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Sample records for fuego southern south

  1. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

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    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  2. Species richness and faunistic affinities of the Gammaridea and Corophiidea (Amphipoda from shallow waters of southern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: preliminary results

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    Ignacio Luis Chiesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and faunistic affinities of gammaridean and corophiidean amphipods from southern Tierra del Fuego were studied. The material was collected with dredges and grabs at 7 locations (15 sampling stations in a range of 5 to 35 m depth. A total of 61 species belonging to 20 families and 43 genera were identified. The genera Cephalophoxoides, Ceradocopsis and Photis are reported for the first time from the Magellan region and 3 species belonging to Atylus, Ischyrocerus and Photis appear to be new to science. Most of the species collected belong to Phoxocephalidae, whereas most individuals were contained in the Stenothoidae and Lysianassidae s.l. The analysis of the faunistic affinities showed that 16 species (39% are endemic to the Magellan region, 9 species (22% extend to the south, 5 species (12.2% to the north and 5 other species (12.2% to both the north and south. In addition, 6 species extend beyond the Magellan region as far as Oceania.

  3. A Geochemical and Sedimentary Record of High Southern Latitude Holocene Climate Evolution from Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, C M; Dunbar, R B; Guilderson, T P; Waldmann, N; Mucciarone, D A; Recasens, C; Austin, J A; Anselmetti, F S

    2010-11-19

    Situated at the southern margin of the hemispheric westerly wind belt and immediately north of the Antarctic Polar Frontal zone, Tierra del Fuego is well-positioned to monitor coupled changes in the ocean-atmosphere system of the high southern latitudes. Here we describe a Holocene paleoclimate record from sediment cores obtained from Lago Fagnano, a large lake in southern Tierra del Fuego at 55{sup o}S, to investigate past changes in climate related to these two important features of the global climate system. We use an AMS radiocarbon chronology for the last 8,000 years based on pollen concentrates, thereby avoiding contamination from bedrock-derived lignite. Our chronology is consistent with a tephrochronologic age date for deposits from the middle Holocene Volcan Hudson eruption. Combining bulk organic isotopic ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and elemental (C and N) parameters with physical sediment properties allow us to better understand sediment provenance and transport mechanisms and to interpret Holocene climate and tectonic change during the last 8,000 years. Co-variability and long-term trends in C/N ratio, carbon accumulation rate, and magnetic susceptibility reflect an overall Holocene increase in the delivery of terrestrial organic and lithogenic material to the deep eastern basin. We attribute this variability to westerly wind-derived precipitation. Increased wind strength and precipitation in the late Holocene drives the Nothofagus forest eastward and enhances run-off and terrigenous inputs to the lake. Superimposed on the long-term trend are a series of abrupt 9 negative departures in C/N ratio, which constrain the presence of seismically-driven mass flow events in the record. We identify an increase in bulk {delta}{sup 13}C between 7,000 and 5,000 cal yr BP that we attribute to enhanced aquatic productivity driven by warmer summer temperatures. The Lago Fagnano {delta}{sup 13}C record shows similarities with Holocene records of sea surface

  4. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

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    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  5. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

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    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  6. Feeding habits of the false southern king crab Paralomis granulosa (Lithodidae in the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    Laura Inés Comoglio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of 282 false southern king crabs (Paralomis granulosa, between 10 to 90 mm CL from the Beagle Channel (Golondrina Bay and Roca Mora, Argentina, were examined by the frequency of occurrence method of analysis and by a food index. Roca Mora is an area where juveniles ( 60 mm CL are common; in this last area sexual segregation was also observed. The principal food groups for crabs of Golondrina Bay were algae, molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans and foraminiferans; for crabs from Roca Mora the natural diet consisted of three major food groups: hydrozoans, echinoderms and foraminiferans. The relative frequency of different prey groups varied in relation to the size, season and sex. There were no significant differences in the quantity of food consumed by sexes in both areas. Generally small crabs ( 50 mm CL. Juveniles consumed a greater amount of food during winter and spring. In summer (moulting period, juveniles had the highest vacuity index. Adults consumed minor amounts of food during autumn, before the spawning-moulting-mating period when the vacuity index was higher (spring.

  7. Early migration and estuary stopover of introduced chinook salmon population in the Lapataia River Basin, southern Tierra del Fuego Island

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    Chalde, T.; Fernández, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Established populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently been reported in South America, at both Atlantic and Pacific basins. Several studies have evaluated different aspects of their life histories; however, little is known about the use of the estuaries by the juveniles of these populations. We examined spawning time, seaward migration timing, growth rate, scale patterns, diet, and geometric morphometric, contrasting the early life history during freshwater and estuary residence of a chinook population established in Lapataia Basin. Fall run spawning took place in March-April and the parr emerged in September. Two distinct seaward migration patterns were identified from sein net fishing records: one population segment migrating earlier to the estuary in October and a second group migrating later in February. The growth rate of fish captured at the estuary was significantly higher than the fish captured in freshwater. In addition, higher scale intercirculi distances were observed in estuary fish showing differences in growth rate. The feeding habitat in fish captured in both environments changed through time from bottom feeding to surface feeding and from significant diet overlap to no overlap. The morphology of the fish captured at the estuary was associated with the elongation of the caudal peduncle and a decrease in the condition factor index, both changes related to smolt transformation. The earlier migration and the higher growth rate of juveniles in the estuary together with fish of 1 + yo captured in this environment reveal that the estuary of Lapataia Basin is not only a stopover for the chinook salmon, but also a key habitat to reside and feed previous to the final seaward migration.

  8. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  9. CULTURE STUDIES ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF CHORDARIA-LINEARIS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) FROM TIERRA-DEL-FUEGO, SOUTH-AMERICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF

    1992-01-01

    Studies of laboratory cultures of Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton from southernmost South America revealed that this species has an obligate sexual life history in which a macroscopic sporophyte alternates with a monoecious microscopic gametophyte. Sexual reproduction is isogamous and

  10. Fuego y acero

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    Sfintesco, D.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available In a brief and appealing manner the author analysis the basic considerations which should be taken into account to deal effectively with the safety of steel structures in case of fire. He makes it clear that the safety measures must not be the result of a rather intuitive and hasty reaction to the possibility of a fire: for example, the costly covering of steel columns with fire resisting material, which in most cases is not necessary. A careful assessment of possible risks must be made, available means to reduce these must be adopted, and the potential losses in case of fire must be taken into account. The article is completed with a brief commentary on the new Italian Regulations, which are probably the most modern and advanced on this matter.El autor expone en este trabajo, en forma breve y llamativa, las bases en que conviene apoyarse para poder resolver racionalmente el problema de la seguridad de las estructuras de acero frente al fuego. Su lectura hace comprender claramente que no puede constituir esta base el temor irreflexivo, con sus secuelas de revestimientos y precauciones onerosos, e innecesarios la mayor parte de las veces, sino la ponderación prudente de los riesgos posibles, de los medios disponibles para combatir el peligro y de los daños probables que del incendio se puedan derivar. Termina el artículo con un rápido comentario del nuevo Reglamento italiano, probablemente el más moderno y avanzado de todos los existentes sobre esta materia de protección contra el fuego.

  11. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  12. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

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    Magalhaes, Antonio Mario Mario; Ramírez, Edgar; Ribeiro, Nadili; Seriacopi, Daiane; Rubinho, Marcelo; Ferrari, Tiberio; Rodrigues, Claudia; Schoenell, William; Herpich, Fabio; Pereyra, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly built polarimeter for T80-S, an 84 cm robotic telescope installed at Cerro Tololo (CTIO), Chile. It will initially cover the sky South of declination -15 deg with a polarimetric accuracy Solar System.The polarimeter has just been commissioned in mid-November, 2017. The data reduction pipeline has already been built. We will describe the instrument and the data reduction, as well as a few of the science cases. The survey is expected to begin midway through the 1st semester of 2018. Both catalog data and raw images will be made available.

  13. Cultural tourism in fragile institutional contexts: project for cultural routes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliu, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of South...

  14. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

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    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in…

  15. The buffalo in Southern South America

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    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  16. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  17. Identifying potential differences in ontogentic ages between modern and archaeological Nacella deaurata shells, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    Surge, D. M.; Godino, I. B. I.; Álvarez, M.; López, M. B. I.

    2017-12-01

    Patelloid limpet shells are common constituents of rocky shore habitats along the eastern Atlantic basin and are often found in archaeological shell middens. Nacella deaurata is an intertidal species found in the Magellanic Province along the southern tip of South America. Recent discoveries of archaeological shell middens in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, identify N. deaurata as one of the abundant shells in these deposits. Preliminary observations reveal that modern N. deaurata shells achieve larger sizes compared to those found in the archaeological middens. Here, we provide preliminary data to test the hypothesis that the larger, modern specimens grow to older ontogenetic ages than the smaller archaeological specimens. Our results may provide insights into harvesting pressures on this species during the time when the archaeological sites were inhabited. Understanding their annual growth patterns also has important implications for generating oxygen isotope proxy data to reconstruct seasonal variation in sea surface temperature.

  18. Definiciones y clasificaciones de armas de fuego

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    Ávila, Marianela; Proaño, Fernanda; Gómez, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    El siguiente comparativo realiza contrastes entre definiciones y clasificaciones de las armas de fuego, entre el comercio legal e ilegal, entre los países productores, exportadores e importadores, entre las tasas de homicidio por armas de fuego en los países de América Latina y entre los países en cuanto a su legislación sobre control y tenencia de armas, violencia armada y homicidios.

  19. Transnational entrepreneurship in the Global South: evidence from Southern Africa

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    Rogerson Jayne M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational entrepreneurship is an evolving field of research which occupies an interface between social and regional sciences. The phenomenon of transnational entrepreneurship is driven by entrepreneurs that migrate from one country to another whilst maintaining business-related linkages with their former country of origin and the adopted country. The most critical distinguishing feature of transnational entrepreneurs is bifocality or the ability to function across two different business environments. Most writings on transnational entrepreneurship concentrate on business individuals from the global South operating enterprises in the global North. Absent are empirical studies of the nature and behaviour of transnational migrant entrepreneurs who operate across or between emerging or developing economies. This South-South gap in international research concerning transnational entrepreneurship is addressed in the paper which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of transnational entrepreneurship occurring in Southern Africa using evidence of Zimbabwean transnational entrepreneurs based in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  20. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

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    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  1. Cultural Tourism In Fragile Institutional Contexts Project For Cultural Routes In Tierra Del Fuego

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    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of Southern Patagonia, through the dissemination and transfer of technologies and knowledge, acquired in over 10 years of research and projects, onto the territory and local agents. These Cultural Routes build an innovative offer, capable of structuring the diverse touristic resources and strengthening the basis for the development of a new stage of national and international tourism market, located on the southern extreme of Chile and America.

  2. Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America.

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    Holz, Andrés; Paritsis, Juan; Mundo, Ignacio A; Veblen, Thomas T; Kitzberger, Thomas; Williamson, Grant J; Aráoz, Ezequiel; Bustos-Schindler, Carlos; González, Mauro E; Grau, H Ricardo; Quezada, Juan M

    2017-09-05

    The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the main driver of climate variability at mid to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, affecting wildfire activity, which in turn pollutes the air and contributes to human health problems and mortality, and potentially provides strong feedback to the climate system through emissions and land cover changes. Here we report the largest Southern Hemisphere network of annually resolved tree ring fire histories, consisting of 1,767 fire-scarred trees from 97 sites (from 22 °S to 54 °S) in southern South America (SAS), to quantify the coupling of SAM and regional wildfire variability using recently created multicentury proxy indices of SAM for the years 1531-2010 AD. We show that at interannual time scales, as well as at multidecadal time scales across 37-54 °S, latitudinal gradient elevated wildfire activity is synchronous with positive phases of the SAM over the years 1665-1995. Positive phases of the SAM are associated primarily with warm conditions in these biomass-rich forests, in which widespread fire activity depends on fuel desiccation. Climate modeling studies indicate that greenhouse gases will force SAM into its positive phase even if stratospheric ozone returns to normal levels, so that climate conditions conducive to widespread fire activity in SAS will continue throughout the 21st century.

  3. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

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    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, considered as a landscape and as a resource, according to Gregotti and Sola-Morales, that has been formed by a human process on the geographical support of Tierra del Fuego, and owes its existence to a process that transformed this territory into a product, placed south of the ice fields, southeast of the Strait of Magellan, in the confines of America, between south latitudes 52 and 55 degrees. On the other hand, reading the area in terms of palimpsest, according to Corboz, brings out several layers to form the extreme landscapes in Tierra del Fuego, considering some key issues including: the nomination of Magellan as extreme and special area by Cideze; the geographical context of Tierra del Fuego, as the exceptional finish of Patagonia and the gateway to Antarctica; the important collection of narratives and maps bequeathed by European explorers who recognized it; the rich cultural legacy of the aboriginal sélknam; and the human settlements, which emerged at the late nineteenth century, setting some recognizable and typical landscapes. In this way, we argued that the extreme cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego have been formed in the manner of overlapping layers, like a palimpsest, in a construction that transcends the physical territory, to settle in the Western cultural fantasy as an imaginary of that remote boundary.

  4. Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974): evidence of a tertiary fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes-Andre, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Values for mode and dispersion calculated from SFT were analyzed using the SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport) model to Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974). Analysis results have showed that the ideas initially proposed for Irazu, can be applied to Fuego Volcano. Experimental evidence was found corroborating the existence of tertiary fragmentations. (author) [es

  5. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

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    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  6. Sociology with a Southern Face: Why Are We Sociologists and What Are We Doing about It in the South?

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    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    2008-01-01

    Sociology with a Southern face characterizes Southern sociologists and Southern social issues. This article asks why we are sociologists and what we are doing about it in the South. I posit that many Southern sociologists share common biographical experiences that provide insights for understanding and solving Southern problems. Longstanding…

  7. Trace elements deposition in the Tierra del Fuego region (south Patagonia) by using lichen transplants after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (north Patagonia) volcanic eruption in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Jasan, Raquel; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Plá, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.

  8. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  9. Diversity of endosymbiotic Nostoc in Gunnera magellanica from Tierra del Fuego, Chile [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, M A; de Los Ríos, A; Sancho, L G; Pérez-Ortega, S

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is causing ice retreat in glaciers worldwide, most visibly over the last few decades in some areas of the planet. One of the most affected areas is the region of Tierra del Fuego (southern South America). Vascular plant recolonisation of recently deglaciated areas in this region is initiated by Gunnera magellanica, which forms symbiotic associations with the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc, a trait that likely confers advantages in this colonisation process. This symbiotic association in the genus Gunnera is notable as it represents the only known symbiotic relationship between angiosperms and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Nostoc symbionts in Gunnera at three different, nested scale levels: specimen, population and region. Three different genomic regions were examined in the study: a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S), the RuBisCO large subunit gene coupled with its promoter sequence and a chaperon-like protein (rbcLX) and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The identity of Nostoc as the symbiont was confirmed in all the infected rhizome tissue analysed. Strains isolated in the present study were closely related to strains known to form symbioses with other organisms, such as lichen-forming fungi or bryophytes. We found 12 unique haplotypes in the 16S rRNA (small subunit) region analysis, 19 unique haplotypes in the ITS region analysis and 57 in the RuBisCO proteins region (rbcLX). No genetic variability was found among Nostoc symbionts within a single host plant while Nostoc populations among different host plants within a given sampling site revealed major differences. Noteworthy, interpopulation variation was also shown between recently deglaciated soils and more ancient ones, between eastern and western sites and between northern and southern slopes of Cordillera Darwin. The cell structure of the symbiotic relationship was observed with low-temperature scanning

  10. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  11. Lead Toxicosis in a Southern Ground Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Kemp, Lucy V

    2015-12-01

    The southern ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) has been classified as globally vulnerable and, in South Africa, regionally endangered, with a negative population trend. Factors contributing to the population decline in South Africa are poisoning, electrocution, and illegal capture for trade, coupled with slow reproductive rates and extensive habitat requirements. Lead toxicosis is a previously undescribed threat for the population. An adult southern ground hornbill presented with acute lead toxicosis due to lead particles in the gizzard, which required intensive treatment. Two other hornbills were likely exposed. The source of the lead in these cases was likely a carcass of a porcupine that was killed with lead shot. This report highlights the importance of the use of lead-free ammunition within the habitat of the southern ground hornbill in South Africa.

  12. A narrative analysis of Deafhood in South Africa | Morgan | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses narrative analysis to explore the narrative construction of Deafhood (Ladd, 2003) in the South African post-apartheid context. The data comprise five life stories of Deaf South Africans. The theoretical framework includes Ladd's notion of Deafhood as belonging and becoming and De Certeau's (1984) notions ...

  13. The perceived image of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina in travel stories published by “TravelPod”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Mosti

    2017-07-01

    environmental conditions, with inhospitable landscapes and, by all appearances, a pristine ecosystem. Together these things form a constitutive part the territorial identity of southern Patagonia. The cartography, the scientific expeditions, the religious missions, the journalism and the literature played an important role in the diffusion and permanency of these representations. In modern Western societies, companies have positioned the concept as a powerful tourist resource, capable of motivating travelers coming to Tierra del Fuego. The present communication proposes an approximation to the perceived image of Tierra del Fuego, according to tourists’ statements in trip blogs, taking these chronicles from sources posted on the site Travelpod. The aim is to examine the contents of the perceived image and to investigate the ways that the concept “End of the World” is resignified. The tourists’ testimonies appeal always to the idea of the End of the World; these representations can be condensed to two dimensions, the one linked to physical – geographical aspects and another that recreates symbolic contents. In the perceived images of Tierra del Fuego, there is an intermingling of the archaic, the legend and the distance, the impregnable vastness of the nature and the recollection of heroic expeditions.

  14. State of knowledge of the Corallinales (Rhodophyta of Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Mendoza

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Corallinales (Rhodophyta in Tierra del Fuego are abundant, with 9 genera, 17 species and 1 subspecies. Pseudolithophyllum with 1 species (P. fueguianum, which represents 35.8% of the coralline algae, is dominant. The genera Parahydrolithon with 4 species (P. consociatum, P. discoideum, P. falklandicum, P. subantarcticum and 20%, Lithothamnion with 3 species (Lt. heterocladum, Lt. rugosum, Lt. granuliferum and 17.5%, and Synarthrophyton with 3 species (S. neglectum, S. patena, S. schmitzii and 12% share are abundant. Clathromorphum with 4 species (Cl. annulatum, Cl. lemoineanum, Cl. obtectulum, Cl. Variabile and a share of 5.8%, and Mesophyllum with 1 species (M. fueguianum and a share of 4.9% are frequent. The remaining three genera, Bossiella with 1 subspecies (B. orbigniana ssp. orbigniana, Corallina with 2 species (C. elongata, C. officinalis (1.1%, and Titanoderna with 1 species (T. conspectum (1% are scarce. C. officinalis is a cosmopolitan, and the other geniculate corallines are found in both hemispheres, whereas the crustose coralline occur only in the southern hemisphere. The characteristic vertical distribution of the species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of Tierra del Fuego is given. The Corallinales in the Antarctic Region are poorly known and need further investigation.

  15. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Briano, Juan; Calcaterra, Luis; Varone, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  16. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community.

  17. Mesozoic Compressional Folds of the Nansha Waters, Southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R.; Liu, H.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an important part of the South China Sea, the southern margin of the South China Sea is fundamental to understand the interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian-Australian plates and the evolution of the South China Sea. Some multi-channel seismic profiles of the Nansha waters together with published drillings and dredge data were correlated for interpretation. The strata of the study region can be divided into the upper, middle and lower structural layers. The upper and middle structural layers with extensional tectonics are Cenozoic; the lower structural layer suffered compression is Mesozoic. Further structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and to calculate the Mesozoic tectonic compression ratios. The results indicate that two diametrically opposite orientations of compressive stress, S(S)E towards N(N)W orientation and N(N)W towards S(S)E orientation respectively, once existed in the lower structural layer of the study area and shared the same variation trend. The compression ratio values gradually decrease both from the north to the south and from the west to the east in each stress orientation. The phenomena may be related to the opening of the proto-South China Sea (then located in south of the Nansha block) and the rate of the Nansha block drifted northward in Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, which had pushed the Nansha block drifted northward until it collided and sutured with the Southern China Margin. Thus the opening of the present-day South China Sea may be related to this suture zone, which was tectonically weakness zone.Key words: Mesozoic compression; structural restoration; proto-South China Sea; Nansha waters; Southern South China Sea; Acknowledgements: The work was granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41476039, 91328205, 41576068 and 41606080).

  18. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  19. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  20. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel Hristoff, Pablo; Rossing, W.A.H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-01-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of

  1. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristori Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network’s status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels, as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET. Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  2. Saver.net lidar network in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Jin, Yoshitaka; Barja, Boris; Shimizu, Atsushi; Barbero, Albane; Salvador, Jacobo; Bali, Juan Lucas; Herrera, Milagros; Etala, Paula; Acquesta, Alejandro; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizuno, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The South American Environmental Risk Management Network (SAVER-Net) is an instrumentation network, mainly composed by lidars, to provide real-time information for atmospheric hazards and risk management purposes in South America. This lidar network have been developed since 2012 and all its sampling points are expected to be fully implemented by 2017. This paper describes the network's status and configuration, the data acquisition and processing scheme (protocols and data levels), as well as some aspects of the scientific networking in Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET). Similarly, the paper lays out future plans on the operation and integration to major international collaborative efforts.

  3. Fuego/Scefire MPMD Coupling L2 Milestone Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Flint [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drumm, Clifton R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This milestone campaign was focused on coupling Sandia physics codes SIERRA low Mach module Fuego and RAMSES Boltzmann transport code Sceptre(Scefire). Fuego enables simulation of low Mach, turbulent, reacting, particle laden flows on unstructured meshes using CVFEM for abnormal thermal environments throughout SNL and the larger national security community. Sceptre provides simulation for photon, neutron, and charged particle transport on unstructured meshes using Discontinuous Galerkin for radiation effects calculations at SNL and elsewhere. Coupling these ”best of breed” codes enables efficient modeling of thermal/fluid environments with radiation transport, including fires (pool, propellant, composite) as well as those with directed radiant fluxes. We seek to improve the experience of Fuego users who require radiation transport capabilities in two ways. The first is performance. We achieve this through leveraging additional computational resources for Scefire, reducing calculation times while leaving unaffected resources for fluid physics. This approach is new to Fuego, which previously utilized the same resources for both fluid and radiation solutions. The second improvement enables new radiation capabilities, including spectral (banded) radiation, beam boundary sources, and alternate radiation solvers (i.e. Pn). This summary provides an overview of these achievements.

  4. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  5. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  6. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiometric ages of some igneous rocks from the southern and southwestern coalfields of New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.F.; Facer, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from six igneous rock units of the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields (Sydney Basin) of New South Wales have been dated using the K-Ar radiometric technique. The following ages were determined: a dolerite from Towradgi, 243 +- 10 MY; a dolerite from a diamond-drill hole at Sutton Forest, 202 +- 8 MY; the Bong Bong Basalt, 190 +- 8 MY; the Good Dog Lamprophyre, 101 +- 4 MY; a teschenite from South Bulli coal mine 74.0 +- 3.6 MY; and a dolerite from Robertson, 63.8 +- 3.2 MY. Combination of these new ages wth previously-published ages indicates that igneous activity in the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields occurred during four discrete periods of time - Middle-to-Late Permian; Late Triassic to Early Jurassic; mid-Cretaceous (only the Good Dog Lamprophyre has yielded such an age); and latest Cretaceous to Late Oligocene

  8. Tides and their dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai Ooi; Samah, Azizan Abu

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performe...... on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area....

