which is the main competitor to DME in direct oxidation of organic fuels in fuel cells. For the reference, measurements have also been done with conventional hydrogen/air operation. All...

  19. Metal waste forms from treatment of EBR-II spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstration of Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being conducted on irradiated, metallic driver fuel and blanket fuel elements from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho. The residual metallic material from the electrometallurgical treatment process is consolidated into an ingot, the metal waste form (MWF), by employing an induction furnace in a hot cell. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses have been performed on irradiated cladding hulls from the driver fuel, and on samples from the alloy ingots. This paper presents the microstructures of the radioactive ingots and compares them with observations on simulated waste forms prepared using non-irradiated material. These simulated waste forms have the baseline composition of stainless steel - 15 wt % zirconium (SS-15Zr). Additions of noble metal elements, which serve as surrogates for fission products, and actinides are made to that baseline composition. The partitioning of noble metal and actinide elements into alloy phases and the role of zirconium for incorporating these elements is discussed in this paper

  20. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  1. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  2. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  3. Analysis of metallic fuel pin behaviors under transient conditions of liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Cheol; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Hwang, Woan

    1999-02-01

    Transient behavior of metallic fuel pins in liquid metal reactor is quite different to that in steady state conditions. Even in transient conditions, the fuel may behave differently depending on its accident situation and/or accident sequence. This report describes and identifies the possible and hypothetical transient events at the aspects of fuel pin behavior. Furthermore, the transient experiments on HT9 clad metallic fuel have been analyzed, and then failure assessments are performed based on accident classes. As a result, the failure mechanism of coolant-related accidents, such as LOF, is mainly due to plenum pressure and cladding thinning caused by eutectic penetration. In the reactivity-related accidents, such as TOP, the reason to cladding failure is believed to be the fuel swelling as well as plenum pressure. The probabilistic Weibull analysis is performed to evaluate the failure behavior of HT9 clad-metallic fuel pin on coolant related accidents.The Weibull failure function is derived as a function of cladding CDF. Using the function, a sample calculation for the ULOF accident of EBR-II fuel is performed, and the results indicate that failure probability is less the 0.3%. Further discussion on failure criteria of accident condition is provided. Finally, it is introduced the state-of-arts for developing computer codes of reactivity-related fuel pin behavior. The development efforts for a simple model to predict transient fuel swelling is described, and the preliminary calculation results compared to hot pressing test results in literature.This model is currently under development, and it is recommended in the future that the transient swelling model will be combined with the cladding model and the additional development for post-failure behavior of fuel pin is required. (Author). 36 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  4. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  5. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  6. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  7. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  8. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  9. Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mustakeem, Mustakeem

    2015-11-05

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has the potential to become a major renewable energy resource by degrading organic pollutants in wastewater. The performance of MFC directly depends on the kinetics of the electrode reactions within the fuel cell, with the performance of the electrodes heavily influenced by the materials they are made from. A wide range of materials have been tested to improve the performance of MFCs. In the past decade, carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising materials for both anode and cathode construction. Composite materials have also shown to have the potential to become materials of choice for electrode manufacture. Various transition metal oxides have been investigated as alternatives to conventional expensive metals like platinum for oxygen reduction reaction. In this review, different carbon-based nanomaterials and composite materials are discussed for their potential use as MFC electrodes.

  10. Near-surface alloys for hydrogen fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2006-01-01

    of CO with relatively facile H-2 activation is nearly ideal for this application. We suggest that. as nanoscale materials synthesis techniques improve, it will become feasible to reproducibly prepare NSAs with highly specified surface structures, resulting in the design and manufacture of a wide variety...... facile H-2 activation. These NSAs could, potentially, facilitate highly selective hydrogenation reactions at low temperatures. In the present work, the suitability of NSAs for use as hydrogen fuel cell anodes has been evaluated: the combination of properties, possessed by selected NSAs, of weak binding...... of such materials for use in fuel cells and in an ever. increasing range of catalytic applications. Furthermore, we introduce a new concept for NSA-defect sites, which could be responsible for the promotional catalytic effects of a second metal added. even in minute quantities, to a host metal catalyst....

  11. Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mustakeem, Mustakeem

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has the potential to become a major renewable energy resource by degrading organic pollutants in wastewater. The performance of MFC directly depends on the kinetics of the electrode reactions within the fuel cell, with the performance of the electrodes heavily influenced by the materials they are made from. A wide range of materials have been tested to improve the performance of MFCs. In the past decade, carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising materials for both anode and cathode construction. Composite materials have also shown to have the potential to become materials of choice for electrode manufacture. Various transition metal oxides have been investigated as alternatives to conventional expensive metals like platinum for oxygen reduction reaction. In this review, different carbon-based nanomaterials and composite materials are discussed for their potential use as MFC electrodes.