  9. EL SITIO HESHKAIA 35: NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE MOAT (TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA / Heshkaia 35 site: new data on the archaeology of Moat (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilio Francisco Zangrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available arqueológicos recuperados en el sitio Heshkaia 35 (costa sur de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Este sitio se ubica en un ámbito costero en la sección media de la cuenca del río Moat y registra ocupaciones durante el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 800-500 AP. La diversidad tecnológica y el registro zooarqueológico señalan el desarrollo de actividades múltiples. Los artefactos líticos dominan el conjunto tecnológico. Los desechos líticos indican un fuerte énfasis hacia los estadios finales de talla, puesto de manifiesto en la baja presencia de artefactos con corteza y la elevada frecuencia de lascas de formatización y de reactivación de filos. El conjunto zooarqueológico se compone mayormente de restos óseos de guanacos. Los moluscos también habrían cumplido un rol significativo en la dieta. Restos óseos de mamíferos marinos, zorros, aves y peces están representados por frecuencias bajas. La composición artefactual y arqueofaunística estaría indicando que el aprovisionamiento de recursos se habría articulado principalmente desde el ámbito costero y no necesariamente en el mar. Se discuten las implicaciones de esta evidencia para las pautas conductuales de cazadores-recolectores en la costa sur de Tierra del Fuego. Palabras Clave: Arqueología de costas, Cazadores-recolectores, Tierra del Fuego, Holoceno Tardío   Abstract This paper presents and discusses the archaeological evidence from Heshkaia 35 site (southern coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This site is located in a coastal setting in the middle section of the Moat River Basin and records occupations during the Late Holocene (ca. 800-500 BP. Technological diversity and the zooarchaeological record point to the development of multiple activities. Lithic artifacts dominate the technological assemblage. Lithic debitage indicates a strong emphasis towards final stages of reduction, shown by the lower occurrence of artifacts with cortex and the high frequency resharpening

  10. Multiple-scale roost habitat comparisons of female Merriam's wild turkeys in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Chad P. Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Because quantity and quality of roosting habitat can affect Merriam's Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) distribution, we described habitat characteristics of Merriam's turkey roost sites in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. Varying proportions of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills depended on supplemental feed from livestock...

  11. Influence of the May Southern annular mode on the South China Sea summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Jianping; Li, YanJie; Zhao, Sen; Zheng, Fei; Zheng, Jiayu; Yao, Zhixiong

    2017-07-01

    The possible impact of the May Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) on the following South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SCSSM) is examined. A close inverse relationship between the two is revealed in the observations. The simultaneous South Pacific dipole (SPD), a dipole-like sea surface temperature anomaly pattern in the South Pacific, acts as the "oceanic bridge" to preserve the May SAM signal and prolong it into June-September. Observational evidence and numerical simulations both demonstrate that the SPD communicates its large thermal inertia signal to the atmosphere, regulating the Southern Pacific Subtropical Jet (SPSJ) variability over eastern Australia. Corresponding to the adjustment of circulation associated with the SPSJ is a prominent tripolar cross-Pacific teleconnection pattern stretching from the SH middle-high latitudes into the NH East Asia coastal region, referred to as the South-North Pacific (SNP) teleconnection pattern. Wave ray tracing analysis manifests that the SNP acts as the "atmospheric bridge" to propagate the related wave energy across the equator and into the Maritime Continent and SCS monsoon region, modulating the vertical motion and middle-lower tropospheric flows, and favoring the out-of-phase variation of the SCSSM. Therefore, the "coupled oceanic-atmospheric bridge" process and the related Rossby wave energy transmission are possible mechanisms for the significant influence of the May SAM on the variability of the following SCSSM. Therefore, the May SAM provides a fresh insight into the prediction of the SCSSM from the perspective of the SH high latitudes.

  12. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  13. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  14. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  15. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Leading El-Niño SST Oscillations around the Southern South American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The inter-annual variations in the sea surface temperatures (SSTs of the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean have been widely investigated, largely due to their importance in achieving the sustainable development of marine ecosystems under a changing climate. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a widely recognized variability. In the subpolar region in the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC is one of the main sources of the Peru Current. A change in the SST in the Southern Ocean may change the physical properties of the seawater in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean. However, the variations in the SST in the Southern Ocean have rarely been addressed. This study uses a 147-year (1870–2016 dataset from the Met Office Hadley Centre to show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs in the oceans west and east of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula have strong positive (R = 0.56 and negative (R = −0.67 correlations with the Niño 3.4 SSTA, respectively. Such correlations are likely related to the changes in circulations of the ACC. We further show that, statistically, the temporal variations in the SSTAs of the ACC lead the Niño 3.4 SSTA by four to six months. Such findings imply that change in the strength of ENSO or circulation under the changing climate could change the climate in regions at higher latitudes as well.

  17. Exploraciones Micológicas en Tierra del Fuego Mycological explorations in Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se narran las expediciones marítimas y terrestres en Tierra del Fuego durante los siglos XIX y XX, desde el punto de vista de la exploración micológica cuyos resultados han sido vertidos en publicaciones, destacando las expediciones argentinas. Contiene mapas con las principales expediciones argentinas. Se hace una evaluación de la diversidad fúngica de acuerdo con los datos previamente analizados, comparando los registros de colección en ambos períodos que indican una duplicación del número total de taxones de 647 especies descriptas en el siglo XIX hasta 1269 en el siglo XX. Simultáneamente se observa una disminución del 50,4 % al 19.7 % en el número de especies nuevas publicadas. Se agrega una lista de coleccionistas y otra del estado de conservación ex situ de especies seleccionadas. Se hace un breve comentario sobre la conservación de hábitats colonizados por hongos que están perturbados por la explotación no sustentable de los recursos naturales.A narration of the leading maritime and terrestrial expeditions in Fuegia during the XIX and XX centuries is approached from the point of view of the mycological exploration and published results on the mycobiota, emphazising the Argentine expeditions. Maps with the itinerary of main Argentine expeditions is given. An evaluation of the fungal diversity according to the previous review is presented, comparing the fungal records during both periods that shows duplication of the total number of taxa from 647 species described in XIX century to 1269 in the XX century. Simultaneously there is a decrease from 50.4 % to 19.7 % in the number of new species published. A list of collectors and a table with the state of ex-situ conservation of selected species is presented. A brief comment is given on conservation of habitats supporting fungal population that are disturbed by unsustainable exploitation of natural resources.

  18. Seismically-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System (Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, M. Romina; Perucca, Laura; Coronato, Andrea; Rabassa, Jorge; López, Ramiro

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, evidence of paleoearthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, southern Argentina, has been identified. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures were found in a Holocene sequence of the Udaeta pond. These structures were analyzed in terms of their geometrical characteristics, deformation mechanism, driving force system and possible trigger agent. They were also grouped in different morphological types: sand dykes, convolute lamination, load structures and faulted soft-sediment deformation features. Udaeta, a small pond in Argentina Tierra del Fuego, is considered a Quaternary pull-apart basin related to the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System. The recognition of these seismically-induced features is an essential tool for paleoseismic studies. Since the three main urban centers in the Tierra del Fuego province of Argentina (Ushuaia, Río Grande and Tolhuin) have undergone an explosive growth in recent years, the results of this study will hopefully contribute to future analyses of the seismic risk of the region.

  19. Dynamics of the water circulations in the southern South China Sea and its seasonal transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai Ooi; Samah, Azizan Abu

    2016-01-01

    -analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast......A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re...... of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic...

  20. Concepto de armas de fuego y balística

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenero Gil del Avalle, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Se aborda el concepto de balística forense.Así como las ramas fundamentales en que se divide la ciencia balística: interna, externa, de efectos y comparativa o identificativa. El arma de fuego y su clasificación. Se explica en que consiste los troqueles de las armas, el calibre del arma y de la bala.La cartucheria, el estudio de los componentes del cartucho. Nomenclatura de los cartuchos. Finalmente se aborda la balística externa, trayectoria y distancia de un disparo. Universidad de Málag...

  1. La técnica tradicional del estuco "a fuego"

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Yunta, Francisco; González Cortina, Mariano; Lasheras Merino, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Dentro de las diferentes técnicas de acabados de paramentos que tradicionalmente se han ejecutado con mortero de cal destaca, por su dificultad, la realización del estuco a fuego. En su elaboración se empleaban morteros y pastas de cal con aditivos como pigmentos y jabones vegetales; con la aplicación final de una plancha metálica a una elevada temperatura se creaba una terminación continua que imitaba las piedras naturales. A pesar de que dichos acabados se han utilizado profusamente e...

  2. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the southern cone of South America: new clues from mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Saint Pierre

    Full Text Available With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (MTDNA variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11-13,000 years appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups.

  3. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  4. Mio-Pliocene aridity in the south-central Andes associated with Southern Hemisphere cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, William H; Fisher, G Burch; Burbank, Douglas W; Ciccioli, Patricia L; Alonso, Ricardo N; Gorin, Andrew L; Silverhart, Perri H; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C; Christoffersen, Michael S

    2017-06-20

    Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear. We address this question using erosion rates of ancient watersheds to constrain Mio-Pliocene climatic conditions in the south-central Andes near 30° S. Our results show two slowdowns in erosion rate, one from ∼6.1-5.2 Ma and another from 3.6 to 3.3 Ma, which we attribute to periods of continental aridity. This view is supported by synchrony with other regional proxies for aridity and with the timing of glacial ‟cold" periods as recorded by marine proxies, such as the M2 isotope excursion. We thus conclude that aridity in the south-central Andes is associated with cold periods at high southern latitudes, perhaps due to a northward migration of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which disrupted the South American Low Level Jet that delivers moisture to southeastern South America. Colder glacial periods, and possibly associated reductions in atmospheric CO 2 , thus seem to be an important driver of Mio-Pliocene ecological transitions in the central Andes. Finally, this study demonstrates that paleo-erosion rates can be a powerful proxy for ancient continental climates that lie beyond the reach of most lacustrine and glacial archives.

  5. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  6. The southern cape conductive belt (South Africa): Its composition, origin and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J. H.; Van Zijl, J. S. V.; Gough, D. I.

    1982-03-01

    Magnetometer array studies have led to the discovery and mapping of the Southern Cape Conductive Belt (SCCB) crossing the southern tip of Africa from west to southeast coasts. The SCCB lies just south of the Namaqua-Natal Belt of cratonic rocks remobilized about 1000 m.y. B.P. It is shown that it coincides with a zone of weakness which has been exploited by three major geosynclinal accumulations over some 600 m.y. Relationships between the SCCB and the basement geochronology, geology and tectonics are considered in detail. These relationships support the view that the conductive belt was formed by an accumulation of marine sediments and oceanic lithosphere at the top of a Proterozoic subduction which stopped about 1000 to 800 m.y. B.P. Associated with this subduction we propose a Proterozoic range of Andean mountains, whose roots are now exposed in the Namaqua-Natal Belt. Later subduction further south, near the present south coast, is proposed to account for the intrusion, between the south coast and the SCCB, of the Cape Granites in the time interval 600-500 m.y. B.P. There is some evidence for a third, yet more distant, subduction episode off Permian Gondwanaland. After outlining this tectonic history, the paper turns to a closer examination of the hypothesis that the Southern Cape Conductive Belt consists of partly serpentinized basalt accumulated at the top of a Proterozoic subduction. A large static magnetic anomaly, which correlates with the SCCB over most of its length, is well fitted by a model which strongly supports this hypothesis. Bouguer gravity anomalies along western and central profiles likewise support the hypothesis. A discussion follows of the process of formation of the proposed block of serpentinized marine rocks, beginning with serpentinization of the crust near oceanic ridges by reaction of warm, porous, newly-extruded basalt with seawater convecting through it. The serpentinized basalt is stable at crustal temperatures and pressures and so

  7. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area.

  8. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  9. Interannual variation of the South China Sea circulation during winter: intensified in the southern basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Geng, Bingxu; Zeng, Lili; Liu, Qinyan; Chen, Ju; He, Yunkai

    2018-05-01

    Surface geostrophic current derived from altimetry remote sensing data, and current profiles observed from in-situ Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) mooring in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) and southern South China Sea (SSCS) are utilized to study the kinetic and energetic interannual variability of the circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) during winter. Results reveal a more significant interannual variation of the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS than that in the NSCS. Composite ananlysis shows a significantly reduced western boundary current (WBC) and a closed cyclonic eddy in the SSCS at the mature phase of El Niño event, but a strong WBC and an unclosed cyclonic circulation in winter at normal or La Niña years. The SST is warmer while the subsurface water is colder and fresher in the mature phase of El Niño event than that in the normal or La Niña years in the SSCS. Numerical experiments and energy analysis suggest that both local and remote wind stress change are important for the interannual variation in the SSCS, remote wind forcing and Kuroshio intrusion affect the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS through WBC advection.

  10. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  11. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  12. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  13. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  14. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  15. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  16. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  17. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-01-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography. PMID:27075644

  18. Moderate climate signature in cranial anatomy of late holocene human populations from Southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Menéndez, Lumila

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied. The variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base. Mean, minimum, and maximum annual temperature, as well as mean annual precipitation, but also diet and altitude, were matched for each population sample. A PCA, as well as spatial statistical techniques, including kriging, regression, and multimodel inference were employed. The facial skeleton size presents a latitudinal pattern which is partially associated with temperature diversity. Both diet and altitude are the variables that mainly explain the skull shape variation, although mean annual temperature also plays a role. The association between climate factors and cranial variation is low to moderate, mean annual temperature explains almost 40% of the entire skull, facial skeleton and cranial vault shape variation, while annual precipitation and minimum annual temperature only contribute to the morphological variation when considered together with maximum annual temperature. The cranial base is the structure less associated with climate diversity. These results suggest that climate factors may have had a partial impact on the facial and vault shape, and therefore contributed moderately to the diversification of southern South American populations, while diet and altitude might have had a stronger impact. Therefore, cranial variation at the southern cone has been shaped both by random and nonrandom factors. Particularly, the

  19. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  20. Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential.

  1. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  2. Landsat TM inventory and assessment of waterbird habitat in the southern altiplano of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.P.; Caziani, S.M.; Waltermire, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    The diverse set of wetlands in southern altiplano of South America supports a number of endemic and migratory waterbirds. These species include endangered endemic flamingos and shorebirds that nest in North America and winter in the altiplano. This research developed maps from nine Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (254,300 km2) to provide an inventory of aquatic waterbird habitats. Image processing software was used to produce a map with a classification of wetlands according to the habitat requirements of different types of waterbirds. A hierarchical procedure was used to, first, isolate the bodies of water within the TM image; second, execute an unsupervised classification on the subsetted image to produce 300 signatures of cover types, which were further subdivided as necessary. Third, each of the classifications was examined in the light of field data and personal experience for relevance to the determination of the various habitat types. Finally, the signatures were applied to the entire image and other adjacent images to yield a map depicting the location of the various waterbird habitats in the southern altiplano. The data sets referenced with a global positioning system receiver were used to test the classification system. Multivariate analysis of the bird communities censused at each lake by individual habitats indicated a salinity gradient, and then the depth of the water separated the birds. Multivariate analysis of the chemical and physical data from the lakes showed that the variation in lakes were significantly associated with difference in depth, transparency, latitude, elevation, and pH. The presence of gravel bottoms was also one of the qualities distinguishing a group of lakes. This information will be directly useful to the Flamingo Census Project and serve as an element for risk assessment for future development.

  3. Rates of surface lowering and landscape development in southern South Africa: a cosmogenic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Vanacker, Veerle; Lang, Andreas; Hodgson, David

    2016-04-01

    The landscape of southern South Africa is characterised by large-scale erosion surfaces, including extensive pediments and multiple strath terraces, which document discordant river evolution through resistant quarzitic lithologies of the Cape Fold Belt (CFB). The timing and rate of erosion is poorly constrained. New cosmogenic ages from surfaces in South Africa are presented using in situ produced 10Be. Strath terraces in deeply incised rivers at two sites within the CFB indicate slow rates of erosion (1.54 - 11.79 m/Ma), which are some of the lowest rates recorded globally. Four pediment surfaces and a depth profile of the thickest pediment were also dated, and the results indicate that there are low rates of surface lowering on the pediments (0.44 - 1.24 m/Ma). The pediments are long-lived features (minimum exposure ages of 0.47 - 1.09 Ma), and are now deeply dissected. Given the minimum exposure ages, calculated river incision rates (42- 203 m/Ma) suggest that after a long period of geomorphic stability during pediment formation there was a discrete phase of increased geomorphic activity. The calculated minimum exposure ages are considered dubious because: 1) known rates of surrounding river incision (published and ours); 2) the climate conditions and time necessary for ferricrete formation on the pediment surfaces and; 3) the deeply incised catchments in the CFB on which the pediments sit, which all point to the pediments being much older. The pediments are fossilised remnants of a much larger geomorphic surface that formed after the main phase of exhumation in southern Africa. They form a store of sediment that currently sit above the surrounding rivers that have some of the lowest erosion rates in the world. These results indicate that steep topography can prevail even in areas of low erosion and tectonic quiescence, and that whilst cosmogenic dating of landscapes is an exciting development in earth sciences, care is needed especially in ancient settings. We

  4. Availability of vitamin D photoconversion weighted UV radiation in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Susana; Vernet, Maria; Paladini, Alejandro; Fuenzalida, Humberto; Deferrari, Guillermo; Booth, Charles R; Cabrera, Sergio; Casiccia, Claudio; Dieguez, Maria; Lovengreen, Charlotte; Pedroni, Jorge; Rosales, Alejandro; Vrsalovic, Jazmin

    2011-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) plays a key role in several biological functions, including human health. Skin exposure to UVR is the main factor in vitamin D photoconversion. There is also evidence relating low levels of vitamin D with certain internal cancers, mainly colon, breast and prostate, as well as other diseases. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between the above-mentioned diseases and latitude, in accordance with the ultraviolet radiation latitudinal gradient. The aim of this study is to determine whether UV irradiance levels in the southern South America are sufficient to produce suitable levels of vitamin D year around. For this purpose, vitamin D photoconversion weighted-irradiance was analyzed between S.S. de Jujuy (24.17°S, 65.02°W) and Ushuaia (54° 50'S, 68° 18'W). In addition to irradiance, skin type and area of body exposed to sunlight are critical factors in vitamin D epidemiology. Due to a broad ethnic variability, it was assumed that the skin type in this region varies between II and V (from the most to the less sensitive). All sites except South Patagonia indicate that skin II under any condition of body area exposure and skin V when exposing head, hands, arms and legs, would produce suitable levels of vitamin D year round (except for some days in winter at North Patagonian sites). At South Patagonian sites, minimum healthy levels of vitamin D year round can be reached only by the more sensitive skin II type, if exposing head, hands, arms and legs, which is not a realistic scenario during winter. At these southern latitudes, healthy vitamin D levels would not be obtained between mid May and beginning of August if exposing only the head. Skin V with head exposure is the most critical situation; with the exception of the tropics, sun exposure would not produce suitable levels of vitamin D around winter, during a time period that varies with latitude. Analyzing the best exposure time during the day in order to

  5. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  6. A history of Proterozoic terranes in southern South America: From Rodinia to Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The role played by Paleoproterozoic cratons in southern South America from the Mesoproterozoic to the Early Cambrian is reconsidered here. This period involved protracted continental amalgamation that led to formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, followed by Neoproterozoic continental break-up, with the consequent opening of Clymene and Iapetus oceans, and finally continental re-assembly as Gondwana through complex oblique collisions in the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian. The evidence for this is based mainly on a combination of precise U-Pb SHRMP dating and radiogenic isotope data for igneous and metamorphic rocks from a large area extending from the Rio de la Plata craton in the east to the Argentine Precordillera in the west and as far north as Arequipa in Peru. Our interpretation of the paleogeographical and geodynamic evolution invokes a hypothetical Paleoproterozoic block (MARA embracing basement ultimately older than 1.7 Ga in the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina, the Arequipa block (Peru, the Rio Apa block (Brazil, and probably also the Paraguaia block (Bolivia.

  7. Two new species of Nemesia (Scrophulariaceae from the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Nemesia Vent, are described from South Africa. Nemesia fourcadei is an annual with small white flowers, a yellow-orange pubescent palate, and violet lines at the base of the upper lip. It differs from the similar looking N. lucida Benth. by having larger flowers with a more prominent spur (mostly 3.5—4.5 mm long vs < 1.5 mm and a pubescent palate. N. fourcadei is known from only two locations in the southern Cape. N. elata is a facultative perennial with white flowers, a lavender to purple reverse, and a white or very pale yellow palate. It is known only from the Langeberg and Oute-niqua Mountains between Swellendam and Montagu Pass. It is closest to N. fourcadei. but differs from that species by its more robust habit, the absence of a boss inside the corolla tube at the base of the hypochile, and a spur that is violet to purple at the base.

  8. The ecological and economic consequences of changing land use in the southern Drakensberg grasslands, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JK Turpie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The grassland biome of the southern Drakensberg region of South Africa is characterized by a relatively rich floral biodiversity, including a high level of endemics.  Land use in the area was traditionally dominated by livestock ranching based mainly on indigenous grassland that conserved biodiversity to some degree.  Currently however, market demands and risk factors are shifting land use in the area to a matrix of beef, cropping, dairy and particularly, towards plantation forestry.  A spreadsheet model was constructed to understand how expected land use conversion will likely influence the biodiversity, and consequently, the total economic value (TEV of the area.  Six scenarios of increasing dairy and forestry intensification were modelled that incorporated biophysical and legal constraints to development.  Results indicate that enhanced development is likely to have significant negative biodiversity impacts including the reduction of the alpha diversity of the indigenous plants in the region, a diminished local invertebrate diversity, an increase in invasions, and could also jeopardize the long term survival of the rare Wattled Crane and Oribi.  Furthermore, while the direct use value derived from agriculture and forestry increases with increasing development, its negative influence on the indirect value of water runoff, by far the greatest value of the area, is sufficient to potentially offset the benefits.  Other major direct-use, indirect-use, option and existence values are also considered.

  9. San Personal Ornaments from the Later Stone Age at Blombos Cave and Blomboschfontein, southern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vibe, Ingrid M Østby

    2007-01-01

    A critical factor that distinguishes modern humans, Homo sapiens, from animals is the ability to communicate using symbols. One example is the use of personal ornaments. People in all cultures use personal ornaments to express something about themselves, and a wide range of functions and meanings can be applied to different ornamentation. The personal ornaments from three Later Stone Age sites in the Blomboschfontein Region, southern Cape, South Africa were analysed in order to determine vari...

  10. Raising a New Generation in the South. A Report for the Task Force on Southern Children, Southern Growth Policies Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paula

    This is a statistical survey of children in the South, designed for the use of public policy makers, child advocates, and human service specialists. Section one presents a general demographic overview that includes birth rates, migration and growth trends, and racial distribution. The second section provides statistics on living arrangements,…

  11. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices on Yellow fever in South Omo area, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Legesse

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (Yf outbreak was recently reported in South Omo of Southern Ethiopia. This area was also highly affected by Yf outbreak in the 1960s. However, there is no reliable information on the level of community knowledge attitudes and practices about the disease in the area. The objective of the current study was to assess level of community knowledge, attitudes and practices about Yf.Between March and May 2017, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in two districts of the South Omo area. During the survey, 612 randomly selected adults were interviewed about Yf using structured questionnaire.Out of the 612 study participants, 508 (83.0% reported that they heard about Yf which is locally known as "a disease that causes vomiting blood". Most (90.4% of the study participants also said that Yf is different from malaria. Two hundred thirteen (41.9% participants said that Yf can be transmitted from a patient to another person, while only 80 (37.6% mentioned that the disease is transmitted through mosquitoes bite. Out of 333 (65.7% study participants who believed that Yf is a preventable disease, 280 (84.1% mentioned vaccine as a preventive method. The majority believed that the disease is a killer (97.2% and a newly emerging (69.4%. Among the total of 612 study participants, 221(36.1% were considered as having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Having educational level above 7th grade (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.39, 7.57, p = 0.006 and being resident of Bena-Tsemay district (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78, P = 0.014 were significantly associated with having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Agro-pastoralism as an occupation compared to farming was associated with having a low level of overall knowledge of Yf (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.33, 0.79, P = 0.003.The findings indicate that most of the study community members had a low level of overall knowledge of Yf, especially about its cause, mode of transmission and preventive

  12. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliú, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, con...

  13. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  14. Atmospheric circulation associated with extreme generalized frosts persistence in central-southern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)

  15. Distribution and recurrence of phytoplankton blooms around South Georgia, Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Borrione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available South Georgia phytoplankton blooms are amongst the largest of the Southern Ocean and are associated with a rich ecosystem and strong atmospheric carbon drawdown. Both aspects depend on the intensity of blooms, but also on their regularity. Here we use data from 12 yr of SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor ocean colour imagery and calculate the frequency of bloom occurrence (FBO to re-examine spatial and temporal bloom distributions. We find that upstream of the island and outside the borders of the Georgia Basin, blooms occurred in less than 4 out of the 12 yr (FBO < 4. In contrast, FBO was mostly greater than 8 downstream of the island, i.e., to the north and northwest, and in places equal to 12, indicating that blooms occurred every year. The typical bloom area, defined as the region where blooms occurred in at least 8 out of the 12 yr, covers the entire Georgia Basin and the northern shelf of the island. The time series of surface chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations averaged over the typical bloom area shows that phytoplankton blooms occurred in every year between September 1997 and September 2010, and that Chl a values followed a clear seasonal cycle, with concentration peaks around December followed in many years by a second peak during late austral summer or early autumn, suggesting a bi-modal bloom pattern. The bloom regularity we describe here is in contrast with results of Park et al. (2010 who used a significantly different study area including regions that almost never exhibit bloom conditions.

  16. Fish communities of the Wilderness Lakes System in the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis A. Olds

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wilderness Lakes System, a temporarily open and closed estuary with three associated lakes situated in the southern Cape region of South Africa, was sampled using a range of sampling gears to assess the fish community. A total of 25 species were sampled throughout the system, with the highest diversity in the Touw Estuary (23 species and the lowest in Langvlei (11 species. Estuary-associated marine species (13 species dominated species richness with smaller proportions of estuarine resident (7 species, freshwater (3 species and catadromous species (2 species. Estuarine resident species dominated the catch numerically. The size–class distribution of euryhaline marine species indicated that upon entering the Touw Estuary as juveniles, the fish move up the system towards Rondevlei where they appear to remain. Three freshwater species were recorded in the system, all of which are alien to the Wilderness Lakes System. Decreasing salinity in the upper lakes appears to be a driving factor in the distribution and increasing abundance of the freshwater fishes. Sampling followed a drought, with the system experiencing substantially increased levels of mouth closure compared to a similar study conducted in the 1980s. The timing of mouth opening and the degree of connectivity between the lakes influence the nursery function of the system as a whole. Management actions need to focus on improving ecological functioning of this system, in particular how mouth opening is managed, to facilitate nursery function and limit the establishment of invasive species. Conservation implications: Key management actions are required to improve fish recruitment potential into and within the system. These include maintenance of adequate marine inflow through adherence to artificial mouth breaching protocols and improving connectivity between the lakes through sediment removal from localised deposition points within the connecting channels.

  17. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably

  18. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  19. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  20. Unusual past dry and wet rainy seasons over Southern Africa and South America from a climate perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bellprat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa and Southern South America have experienced recent extremes in dry and wet rainy seasons which have caused severe socio-economic damages. Selected past extreme events are here studied, to estimate how human activity has changed the risk of the occurrence of such events, by applying an event attribution approach (Stott et al., 2004comprising global climate models of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5. Our assessment shows that models' representation of mean precipitation variability over Southern South America is not adequate to make a robust attribution statement about seasonal rainfall extremes in this region. Over Southern Africa, we show that unusually dry austral summers as occurred during 2002/2003 have become more likely, whereas unusually wet austral summers like that of 1999/2000 have become less likely due to anthropogenic climate change. There is some tentative evidence that the risk of extreme high 5-day precipitation totals (as observed in 1999/2000 have increased in the region. These results are consistent with CMIP5 models projecting a general drying trend over SAF during December–January–February (DJF but also an increase in atmospheric moisture availability to feed heavy rainfall events when they do occur. Bootstrapping the confidence intervals of the fraction of attributable risk has demonstrated estimates of attributable risk are very uncertain, if the events are very rare. The study highlights some of the challenges in making an event attribution study for precipitation using seasonal precipitation and extreme 5-day precipitation totals and considering natural drivers such as ENSO in coupled ocean–atmosphere models.

  1. Respuesta de la madera ante el fuego en la construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Martín, Luis Miguel

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El presente artículo pretende dar una amplia visión del material madera y de los elementos que la utilizan como materia prima (tableros, puertas, etc., cuando se encuentran sometidos a la acción del fuego. Se hace un análisis partiendo de la base de realización de ensayos a partir de la Normativa española al respecto, considerando las especies más frecuentemente empleadas en nuestro país, y abarcando los aspectos de duración cortafuegos, estabilidad mecánica sin deformación y estanquidad a las llamas, sin olvidar la emisión de gases inflamables y clasificación frente al fuego. A través de la experiencia que el Laboratorio del Fuego del INIA posee, y que se exponen en esta colaboración, se pueden extraer consecuencias que permitan la utilización de la madera en construcción de una forma más lógica, eliminando algunos prejuicios que existen sobre su naturaleza y comportamiento frente al fuego.

  2. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernel, P.; Rossing, W. A. H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-11-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of external inputs. We synthesised 242 references from peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1945 and mid-2015 and analysed secondary data to examine the evidence on the ecosystem services provided by this grassland biodiversity hotspot and the way they are affected by land use changes and their drivers. The analysis followed the requirements of systematic review from the PRISMA statement (Moher et al 2009 Acad. Clin. Ann. Intern. Med. 151 264-9). The Pampas and Campos provide feed for 43 million heads of cattle and 14 million sheep. The biome is habitat of 4000 native plant species, 300 species of birds, 29 species of mammals, 49 species of reptiles and 35 species of amphibians. The soils of the region stock 5% of the soil organic carbon of Latin America on 3% of its area. Driven by high prices of soybean, the soybean area increased by 210% between 2000 and 2010, at the expense of 2 million ha (5%) of native grassland, mostly in the Pampas. Intensification of livestock production was apparent in two spatially distinct forms. In subregions where cropping increased, intensification of livestock production was reflected in an increased use of grains for feed as part of feedlots. In subregions dominated by native grasslands, stocking rates increased. The review showed that land use change and grazing regimes with low forage allowances were predominantly associated with negative effects on ecosystem service provision by reducing soil organic carbon stocks and the diversity of plants, birds and mammals, and by increasing soil erosion. We found little quantitative information on changes in the ecosystem services water provision, nutrient cycling and erosion control

  3. Condiciones de inicio y propagación de los fuegos de copa en masas de pinares

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José María

    2015-01-01

    La tesis aborda una problemática de especial interés científico-tecnológico relativa a los incendios forestales. Actualmente existe una escasez de información aplicable y fiable sobre el comportamiento del fuego de copa y el estado de desarrollo de los modelos predictivos de comportamiento del fuego es todavía incipiente. El proyecto plantea cuatro objetivos en relación al fuego de copa: (a) Cuantificación de los complejos de combustibles, característicos de pinares de Pinus pinaster, como...

  4. Foreign direct investment in South Africa: how big is Southern Africa’s natural product opportunity and what trade issues impede sectoral development?

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the scale of the trade opportunity for natural product exports from Southern Africa and to recommend actions to address market access issues constraining sectoral growth.\\ud Field research was undertaken in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and the United Kingdom between 9th January and 25th February 2006. The study concentrated on ten countries in Southern Africa1 with potential to export significant quantities of natural products. These products ar...

  5. Movement of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. from Elephant Is. South Shetlands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica M. C. Muelbert

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, at-sea activity of two young southern elephant seal males (Mirounga leonina from Elephant Is. (61º13'S, 55º23'W, Antarctica, was monitored and tracked for 9 months. The individuals were randomly selected, captured, sedated (Zoletil 50®- 1mg/kg, weighed, measured, bled, paint-marked and fitted with satellite tags (STDR - ST-6PPT, Telonics®, USA. Deployment of the STDR took about 45 min since each animal had a lower incisor tooth extracted for age determination. The seals exhibited individual behaviors. Seal "V"-23842 (BM ~ 801kg moved from Elephant Is. (61.2ºS 55.3ºW in Jan. 1999 to King George Is. (62.2ºS 58.1ºW in Feb. 1999 when the tag stopped signaling. Seal "T"-23843 (BM ~ 656 kg was restricted to the area around Elephant Is. (61.2ºS 54.4ºW - 61.6ºS 55.4ºW from January to May 1999, when it started to move south-eastwards. Although the age of these individuals was not yet determined it was likely to explain the difference in the two patterns of movement reported here. The temporal and spatial association of these movements with areas of high productivity is being investigated to assess whether the observed distribution reflects foraging activity.O presente estudo descreve os movimentos de dois exemplares de elefante-marinho do sul (Mirounga leonina durante a fase pelágica de seu ciclo de vida. Os exemplares foram capturados no verão austral de 1999 na Ilha Elefante (61º13'S, 55º23'W, Antártica, e monitorados por aproximadamente 9 meses. Cada exemplar foi instrumentado com um medidor de tempo e profundidade de mergulho via satélite (Sattelite Time Depth Recorder, STDR mod. ST-6PPT, Telonics®, EUA com uma antena VHF acoplada ao instrumento, montado num molde de tela e resina, fixado com cintas plásticas, e colados na pelagem dorsal do animal com resina plástica. Para a instrumentação o animal era capturado com rede de contenção e imobilizado quimicamente com anestésico dissociativo (Zoletil 50®- 1mg/kg. Um

  6. The Permo-Triassic uranium deposits of Southern Africa within the African-South American Gondwana framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Le Roux, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of uranium in the Permo-Triassic Gondwana in South America and Africa has served to highlight the intercontinental correlations. The purpose here is to examine the uranium deposits of Southern Africa in the light of the similarities that exist between the various Gondwana formations of the two continents. This hopefully will assist in gaining some understanding of the genesis of the uranium mineralization and the sedimentary environment in which such deposits are likely to occur. Between the Upper Carboniferous and the Jurassic a tectono-sedimentary terrain existed within Gondwanaland in which broadly similar conditions prevailed over large areas, thus producing numerous partly disconnected basins practically identical in character. The basal formations are composed of glacial tillite followed by a succession of sandstone and shale which attains a thickness of up to 12,000 m. Sedimentological studies confirm that major source areas composed largely of granitic and metamorphic rocks existed to the north and south of central South America and Southern Africa, as also in the divides between the basins. Uranium mineralization occurs sporadically throughout the succession and is usually restricted to palaeoriver channels containing carbon trash. There has been little subsequent enrichment and the Colorado model does not apply. With a few exceptions, the deposits tend to have a low overall uranium tenor and individual deposits are usually not very extensive in size. Collectively, however, they may eventually assume some importance. Uraniferous coals have been recorded from a number of localities and it is suggested that the significance of these deposits has as yet not been fully appreciated or investigated. (author)

  7. Atmospheric research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean: a South Africa-France bilateral collaborative programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available to be employed, university or institutes involved and French and South African co-ordinators for investigating the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere by utilising different in-situ, space-borne and model simulation techniques....

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  11. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  12. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Lavinia

    Full Text Available Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%, with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana. In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  13. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Poljak

    Full Text Available Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution. C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  14. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Sebastián; Ferreiro, Alejandro M; Chiappero, Marina B; Sánchez, Julieta; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta S

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution). C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  15. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinia, Pablo D; Núñez Bustos, Ezequiel O; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Lijtmaer, Darío A; García, Natalia C; Hebert, Paul D N; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2017-01-01

    Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance) was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%), with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence) were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana). In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  16. Rayleigh waves from correlation of seismic noise in Great Island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Constraints on upper crustal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation technique is applied to estimate the upper structure of the crust beneath Great Island of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, Argentina, by the analysis of short-period Rayleigh wave group velocities. The island, situated in the southernmost South America, is a key area of investigation among the interaction between the South American and Scotia plates and is considered as a very seismically active one. Through cross-correlating the vertical components of ambient seismic noise registered at four broadband stations in TdF, we were able to extract Rayleigh waves which were used to estimate group velocities in the period band of 2.5–16 s using a time-frequency analysis. Although ambient noise sources are distributed inhomogeneously, robust empirical Green's functions could be recovered from the cross-correlation of 12 months of ambient noise. The observed group velocities were inverted considering a non-linear iterative damped least-squares inversion procedure and several 1-D shear wave velocity models of the upper crust were obtained. According to the inversion results, the S-wave velocity ranges between 1.75 and 3.7 km/s in the first 10 km of crust, depending on the pair of stations considered. These results are in agreement to the major known surface and sub-surface geological and tectonic features known in the area. This study represents the first ambient seismic noise analysis in TdF in order to constraint the upper crust beneath this region. It can also be considered as a successful feasibility study for future analyses with a denser station deployment for a more detailed imaging of structure.

  17. South[ern] Africa's "Dar ul-'Ulums": Institutions of Social Change for the Common Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    Muslim communities in principally non-Muslim nation states (e.g. South Africa, United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands) established a plethora of Muslim theological institutions. They have done so with the purpose of educating and reinforcing their Muslim identity. These educational structures have given rise to numerous…

  18. Composition and possible function of social groupings of southern right whales in South African waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, PB; Schaeff, CM; Reeb, D; Palsboll, PJ

    2003-01-01

    We collected behavioural data and skin samples for molecular sex determination from 327 right whales (Eubalaena australis) in the coastal waters of South Africa between July and October, 1995 and 1996, as well as from 147 cows with calves-of-the-year between August and October 1996, September and

  19. Southern limit of the Western South Atlantic mangroves: Assessment of the potential effects of global warming from a biogeographical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Estrada, Gustavo Calderucio Duque; Fernandez, Viviane; Tognella, Mônica Maria Pereira

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the exact location of the latitudinal limit of western South Atlantic mangroves, and to describe how these forests develop at this limit; as well as to analyze the potential responses of these communities to global warming. The study was carried out along the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Specific studies on mangrove structure were carried out in the Santo Antônio Lagoon (28°28'34″S; 48°51'40″W). The coastline of Santa Catarina was surveyed for the occurrence of mangrove species. In the mangrove located at the southernmost distributional limit, the forest structure was characterized. Mean height and diameter, trunks density and basal area were calculated. Climatic and oceanographic factors controlling the occurrence and development of the mangrove forests at their latitudinal limit were analyzed, as well as the possible changes of this limit based on global warming scenarios. The results confirmed that the Santo Antônio Lagoon is the southern limit of the western South Atlantic mangroves. At this limit, the mangrove forests show a low degree of development, defined by low mean diameter and height, and high trunks density and trunks/tree ratio. The observed structural pattern and the local alternation of these forests with salt marsh species are typical of mangrove forests at their latitudinal limits. The absence of mangroves south of Laguna and forest structure at the latitudinal limit are controlled by rigorous climate and oceanographic characteristics. In response to the planetary warming process, we expect that mangroves will expand southward, as a consequence of an increase in air and ocean surface temperatures, a reduction in the incidence of frosts, an increased influence of the Brazil Current and a decreased influence of the Falkland Current, and the availability of sheltered estuarine systems for the establishment of new mangroves.

  20. Mass balance evolution of Martial Este Glacier, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina for the period 1960–2099

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buttstädt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Martial Este Glacier in southern Tierra del Fuego was studied in order to estimate the surface mass balance from 1960 until 2099. For this reason a degree-day model was calibrated. Air temperature and precipitation data obtained from 3 weather stations as well as glaciological measurements were applied. The model was driven using a vertical air temperature gradient of 0.69 K/100 m, a degree-day factor for snow of 4.7 mm w.e. K−1 day−1, a degree-day factor for ice of 9.4 mm w.e. K−1 day−1 and a precipitation gradient of 22%/100 m. For the purpose of surface mass balance reconstruction for the time period 1960 until 2006 a winter vertical air temperature gradient of 0.57 K/100 m and a summer vertical air temperature gradient of 0.71 K/100 m were added as well as a digital terrain model. The key finding is an almost continuous negative mass balance of −772 mm w.e. a−1 throughout this period. While the calculation of the mass balance for the period 1960–2006 is based on instrumental records, the mass balance for the years 2007 until 2099 was estimated based on the IPCC SRES A2-scenario. To accomplish this estimation, the dataset of the global climate model HadCM3 was statistically downscaled to fit local conditions at Martial Este Glacier. Subsequently, the downscaled air temperature and precipitation were applied to a volume-area scaling glacier change model. Findings reveal an enduring deglaciation resulting in a surface area reduction of nearly 93% until 2099. This implicates that the Martial Este Glacier might be melted off at the beginning of the 22nd century.

  1. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    (SCS) is one of the western marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean, surrounded by South China, Indo China Peninsula, Malaysian Peninsula, Philippines and Borneo Island. The SCS is a semi- enclosed basin connected to the western Pacific Ocean through Taiwan.... Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait. Ocean Science, 9(2). Torrence, C. and Compo, G.P., 1998. A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(1): 61-78. Vargas‐Hernandez, J.M., Wijffels...

  2. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  3. The rapid cooling of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, M.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, the Nansha Block has experienced a series of tectonic process and separated from South China continent to the south. As an exotic micro-continental, Nansha Block has an obvious different lithospheric rheology property from surrounding region. The lithosphere and mantle dynamic and rheology are mainly controlled by temperature. Therefore, we calculated the 3D temperature field and geothermal gradient of Nansha Block's upper mantle by using the S-wave velocity structure from surface wave tomography. The results show that the depth where temperature of 1300° as the lithospheric thickness is in close correspondence with the top of the seismic low velocity zone. The temperature of the upper mantle in Nansha Block is significantly lower than that of surrounding. It implies that Nansha Block experienced a rapid cooling event. We propose that the rapid cooling can be partly attributed to three reasons: 1) Nansha Block is a relatively stable block with no interior geothermal activity. 2) No external heat source to provide energy. 3) Abnormal mantle convection under Nansha Block accelerated the cooling.

  4. Epidemiología de las lesiones por mordedura de perro en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Zanini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La convivencia del hombre y el perro ha resultado en beneficios mutuos durante miles de años, si bien en el último tiempo han surgido una serie de inconvenientes donde las lesiones por mordeduras ocupan un lugar destacado. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir las características epidemiológicas de las lesiones por mordedura de perro ocurridas a lo largo de un año en Tierra del Fuego. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes que ingresaron con lesiones por mordedura de perro al Servicio de Guardia Clínica y Pediátrica de los Hospitales y Centros de Salud desde el 1/3/05 hasta el 1/3/06. Se confeccionaron 382 planillas. El 49.5% fueron niños resultando más afectado el grupo de 5-9 años (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8. En adultos correspondió al grupo de 15-24 años (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5. Se registraron más lesiones en varones (57.6% que en mujeres (42.4% (x² = 8.6, p= 0.003. En los meses primavera y verano se registró el 56.5% de las lesiones, en la vía pública el 72.8% de ellas. Los perros de tamaño grande causaron el 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9 de las lesiones. El 89.8% de los ataques fueron causados por perros ajenos. El 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8 se registró en miembros inferiores y el 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7 en cabeza y cuello. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que en Tierra del Fuego las lesiones por mordedura de perro afectan en forma permanente la salud e impactan en la calidad de vida de la población.The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health

  5. Localización de hipocentros y determinación de su magnitud en Tierra del Fuego y zonas aledañas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2009-12-01

    order to study Tierra del Fuego seismicity. The region has a complex tectonic setting: the island is crossed by a transforming fault named Magallanes-Fagnano which divides Tierra del Fuego in two continental blocks. This fault system constitutes the major continental segment of the South America-Scotia plate's border. The island has an important seismological history which includes an event of magnitude 7.8 occurred on December 1949. Reports of earthquakes occurred in 1929, 1930, 1944, 1949 and 1970 are known by a study of historical seismicity. In this paper hypocentre locations and error analysis have been carried out. Records at five seismological stations have been analyzed during January-December 2007. More than 180 events have been identified and some of them were compared to events of NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center and ISC (International Seismological Centre. Magnitude determinations have been calculated with first arrival amplitude. The majority of earthquakes have magnitude mb between 2 and 4 degrees. With respect to hypocentral depths, more than 50% of located earthquakes have their depths in the first 10 km. The seismicity map obtained shows that beyond rather dispersed seismicity related to the Magallanes-Fagnano fault, a concentration of epicentres is found in the Darwin Cordillera area and in the Scotia plate surrounding, displaying evidence of a correlation with the geotectonic area of study.

  6. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  7. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  8. [Tierra del Fuego: the scientific-political construction of exclusion and counter-image of the ideal city dweller].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacach, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Due to its late incorporation into the national State, the social, economic and political setting of the Argentine province Tierra del Fuego differed from that of the rest of the national territory. In the construction of dependent otherness, objectifications and representations were imposed by state-related and non-state-related institutions, among other agencies. In this context, the Salesian mission of La Candelaria and Ushuaia's Jail for recidivists stand out as spaces in which biopolitics was concretised. The native population and criminals in Tierra del Fuego were those to be subjugated. The thesis of the extinction of the Indian and the simultaneous exaltation of the criminal as the subject of progress identified the scientific and political mechanisms by which the exclusion of certain social groups (Tierra del Fuego's indigenous population) and the inclusion of others (criminals) were regulated.

  9. Multi-Decadal to Millennial Scale Holocene Hydrologic Variation in the Southern Hemisphere Tropics of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, E. J.; Fritz, S. C.; Baker, P. A.; Burns, S. J.; Coley, K.; Rigsby, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous sites in the Northern Hemisphere show multi-decadal to millennial scale climate variation during the Holocene, many of which have been correlated with changes in atmospheric radiocarbon production or with changes in North Atlantic oceanic circulation. The manifestation of such climate variability in the hydrology of the Southern Hemisphere tropics of South America is unclear, because of the limited number of records at suitably high resolution. In the Lake Titicaca drainage basin of Bolivia and Peru, high-resolution lacustrine records reveal the overall pattern of Holocene lake-level change, the influence of precessional forcing of the South American Summer Monsoon, and the effects of high-frequency climate variability in records of lake productivity and lake ecology. Precessional forcing of regional precipitation is evident in the Lake Titicaca basin as a massive (ca. 85 m) mid-Holocene decline in lake level beginning about 7800 cal yr BP and a subsequent rise in lake level after 4000 cal yr BP. Here we show that multi-decadal to millennial-scale climate variability, superimposed upon the envelope of change at orbital time scales, is similar in timing and pattern to the ice-rafted debris record of Holocene Bond events in the North Atlantic. A high-resolution carbon isotopic record from Lake Titicaca that spans the entire Holocene suggests that cold intervals of Holocene Bond events are periods of increased precipitation, thus indicating an anti-phasing of precipitation variation on the Altiplano relative to the Northern Hemisphere tropics. A similar pattern of variation is also evident in high-resolution (2-30 yr spacing) diatom and geochemical records that span the last 7000 yr from two smaller lakes, Lagos Umayo and Lagunillas, in the Lake Titicaca drainage basin.

  10. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  11. The phytosociology of the southern section of Borakalalo Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for conservation areas in South Africa, the plant communities of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were investigated. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures was used for a phytosociological study. The analysis resulted in five major plant communities, one with two subcommunities and one with four subcommunities and two variants. Habitat factors associated with differences in vegetation include topography, soil form and grazing pressure. Descriptions of the plant communities include diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata. The classification provides the necessary delimitation of homogeneous areas which are considered necessary for veld management.

  12. Trace Element Accumulation and Tissue Distribution in the Purpleback Flying Squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis from the Central and Southern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan Yan; Shen, Yu; Huang, Hui; Yang, Xian Qing; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Cen, Jian Wei; Qi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis is a species of cephalopod that is becoming economically important in the South China Sea. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined in the mantle, arms, and digestive gland of S. oualaniensis from 31 oceanographic survey stations in the central and southern South China Sea. Intraspecific and interspecific comparisons with previous studies were made. Mean concentrations of trace elements analyzed in arms and mantle were in the following orders: Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > As > Hg. In digestive gland, the concentrations of Cd and Cu exceed that of Zn. All the Pb concentrations were under the detected limit.