  12. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  13. Platinum and palladium nano-structured catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Thi, Cao Minh; Yong, Yang; Nogami, Masayuki; Ohtaki, Michitaka

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we present the synthesis and characterization of Pt, Pd, Pt based bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles with mixture, alloy and core-shell structure for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, and fuel cells. Here, Pt and Pd nanoparticles with modified nanostructures can be controllably synthesized via chemistry and physics for their uses as electro-catalysts. The cheap base metal catalysts can be studied in the relationship of crystal structure, size, morphology, shape, and composition for new catalysts with low cost. Thus, Pt based alloy and core-shell catalysts can be prepared with the thin Pt and Pt-Pd shell, which are proposed in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). We also present the survey of the preparation of Pt and Pd based catalysts for the better catalytic activity, high durability, and stability. The structural transformations, quantum-size effects, and characterization of Pt and Pd based catalysts in the size ranges of 30 nm (1-30 nm) are presented in electro-catalysis. In the size range of 10 nm (1-10 nm), the pure Pt catalyst shows very large surface area for electro-catalysis. To achieve homogeneous size distribution, the shaped synthesis of the polyhedral Pt nanoparticles is presented. The new concept of shaping specific shapes and morphologies in the entire nano-scale from nano to micro, such as polyhedral, cube, octahedra, tetrahedra, bar, rod, and others of the nanoparticles is proposed, especially for noble and cheap metals. The uniform Pt based nanosystems of surface structure, internal structure, shape, and morphology in the nanosized ranges are very crucial to next fuel cells. Finally, the modifications of Pt and Pd based catalysts of alloy, core-shell, and mixture structures lead to find high catalytic activity, durability, and stability for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, fuel cells, especially the next large-scale commercialization of next

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Pore-Scale Investigation of Coupled Physical-electrochemical Processes in C/Pt and Non-Precious Metal Cathode Catalyst Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Wu, Gang; Holby, Edward F; Zelenay, Piotr; Tao, Wen-Quan; Kang, Qinjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale structures of catalyst layer are reconstructed. • Pore-scale simulation is performed to predict macroscopic transport properties. • Reactive transport in catalyst layer with non-precious metal and Pt catalysts is studied. • Mesopores rather than micropores are required to enhance mass transport. - Abstract: High-resolution porous structures of catalyst layers (CLs) including non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) or Pt for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are reconstructed using the quartet structure generation set. The nanoscale structures are analyzed in terms of pore size distribution, specific surface area, and phase connectivity. Pore-scale simulation methods based on the lattice Boltzmann method are developed to predict the macroscopic transport properties in CLs. The non-uniform distribution of ionomer in CL generates more tortuous pathways for reactant transport, greatly reducing the effective diffusivity. The tortuosity of CLs is much higher than that adopted by the Bruggeman equation. Knudsen diffusion plays a significant role in oxygen diffusion and significantly reduces the effective diffusivity. Reactive transport inside the CLs is also investigated. Although the reactive surface area of the non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC) CL is much higher than that of the Pt CL, the oxygen reaction rate is lower in the NPMC CL due to the much lower reaction rate coefficient. Although pores of a few nanometers in size can increase the number of reactive sites in NPMC CLs, they contribute little to enhance the mass transport. Mesopores, which are a few tens of nanometers or larger in size, are shown to be required in order to increase the mass transport rate

  15. Fuel processing requirements and techniques for fuel cell propulsion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Yu, M.

    Fuels for fuel cells in transportation systems are likely to be methanol, natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or ethanol. Fuels other than hydrogen will need to be reformed to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. The fuel reformer must meet stringent requirements for weight and volume, product quality, and transient operation. It must be compact and lightweight, must produce low levels of CO and other byproducts, and must have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Catalytic steam reforming, catalytic or noncatalytic partial oxidation reforming, or some combination of these processes may be used. This paper discusses salient features of the different kinds of reformers and describes the catalysts and processes being examined for the oxidation reforming of methanol and the steam reforming of ethanol. Effective catalysts and reaction conditions for the former have been identified; promising catalysts and reaction conditions for the latter are being investigated.

  16. Development of fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Kurata, Masaki; Koyama, Tadafumi; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Rondinella, Vincenzo V.

    2011-01-01

    Fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs) Np, Am, and Cm and rare earths (REs) Y, Nd, Ce, and Gd are being developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in the METAPHIX project. The basic properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys containing MA (and RE) were characterized by performing ex-reactor experiments. On the basis of the results, test fuel pins including U-Pu-Zr-MA(-RE) alloy ingots in parts of the fuel stack were fabricated and irradiated up to a maximum burnup of ∼10 at% in the Phenix fast reactor (France). Nondestructive postirradiation tests confirmed that no significant damage to the fuel pins occurred. At present, detailed destructive postirradiation examinations are being carried out at ITU. (author)

  17. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  18. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  19. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  20. Toward a sustainable energy supply with reduced environmental burden. Development of metal fuel fast reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Kensuke

    2009-01-01

    CRIEPI has been studying the metal fuel fast reactor cycle as an outstanding alternative for the future energy sources. In this paper, development of the metal fuel cycle is reviewed in the view point of technological feasibility and material balance. Preliminary estimation of reduction of the waste burden due to introduction of the metal fuel cycle technology is also reported. (author)