  13. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  14. Desarrollo de productos de protección pasiva frente al fuego que incorporan subproductos industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Aguado, Sara; Orantes Garcia, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    En caso de producirse un incendio, por los daños que se pueden ocasionar, la protección pasiva es un factor a tener muy en cuenta en el ámbito de la construcción. El conjunto de elementos constructivos en el desarrollo del incendio pueden experimentar una pérdida de rigidez y resistencia provocando el hundimiento de la estructura. Por tanto, el estudio de protección al fuego de las estructuras es elemental para garantizar la mayor seguridad. Uno de los objetivos del proyecto es el es...

  15. Prometeo, el fuego y la esperanza: una posible cura del SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Crisci, Jorge Víctor

    1993-01-01

    Prometeo fue castigado por los dioses por haber entregado el fuego sagrado a los hombres. Hoy el espíritu prometeico de la ciencia es reclamado una vez más para luchar contra flagelos de la humanidad como el cáncer o el SIDA. La botánica, entre muchas otras disciplinas científicas que trabajan sobre el tema, parece sugerir alternativas alentadoras. Sección: Divulgación Científica. Fundación Museo La Plata

  16. Natural mortality estimation and rational exploitation of purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis in the southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Zhang, Peng; Du, Feiyan

    2017-07-01

    Based on the biological data of purpleback flying squid ( Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis) collected by light falling-net in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during September to October 2012 and March to April 2013, growth and mortality of `Medium' and `Dwarf' forms of squid are derived using the Powell-Wetherall, ELEFAN methods and length-converted catch curves (FiSAT package). Given a lack of commercial exploitation, we assume total mortality to be due entirely to natural mortality. We estimate these squid have fast growth, with growth coefficients ( k) ranging from 1.42 to 2.39, and high natural mortality ( M), with estimates ranging from 1.61 to 2.92. To sustainably exploit these squid stocks, yield per recruitment based on growth and natural mortality was determined using the Beverton-Holt dynamic pool model. We demonstrate squid stocks could sustain high fishing mortality and low ages at first capture, with an optimal fishing mortality >3.0, with the optimal age at first capture increased to 0.4-0.6 years when fishing mortality approached optimal levels. On the basis of our analyses and estimates of stock biomass, we believe considerable potential exists to expand the squid fishery into the open SCS, relieving fishing pressure on coastal waters.

  17. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  18. SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DETECTIONS OF THE PREVIOUSLY UNCONFIRMED PLANCK EARLY SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH CLUSTERS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, K.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Armstrong, R.; Desai, S.; Bonamente, M.; Brodwin, M.; Foley, R. J.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; George, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present South Pole Telescope (SPT) observations of the five galaxy cluster candidates in the southern hemisphere which were reported as unconfirmed in the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample. One cluster candidate, PLCKESZ G255.62-46.16, is located in the 2500 deg 2 SPT SZ survey region and was reported previously as SPT-CL J0411-4819. For the remaining four candidates, which are located outside of the SPT SZ survey region, we performed short, dedicated SPT observations. Each of these four candidates was strongly detected in maps made from these observations, with signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 6.3 to 13.8. We have observed these four candidates on the Magellan-Baade telescope and used these data to estimate cluster redshifts from the red sequence. Resulting redshifts range from 0.24 to 0.46. We report measurements of Y 0.'75 , the integrated Comptonization within a 0.'75 radius, for all five candidates. We also report X-ray luminosities calculated from ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalog counts, as well as optical and improved SZ coordinates for each candidate. The combination of SPT SZ measurements, optical red-sequence measurements, and X-ray luminosity estimates demonstrates that these five Planck ESZ cluster candidates do indeed correspond to real galaxy clusters with redshifts and observable properties consistent with the rest of the ESZ sample.

  19. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Vleeschouwer

    Full Text Available Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  20. Emissions from pre-Hispanic metallurgy in the South American atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Piotrowska, Natalia; Torrejón, Fernando; Roland, Thomas; Stein, Ariel; Le Roux, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA) for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA) over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.

  1. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

  2. Southern promises: a snapshot of the microbiology research landscape in South America based on bibliometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Corrado

    2017-09-01

    Scientists have a single currency for productivity and impact: published articles. In an effort to map the global research landscape in microbiology, and to obviate the current lack of bibliometric analysis in the field, FEMS-the Federation of European Microbiological Societies-generated a dataset encompassing an exhaustive, worldwide list of microbiology studies for 2013-14, which further includes information as author affiliation, funding agency and number of citations. The manually curated database is useful in assessing the impact and regional productivity of microbiology research at different levels. Here, the data for microbiology research in South America are presented and discussed in detail. Based on the analysis, it emerged that despite great degrees of variation between number of published articles among the countries, a more levelled research productivity was observed when considering further dimensions like population size or number of research institutes. Normalised productivity and impact increase in countries with a 'central research hub', i.e. an institute or university producing a substantial portion of the national output (15% or more). From these observations, a possible strategy to increase impact and productivity in (microbiology) research for emerging countries is outlined. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Analysis of the interaction of deuterium plasmas with tungsten in the Fuego-Nuevo II device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gonzalo; Castillo, Fermín; Nieto, Martín; Martínez, Marco; Rangel, José; Herrera-Velázquez, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten is one of the main candidate materials for plasma-facing components in future fusion power plants. The Fuego-Nuevo II, a plasma focus device, which can produce dense magnetized helium and deuterium plasmas, has been adapted to address plasma-facing materials questions. In this paper we present results of tungsten targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Fuego Nuevo II device, using different experimental conditions. The plasma generated and accelerated in the coaxial gun is expected to have, before the pinch, energies of the order of hundreds eV and velocities of the order of 40,000 m s-1. At the pinch, the ions are reported to have energies of the order of 1.5 keV at most. The samples, analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in cross section show a damage profile to depths of the order of 580 nm, which are larger than those expected for ions with 1.5 keV, and may be evidence of ion acceleration. An analysis with the SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter) package calculations is shown.

  4. Necrosis Avascular Bilateral de cadera en paciente con VIH y traumatismo de arma de fuego.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis J Menoni Blanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Necrosis Avascular de Cadera (NAV es un proceso patológico infrecuente, originado por faltade irrigación de la articulación coxofemoral que implica necrosis y degeneración de los huesos que la conforman, causando dolor e impotencia funcional. Es más frecuente en varones jóvenes, pudiendo ser unilateral o bilateral. La etiología puede ser idiopática o estar relacionada a causas sistémicas como infección por VIH y su tratamiento depende de la severidad. En este reporte, se presenta un caso masculino de 35 años, seropositivo con tratamiento antirretroviral y antecedente de herida por arma de fuego de presentación inusual en cadera, sin lesión ósea aparente; quien refiere dolor de cadera izquierda, de fuerte intensidad, punzante, irradiado a rodilla izquierda, que produce limitación funcional. Al examen físico se evidencia marcha de Trendelemburg, con signos de Thomas y Patrick positivos. La radiografía demuestra NAV tipo Ficat-Arlet IV y es corregida mediante artroplastia total de cadera izquierda. Palabras claves: Necrosis Avascular de Cabeza de Fémur, VIH, Herida por arma de fuego.

  5. Ecohydrological features of some contrasting mires in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In November 2005, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina hosted the biennial conference and field excursion of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG. The group considered the vegetation, hydrology, peat stratigraphy and possible management options for about 20 mires which were visited during a seven-day excursion. We report here some field observations and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC25 in five mires which have been selected to encompass the most important ecohydrological features of the mires of Tierra del Fuego. Existing and new data on landscape topography and vegetation were combined in three-dimensional drawings. These drawings are actually conceptual models which could underpin further ecohydrological research, and proved to be very useful as a basis for discussions amongst conference participants about possible ecohydrological relationships. The mires that were studied developed under a wide range of climatic conditions and included fens and bogs. The bogs typically developed from lakes or fens and most are now dominated by Sphagnum magellanicum. This species forms large hummocks, and can invade weakly-buffered fens. Most of the mires were well preserved, but effects of human impact - such as road building and peat extraction - were also noticeable.

  6. Glosa paseada bajo el fuego y la lluvia: cinco lentes para mirar el Chocó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María del Valle Idárraga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la perspectiva general de la ecocrítica o ecopoética, este artículo analiza los modos como se representa la naturaleza y su relación con lo humano en la obra Glosa paseada bajo el fuego y la lluvia (1982 del escritor chocoano Carlos Arturo Caicedo Licona. Las cinco instancias de esa figuración que aquí se estudian ayudan a crear un universo simbólico que respalda una idea de chocoanidad cifrada en prácticas, creencias, recorridos y visiones desde un marco anterior a tecnologías de la identidad como la biodiversidad o la patrimonialización.Based on the general premises of Ecocriticism, this article explores the ways in which nature and its inter-relation to human beings is created in Glosa paseada bajo el fuego y la lluvia, a work by Carlos Arturo Caicedo Licona, a writer from Chocó, Colombia. Five instances of that representation are analyzed as pieces that, while describing practices, conceptions, beliefs and cartographic descriptions, structure an idea of Chocoan identity previous to current identity technologies, such as patrimonialization and biodiversity.

  7. Late Cretaceous tectonothermal evolution of the southern Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Consequence of a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane

  8. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  9. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega el primer registro del céstodo Taenia saginata en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia chilena, correspondiente al año 1902. Se discute la importancia del registro y se entregan ilustraciones del ejemplar.

  10. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro G Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S. The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area. We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  11. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  12. [Psychiatric patients at the police station in the southern South Holland region: assessment by the District Health Service forensic doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardoom, H A; Huisman-Wolfs, M M; Nijs, H G T

    2002-09-21

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of ambulant psychiatric patients who were either brought to the police station or who came by themselves, but who were not kept in a cell, as a basis for the development of a reception protocol. Descriptive. The data from the medical records from 2000 kept by the forensic doctors employed by the district health services for the Southern South Holland region were inventoried. On request by the police, the forensic doctors examined 203 clients. The majority of these were middle-aged men who did have a place of residence. The reason for police involvement was bizarre or confused behaviour in public. Half of the patients had received or were receiving some form of psychiatric treatment from the mental health service. In approximately half of the cases the forensic doctor found a solution together with the police. In the other half of the cases the forensic doctor asked the crisis intervention team at the mental health service for an evaluation. Two thirds of these patients were hospitalised and one third was sent away. Because examination by both the forensic doctor and the mental health service psychiatrist and other procedures were lengthy (up to 6 hours), patients had to spend a long time in a holding cell at the police station that was not designed for stays of this length of time, and often lacked toilet facilities. The forensic doctor treated about half the clients without the need of assistance from the crisis intervention psychiatrist. The temporary accommodation for these confused clients was inadequate.

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0144343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144343 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0144354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144354 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0144529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144529 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  12. On the use of UAVs at active volcanoes: a case study from Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M.; Chigna, G.; Wood, K.; Richardson, T.; Liu, E.; Schellenberg, B.; Thomas, H.; Naismith, A.

    2017-12-01

    Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, is one of Central America's most active systems. More than one hundred thousand people live within ten kilometres of the summit, many of them in profound poverty. Both the summit region and the volcano's steep sided valleys present significant access challenges, mostly associated with unacceptably high risk. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer the opportunity to observe, map and quantify emissions of tephra, gas, lava and heat flux and, using structure from motion algorithms, model dynamic topography. During recent campaigns, the team have completed observations of changes in the summit morphology immediately prior a paroxysmal eruption, mapped the key drainage systems after the fifth of May 2017 eruption and sampled the plume for tephra and gases using a range of onboard instruments. I will present the group's findings within a broader context of hazard mitigation and physical volcanology, and discuss the future of UAVs in volcano monitoring and research.

  13. La glosa de 1541 a los refranes que dizen las viejas tras el fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo O. Bizzarri

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The Marqués de Santillana's Refranes que dizen las viejas tras el fuego had a widely Spreads diffusion during the XVIth century. The printing made in 1541 by Francisco Fernández de Córdoba not only points out a particular way of reception -that of the illustrated collection with short moral glosses- but also was one of the fundamental sources to Juan de Mal Lara's Philosophia vulgar (Sevilla, 1568. A transcription of the1541 printing preserved in only one copy which ­mproves Sbarbi's edition (1874 is presented in this article. This is, thus, an attempt to bring materials to the study of the Hispanic Refranero's early printed stage.

  14. On the differences between Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene climates in southern South America simulated by PMIP3 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ana Laura; Silvestri, Gabriel E.; Tonello, Marcela S.

    2018-04-01

    Differences between climate conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Mid-Holocene (MH) in southern South America inferred from the state-of-the-art PMIP3 paleoclimatic simulations are described for the first time in this paper. The aim is to expose characteristics of past climate changes occurred without human influence. In this context, numerical simulations are an indispensable tool for inferring changes in near-surface air temperature and precipitation in regions where proxy information is scarce or absent. The analyzed PMIP3 models describe MH temperatures significantly warmer than those of LGM with magnitudes of change depending on the season and the specific geographic region. In addition, models indicate that seasonal mean precipitation during MH increased with respect to LGM values in wide southern continental areas to the east of the Andes Cordillera whereas seasonal precipitation developed in areas to the west of Patagonian Andes reduced from LGM to MH.

  15. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  16. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  17. The Southern Hemisphere between 30 and 11 cal. kyr B.P.: a comparison between continental records from Africa, South America and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, F.; Williams, M. A.; Gasse, F.; Chalie, F.; Vincens, A.; David, W.

    2006-12-01

    The timing and amplitude of climate changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Termination I have led to considerable debate around the mechanisms driving the reorganisation of the global climate system and its regional expression. The LGM over the southern tropics and subtropics is still poorly understood and the interpretation of different proxies sometimes appears controversial. Here, we summarise the best, well-dated continental records spanning the interval 30-11 cal. kyr, from Africa south of the equator, Australia and South America. Due to the scarcity of the usable records, we had to decipher several proxies (pollen-inferred vegetation, diatom-inferred lake level, isotopes, sea-surface temperatures SST- in the surrounding oceans) and to consider all existing types of archives (wetlands, lakes, speleothems, (peri)glacial deposits, dunes and aeolian dusts), to characterize as completely as possible, the major features of the climate variability over the three continents. Regional similarities and divergences are pointed out, especially East-West asymmetry linked with oceanic currents and topography. The processes driving the observed temperature and hydrological changes are discussed focusing on the following questions: -How did monsoonal climates in the southern tropics respond to orbital forcing versus other glacial boundary conditions, e.g., sea-surface conditions, during the LGM? Example: several tropical lakes from southern Africa were low during the LGM probably in response to low SST. -How did the convergence zones (e.g. the Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ) have migrated through time and why? Example: in South America, LGM dryness in Amazonia has been associated with a southward migration of the ITCZ. -How did the extratropical, winter rainfall domain expand/retreat in response to meridian shifts of the Subtropical Westerly Jet and of the oceanic Subtropical Front, and to latitudinal thermal gradient in the Southern Ocean? Example: in

  18. Fossil history of the marsh rats of the genus Holochilus and Lundomys (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae in southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teta, P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sister genera Holochilus and Lundomys, plus the extinct forms Carletonomys and Noronhomys and the living Pseudoryzomys, constitute a small clade of amphibious sigmodontine rodents that inhabits in tropical and subtropical environments of the Neotropics. Based on almost all the available fossil evidence recovered in Argentina, Bolivia, southeastern Brazil, and Uruguay we revised the paleontological record of Holochilus and Lundomys in southern South America. Past distributions and chronologies indicate the following occurrences [biochrons] for the study area: Holochilus brasiliensis (Middle Pleistocene-Recent in Argentina, Late Pleistocene-Recent in Brazil, H. chacarius (Late Holocene-Recent in Argentina, Early Holocene-Recent in Bolivia, †H. primigenius (Middle Pleistocene in Bolivia, and Lundomys molitor (Middle Pleistocene-Late Pleistocene in Argentina, Late Pleistocene-Recent in Uruguay. Taking into account the present distributions and environmental requirements of these rodents we hypothesize several expansion/retraction episodes of their populations triggered by the occurrence of moist/dry climatic pulses during Pleistocene-Holocene times.Los géneros hermanos Holochilus y Lundomys, junto con las formas extintas Carletonomys y Noronhomys y la viviente Pseudoryzomys, constituyen un pequeño clado de sigmodontinos de hábitos anfibios, que habitan en ambientes tropicales y subtropicales del Neotrópico. Basándonos en la totalidad de la evidencia fósil disponible para Argentina, Bolivia, sudeste de Brasil y Uruguay se revisó el registro paleontológico de Holochilus y Lundomys de la porción austral de América del Sur. Las distribuciones en el pasado y sus cronologías indican las siguientes ocurrencias para el área de estudio: Holochilus brasiliensis (Pleistoceno Medio-Reciente en Argentina, Pleistoceno Tardío-Reciente en Brasil, H. chacarius (Holoceno Tardío-Reciente en Argentina, Holoceno Temprano-Reciente en Bolivia,

  19. Particulate fluxes and transports on the slope between the southern East China Sea and the South Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yu-Chia; Hung, Guo-Wei

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents time-series variations of the particulate fluxes in resolutions of 3-15 d from 10 mooring sites on the continental slope between the southern East China Sea and the South Okinawa Trough, northeast of Taiwan. Three of these sites were located in a canyon cutting across the slope. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate flux in the study area were strongly affected by the bottom topography, the topographically induced eddies, the intensity of tidal currents, the depth and height above bottom where the traps were deployed, and episodic events. The apparent mass fluxes measured at depths from about 300 to 1350 m at different locations varied with time and showed synchronous variations among the traps deployed at the same site for some sites. The time-averaged mass flux for each individual trap deployed at different depth and in different length of mooring time ranged from 0.77 to 53.7 g m -2 d -1. In the canyon the average fluxes were generally greater than 30 g m -2 d -1 with large standard deviations; at other slope sites the average fluxes were generally less than 10 g m -2 d -1, excluding one or two unusually high values which were observed in some individual traps probably reflecting episodic events. The particulate fluxes always increased toward the ocean bottom at each mooring site but the increment was much greater in the canyon. This suggests that the particulates were transported out of the shelf or upper slope area essentially through the canyon where large mass fluxes were observed. The current meter data processed with low-pass filtration and expressed in stick diagrams and progressive vector diagrams showed large temporal and spatial variations which were generally not correlated with those of particulate fluxes. Although strong tidal velocity oscillations in the canyon were found to be associated with high mass fluxes in some instances (Hung and Chung, 1998, Continental Shelf Research 18, 1475-1491), episodic events with very

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-22 to 2005-04-06 (NODC Accession 0108100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108100 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-02-10 to 2008-04-16 (NODC Accession 0108154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108154 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-06 to 2005-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0144243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144243 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-09 to 2005-02-19 (NODC Accession 0108095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108095 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1998-03-28 to 1998-05-23 (NODC Accession 0113595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113595 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  5. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  6. Transfer of pollutants in two Southern hemispheric oceanic systems. Proceedings of a workshop held at Plettenberg Bay, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, CE

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Available information on the sources and principal routes by which pollutants enter the sea around southern Africa is summarized. The importance of different physical, chemical and biological processes is discussed in relation to the transfer...

  7. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  8. Un nuevo mamífero introducido en la Tierra del Fuego: el "peludo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae en Isla Grande A new introduced mammal in Tierra del Fuego: the "large hairy armadillo" Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae in the Isla Grande island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN POLJAK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El 66 % de la mastofauna de la Tierra del Fuego está compuesta por especies introducidas deliberadamente por cuestiones de índole económica, estética y caza deportiva. Entre ellas, el armadillo Chaetophractus villosus conocido vulgarmente como "peludo", que habita desde el Chaco de Bolivia y Paraguay hasta el sur de la provincia de Santa Cruz en Argentina, ha sido introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego hace unos 20 años. Las cuevas y hoyos son las evidencias indirectas más conspicuas de la actividad de esta especie y son utilizados en este trabajo para determinar la distribución y estimar la abundancia relativa de la población de armadillos en el sector argentino de la Isla Grande. Se clasificó a las cuevas en "cortas" para refugio temporario y/o forrajeo y "largas", de uso como madriguera o semipermanente. Chaetophractus villosus es una especie establecida en la isla donde ocupa un área de unos 484 km² y su distribución se encuentra asociada a la red de tuberías soterradas para extracción y transporte de hidrocarburos, debido a las modificaciones físicas que esta actividad causa en el suelo. Aunque la población es aún pequeña, se considera que dada la distribución alcanzada por C. villosus a partir de la introducción de pocos individuos y teniendo en cuenta las condiciones climáticas de la región, es posible que no sea el clima un factor determinante en la distribución de esta especie sino las barreras geográficas como el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur y el Río de La Plata hacia el esteSixty-six percent of the mammal fauna of Tierra del Fuego consists of introduced species with economical or sport hunting importance. The large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus, is distributed from the Chaco of Bolivia and Paraguay to the South of Santa Cruz province in Argentina and was introduced to Isla Grande about 20 years ago. Since the holes and subterranean excavations are the most conspicuous indications of

  9. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190–2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. - Highlights: ► 61 samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego analysed for the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds. ► Acid compounds presented the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most frequently found. ► Concentrations in algae much higher than those in soils. ► Data supporting existing models for the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns are presented. - 18 perfluorinated compounds assessed in biota and environmental samples from Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctica. Concentrations related to Compounds properties.

  10. First insights into genus level diversity and biogeography of deep sea benthopelagic calanoid copepods in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Jasmin; Markhaseva, Elena L.

    2015-11-01

    Calanoid copepods constitute the most numerous organisms not only in the pelagic realm, but also in the benthic boundary layer, which gives them an important role in the turnover of organic matter in the benthopelagic habitat. During seven expeditions to the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean, the diversity and biogeography of deep-sea benthopelagic calanoid copepods were studied. The communities of calanoids living in the vicinity of the seabed were characterized by high diversity comparable to many pelagic habitats, but low abundance of individuals. Members of the taxon Clausocalanoidea dominated the communities, and within this taxon most individuals belonged to detritivore calanoids characterized by sensory setae on the second maxillae or aetideid copepods. 73% of all genera classified as obligate or predominantly benthopelagic copepods detected during these expeditions were new to science and a vast number of genera and species have been described since then. Comparing the communities of calanoid genera between different regions, the assemblages in the Southern Ocean differed significantly from the Southeast and Southwest Atlantic. A latitudinal diversity gradient could be observed, with highest numbers of genera in the Southwest Atlantic and low numbers at stations in the Southern Ocean. Reviewing the literature, endemism for benthopelagic calanoids appeared to be low on a latitudinal range caused by connectivity in benthopelagic habitats through spreading water masses. However, considering the habitats structuring the water column vertically, a high number of genera are endemic in the benthopelagial and specialized to living within the vicinity of the seabed.

  11. On the presence of upper paleocene rocks in the foreland succession at Cabo Nariz, Tierra del Fuego, Chile: Geology and new palynological and U-Pb data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Pavlishina, Polina; Godoy, Estanislao; Herve, Francisco; Fanning, C.Mark

    2010-01-01

    On the west coast of Tierra del Fuego, south of Cabo Nariz, in Chile, Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene sedimentary successions of the Magallanes foreland basin crop out. The presence of dinoflagellate cysts, as well as radiometric U-Pb SHPJMP dating of detrital zircons, indicate that this succession ranges from the Campanian to Thanetian (Late Paleocene) in age. The base of the exposed sedimentary succession comprises siltstones of external platform facies (Cerro Cuchilla Formation), which are thrust over the Cabo Nariz Beds. The latter fonnation is divided into two members: a lower siltstone-dominated turbidite facies member and an upper member of sandstone-dominated turbidites, with sandstone and conglomerate channel facies. The presence of dinocysts in the Cerro Cuchilla Formation suggests a late Campanian to early Danian age. The fossil content in the Cabo Nariz Beds indicate a Selandian (Middle Paleocene) depositional age in accordance with the detrital zircon ages which provide a maximum possible Campanian age (76.5±0.7 Ma), and very close to the Thanetian (Late Paleocene) (57.6±1 Ma) depositional ages for the lower and upper member, respectively. The sedimentary succession of Cabo Nariz Beds, is interpreted as a north-northwest prograding submarine fan of middle to Late Paleocene age. It is considered to represent the deposition of detritus derived from an uplifting orogen located to the south. The detrital zircon age spectra suggest that there was a period of low intensity of magmatic activity in the source area around the K-T boundary

  12. Phylogeography of the Patagonian otter Lontra provocax: adaptive divergence to marine habitat or signature of southern glacial refugia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehébar Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have described the extension of ice cover in western Patagonia during the Last Glacial Maximum, providing evidence of a complete cover of terrestrial habitat from 41°S to 56°S and two main refugia, one in south-eastern Tierra del Fuego and the other north of the Chiloé Island. However, recent evidence of high genetic diversity in Patagonian river species suggests the existence of aquatic refugia in this region. Here, we further test this hypothesis based on phylogeographic inferences from a semi-aquatic species that is a top predator of river and marine fauna, the huillín or Southern river otter (Lontra provocax. Results We examined mtDNA sequences of the control region, ND5 and Cytochrome-b (2151 bp in total in 75 samples of L. provocax from 21 locations in river and marine habitats. Phylogenetic analysis illustrates two main divergent clades for L. provocax in continental freshwater habitat. A highly diverse clade was represented by haplotypes from the marine habitat of the Southern Fjords and Channels (SFC region (43°38' to 53°08'S, whereas only one of these haplotypes was paraphyletic and associated with northern river haplotypes. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of the persistence of L. provocax in western Patagonia, south of the ice sheet limit, during last glacial maximum (41°S latitude. This limit also corresponds to a strong environmental change, which might have spurred L. provocax differentiation between the two environments.

  13. Fuego y Agua a la luz de la crónica de Viena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Porras Gil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A finales de la Edad Media y a lo largo de la Edad Moderna, todos los aspectos que rodeaban a un príncipe servían para construir una imagen de poder. Un modelo que ordenaba contenidos y formas, y llevaba al heroísmo, a través de la historia, la utopía de buen gobierno representada por éste. Esta forma visual, revelada a través de ropas, gestos, magnificencia de los séquitos… se cuidó especialmente en el caso de entradas y fiestas urbanas, dónde las diferentes repúblicas compitieron por mostrar su relevancia y adhesión a la autoridad que ensalzaban. Por encima de lo habitual, como expresión de fausto se buscó la sorpresa, añadiendo a pendones, entoldados y otras formas de embellecimiento urbano, el empleo de fuegos y agua. A través de la Crónica de Viena se especifican algunos ejemplos en los que el fuego y el agua fueron determinantes, consiguiendo transformar la realidad en una estilización poetizada, definida por quienes la vieron como: “Gran Maravilla”. At the end of the Medieval Age and across the Modern Age, all the aspects surrounding a Prince used to be done in order to build an aspect of power. A model that ordered content and forms, leading towards heroism. Throughout history, the utopia of a good government was represented by this idea. This visual form, revealed throught clothes, gestures, the magnificent of the entourage… took special care in the case of entrances and urban parties, where diferent republics competed to show their relevance and union to the authority they extolled. Above usual, splendorous expression led to surprise, adding banners , awnings and others forms of beauty common in a city, like fires and water. Viena’s Chronicles specify some examples when fire and water were decisive, getting success when it comes to transform reality in a lyrical stylization, defined by whom saw it as: “Great Marvel”.

  14. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  15. Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.

  16. Continuation, south of Oaxaca City (southern Mexico) of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and of the Oaxaca Fault. Based in MT, gravity and magnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S.; Arango-Galván, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone constituting the boundary-suture between the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes (southern Mexico). South of Oaxaca City, the fault trace disappears and there are not clear evidences for its southward continuation at depth. The crust in southern México has been studied through seismic refraction, and seismological and magnetotelluric (MT) studies. The refraction studies did not image the Oaxaca Fault. However, previous regional MT studies suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary lies to the east of the Zaachila and Mitla sub-basins, which implies sinistral displacement along the Donaji Fault. Campos-Enriquez et al. (2009) established the shallow structure of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary based in detailed gravity and magnetic studies. This study enabled: 1) to establish the shallow structure of the composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. According to the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. At the same time,, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of a horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. This model implies that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault. A constraint for the accreation of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. Thirty MT soundings were done in the area of the Central Valleys, Oaxaca City (southern Mexico). In particular we wanted to image the possible southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault. 22 Mt sounding are located along two NE-SW profiles to the northern and to the south of the City of Oaxaca. To the north of Oaxaca City, the electrical resistivity distribution obtained show a clear discontinuity across the superficial trace of the Oaxaca

  17. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  18. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip, of South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  19. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  20. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled

  1. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and

  2. Seasonal evolution of the upper-ocean adjacent to the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean: Results from a “lazy biological mooring”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Nicholls, Keith W.; Renfrew, Ian A.; Boehme, Lars; Biuw, Martin; Fedak, Mike

    2011-07-01

    A serendipitous >8-month time series of hydrographic properties was obtained from the vicinity of the South Orkney Islands, Southern Ocean, by tagging a southern elephant seal ( Mirounga leonina) on Signy Island with a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL) in March 2007. Such a time series (including data from the austral autumn and winter) would have been extremely difficult to obtain via other means, and it illustrates with unprecedented temporal resolution the seasonal progression of upper-ocean water mass properties and stratification at this location. Sea ice production values of around 0.15-0.4 m month -1 for April to July were inferred from the progression of salinity, with significant levels still in September (around 0.2 m month -1). However, these values presume that advective processes have negligible effect on the salinity changes observed locally; this presumption is seen to be inappropriate in this case, and it is argued that the ice production rates inferred are better considered as "smeared averages" for the region of the northwestern Weddell Sea upstream from the South Orkneys. The impact of such advective effects is illustrated by contrasting the observed hydrographic series with the output of a one-dimensional model of the upper-ocean forced with local fluxes. It is found that the difference in magnitude between local (modelled) and regional (inferred) ice production is significant, with estimates differing by around a factor of two. A halo of markedly low sea ice concentration around the South Orkneys during the austral winter offers at least a partial explanation for this, since it enabled stronger atmosphere/ocean fluxes to persist and hence stronger ice production to prevail locally compared with the upstream region. The year of data collection was an El Niño year, and it is well-established that this phenomenon can impact strongly on the surface ocean and ice field in this sector of the Southern Ocean, thus

  3. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  4. Functional ecology of soil microbial communities along a glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Miguel A; Pointing, Stephen B; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Green, T G Allan; Rozzi, Ricardo; Sancho, Leopoldo G; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2016-09-01

    A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions. Changes in putative functionality generally reflected succession-related taxonomic composition of soil microbiota. Major shifts in carbon fixation and catabolism were observed, as well as major changes in nitrogen metabolism. At initial microbial dominated succession stages, microorganisms could be mainly involved in pathways that help to increase nutrient availability, while more complex microbial transformations such as denitrification and methanogenesis, and later degradation of complex organic substrates, could be more prevalent at vegetated successional states. Shifts in virus populations broadly reflected changes in microbial diversity. Conversely, stress response pathways appeared relatively well conserved for communities along the entire chronosequence. We conclude that nutrient utilization is likely the major driver of microbial succession in these soils. [Int Microbiol 19(3):161-173 (2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. A sensitivity analysis of volcanic aerosol dispersion in the stratosphere. [Mt. Fuego, Guatemala eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A computer sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the uncertainties involved in the calculation of volcanic aerosol dispersion in the stratosphere using a 2 dimensional model. The Fuego volcanic event of 1974 was used. Aerosol dispersion processes that were included are: transport, sedimentation, gas phase sulfur chemistry, and aerosol growth. Calculated uncertainties are established from variations in the stratospheric aerosol layer decay times at 37 latitude for each dispersion process. Model profiles are also compared with lidar measurements. Results of the computer study are quite sensitive (factor of 2) to the assumed volcanic aerosol source function and the large variations in the parameterized transport between 15 and 20 km at subtropical latitudes. Sedimentation effects are uncertain by up to a factor of 1.5 because of the lack of aerosol size distribution data. The aerosol chemistry and growth, assuming that the stated mechanisms are correct, are essentially complete in several months after the eruption and cannot explain the differences between measured and modeled results.

  6. Necrosis Avascular Bilateral de cadera en paciente con VIH y traumatismo de arma de fuego.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis J. Menoni Blanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Necrosis Avascular de Cadera (NAV es un proceso patológico infrecuente, originado por falta de irrigación de la articulación coxofemoral que implica necrosis y degeneración de los huesos que la conforman, causando dolor e impotencia funcional. Es más frecuente en varones jóvenes, pudiendo ser unilateral o bilateral. La etiología puede ser idiopática o estar relacionada a causas sistémicas como infección por VIH y su tratamiento depende de la severidad. En este reporte, se presenta un caso masculino de 35 años, seropositivo con tratamiento antirretroviral y antecedente de herida por arma de fuego de presentación inusual en cadera, sin lesión ósea aparente, quien refiere dolor de cadera izquierda, de fuerte intensidad, punzante, irradiado a rodilla izquierda, que produce limitación funcional. Al examen físico se evidencia marcha de Trendelemburg, con signos de Thomas y Patrick positivos. La radiografía demuestra NAV tipo Ficat-Arlet IV y es corregida mediante artroplastia total de cadera izquierda.

  7. MICROFUNGAL COMPOSITION IN AN ASTELIA-DONATIA CUSHION PEATLAND IN TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia I. Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Hemisferio Sur las turberas almacenan grandes cantidades de carbono en el suelo. A pesar de su importancia en el ciclo global del carbono, se sabe poco acerca de los procesos de descomposición y su diversidad fúngica. El presente estudio se realizó para describir la composición de hongos filamen - tosos en dos profundidades de una turbera compacta donde las especies vegetales predominantes son Astelia (Asteliaceae y Donatia (Donatiaceae en Moat, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. De 48 muestras procesadas, se obtuvieron 338 aislamientos. Mediante el uso de diferentes metodologías de cultivo, a través de observación microscópica y por métodos moleculares identificamos 38 especies fúngicas y 18 géneros de Ascomycetes y Zygomycetes. Los aislamientos de Ascomycetes fueron los más abundantes, con dominancia de Penicillium y Trichoderma . Se describe la composición fúngica y se comparó la diversidad y equitatividad de las especies a dos profundidades de muestreo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la composición de especies, la diversidad y equitatividad. La turbera estudiada es un ecosistema que presenta alta diversidad de especies fúngicas filamentosas, algunas de ellas descritas en otras turberas en todo el mundo.

  8. Biogeographic links between southern Atlantic Forest and western South America: Rediscovery, re-description, and phylogenetic relationships of two rare montane anole lizards from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Drummond, Leandro de Oliveira; Teixeira, Mauro; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Data on species ranges and phylogenetic relationships are key in historical biogeographical inference. In South America, our understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie biodiversity patterns varies greatly across regions. Little is known, for instance, about the drivers of high endemism in the southern montane region of the Atlantic Rainforest. In this region, former biogeographic connections with other South American ecosystems have been invoked to explain the phylogenetic affinities of a number of endemic taxa. This may also be the case of the montane anole lizards Anolis nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus, known from few specimens collected more than 40years ago. We combine new genetic data with published sequences of species in the Dactyloa clade of Anolis to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus, as well as estimate divergence times from their closest relatives. Based on newly sampled and previously overlooked specimens, we provide a taxonomic re-description of those two taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered six main clades within Dactyloa, five of which were previously referred to as species series (aequatorialis, heterodermus, latifrons, punctatus, roquet). A sixth clade clustered A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus with A. dissimilis from western Amazonia, A. calimae from the Andes, A. neblininus from the Guiana Shield, and two undescribed Andean taxa. We therefore define a sixth species series within Dactyloa: the neblininus series. Close phylogenetic relationships between highly disjunct, narrowly-distributed anoles suggest that patches of suitable habitat connected the southern Atlantic Forest to western South America during the Miocene, in agreement with the age of former connections between the central Andes and the Brazilian Shield as a result of Andean orogeny. The data also support the view of recurrent evolution (or loss) of a twig anole-like phenotype in mainland anoles, in

  9. Glacial History of Southernmost South America and Implications for Movement of the Westerlies and Antarctic Frontal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Fogwill, C. J.; Hulton, N. R.; Sugden, D. E.; Peter, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    The ~1 Myr glacial geologic record in southern South American is one of the few available terrestrial paleoclimate proxies at orbital and suborbital time scales in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Presently, southernmost Patagonia lies about 3\\deg north of the Antarctic frontal zone and within the middle latitude westerlies and the climate is controlled by the surrounding maritime conditions. Thus, the long-term glacial record provides insight into the history of climatic boundaries over the middle and high latitude southern ocean, including the upwind SE Pacific Ocean, tectonic-glacial evolution of the Andes, and global climate. To date, cosmogenic nuclide and 14C dating have focused on glacial fluctuations between 51 and 53\\deg S (Torres del Paine to northern Tierra del Fuego) during the last glacial cycle, including the late glacial period. At least 4 advances occurred between ca. 25 and 17 ka, with the maximum expansion of ice ca. 25-24 ka. Major deglaciation commenced after ca. 17.5 ka, which was interrupted by a major glacial-climate event ca. 14-12 ka. Modelling experiments suggest that the ice mass needed to form the glacial maximum moraines required about a 6\\deg cooling and a slight drying relative to the present. Such a fundamental temperature reduction, despite high summer isolation, strongly suggests northward movement of the westerlies and the polar front on millennial timescales. The Patagonian record also indicates that on orbital timescales equatorward movement of climate boundaries and glacial growth was in phase with major Northern Hemisphere ice volume change, despite high local summer insolation. At suborbital timescales, the picture is more complex. While major facets of the last glacial maximum appear to be in phase between the hemispheres, at least some late glacial events may be in step with Antarctic climate change. Present and future research will further constrain the timing of glacial events over the last 1 Myr and

  10. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries. An example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1996-01-01

    The countries of the Southern Mediterranean region are facing an important increase of electricity demand due to their socio-economic development. In order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most countries of the region are planning gas fired power stations due to the important natural gas resources in the area. Overall investments in new power plants could reach the total of 100 billion dollars, up to the horizon 2010. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructure to produce and transport the natural gas needed is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the two shores of the Mediterranean and represent an example of North- South cooperation in the energy field. This cooperation is taking place through technical assistance programs and also joint financing and management of the infrastructure required. A special importance is given to the development of highly efficient combined cycle power plants in the Southern Mediterranean countries and to the increase of the activities related to the exploration and production of natural gas. (author)

  11. Distribution of planktonic biogenic carbonate organisms in the Southern Ocean south of Australia: a baseline for ocean acidification impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Thomas W.; Passmore, Abraham; Davies, Diana M.; Smit, Tim; Berry, Kate; Tilbrook, Bronte

    2018-01-01

    The Southern Ocean provides a vital service by absorbing about one-sixth of humankind's annual emissions of CO2. This comes with a cost - an increase in ocean acidity that is expected to have negative impacts on ocean ecosystems. The reduced ability of phytoplankton and zooplankton to precipitate carbonate shells is a clearly identified risk. The impact depends on the significance of these organisms in Southern Ocean ecosystems, but there is very little information on their abundance or distribution. To quantify their presence, we used coulometric measurement of particulate inorganic carbonate (PIC) on particles filtered from surface seawater into two size fractions: 50-1000 µm to capture foraminifera (the most important biogenic carbonate-forming zooplankton) and 1-50 µm to capture coccolithophores (the most important biogenic carbonate-forming phytoplankton). Ancillary measurements of biogenic silica (BSi) and particulate organic carbon (POC) provided context, as estimates of the biomass of diatoms (the highest biomass phytoplankton in polar waters) and total microbial biomass, respectively. Results for nine transects from Australia to Antarctica in 2008-2015 showed low levels of PIC compared to Northern Hemisphere polar waters. Coccolithophores slightly exceeded the biomass of diatoms in subantarctic waters, but their abundance decreased more than 30-fold poleward, while diatom abundances increased, so that on a molar basis PIC was only 1 % of BSi in Antarctic waters. This limited importance of coccolithophores in the Southern Ocean is further emphasized in terms of their associated POC, representing less than 1 % of total POC in Antarctic waters and less than 10 % in subantarctic waters. NASA satellite ocean-colour-based PIC estimates were in reasonable agreement with the shipboard results in subantarctic waters but greatly overestimated PIC in Antarctic waters. Contrastingly, the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) shows coccolithophores as overly

  12. Distribution of planktonic biogenic carbonate organisms in the Southern Ocean south of Australia: a baseline for ocean acidification impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Trull

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean provides a vital service by absorbing about one-sixth of humankind's annual emissions of CO2. This comes with a cost – an increase in ocean acidity that is expected to have negative impacts on ocean ecosystems. The reduced ability of phytoplankton and zooplankton to precipitate carbonate shells is a clearly identified risk. The impact depends on the significance of these organisms in Southern Ocean ecosystems, but there is very little information on their abundance or distribution. To quantify their presence, we used coulometric measurement of particulate inorganic carbonate (PIC on particles filtered from surface seawater into two size fractions: 50–1000 µm to capture foraminifera (the most important biogenic carbonate-forming zooplankton and 1–50 µm to capture coccolithophores (the most important biogenic carbonate-forming phytoplankton. Ancillary measurements of biogenic silica (BSi and particulate organic carbon (POC provided context, as estimates of the biomass of diatoms (the highest biomass phytoplankton in polar waters and total microbial biomass, respectively. Results for nine transects from Australia to Antarctica in 2008–2015 showed low levels of PIC compared to Northern Hemisphere polar waters. Coccolithophores slightly exceeded the biomass of diatoms in subantarctic waters, but their abundance decreased more than 30-fold poleward, while diatom abundances increased, so that on a molar basis PIC was only 1 % of BSi in Antarctic waters. This limited importance of coccolithophores in the Southern Ocean is further emphasized in terms of their associated POC, representing less than 1 % of total POC in Antarctic waters and less than 10 % in subantarctic waters. NASA satellite ocean-colour-based PIC estimates were in reasonable agreement with the shipboard results in subantarctic waters but greatly overestimated PIC in Antarctic waters. Contrastingly, the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM shows

  13. Economic prospects and policy framework of forest biotechnology in the Southern U.S.A. and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; David N. Wear; Zohra Bennadji

    2005-01-01

    An economic framework is presented for analyzing forest biotechnology with a focus on the case of transgenic forest trees in the southeastern U.S., Uruguay, and South America. Prospective economic benefits of forest biotechnology could reach hundreds of millions of dollars per year, but greatly increased research expenditures will also be required to achieve this...

  14. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  15. Livestock-rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admasu, T.; Abule, E.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is

  16. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  17. Resolución endovascular de lesiones por arma de fuego en la región cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Rizzone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las heridas producidas por armas de fuego que comprometen la región cervical son materia de controversia en cuanto a cuál es el mejor método para tratarlas. La resolución endovascular de este tipo de patología ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años debido al desarrollo de nuevos dispositivos y, consecuentemente, a la menor incidencia de complicaciones inherentes al procedimiento. Objetivo: Determinar el rol del tratamiento endovascular en la resolución de las lesiones cervicales por arma de fuego. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 76 pacientes que sufrieron lesiones cervicales por arma de fuego, a los cuales se les realizó angiografía de los vasos supraaórticos para decidir la conducta a seguir. Resultados: Del total de 76 pacientes, 47 (61,8% presentaron una angiografía patológica; de estos, en 26 se decidió la resolución endovascular de la lesión, implantándose 1,1 stents por paciente. La estadía intrahospitalaria fue en promedio de 10,4 días. A los 30 días de seguimiento, 2 pacientes presentaron secuela neurológica y uno evolucionó con sepsis. En el seguimiento alejado con un promedio de 4 años se registró una muerte a los 117 días de realizado el procedimiento. Conclusiones: La intervención endovascular ha ganado mayor protagonismo con el desarrollo de nuevos dispositivos que permiten el tratamiento de patologías cada vez más complejas y reducir el tiempo de internación intrahospitalaria, como también las complicaciones relacionadas con el procedimiento.

  18. Estudios florísticos y ecológicos sobre las algas de agua dulce de turberas de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Mataloni, María Gabriela

    1994-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se realizan diversas investigaciones florísticas y ecológicas sobre las algas de turberas de Sphagnum de la provincia de Tierra Fuego. Para ello se condijeron básicamente dos trabajos. en la primera parte se estudiaron ocho ojos de agua pertenecientes a siete turberas ubicadas en el sur de Tierra del Fuego. En cada una de ellas se muestrearon tanto el fitoplancton del agua libre como las algas que viven asociadas a Sphagnum a lo largo de un gradiente ambiental caracteri...

  19. Estudio de la estructura cortical en la Isla de Tierra del Fuego a partir de datos sismológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Buffoni, C.; Schimmel, Martin; Sabbione, N.C.; Rosa, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de Tierra del Fuego (TdF) se encuentra ubicada en el extremo sur de la Cuenca de Magallanes, donde el borde transformante entre la Placa de Scotia y la Sudamericana define el Sistema de Fallas Magallanes-Fagnano (MFS), cuya falla principal tiene un movimiento sinestral. Con el fin de obtener información de la corteza, se realizó un análisis de funciones receptoras (FR) a partir de datos registrados en cinco estaciones sismológicas instaladas en la Isla. Una FR es el resultado de un pr...

  20. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  1. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  2. Regeneration patterns of a long-lived dominant conifer and the effects of logging in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre F.; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Longhi, Solon Jonas; Brena, Doádi Antônio

    2008-09-01

    The regeneration ecology of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. We evaluated the expectations that: (i) size distribution of populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a large conifer that dominates southern Brazil's mixed forests, is left-skewed in old-growth forests but right-skewed in logged forests, indicating chronic recruitment failure in the first kind of habitat as well as a recruitment pulse in the second; (ii) seedlings and juveniles are found under more open-canopy microsites than would be expected by chance; and (iii) reproductive females would be aggregated at the coarse spatial scales in which past massive recruitment events are expected to have occurred, and young plants would be spatially associated with females due to the prevalence of vertebrate and large-bird seed dispersers. Data were collected in the threatened mixed conifer-hardwood forests in southern Brazil in ten 1-ha plots and one 0.25-ha plot that was hit by a small tornado in 2003. Five of these plots corresponded to unlogged old-growth forests, three to forests where A. angustifolia was selectively logged ca. 60 years ago and two to forests selectively logged ca. 20 years ago. For the first time, ontogenetic life stages of this important conifer are identified and described. The first and second expectations were fulfilled, and the third was partially fulfilled, since seedlings and juveniles were hardly ever associated with reproductive females. These results confirm the generalization of the current conceptual model of emergent long-lived pioneer regeneration to Araucaria angustifolia and associate its regeneration niche to the occupation of large-scale disturbances with long return times.