  1. Fuel cells - An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielstich, W.

    1984-01-01

    The direct conversion of the energy of a fuel into electrical energy in fuel cells avoids the losses inseparable from the indirect conversion via heat and mechanical energy. The idea to use this concept of energy conversion for the application in power stations would offer the following advantages: a slightly better total energy efficiency; no environmental problems; and flexibility in size according to the construction in the battery stacks. The use of acid and alkaline H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the U.S. space program has demonstrated the high energy per weight data possible with a fuel cell device including tankage. Therefore, the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles seems to be suitable at least from the technical point of view. Kordesch has converted an Austin A-40 to electric propulsion by replacing the gasoline engine by an 8-kW truck motor powered by a 6-kW alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell/4-kW lead-acid hybrid system. Two severe handicaps that occurred were the use of gas cylinders for the storage of the hydrogen and the voluminous CO 2 scrubber to prevent carbonization of the alkaline electrolyte. The direct conversion of a liquid fuel like methanol would be advantageous

  2. Trends for Methane Oxidation at Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleis, Jesper; Jones, Glenn; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict a plausible reaction pathway for the methane oxidation reaction. In turn, this pathway is used to obtain trends in methane oxidation activity at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode materials. Reaction energetics and barriers for the elementary...... the Ni surfaces to other metals of interest. This allows the reactivity over the different metals to be understood in terms of two reactivity descriptors, namely, the carbon and oxygen adsorption energies. By combining a simple free-energy analysis with microkinetic modeling, activity landscapes of anode...

  3. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  4. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  5. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  6. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbrenner, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  7. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...

  8. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  9. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  10. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  11. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  12. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  13. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  14. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Fuel cells is the topic covered in this edition.

  15. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  16. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  17. Understanding how cells allocate metals using metal sensors and metallochaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottey, Stephen; Harvie, Duncan R; Robinson, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Each metalloprotein must somehow acquire the correct metal. We review the insights into metal specificity in cells provided by studies of ArsR-SmtB DNA binding, metal-responsive transcriptional repressors, and a bacterial copper chaperone. Cyanobacteria are the one bacterial group that have known enzymatic demand for cytoplasmic copper import. The copper chaperone and ATPases that supply cyanobacterial plastocyanin and cytochrome oxidase are reviewed, along with related ATPases for cobalt and zinc. These studies highlight the contributions of protein-protein interactions to metal speciation. Metal sensors and metallochaperones, along with metal transporters and metal-storage proteins, act in concert not only to supply the correct metals but also to withhold the wrong ones.

  18. Fuel damage during off-normal transients in metal-fueled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.; Bauer, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel damage during off-normal transients is a key issue in the safety of fast reactors because the fuel pin cladding provides the primary barrier to the release of radioactive materials. Part of the Safety Task of the Integral Fast Reactor Program is to provide assessments of the damage and margins to failure for metallic fuels over the wide range of transients that must be considered in safety analyses. This paper reviews the current status of the analytical and experimental programs that are providing the bases for these assessments. 13 refs., 2 figs

  19. Simulation of the injection casting of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1989-01-01

    For the fabrication of metallic fuel pins, injection casting is a preferable process because the simplicity of the process is suitable for remote operation. In this process, the molten metal in the crucible is injected into evacuated molds (suspended above the crucible) by pressurizing the casting furnace. Argonne National Laboratory has already adopted this process in the Integral Fast Reactor program. To obtain fuel pins with good quality, the casting parameters, such as the molten metal temperature, the magnitude of the pressure applied, the pressurizing rate, the cooling time, etc., must be optimized. Otherwise, bad-quality castings (short castings, rough surfaces, shrinkage cavities, mold fracture) may result. Therefore, it is very important in designing the casting equipment and optimizing the operation conditions to be able to predict the fluid and thermal behavior of the castings. This paper describes methods to simulate the heat and mass transfer in the molds and molten metallic fuel during injection casting. The results obtained by simulation are compared with experimental ones. Also, appropriate casting conditions for the uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloy are discussed based on the simulated results

  20. Metallic hydrogen: The most powerful rocket fuel yet to exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, Isaac F [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cole, John W, E-mail: silvera@physics.harvard.ed [NASA MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35801 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metastable metallic hydrogen to rocketry. Metastable metallic hydrogen would be a very light-weight, low volume, powerful rocket propellant. One of the characteristics of a propellant is its specific impulse, I{sub sp}. Liquid (molecular) hydrogen-oxygen used in modern rockets has an Isp of {approx}460s; metallic hydrogen has a theoretical I{sub sp} of 1700s. Detailed analysis shows that such a fuel would allow single-stage rockets to enter into orbit or carry economical payloads to the moon. If pure metallic hydrogen is used as a propellant, the reaction chamber temperature is calculated to be greater than 6000 K, too high for currently known rocket engine materials. By diluting metallic hydrogen with liquid hydrogen or water, the reaction temperature can be reduced, yet there is still a significant performance improvement for the diluted mixture.