  3. Mercury concentrations in eggshells of the Southern Ground-Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) and Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Jansen, Raymond; Brandao, José D D O; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2015-04-01

    In this study, wild hatched eggshells were collected from the nests of threatened Wattled Crane and South Ground-Hornbill in an attempt to determine their total Hg concentrations. A total of fourteen eggshell samples from both bird species were collected from different study areas in the Mpumlanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces of South Africa. The eggshells were acid digested under reflux and their total Hg concentrations were determined using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). The observed total Hg levels for the South Ground-Hornbill samples ranged from 1.31 to 8.88 µg g(-1) dry weight (dw), except for one outlier which had an elevated 75.0 µg g(-1) dw. The levels obtained for the Wattled Crane samples were relatively high and these ranged from 14.84 to 36.37 µg g(-1) dw. Generally, all the measured total Hg concentrations for the Wattled Crane samples exceeded the estimated total Hg levels derived for eggshell which were known to cause adverse reproductive effects in avian species from previous studies. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, possible that the exposure of these birds to elevated Hg may have contributed to their present population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transferring Knowledge Gained From a Field Experience in Tierra del Fuego, the Uttermost Part of the Earth, to Central Texas Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, C.; Dovzak, N.; Anderson, S.; Perry, E.; Ellins, K.; Tingle, D.; Knettel, P.; Redding, S.; Odle, K.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the UTIG's Teachers in the Field program, we, three teachers from Boerne High School in south-central Texas, and four of our students, collaborated with an international team of geoscientists studying the tectonic and climatic evolution of the Lago Fagnano region in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, in March 2005. This unique field experience allowed us to participate in all aspects of the scientific process: the consideration of research questions, development of a research plan, collection of field data and observations, and synthesis and presentation of results. In addition to field work and reconnaissance tied directly to the project objectives, we characterized the modern chemical/physical soil and water parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, NH4 content, etc.) and isotopic (18O and D) composition of the Lago Fagnano watershed. These data are now integrated into an existing database of comparable chemical/physical information gathered for North American sites through our summer field courses. We will utilize this rich data set to make Texas-Tierra del Fuego ecosystem comparisons with our classes. The level of mentoring, preparation and follow-up provided by an NSF GK-12 Fellow was a key factor contributing to the success of our experience and an important element in helping us transfer components of this challenging experience to our students. Before, during, and following a two-week field season at Lago Fagnano, we and our students were actively engaged as learners and as scientists. We acquired concepts and skills that are readily applicable in a classroom setting: geologic mapping, GIS applications, isotopic data collection and analysis, tectonics concepts, and a general understanding of how science is truly conducted. Other factors that contributed to a positive experience included the team of dynamic scientists, who encouraged, helped and inspired us, the strong support that we received from our high school campus and district level

  5. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Tizio, Alessandro; Łuczaj, Łukasz Jacub; Quave, Cassandra L; Redžić, Sulejman; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-06-06

    In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic "isles" in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating

  6. La política del fuego: El desplazamiento contemporáneo del paradigma geopolítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper theoretizes the transition from a global regime of geopolitics (that is to say, the politics of the earth to a pyropolitical regime, or the politics of fire. Based in the political philosophy of Carl Schmitt, the thesis is that the certainty, stability, and order rooted in the earth are now being displaced by the anomie of fire, as the symbol and the concrete sphere of the political today.Este artículo teoriza la transición del régimen global geopolítico (es decir, la política de la tierra a régimen piropolítico, o la política del fuego. En base a filosofía política de Carl Schmitt, la tesis es que la certidumbre, estabilidad y orden arraigados en la tierra están desplazados por la anomia del fuego, como un símbolo y dominio concreto de lo político hoy.

  7. Comentarios sobre la situación actual del fuego y su relación con la madera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Martín, Luis Miguel

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The history and importance of various agencies connected with the study of fire in our country is briefly set forth. Fundamental concepts in this field and their effect on fires are defined, while the behavior of wood with respect to other materials is analyzed. After an analysis of the current legislative situation regarding fires, the article ends by setting forth various problems fire poses for consumers and industry.

    Se expone brevemente la historia e intervención de los distintos Organismos en el estudio del fuego en nuestro país. Se definen conceptos fundamentales en este campo y su incidencia en el incendio, pasando revista al comportamiento de la madera en comparación con otros materiales. Junto con el análisis de la legislación y normalización, se termina exponiendo diversos problemas que se plantean en el campo del fuego al usuario y a la industria.

  8. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  9. Holocene environmental change along the southern Cape coast of South Africa - Insights from the Eilandvlei sediment record spanning the last 8.9 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Quick, Lynne J.; Zabel, Matthias; Frenzel, Peter; Hahn, Annette; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Kasper, Thomas; Meadows, Michael E.; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates Holocene sediments from Eilandvlei, a coastal lake located within the Wilderness embayment at the southern Cape coast of South Africa. The evolution of the present estuarine/coastal lake system is reconstructed based on seismic data as well as a multi-proxy approach on a 30.5 m sediment core spanning the last 8.9 kyr. Geochemical (Ca, TOC/S, Br/TOC) and micropalaeontological data (diatoms, foraminifera) reflect changes in the degree of marine influence at the core site. The embayment likely developed via distinct phases of connectivity to the Indian Ocean caused by sea level changes and dune progradation. Marine conditions prevailed at the core site from 8900 to 4700 cal BP. The rapid sea level rise during the early Holocene caused the inundation of a palaeovalley that most likely had formed at lower sea levels during the Pleistocene. Towards the mid-Holocene the sea level exceeded its present height around 7500 cal BP creating a marine embayment. At 4700 cal BP, the embayment became distinctly more disconnected from the ocean turning into a lagoon system that persisted until 1200 cal BP. Subsequently, the marine influence further decreased and the present estuarine/coastal lake system was established. Grain size and geochemical data (Fe, Si/Al, chemical index of alteration (CIA)) further reflect changes in the deposition of terrigenous sediments at the core site. While the sedimentation of fine-grained (climatic conditions than today from 8900 to 7900 cal BP and 6400 to 3000 cal BP. In contrast, the periods between 7900-6400 cal BP and 3000 cal BP-present were likely characterized by high river discharge and thus, generally more rainfall. The reconstructed palaeoclimatic variations are discussed within the context of e.g., shifts in the position of the Antarctic sea ice extent and the mid-latitude westerly wind belt as well as changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  10. Variations and trends of CO2 in the surface seawater in the Southern Ocean south of Australia between 1969 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki; Ishii, M.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the partial pressure of CO 2 in surface seawater (pCO sw 2 ) were made in the Southern Ocean south of Australia during four cruises in January to February 1969, December 1983 to January 1984, December 1994 to January 1995 and January 2002. The spatial distribution of pCO sw 2 for the four cruises showed the same pattern north of the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), while year-to-year changes were noted south of the SAF. We evaluated the long-term trend of the pCO sw 2 representative of the zone between oceanographic fronts by taking into account changes in the seasonal variation in pCO sw 2 and the long-term increase of the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the Southern Hemisphere. The observed growth rate of pCO sw 2 was 0.7 ± 0.1 μatm/yr at its minimum, which was observed at the SST of 15 deg C north of the Subtropical Front (STF), 1.0 ± 0.5 μatm/yr in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) between STF and SAF, 1.5 ± 0.4 μatm/yr in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) between SAF and the Polar Front (PF) and 1.8 ± 0.2 μμatm/yr in the Polar Zone (PZ) between PF and 62 deg S, determined as the northern edge of the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone (SSIZ) on the basis of surface salinity and satellite images. These increases were caused by the uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 as well as variations in the thermodynamic temperature effect, ocean transport and biological activity. In the SSIZ between 62 and 66.5 deg S, we could not clearly evaluate the long-term trend of pCO sw 2 due to the remarkable CO 2 drawdown due to biological activity in January 2002. The relatively low growth rates of pCO sw 2 close to the STF and in the SAZ are probably associated with the formation of Subtropical Mode Water and Sub-Antarctic Mode Water in their respective zones. Between the north of the STF and the PZ, the growth rate of total dissolved inorganic carbon was calculated to be about 0.5-0.8 μmol/kg/yr via the buffer factor

  11. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thompson

    Full Text Available The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  12. The Structure Difference in the Southern Margin of the Dangerous Grounds: Implications for the Final Evolution of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, P.; Shen, C.; Zhao, Z.; Xie, X.; Mei, L.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We interpret two multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, more than 900 km across the entire Dangerous Grounds, locating in east and west of the southern margin of the South China Sea respectively. Eight Cenozoic sequence boundaries are determined as well as three tectono-stratigraphic units. Detailed analysis of extensional features and unconformities revealed the tectonic in the east and west. Early extension (syn-rifting sequence) occurred in the two profiles during continental rifting, which lasted from Palaeocene to Early Oligocene, and resulted in formation of half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks. Late extension (drift-rifting sequence) has the significant difference in the both profiles. The eastern Dangerous Grounds entered rifting-depression stage and some compressional deformation occurred in the Reed Bank basin at about the beginning of Early Miocene, probably resulting from the collision of the Dangerous Grounds and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. The western Dangerous Grounds was still in rifting until the end of Early Miocene, forming the MMU or DRU which is strongly erosional and represents a major break in sedimentation and/or erosion in partial area. Denudation fold and inverted fault can be distinguished blow the MMU, indicating the cessation of the South China Sea accompanied the NW compression, while the boundary corresponding the MMU is nearly a plano-conformity in the east. The thermal sag (post-rifting sequence) is characterized by non-faulted draping strata in the whole area. The different structure in east and west may be related to the final evolution of the SCS. When the proto-SCS closed in a scissor fashion plus the clockwise rotation of Borneo, the initial collision (c.20Ma) appeared in east part building the NW foreland basin system from Palawan Trough to Reed Bank in a short-live process, while the west part was drifting southwards until c.15Ma to form the even more remarkable foreland system from Borneo Trough to deep-water Sarawak.

  13. South America: Brazil leads the way in offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Brazil has found more than 600 million barrels of oil in the Campos basin and made other strikes to the north, offshore Sergipe, Alagoas, and Rio Grande do Norte states. Argentina's government recently gave the state oil company (YPF) permission to prospect in the Falkland Islands area about 200 miles east of Argentina's southern tip. YPF also is expected to accelerate work offshore Tierra del Fuego next year. The nationalization of petroleum in Venezuela is discussed. Drilling activity has slowed to 67 percent of the level of 1974. The goal for 1975 is about 875 million barrels. Chile has revised its oil law to permit foreign companies to explore, develop and produce the country's resources via contracts. Despite spotty successes, Peru has not given up on the northeastern jungle area, just south of Ecuador's fields. Occidental Petroleum and Petroperu have been the only companies to find commercial oil in the four-year exploration period. Their reserves are put at 464 million barrels. Eighteen foreign companies signed 14 contracts covering more than 50,000 square miles in Bolivia since the country asked for outside help in 1972. Ecuador's output reached an all-time high of 244,000 bpd and then slowed down to a 27,000 bpd dribble when the Trans-Ecuador pipeline broke. The government decreed that production from the Texaco and Gulf fields in the Oriente must rise to 210,000 bopd and that the two companies must drill their unexplored and undeveloped acreage or lose it. Ecuador cut 43 cents from the price of oil by reducing the production tax. Colombia abolished all oil concessions this year in an attempt to stem steadily slipping production. Exploration activities in Uruguay and Paraguay are discussed. (MCW)

  14. Geophysical prospecting in archaeology: investigations in Santa Venera, south suburb of Poseidonia-Paestum, Campania, southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loperte, A; Satriani, A; Bavusi, M; Lapenna, V; Del Lungo, S; Gizzi, F T; Sabelli, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a joint work between geophysicists and archaeologists in which the authors have used geophysical techniques to investigate the Greek and Roman settlement of Paestum, southern Italy for preventive archaeological research (commonly termed 'rescue archaeology') on an area of the ancient settlement affected by new building work and infrastructure. Starting from a background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, an integrated geophysical approach based on magnetic, GPR and geoelectrical surveys was carried out on the Santa Venera area, a site selected to build a car parking. High-density and high-resolution cross-correlated geophysical surveys were carried out in different parts of the area to better resolve the structures. Systematic excavations confirmed the clues suggested by geophysical prospecting about the presence of archaeological remains such as walls, canals and tombs. By the use of non-destructive geophysical techniques a two-fold aim was reached: to properly plan the building of the infrastructure and preserve the ancient artefacts according to the advanced European guidelines on the protection of archaeological heritage

  15. Checklist of the Discomycetes (Fungi of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and adjacent antarctic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La información brindada en este catálogo consiste en registrar las especies de hongos pertenecientes a los órdenes Cyttariales, Helotiales, Ostropales, Pezizales, Rhytismatales y Thelebolales (Discomycetes coleccionadas en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y áreas adyacentes antárticas (Patagonia. Además datos sobre sus organismos asociados fueron localizados, resumidos, validados y editados. Las fuentes de información fueron las exsiccatae depositadas en colecciones de Argentina y otros países y de las publicaciones listadas en la bibliografía. Otros registros derivaron de observaciones de campo sobre material fresco y colecciones de referencia. La información fue acumulada en un sistema computarizado relacional de datos taxonómicos, nomenclaturales, bibliográficos, de distribución geográfica y de observaciones biológicas. Este sistema permite la acumulación de datos paralelos en diferentes idiomas, y distingue la información original de la opinión corriente de lo que puede significar esa información. En la Biological Records Database, 5029 registros fueron creados para observaciones sobre la ocurrencia temporal y espacial de los organismos vivos de la región. De éstos, 2613 corresponden a registros de colecciones de Discomycetes de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, con la siguiente distribución: 1854 para a la Argentina, 687 para Chile y 72 para áreas adyacentes antárticas. Excluyendo los sinónimos, los Discomycetes están representados por 361 especies y taxones subespecíficos (160 géneros, 22 familias y 7 órdenes. Los registros remanentes fueron de organismos asociados con los Discomycetes: 163 animales (8 especies, 8 géneros, 6 familias y 5 órdenes; 2 Chromista; 223 hongos (52 especies, 54 géneros, 26 familias y 13 ódenes; 2028 plantas (159 especies, 122 géneros, 59 familias y 39 órdenes. Cada uno de estos taxones (y cada sinónimo conocido está representado por un registro separado en la Base de Datos Taxon

  16. Feeding ecology of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae in the floodplain of the Paraná River, southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Williner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are not commonly considered to be an important group in trophic webs, and this might be due to a lack of knowledge about their trophic roles in aquatic ecosystems. Trichodactylus borellianus is one of the most common and widely distributed freshwater crabs in the floodplains of the southern South American rivers. The main objective of the present study was to examine the trophic role of T. borellianus, in the floodplain of the Paraná River, and its relationships with the freshwater littoral community. The trophic spectrum of this species was characterized for both sexes and individuals of different sizes (adults and juveniles, throughout daily and seasonal cycles. Samples were collected from the aquatic vegetation of three shallow lakes. The diet composition and the feeding activity of T. borellianus were evaluated through the examination of the stomach contents and their degree of emptiness. This crab species consumed several plant and animal items, including amoebas, rotifers, oligochaetes, copepods, cladocerans, and insect larvae. Moreover, this species consumes filamentous and unicellular algae, diatoms, fungi, and macrophytic remains. The predatory habits varied with the season and time of day, and variations in the feeding activity of the juveniles and adults were detected and documented. The diversity of food items eaten by this crab suggests that its trophic role in the community as an omnivore and opportunistic predator provides a connection among several trophic levels from both aquatic and terrestrial communities.

  17. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release.

  18. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  19. Seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the southern South China Sea under the influence of the East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Tan, Y.; Huang, L.; Hu, Z.; Ke, Z.

    2015-11-01

    To examine seasonal and size-dependent variations in the phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in oligotrophic tropical waters under the influence of seasonal reversing monsoon, dilution experiments were conducted during the summer of 2009 (21 May to 9 June) and winter 2010 (9 to 18 November) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS). The results showed that environmental variables, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton growth rate (μ), microzooplankton grazing rate (m), and correlationship (coupling) between the μ and m, rather than the microzooplankton grazing impact on phytoplankton (m/μ) significantly varied between the two seasons. Higher relative preference index (RPI) for the larger-sized (> 3 μm) phytoplankton than pico-phytoplankton (intermittent arrivals of the northeast winter monsoon could lead to the low μ and m, and the decoupling between the μ and m in the SSCS, through influencing nutrient supply to the surface water, and inducing surface seawater salinity decrease. The low m/μ (waters such as that of the SSCS.

  20. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  1. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  2. Depositional and sea-level history from MIS 6 (Termination II) to MIS 3 on the southern continental shelf of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthra, H. C.; Jacobs, Z.; Compton, J. S.; Fisher, E. C.; Karkanas, P.; Marean, C. W.

    2018-02-01

    Pleistocene shoreline deposits comprised of calcified shallow marine (palaeobeach) and aeolian (palaeodune) facies found along mid-latitude coastlines can be useful indicators of past sea levels. Here, we describe a succession of such deposits that are presently exposed both above (subaerial) and below (submerged) mean sea level along the southern Cape coast of South Africa, 18 km east of the town of Mossel Bay. The submerged units provide a window on Late Pleistocene coastal processes, as palaeoshoreline deposits in this study extend to water depths of up to 55 m on the mid-shelf. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the strata and were compared to modern depositional environments of the local littoral zone, which include aeolian dune, upper shoreface, foreshore, intertidal swash and back-barrier settings. Twenty-two geological units were observed and mapped. Some of these units were directly dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL ages were obtained for ten samples from the subaerial and twelve samples from the submerged deposits. Those geological units not directly dated were interpreted based on sedimentology and field/stratigraphic relationships to dated units. The stratigraphy and chronology of the succession indicates a record of initial deposition during Termination II (T-II) meltwater events, preceding and leading to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. Indicators for multiple sea-level fluctuations between MIS 5d and MIS 4, and sediment deposition at the end of MIS 4 and start of MIS 3 are also found. Both regressive and transgressive depositional cycles are well-preserved in the succession. We propose that palaeodune and palaeobeach deposits along the South Coast of South Africa have no clear preference for deposition during sea-level transgressions or regressions. Sediment deposition more closely mirrors the rate of sea level change, with deposition and preservation either during times of rapid sea-level movement, or oscillation

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from USCGC POLAR SEA in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-02-04 to 1994-02-10 (NODC Accession 0116062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116062 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from USCGC POLAR SEA in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-03-21 to 2006-04-04 (NODC Accession 0108070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108070 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from unknown platforms in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-12-28 to 2014-02-21 (NCEI Accession 0160574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160574 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from unknown platforms in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-09-16 to 2009-10-09 (NODC Accession 0112845)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112845 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-03-11 to 2009-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0157275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157275 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-02 to 2008-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0157284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157284 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-11-28 to 2008-02-04 (NODC Accession 0108067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108067 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-11-24 to 2003-01-23 (NODC Accession 0108068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108068 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern...

  14. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-03-23 to 2010-11-02 (NCEI Accession 0144979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144979 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1986-06-27 to 1986-12-14 (NODC Accession 0116642)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116642 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1990-11-17 to 1990-12-30 (NODC Accession 0117676)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117676 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1996-03-17 to 1996-05-20 (NODC Accession 0116640)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116640 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-03-19 to 2010-04-24 (NODC Accession 0108069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108069 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-12-26 to 2009-01-30 (NODC Accession 0110254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110254 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-08-25 to 2006-10-29 (NODC Accession 0108157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108157 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1996-01-05 to 1996-03-10 (NODC Accession 0115155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115155 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from STENA ARCTICA in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1989-02-14 to 1989-03-17 (NODC Accession 0113893)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113893 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from STENA ARCTICA in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1997-01-12 to 1998-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0157323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157323 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1993-02-06 to 1993-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0143944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143944 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae): A Freshwater Look at the Pampa Biome in Southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Malabarba, Luiz R; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2017-01-01

    The Pampas is a Neotropical biome formed primarily by low altitude grasslands and encompasses the southernmost portion of Brazil, Uruguay, and part of Argentina. Despite the high level of endemism, and its significant environmental heterogeneity, Pampean species are underrepresented in phylogeographic studies, especially aquatic organisms. The Pampean hydrological system resulted from a long history of tectonism, climate, and sea level changes since the Neogene. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus , a freshwater fish species that occurs throughout most of the Pampa biome. We characterized mitochondrial and autosomal genetic lineages in populations sampled from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to investigate (1) the correspondence between current drainage systems and evolutionary lineages, (2) the demographic history for each genetic lineage, and (3) the temporal depth of these lineages. Overall, we found that the major evolutionary lineages in this species are strongly related to the main Pampean drainage systems, even though stream capture events may have affected the distribution of genetic lineages among drainages. There was evidence for recent population growth in the lineages occupying drainages closest to the shore, which may indicate the effect of quaternary sea-level changes. In general, divergence time estimates among evolutionary lineages were shallow, ranging from 20,000 to 800,000 years before present, indicating a geologically recent history for this group, as previously reported in other Pampean species. A Bayesian phylogeographical reconstruction suggested that an ancestral lineage probably colonized the Uruguay River Basin, and then expanded throughout the Pampas. This evolutionary scenario may represent useful starting models for other freshwater species having a similar distribution.

  8. The impact of an increasing elephant population on the woody vegetation in southern Sabi Sand Wildtuin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hiscocks

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1961, a fence was erected between privately owned Sabi Sand Wildtuin (SSW and the Kruger National Park (KNP, which largely prevented elephants entering the SSW. In 1993, the fence was removed. This lead to a rapid influx of elephants into the SSW during the winter months, most of which move back into the KNP during the wet summer season. In 1993, the SSW elephant population was 1/1045 ha but increased to 1/305.8 ha in 1996. It more than doubled to 1/146 ha in 1998. This study was undertaken on the property Kingston, in southern SSW, to assess the impact of elephants on woody vegetation and determine why they show seasonal dietary preferences for specific tree parts. Vegetation utilisation was recorded on a five kilometer transect of vehicle track in 1996 and repeated in 1998. From the transect, species density was calculated for those trees impacted on. Trees that had been newly bark stripped were recorded in 1996 and 1998. Cambium samples were collected in summer and winter from eight tree species. Field observations of elephants impacting on woody vegetation augmented the data base. Transect analysis showed a strong correlation between tree utilisation and density. The most visual damage was of Combretum apiculatum, Acacia burkei, Pterocarpus rotundifolius and Grewia species. Tree damage increased by 73 from 1996 to 1998. Significantly higher levels of nitrogen, sodium and magnesium were found in the species most regularly bark stripped. Bull elephants were responsible for 94 of the trees seen uprooted. The results suggested that SSW can sustain the present elephant population, but further influx at the present rate of increase, will have a negative impact on the reserve.

  9. Microseismicity in Southern South Island, New Zealand: Implications for the Mechanism of Crustal Deformation Adjacent to a Major Continental Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Emily; Lamb, Simon; Stern, Tim A.; Smith, Euan

    2017-11-01

    Shallow (convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone. It has recently been proposed that continental convergence here is accommodated by oblique slip on a low-angle detachment that underlies the region, and as such, forms a previously unrecognized mode of oblique continental convergence. We test this model using microseismicity, presenting a new, 15 month high-resolution microearthquake catalog for the Southern Lakes and northern Fiordland regions adjacent to the Alpine Fault. We determine the spatial distribution, moment release, and style of microearthquakes and show that seismicity in the continental lithosphere is predominantly shallower than 20 km, in a zone up to 150 km wide, but less frequent deeper microseismicity extending into the mantle, at depths of up to 100 km is also observed. The geometry of the subducted oceanic Australian plate is well imaged, with a well-defined Benioff zone to depths of 150 km. In detail, the depth of continental microseismicity shows considerable variation, with no clear link with major active surface faults, but rather represents diffuse cracking in response to the ambient stress release. The moment release rate is 0.1% of that required to accommodate relative plate convergence, and the azimuth of the principal horizontal axis of contraction accommodated by microseismicity is 120°, 15-20° clockwise of the horizontal axis of contractional strain rate observed geodetically. Thus, short-term microseismicity, independent of knowledge of intermittent large-magnitude earthquakes, may not be a good guide to the rate and orientation of long-term deformation but is an indicator of the instantaneous state of stress and potential distribution of finite deformation. We show that both the horizontal and vertical spatial distribution of microseismicity can be explained in terms of a low-angle detachment model.

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae: A Freshwater Look at the Pampa Biome in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. C. Ramos-Fregonezi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a Neotropical biome formed primarily by low altitude grasslands and encompasses the southernmost portion of Brazil, Uruguay, and part of Argentina. Despite the high level of endemism, and its significant environmental heterogeneity, Pampean species are underrepresented in phylogeographic studies, especially aquatic organisms. The Pampean hydrological system resulted from a long history of tectonism, climate, and sea level changes since the Neogene. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, a freshwater fish species that occurs throughout most of the Pampa biome. We characterized mitochondrial and autosomal genetic lineages in populations sampled from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to investigate (1 the correspondence between current drainage systems and evolutionary lineages, (2 the demographic history for each genetic lineage, and (3 the temporal depth of these lineages. Overall, we found that the major evolutionary lineages in this species are strongly related to the main Pampean drainage systems, even though stream capture events may have affected the distribution of genetic lineages among drainages. There was evidence for recent population growth in the lineages occupying drainages closest to the shore, which may indicate the effect of quaternary sea-level changes. In general, divergence time estimates among evolutionary lineages were shallow, ranging from 20,000 to 800,000 years before present, indicating a geologically recent history for this group, as previously reported in other Pampean species. A Bayesian phylogeographical reconstruction suggested that an ancestral lineage probably colonized the Uruguay River Basin, and then expanded throughout the Pampas. This evolutionary scenario may represent useful starting models for other freshwater species having a similar distribution.

  11. A new genus and species of Heroini (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the early Eocene of southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alano Perez

    Full Text Available The Lumbrera Formation is the uppermost unit of the Salta Group, which crops out in northwestern Argentina. The paleoenvironment of the Lumbrera Formation is interpreted as a perennial lake deposited under temperate climatic conditions during the early to middle Eocene. Its fossil content is made up of palynomorphs, insects, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and mammals, besides an ichthyofauna formed by cichlids, poeciliids and dipnoans. †Plesioheros chauliodus is described based on a single individual from this formation, which was fossilized as a lateral view impression (missing anal and caudal fins. It can be distinguished from other cichlids by a moderately deep body, enlarged anterior dentary teeth bearing subapical cusp, a low abdominal vertebral count (10, five canal openings in the dentary, and XI + 12 dorsal-fin rays. A phylogenetic analysis, using the matrix by Kullander (1998, recovered †Plesioheros within Heroini. This species was recovered most closely related to Australoheros and to the deep-bodied South American heroins. The occurrence of an Eocene Heroini, as well as of other cichlid lineages in the same stratigraphical level, is evidence of an ancient diversification in this family. This ancient age supports the hypothesis that the Cichlidae originated on Gondwana.

  12. 2003 assessment of PCDDs-PCDFs emissions from the Copesul/South Petrochemical complex located in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, M.; Allard, J.L. [SNC-Lavalin Environment Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rangel, C.M.P.; Ribeiro, C.; Dos Santos, S.T.F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Sul, Triunfo (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    COPESUL is the Raw Material and Utilities Central of the South Petrochemical Complex, this, being the most modern industrial facility of its type in Brazil, and the second largest naphtha cracker in the country. Responsible for more than 40% of Brazilian olefins production, it is also among the largest crackers (on the same site) in the world. The majority of COPESUL products are transformed by downstream industries of the Complex into thermoplastics resins, synthetic rubber, styrene and solvents that are widely used in the manufacturing of packing material (food, hygiene, cleaning), electronic appliances, medical and surgical supplies, toys and in the car industries, to be consumed in Brazil and foreign countries. At the request of the state of Rio Grande do Sul Environmental Protection Agency (Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental or FEPAM), an Environmental Assessment of Priority Pollutants (EAPP) was performed by Copesul at the end of the year 2003. EAPPs have been voluntarily performed at the Petrochemical Complex since 1986 on a basis of once every three year. It is now performed as a requirement which is part of the petrochemical plant operational license. Among the different (organic and inorganic) parameters tested, PCDDs-PCDFs remained a main concern to the local State Agency with regards to the Complex activities and of it's potential impact on the human health and the environment, despite the fact that the Complex does not use nor produce any organochlorinated product.

  13. La mortalidad por armas de fuego en Argentina entre 1990 y 2008 Firearm mortality in Argentina, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gabriela Zunino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de la mortalidad por armas de fuego en Argentina, 1990-2008. Se analizaron los porcentajes y las tasas de mortalidad por armas de fuego entre las jurisdicciones del país. Los datos provienen de la Dirección de Estadística e Información en Salud, Ministerio de Salud y Ambiente, República Argentina. Entre 1990-2008 se produjeron 358.484 muertes por causas externas de las cuales el 16,6% (59.339 correspondieron a armas de fuego. La Provincia de Buenos Aires presentó el porcentaje y tasas cruda y ajustada superiores. Las jurisdicciones de la Región Pampeana (incluye Provincia de Buenos Aires presentaron un perfil más homogéneo y similar al del país: aumento de las tasas en 1999-2002 y disminución en 2003-2006. Estos hallazgos se explicarían en parte por el deterioro socioeconómico vivido en Argentina a fines del siglo XX, que habría tenido mayor impacto en Provincia de Buenos Aires, por ser ésta una de las provincias con mayor desarrollo y dinamismo económico de Argentina. La situación de Provincia de Buenos Aires habría estado agravada por el hecho de tener una de las fuerzas policiales más represivas del país.This is a descriptive epidemiological study of firearm mortality in Argentina, 1990-2008. The study compared the firearm mortality percentages and rates between the country's jurisdictions. The data are from the Office of Health Statistics and Information, Ministry of Health. From 1990 to 2008 there were 358,484 deaths from external causes, of which 16.6% (59,339 were caused by firearms. The Province of Buenos Aires showed the highest percentage and crude and adjusted rates. The jurisdictions in the Pampeana region (including the Province of Buenos Aires showed a more homogeneous profile, similar to that of the country as a whole, with an increase in the rates from 1999 to 2002 and a decrease from 2003 to 2006. These findings are partially explained by the country

  14. The conversion of grasslands to forests in Southern South America: Shifting evapotranspiration, stream flow and groundwater dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Pineiro, G.; Farley, K. A.; Palmer, S. M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2005-12-01

    Vegetation changes, particularly those involving transitions between tree- and grass-dominated systems, often modify evaporation as a result of plant-mediated shifts in moisture access and demand. The establishment of tree plantations (fast growing eucalypts and pines) on native grasslands is emerging as a major land-use change, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, where cheap land and labor, public subsidies, and prospective C sequestration rewards provide converging incentives. What are the hydrological consequences of grassland afforestation? How are crucial ecosystem services such as fresh water supply and hydrological regulation being affected? We explore these questions focusing on a) evapotranspiration, b) stream flow, and c) groundwater recharge-discharge patterns across a network of paired stands and small watershed occupied by native grassland and tree plantation in Argentina and Uruguay. Radiometric information obtained from Landsat satellite images was used to estimate daily evapotranspiration in >100 tree plantations and grasslands stands in the humid plains of the Uruguay River (mean annual precipitation, MAP= 1350 mm). In spite of their lower albedo, tree plantations were 0.5 C° cooler than grasslands. Energy balance calculations suggested 80% higher evapotranspiration in afforested plots with relative differences becoming larger during dry periods. Seasonal stream flow measurements in twelve paired watershed (50-500 Ha) in the hills of Comechingones (MAP= 800 mm) and Minas (MAP= 1200 mm) showed declining water yields following afforestation. Preliminary data in Cordoba showed four-fold reductions of base flow in the dry season and two-fold reductions of peak flow after storms. A network of twenty paired grassland-plantation stands covering a broad range of sediment textures in the Pampas (MAP= 1000 mm, typical groundwater depth= 1-5 m) showed increased groundwater salinity in afforested stands (plantation:grassland salinity ratio = 1.2, 10, and

  15. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  16. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  17. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  18. Validation and uncertainty quantification of Fuego simulations of calorimeter heating in a wind-driven hydrocarbon pool fire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domino, Stefan Paul; Figueroa, Victor G.; Romero, Vicente Jose; Glaze, David Jason; Sherman, Martin P.; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work is to perform an uncertainty quantification (UQ) and model validation analysis of simulations of tests in the cross-wind test facility (XTF) at Sandia National Laboratories. In these tests, a calorimeter was subjected to a fire and the thermal response was measured via thermocouples. The UQ and validation analysis pertains to the experimental and predicted thermal response of the calorimeter. The calculations were performed using Sierra/Fuego/Syrinx/Calore, an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) code capable of predicting object thermal response to a fire environment. Based on the validation results at eight diversely representative TC locations on the calorimeter the predicted calorimeter temperatures effectively bound the experimental temperatures. This post-validates Sandia's first integrated use of fire modeling with thermal response modeling and associated uncertainty estimates in an abnormal-thermal QMU analysis.

  19. Effect of resource spatial correlation and hunter-fisher-gatherer mobility on social cooperation in Tierra del Fuego.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Santos

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent-based model designed to explore the development of cooperation in hunter-fisher-gatherer societies that face a dilemma of sharing an unpredictable resource that is randomly distributed in space. The model is a stylised abstraction of the Yamana society, which inhabited the channels and islands of the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina-Chile. According to ethnographic sources, the Yamana developed cooperative behaviour supported by an indirect reciprocity mechanism: whenever someone found an extraordinary confluence of resources, such as a beached whale, they would use smoke signals to announce their find, bringing people together to share food and exchange different types of social capital. The model provides insight on how the spatial concentration of beachings and agents' movements in the space can influence cooperation. We conclude that the emergence of informal and dynamic communities that operate as a vigilance network preserves cooperation and makes defection very costly.

  20. Elemental concentration variations in Plio-Pleistocene sediments from ODP Site 1143 (southern South China Sea) obtained by XRF analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Xie, X.; Jin, H.; Wang, P.; Jian, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning technology provides the most accurate and most economic analytical methods for the determination of major and minor elements of the deep-sea sediment ranging from sodium (11) to uranium (92). Scanning on the smooth core surface by XRF Core scanner is reliable and non-destructive to the sediment, requiring little or no time to prepare the core. This method overcomes the drawback of the traditional analytical method by ICP-AES or ICP-MS which requires long time for sample preparation. Thus, it makes it viable to reconstruct long and high-resolution elemental time series from sediment cores. We have performed relatively elemental concentration analyses on the deep sea sediment cores from ODP site 1143 (southern SCS) down to 190.77 mcd (meters composite depth) by XRF core scanner. The depth resolution of the scanning is 1 cm, equivalent to a time resolution of ~250 years. The age model is based on tuning the benthic foraminiferal d18O at Site 1143 to obliquity and precession (Tian et al., 2002) which indicates that the 190.77 meters long sediment spans the past 5 Myr. We compared the records between 99.5 and 136.46 mcd with the elemental records from the same site obtained by Philips PW 2400 X-ray spectrometer (Wehausen et al., online publication). Comparison reveals, regardless of the absolute changes of the elements, that the elemental records (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, P, Ba, Rb, Sr) obtained by two methods are nearly the same. Results show that the relative concentration variations of the productivity related elements such as Ba and Ca display distinctive glacial-interglacial cycles for the past 5 Myr. These productivity cycles recorded show one-on-one relationship with the glacial-interglacial cycles of the global ice volume change recorded in the benthic foraminiferal d18O. The glacial-interglacial cycles in productivity and global ice volume changes are consistent with each other not only in amplitude but also

  1. Un suelo referible al periodo calido medieval en Patagonia Austral y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Aspectos cronologicos y paleoclimaticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favier Dubois, C. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoarchaeological work done in Southernmost Patagonia and in the north of Tierra del Fuego, have revealed the recurrent presence of a paedogenesis interval represented by a soil of an A-AC-C profile, with a mollic epipedon, in the upper section of eolian and colluvial deposits of the late Holocene. This soil is today buried in the sites that have been analyzed, while it remains exposed in other areas of the landscape. Radiocarbon dates obtained on materials placed below it (maximum ages and those obtained by OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio in the AC horizon of this soil (minimum ages, indicate the beginning of its development around the year 1000 BP. Its chronology and environmental implications suggest a relationship with the medieval climatic fluctuations called Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Optimum in Europe. This period has correlates detected in Patagonia by dendroclimatic studies.Estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en 5 localidades de Patagonia austral y norte Tierra del Fuego han revelado la recurrente presencia de un suelo de perfil A-AC-C, de epipedon mólico, en depósitos eólicos y coluviales del Holoceno tardío. Este suelo se observa sepultado en los yacimientos arqueológicos analizados, mientras que permanece expuesto en otras posiciones del paisaje. Numerosas edades máximas y mínimas obtenidas por 14C y por la técnica de OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio indican el comienzo de su desarrollo hacia el 1000 AP. Su cronología e implicancias ambientales permiten vincularlo con fluctuaciones climáticas desarrolladas durante el denominado Período Cálido Medieval u Optimo Medieval Europeo, con correlatos detectados en Patagonia a través de estudios dendroclimáticos.

  2. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  3. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to

  4. Southern African Business Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of South Africa. ... the right to make minor editorial adjustments without consulting the author.

  5. Insights into the structure and tectonic history of the southern South Island, New Zealand, from the 3-D distribution of P- and S-wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Reyners, Martin; Upton, Phaedra; Gubbins, David

    2018-05-01

    The Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand is a transpressive boundary through continental lithosphere consisting of multiple terranes which were amalgamated during previous periods of subduction and plate reorganization. The style and locus of deformation within the present-day plate boundary is controlled by the mechanical behavior and distribution of these different lithospheric blocks. Geological studies are limited when it comes to illuminating lithospheric structure and rheology at depth. Imaging the 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation (1/Q), with distributed local earthquakes, helps unravel regional structure and variations in strength, fractures and fluids. We determine the 3-D distribution of Qp and Qs, which show much more variation than seismic velocity (Vp), underlining the utility of Q (1/attenuation). The Haast schist belt, previously shown as c. 25-km thick dry unit with moderate Vp and low Vp/Vs, is imaged with high Qs, and the highest Qs areas correlate with zones of higher grade schist. Below 25-km depth, the distribution of high Qp and Qs is markedly different from that of the overlying geological terranes. Both the strike and dip of the high Q regions indicate that they represent the subducted Hikurangi Plateau and its adjacent Cretaceous oceanic crust. The thickest part of the plateau, previously identified by Vp > 8.5 km/s from seismic tomography and P-wave precursors and associated with an eclogite layer at the base of the plateau, also has the highest Q. This confirms that the strong plateau extends southwestward as a narrow salient to the northern Fiordland subduction zone, where moderate-Q Eocene oceanic crust on the Australian plate is being subducted and bent to vertical. In the ductile crust, Q results suggest fluid saturation and elevated temperature conditions in the crustal root of the Southern Alps, and confirm that the shape of this crustal root is influenced by both the orientation and depth of the

  6. Quantification of climate and vegetation from southern African Middle Stone Age sites - an application using Late Pleistocene plant material from Sibudu, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Angela A.; Sievers, Christine; Wadley, Lyn

    2012-06-01

    In southern Africa numerous Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites document important steps in technological and behavioural development leading to significant changes in the lifeways of modern humans. To assess whether these cultural changes and developments may be related to environmental changes we need to ascertain past environments. To do this we apply a new quantitative method, the GIS-based Coexistence Approach (CAGIS), on fossil plant material from the MSA site Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Previous qualitative environmental interpretations of the fossil fauna and flora of the site remain ambiguous. Because much of the material is anthropogenically introduced, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of natural changes in the local vegetation and behavioural changes of the people that inhabited the shelter. CAGIS can be applied to such biased assemblages and seems to be an adequate method to directly quantify palaeoclimate and vegetation parameters at an archaeological site. The CAGIS analysis shows that during the Howiesons Poort (HP) Industry winters were slightly colder and drier than present, whereas during summer, temperatures and precipitation were similar to today. Post-HP winters were drier and colder than present, presumably colder than during the HP. Summer temperatures remained the same, but summer precipitation decreased from the HP to post-HP. Vegetation cover was less than today, may be even less than during the HP. The late MSA was observably warmer than the older periods, especially during winter. At the same time summer precipitation slightly increased and vegetation became more dense, but still remained generally open similar to today's anthropogenic landscape. Generally, climatic changes are most pronouncedly reflected in winter temperature parameters, especially in minimum winter temperatures, and to a lesser extent by changes in summer precipitation. The observed ecological trends seem to be affected mainly by variations through

  7. Regional drought in the southern of South America: physical aspects Seca regional no sul da América do Sul: aspectos físicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonidas Minetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the indices of monthly and annual climatic drought in six regions in southern South America and their associations with seventeen predictors, the probable physical causes of droughts are analyzed. These indices are used in operational climate monitoring and describe the atmospheric temperature and sea surface temperature (SST near South America. Subtropical anticyclone activity over both coasts of South America is one of the main predictors, together with its interaction with the continental depression and SST at the coast of Brazil. The highest predictability concentrates in November-December-May and the lowest in March, June and August. In the sub regional scale, the main predictors respond to atmospheric pressure anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean for Argentinean Northwest (NOA, SST in the Brazilian coast for Argentinean Northeast (NEA, anticyclonic conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic for the Central West (CO, the latter and their interaction with the continental depression for Humid Pampa (PH, anticyclonic activity over the Pacific for the Patagonia (PAT and trans cordillera circulation for Central Chile and Comahue (CHI.As causas físicas prováveis das secas em seis regiões no sul da América do Sul são analisadas, através de índices da seca climática mensal e em suas associações com dezessete preditores. Esses indices são usados no monitoramento operacional do clima, e descrevem a temperatura atmosférica e a temperatura de superfície do mar (TSM perto de América do Sul. A atividade do anticiclone subtropical sobre ambas as costas de América do Sul é um dos preditores principais, junto com sua interação com a depressão continental e a SST na costa do Brasil. A previsibilidade mais elevada concentra-se nos meses Novembro-Dezembro-Maio e a mais baixa, em março, junho e agosto. Na escala regional secundária, os principais preditores respondem às anomalias da pressão atmosférica sobre o Oceano Atlântico para

  8. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  9. Armas de fuego en el entorno urbano y políticas públicas de control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gerardo Gabaldón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo refiere datos de tres encuestas de victimización por armas de fuego levantadas en parroquias de Caracas, Venezuela, entre 2011 y 2012. Se observó predominancia de hombres y jóvenes como víctimas y victimarios y mayor incidencia de hechos contra las personas en los estratos más bajos. La denuncia se encuentra por debajo de los índices de otros estudios nacionales de victimización, aunque los hechos son calificados como graves por más del 80% de los encuestados y casi 90% considera riesgoso poseer armas de fuego en el hogar. El artículo concluye con una revisión de los resultados y propuestas de la Comisión Presidencial para el Control de Armas, Municiones y Desarme y las perspectivas para una política pública consensuada de control de la violencia asociada a las armas de fuego. O artigo apresenta dados de três pesquisas de vitimização por armas de fogo feitas em Caracas, Venezuela, entre 2011 e 2012. Observou-se a predominância de homens e jovens como vítimas e perpetradores e maior incidência de eventos contra as pessoas nos estratos sociais mais baixos. A denúncia é inferior às taxas de outros estudos nacionais de vitimização, embora os atos sejam classificados como graves por mais de 80% dos entrevistados e quase 90% considera arriscado possuir armas de fogo em casa. O artigo conclui revisando os resultados e propostas da Comissão Presidencial para o Controle de Armas, Munições e Desarmamento e as perspectivas de uma política pública de controle da violência associada a armas de fogo.Palavras-chave: armas de fogo, violência, crime, política pública, Venezuela Firearms in the Urban Environment and Public Control Policies reports data from three firearms victimization surveys carried out in Caracas, Venezuela, between 2011 and 2012. It was observed prevalence of men and youth as victims and perpetrators and a higher incidence of acts against people in the lower social stratas. The complaint is

  10. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  11. Assessing the reactivation potential of pre-existing fractures in the southern Karoo, South Africa: Evaluating the potential for sustainable exploration across its Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhansay, Taufeeq; Navabpour, Payman; de Wit, Maarten; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the kinematics of pre-existing fractures under the present-day stress field is an indispensable prerequisite for hydraulically increasing fracture-induced rock permeability, i.e. through hydraulic stimulation, which forms the basis of economically viable exploitation of resources such as natural gas and geothermal energy. Predicting the likelihood of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a target reservoir at particular fluid injection pressures requires detailed knowledge of the orientations and magnitudes of the prevailing stresses as well as pore fluid pressures. In the absence of actual in-situ stress measurements, e.g. derived from boreholes, as is mostly the case in previously underexplored ;frontier areas;, such predictions are often difficult. In this study, the potential of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a likely exploration region of the southern Karoo of South Africa is investigated. The orientations of the present-day in-situ stresses were assessed from surrounding earthquake focal mechanisms, implying c. NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal stress and a stress regime changing between strike-slip and normal faulting. A comparison with paleo-stress axes derived from inverted fault-slip data suggests that the stress field very likely did not experience any significant reorientation since Cretaceous times. Maximum possible in-situ stress magnitudes are estimated by assuming that these are limited by frictional strength on pre-existing planes and subsequently, slip and dilation tendency calculations were performed, assuming hydrostatic pore fluid pressures of c. 32 MPa at targeted reservoir depth. The results suggest that prevalent E-W and NW-SE oriented sub-vertical fractures are likely to be reactivated at wellhead pressures exceeding hydrostatic pore fluid pressures by as little as 2-5 MPa, while less prevalent sub-horizontal and moderately inclined fractures require higher wellhead pressures that are still technically feasible

  12. Comparison of groundwater quality from forested (Waimarino River), urban (Turangi), and natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) subcatchments at the southern end of Lake Taupo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Reeves, R.R.; Eser, P.; Chague-Goff, C.; Coshell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of groundwater quality of three different land uses, (1) exotic pine plantation ready for harvest (Waimarino River Catchment), (2) an urban area characterised by a land treatment facility for sewage effluent from Turangi (Turangi oxidation ponds), and (3) a natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) demonstrates that groundwater quality in the southern region of the Lake Taupo catchment is controlled by both natural and human influences in the area. Comparative water quality issues can be summarised as follows. (1) Naturally high concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are present in all three study areas, with the highest concentrations found in the natural wetland area and around the Turangi land treatment facility. (2) Concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, and ammonium in the groundwater down-gradient of the Turangi oxidation ponds are elevated relative to the other two study areas. Stable isotopic signatures also show that the groundwater has been influenced by surface water from the oxidation ponds, mostly due to additional evaporation caused by the relatively long residence time of the water (125 days) in the oxidation ponds. Elevated concentrations of ammonium also occur in deep groundwater under the forest areas of the Waimarino River catchment. (3) The water at all three sites is generally unsuitable for drinking supplies due to naturally elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese in the groundwater and elevated concentrations of ammonium at many monitoring sites, particularly around the Turangi land treatment site and the Waimarino deep aquifer monitoring sites. Aeration followed by settling or filtration of the groundwater could significantly reduce the concentrations of iron and manganese. (4) Elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are unlikely to affect the water quality of Lake Taupo as all reduced iron and manganese will be oxidised once the water reaches the lake and precipitate as oxyhydroxide minerals

  13. Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAVO, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl comportamiento del fuego es uno de los componentes de la ecología del fenómeno y su caracterización es necesaria para su manejo y control. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal ubicado en el sitio ecológico ‘media loma’ ubicado en el Campo Experimental ´La María´, INTA EEA Santiago del Estero (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E en una posición intermedia del paisaje, entre el bosque de dos quebrachos y la sabana. El fuego se aplicó en seis parcelas de dos sitios de estudio, estimándose la composición botánica, la carga de combustible fino y la densidad aparente del combustible en función de la altura en cada una de ellas. El comportamiento del fuego se caracterizó mediante la estimación de la velocidad de avance del frente de fuego y la longitud de llamas. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de la varianza empleando ´sitio de estudio´ como variable independiente. Las correlaciones entre variables fueron evaluadas mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Kendall (τ. Aunque ubicados en un mismo sitio ecológico, los sitios de estudio presentaron dominancia diferencial de dos especies nativas, Trichloris pluriflora (E. Fournier y Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam. Kuntze. Las dos especies poseen diferente proporción de tallo y hoja en su biomasa aérea, diferencia que se reflejó en la carga de combustible fino y su densidad aparente (p > F = 0,0001 en ambos casos y en la velocidad de avance del frente de fuego (p >F = 0.0001. Esta última fue de 28 m*min-1 en el sitio de estudio 1, con dominancia de la primera especie; y 21 m*.min-1 en el sitio de estudio 2, con dominancia de la segunda, respectivamente. La longitud de llamas promedio fue de 3,5 m, pero superó los 6 m cuando participaron en la propagación del fuego especies arbustivas que poseen aceites esenciales y resinas en su follaje. Se observó correlación positiva y significativa (p F = 0,0001 in both

  14. Validation predictions of a 13 m/s cross-wind fire for Fuego and the University of Waterloo dataset.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander L.; Evans, Gregory Herbert (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gill, Walter; Jarboe, Daniel T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2008-03-01

    Detailed herein are the results of a validation comparison. The experiment involved a 2 meter diameter liquid pool of Jet-A fuel in a 13 m/s crosswind. The scenario included a large cylindrical blocking object just down-stream of the fire. It also included seven smaller calorimeters and extensive instrumentation. The experiments were simulated with Fuego. The model included several conduction regions to model the response of the calorimeters, the floor, and the large cylindrical blocking object. A blind comparison was used to compare the simulation predictions with the experimental data. The more upstream data compared very well with the simulation predictions. The more downstream data did not compare very well with the simulation predictions. Further investigation suggests that features omitted from the original model contributed to the discrepancies. Observations are made with respect to the scenario that are aimed at helping an analyst approach a comparable problem in a way that may help improve the potential for quantitative accuracy.

  15. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  16. The Morsárjökull rock avalanche in the southern part of the Vatnajökull glacier, south Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Sigurősson, Ingvar A.; Pétursson, Halldór G.; Decaulne, Armelle; Jónsson, Helgi P.

    2010-05-01

    On the 20th of March 2007 a large rock avalanche fell on Morsárjökull, one of the outlet glaciers from the southern part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, in south Iceland. This is considered to be one of the largest rock avalanches which have occurred in Iceland during the last decades. It is believed that it fell in two separate stages, the main part fell on the 20th of March and the second and smaller one, on the 17th of April 2007. The Morsárjökull outlet glacier is about 4 km long and surrounded by up to 1000 m high valley slopes. The outlet glacier is fed by two ice falls which are partly disconnected to the main ice cap of Vatnajökull, which indicates that the glacier is mainly fed by ice avalanches. The rock avalanche fell on the eastern side of the uppermost part of the Morsárjökull outlet glacier and covered about 1/5 of the glacier surface, an area of about 720,000 m2. The scar of the rock avalanche is located on the north face of the headwall above the uppermost part of the glacier. It is around 330 m high, reaching from about 620 m up to 950 m, showing that the main part of the slope collapsed. It is estimated that about 4 million m3 of rock debris fell on the glacier, or about 10 million tons. The accumulation lobe is up to 1.6 km long, reaching from 520 m a.s.l., to about 350 m a.s.l. Its width is from 125 m to 650 m, or on average 480 m. The total area which the lobe covers is around 720.000 m2 and its mean thickness 5.5 m. The surface of the lobe shows longitudinal ridges and grooves and narrow flow-like lobes, indicating that the debris mass evolved down glacier as a mixture of a slide and debris flow. The debris mass is coarse grained and boulder rich. Blocks over 5 to 8 m in diameter are common on the edges of the lobe up to 1.6 km from the source. No indication was observed of any deformation of the glacier surface under the debris mass. The first glaciological measurements of Morsárjökull outlet glacier were carried out in the year 1896

  17. Caracterización de suelos bajo bosques de Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume, en Tierra del Fuego, Chile Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR GERDING

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En tres sectores de la parte occidental de Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' O se caracterizó morfológica, física y químicamente los suelos bajo bosques de coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume y sus especies asociadas lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser y canelo (Drimys winteri Forst.. Se describieron 85 perfiles de suelo y aproximadamente 250 observaciones con bastón pedológico. Los suelos bajo coigüe de Magallanes eran jóvenes, muy influidos por la actividad volcánica, topografía y clima. Se observó la presencia de los órdenes Spodosol e Iceptisol, principalmente. En general los suelos eran delgados a muy delgados (mayoritariamente entre 10 y 40 cm, con un alto volumen de esqueleto, textura franca, estructura masiva a granular, capacidad de agua aprovechable baja y drenaje externo e interno moderado a lento. Además, presentan una alta acidez (pH 4-5,5, una baja oferta nutricional y muy altos niveles de saturación de aluminio (promedio > 60 %. El mantillo (Oe/Oa presentó condiciones adecuadas para el desarrollo radicular. Existe comúnmente un horizonte blanco (frecuentemente 10 YR 5/1-2 inmediatamente debajo del mantillo, con textura franco limosa y estructura masiva, con arraigamiento muy bajo. Se plantea como hipótesis que este horizonte se originó por depósitos de cenizas volcánicas y procesos de podzolización. Se concluye que la fertilidad de estos suelos es baja debido a limitantes físicas (dificultades de arraigamiento y químicas (acidez, toxicidad de aluminio, baja oferta de basesSoils under coigüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb Blume forests, located in the oriental part of Tierra del Fuego (54º45'-54º15' S, 68º40'-70º10' W, were characterized morphologically, physically and chemically. Associated tree species were lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (P. et E. Krasser and canelo (Drimys winterii Forst.. A total of 85 soil profiles and approximately 250 soil

  18. QBO Modulation of the Mesopause Gravity Wave Momentum Flux over Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Hibbins, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The interannual variability of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) gravity wave momentum flux over southern mid latitudes (53.7degS) has been studied using more than 7 years of meteor radar observations at Ro Grande, Argentina. A modulation, with periods similar to that of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), is observed in the vertical flux of zonal as well as meridional momentum. The QBO signal is largest in the zonal component during summer and is in phase with the stratospheric QBO at 50 hPa (approx. 21 km). The relation between the stratospheric QBO and the QBO modulation in the MLT gravity wave forcing (derived from the divergence of the momentum flux) was found to be consistent with that expected from the Holton-Tan effect coupled to the interhemispheric coupling mechanism. These results provide the first observational support for the existence of the midlatitude gravity wave forcing anomalies as hypothesized in the interhemispheric coupling mechanism.

  19. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries: an example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries are facing an important increase of electricity demand; in order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most of these countries are planning gas fired power stations due to important natural gas resources. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructures to produce and transport the natural gas is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean sea: technical assistance programs, joint financing and management of the infrastructures. 3 figs

  20. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  1. El tiempo equivalente de exposición al fuego en un edificio histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orta, Belén

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When fire resistance of a structure is analysed, by means of Technical Building Code (CTE, it is possible to use simplified methods that fix values of resistances demanded from the structure, depending on use and building height of evacuation, independently of the sector, or it is possible to use the method of the equivalent Time that allows to consider the particular conditions of the studied sector (size, ventilation, structural material, active measures of fight against the fire, etc.. In most of projects the first route will be chosen, nevertheless when it is a question of a singular building that it needs a more detailed analysis, it will be appealed to the second one. This article exposes the difficulty of applying the method of the equivalent time by means CTE without consulting the Eurocode-1 (EC-1 or technical manuals. It is exposed up to where the Spanish norm comes and when it is necessary to come to the European one. The method is applied to a specific example, a space in two heights by a horizontal hollow in cover. Also it shows as the method of the equivalent time, as alternative, can generate a series of results with a wide dispersion of values obtained from the quantity of decisions that the rules allows depending on a few criteria that are not rigid. This diversity of results can make not learned person who does calculations, perplex. To finish conclusions on the obtained values are extracted and one thinks about the application of the method and the technician responsibility.

    Cuando se analiza la resistencia a fuego de una estructura, según el Código Técnico de Edificación (CTE, se puede recurrir a métodos simplificados que fijan valores de resistencias exigidas a la estructura, en función del uso y de la altura de evacuación del edificio, independientemente del sector, o bien se puede emplear el método del tiempo equivalente que permite considerar las condiciones particulares del sector estudiado (el tama

  2. Muerte por proyectil de arma de fuego (PAF): procesamiento de la escena y hallazgos de necropsia. Morgue Central de Lima 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Astuhuamán, Denisse; Aronés, Shérmany; Carrera, Rosa; Tejada, César; Velásquez, Róger

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La información del levantamiento de cadáver constituye la primera fase de la necropsia requerida para contrastarla con información obtenida, por lo que es primordial su estudio. Objetivos: Revisión del procesamiento de escena y hallazgos de necropsia en casos de muerte por proyectil de arma de fuego (PAF). Diseño: Descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Legal, Ministerio Público, e Instituto de Patología, UNMSM. Material de estudio: Informes d...

  3. Linking invasive exotic vertebrates and their ecosystem impacts in Tierra del Fuego to test theory and determine action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Alejandro E. J.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Fasola, Laura; Cabello, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding processes and impacts of biological invasions is fundamental for ecology and management. Recent reviews summarized the mechanisms by which invasive species alter entire ecosystems, but quantitative assessments of these mechanisms are lacking for actual assemblages to determine their relative importance, frequency and patterns. We updated information on introduced vertebrates in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago (TDF) via an exhaustive literature review and new data to evaluate ecosystem impact mechanisms and provide management recommendations. To date, 24 exotic vertebrates have naturalized in TDF, outnumbering natives nearly 2:1, with the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) being the most widely distributed species and also impacting the ecosystem through the greatest number of mechanisms. Introduced vertebrates occupied most parts of the archipelago with human-inhabited islands having greater taxa richness. All exotics potentially altered ecosystems by one or more mechanisms: 100% food webs, 92% invasional meltdown, 42% habitat modification, 38% disease or parasite transmission, 21% soil property and disturbance regime changes. Impact to habitat structure was the main clustering criterion for this assemblage. Within the species that physically alter habitats, we found two sub-groups: 1) large herbivores and 2) "others" including beavers and muskrats. Species that did not alter habitat were divided further into those with predatory trophic effects (carnivorous mammals and trout, sub-group 4) and the rest with assorted impacts (sub-group 3). By establishing high quality information on archipelago-wide assemblage, distribution, impacts and mechanisms for exotic vertebrates, we recommend, based on ecological criteria, prioritizing the management of sub-group 2. A secondary priority might be given to the carnivores in sub-group 4, while species in sub-groups 1 and 3 are less urgent. As the first systematic survey of

  4. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W F.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  5. Redescription of some South American species of Belonuchus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, with a checklist of the southern South American species of the genus Redescripción de algunas especies sudamericanas de Belonuchus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, con una lista de las especies del género del sur de América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chani-Posse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Six species of Belonuchus Nordmann, 1837 from South America are redescribed and illustrated: B. aluticollis (Bernhauer, 1921, B. castaneus Chani-Posse, 2006, B. flavicoxis (Bernhauer, 1912, B. multipunctatus (Coiffait, 1981, B. richteri (Bernhauer, 1912 and B. weiserianus (Bernhauer, 1921. A checklist of the 23 species of Belonuchus currently known from southern South America is appended. A lectotype is designated for B. richteri Bernhauer, 1922.Seis especies de Belonuchus Nordmann, 1837, de América del Sur se redescriben e ilustran: B. aluticollis (Bernhauer, 1921, B. castaneus Chani-Posse 2006, B. flavicoxis (Bernhauer, 1912, B. multipunctatus (Coiffait, 1981, B. richteri (Bernhauer, 1912 y B. weiserianus (Bernhauer, 1921. Se provee una lista de las 23 especies actualmente conocidas del sur de América del Sur. Se designa el lectotipo de B. richteri Bernhauer, 1922.

  6. Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P.K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Bruner, D.J.; Batatian, L.D.; Wilson, Eric; Williams, F.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper version of the Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1x2 Quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1x2 Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was compiled by Paul Link and others in 1995. The plate was compiled on a 1:100,000 scale topographic base map. TechniGraphic System, Inc. of Fort Collins Colorado digitized this map under contract for N.Shock. G.Green edited and prepared the digital version for publication as a GIS database. The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

  7. La ciudad como laberinto psicótico en El padre mío y Jamás el fuego nunca de Diamela Eltit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Brito Astrosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora las relaciones entre psicosis y normalidad en dos textos escritos por Diamela Eltit, El Padre Mío y Jamás el Fuego Nunca , libros cuya construcción laberíntica espacial y lingüística expresa, de manera barroca, el terror y la violencia como efectos políticos deseados por la tiranía de la dictadura militar instalada en Chile desde 1973 hasta 1989, efectos no reparados durante la posdictadura y cuyas huellas se expanden por el cuerpo de la ciudadanía, a través de la enfermedad, la locura y la muerte. The present article explores relationships between psychosis and normality in two texts written by Diamela Eltit, El Padre Mío and Jamás el Fuego Nunca, are books which, through their spacially and linguistically labyrinthine constructions, express, with a baroque way, terror and violence as the political effects sought after by the military dictatorship installed in Chile from 1973 until 1989; effects never repaired during the post-dictatorship period and which have left a mortal imprint that expands through the body of the citizenship, through sickness, insanity, and death.

  8. Reciente invasión del Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego por la avispa Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. SOLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica es una especie invasora de nivel mundial que ha sido detectada en la Patagonia continental de la Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, ampliamos el rango de distribución de este véspido de la Patagonia, al Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego. Indicamos ubicación, año y ambiente de cada avistamiento y/o captura. El patrón de expansión indicaría que esta especie está bien establecida tanto en áreas naturales como antrópicas, y probablemente ha dependido del transporte humano para llegar desde el continente. Esta comunicación breve sirve también para tomar medidas prácticas de mitigación y control de esta especie, incluyendo información básica para que la ciudadanía tome conciencia sobre su presencia y esto ayude a evitar su transporte a nuevos lugares. Finalmente, se recomienda mayor investigación para el manejo y control de esta especie invasora en Tierra del Fuego.

  9. Llamas y rescoldos nacionales: Con la vida hicieron fuego, novela de Jesús Evaristo Casariego (1953 y película de Ana Mariscal (1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso García, M.ª del Carmen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a novel by Jesús Evaristo Casariego entitled Con la vida hicieron fuego, published in 1953, and its adaptation to the cinema by Ana Mariscal in 1957. Starting out from a comparative analysis of the novel and the film highlighting the similarities and the differences between them, this paper explores the meaning of both artistic proposals. As a theoretical framework, it will rely on theories that explore the construction of national identity and its connections with gender issues.Este artículo estudia la novela de Jesús Evaristo Casariego titulada Con la vida hicieron fuego, publicada en 1953, y la adaptación cinematográfica de la obra que Ana Mariscal realizó en 1957. A partir de las similitudes y diferencias que revela el análisis comparativo del texto y el filme, el trabajo busca establecer el sentido de ambas propuestas artísticas desde la perspectiva que proporciona el marco teórico relativo a la construcción de la identidad nacional y sus relaciones con la de género.

  10. 3D modelling of the Salesian mission Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria cemetery (Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa A. Salerno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Salesian mission Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria operated between the late 19th and the mid-20th centuries in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Its cemetery still holds the remains of indigenous and religious people who lived in the institution, and settlers who lived nearby. For some years, the place has received the attention of a research project interested in discussing the dynamics of colonial relationships in Tierra del Fuego. The cemetery has a long history of changes, and even though it was declared part of the national and provincial heritage, its preservation conditions are relatively poor. In this article we present the work carried out to produce a 3D model of the cemetery, combining information obtained by planialtimetric and photographic survey. The result represents a detailed and photorealistic record of the materiality of the cemetery at present. Therefore, it does not only provide a relevant tool to colaborate in the promotion and protection of the archaeological heritage. It also provides a platform for future 3D modelling of historical images of the cemetery, with different research goals.

  11. Información molecular obtenida a partir de pieles de la colección del Museo Regional Fagnano, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrigh, Romi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplicaron técnicas moleculares sobre muestras poco conservadas de pieles depositadas en la colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar la especie con la que fueron confeccionadas. Se extrajeron pelos de mantas realizadas con pieles de guanaco (Lama guanicoe por Selk’nam y de una piel de puma (Puma concolor procedente de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Ambas muestras se encontraban almacenadas en el Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano y en la Misión Salesiana Candelaria en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. La extracción de ADN de los fragmentos de pelos de 5mm de longitud se realizó en un buffer de lisis PCR-compatible. Se amplificaron por PCR fragmentos específicos de ADN mitocondrial y se secuenciaron. Las secuencias fueron comparadas con las depositadas en la base de secuencias de nucleótidos del National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI de Estados Unidos. La aplicación de técnicas moleculares permitió recuperar secuencias de ADN de muestras de pieles con un estado de conservación poco óptimo para análisis genéticos, pudiendo extenderse a otras fuentes de pelos como las fibras textiles de origen arqueológico de la región.

  12. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Hemisphere Forestry Journal. ... The journal particularly encourages contributions from South America, Africa and tropical/subtropical ... Alternative eucalypts for commercial pulpwood production at moderately dry sites in the warm ...

  13. Single-tree water use and water-use efficiencies of selected indigenous and introduced species in the Southern Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapeto, P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the development of a plantation tree industry using fast-growing introduced species was accelerated by the limited extent of indigenous forests. However, concerns about the impacts of plantations on the country’s limited water...

  14. The effects of restrictive South African migrant labor policy on the survival of rural households in southern Africa : a case study from rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Confronted with high unemployment figures and widespread poverty among the black population, one of the priorities of the first postapartheid government of South Africa has been to combat poverty among its population by enlarging employment opportunities. It is generally accepted that this policy

  15. The home range of a recently established group of Southern ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Limpopo Valley, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Theron

    2013-10-01

    Conservation implications: The Limpopo Valley SGH population is one of the most significant outside protected areas in South Africa. This population is especially vulnerable to threats such as poisoning, persecution for window breaking and drought, as shown by their near extirpation from the area. Conservation efforts need to focus on awareness amongst local farmers, provision of artificial nests and continued monitoring of groups.

  16. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  17. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  18. Influencia del tratamiento «a fuego» en las características del estuco tradicional con cal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Yunta, F.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research advances in the attempt to recover the traditional technique of stucco by fire; paradigm of indoor decoration until half of 20th century due to its high quality marbled imitations. On its implementation process, it was used lime mortars with marble aggregates, mineral pigments and greases. With these materials, masses were prepared and extended into the walls, they were painted in fresco and ended with the passage of a heated metal tool. As with any other technique, the time passing over has blurred the knowledge on the subject, making very difficult the preservation or restoration of examples in our heritage. Despite of the limited literature, the process has been recovered; subjecting the samples prepared at different trials that have characterized the finished, both in its merits and its conferred characteristics by finally protecting the samples with a layer of wax, as was done traditionally.Esta investigación avanza en el intento de recuperar la técnica tradicional del estuco a fuego, paradigma de la decoración de espacios interiores hasta la mitad del s. XX por sus imitaciones marmóreas de gran calidad. Para ejecutarlos se utilizaban morteros de cal con áridos de mármol, pigmentos minerales y grasas; con estos materiales se preparaban y tendían las masas, se pintaban al fresco y se terminaban con el paso de una herramienta metálica caliente. Como sucede con otras técnicas, el paso del tiempo ha difuminado los conocimientos sobre la materia, haciendo muy difícil la conservación o restauración de los ejemplos en nuestro patrimonio. A partir de la escasa bibliografía existente se ha recuperado el proceso, sometiendo las muestras elaboradas a diferentes ensayos que han caracterizado el acabado final, tanto en sus características intrínsecas como en las que le son conferidas al proteger finalmente las muestras con una capa de cera, tal y como se realizaba tradicionalmente.

  19. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  20. Y chromosomes traveling south:the cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba--the "Black Jews of Southern Africa"

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M G; Parfitt, T; Weiss, D A; Skorecki, K; Wilson, J F; le Roux, M; Bradman, N; Goldstein, D B

    2000-01-01

    The Lemba are a traditionally endogamous group speaking a variety of Bantu languages who live in a number of locations in southern Africa. They claim descent from Jews who came to Africa from "Sena." "Sena" is variously identified by them as Sanaa in Yemen, Judea, Egypt, or Ethiopia. A previous study using Y-chromosome markers suggested both a Bantu and a Semitic contribution to the Lemba gene pool, a suggestion that is not inconsistent with Lemba oral tradition. To provide a more detailed pi...

  1. Controlling factors of harmful microalgae distribution in water column, biofilm and sediment in shellfish production area (South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabes) from southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil-Baklouti, Amira; Feki-Sahnoun, Wafa; Hamza, Asma; Abdennadher, Moufida; Mahfoudhi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Jarboui, Othman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of harmful microalgae coupled with environmental factors in the most important area for natural stocks of the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus in southern Tunisia. Sampling was performed monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 in five stations through the Tunisian National Monitoring Stations Network of Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins along the southern coasts of Sfax (Gulf of Gabes). The presence of harmful microalgae species was explored in three compartments: water column, biofilm and sediment. Our results revealed fourteen species were identified belonging to dinoflagellates and diatoms with higher densities during the summer period. The co-inertia plot analysis exhibited that the seasonal fluctuations of these species were controlled by the temperature as well as the nutrients (particularly nitrogenous). Ternary diagrams showed that biofilm was the most colonized compartment by toxic benthic dinoflagellates species, namely Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum rathymum, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Coolia monotis. In addition, these species were recorded simultaneously in the water column and the sediment, a fact that could be explained by the resuspension of these benthic dinoflagellates from the biofilm by hydrodynamics. The data suggest that harmful microalgae could be the source of toxins in the studied stations, which provide support to the implication of these results on the future sampling strategy of harmful microalgae in shellfish collecting areas in Tunisia.

  2. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  3. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  4. Propiedades magnéticas y micromorfología de suelos en el sitio arqueológico Marazzi 2, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ozán, Ivana Laura; Orgeira, Maria Julia

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar el origen de la señal magnética (natural y/o antrópica) y su vinculación con la micromorfología de suelos, en dos perfiles del sitio arqueológico Marazzi 2, perteneciente al Holoceno tardío y ubicado en el noroeste de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Chile). Los resultados muestran que el perfil P1 presenta un pico de la señal magnética (presencia de magnetita y/o titanomagnetita) entre los 30 - 70 cm, que coincide con un horizonte Ab y ABb en...

  5. Evolución de la composición florística Post-fuego en un carrascal de Navarra (n de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavero, R. Y.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results about floristic composition dynamics during four years after controlled fires in a Mediterranean pin-oak wood in Navarra (N Spain. The samples have been taken from eight permanent 1 m2 plots subjected to different treatments: different fire type, different situation on the field, and with or without not fired soil addition. The regeneration strategies of the species and the influence of the different treatments on the flora are analyzed. The floristic composition dynamics follows a general model: the species began to appear progressively. The number of species grows gradually to reach a maximum between one and three years after the fire. Later, the number of species diminishes. Post fire species are those that existed before the fire, that is to say, there is an autosuccession process.

    [es] Se presentan los resultados de cuatro años de estudio sobre la evolución de la composición florística de un carrascal mediterráneo sometido a fuegos controlados en Navarra (N de España. Los muestreos se han llevado a cabo en ocho cuadrados permanentes de 1 m2 de superficie, cada uno sometido a distinto tratamiento: distinto tipo de fuego, distinta situación en la parcela y adición o no de suelo no quemado. Se analizan la estrategia de regeneración de las especies que aparecen después de los fuegos y la influencia de los tratamientos en la regeneración de la flora. La evolución de la composición florística sigue un modelo general: las especies empiezan a aparecer progresivamente, su número crece hasta obtener un máximo entre el año y los cuatro años después de los fuegos, a partir del cual disminuye. Las especies que aparecen son las mismas que había previamente, es decir, se da un proceso de autosucesión. [fr] On présente les résultats de quatre ans d'étude sur l'évolution de la composition floristique d'un bois de chêne vert méditerranéen soumis à des feux contr

  6. Homicidios diarios. Análisis del discurso periodístico sobre homicidios por armas de fuego. Buenos Aires (Argentina 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años 2001 y 2002, la Argentina atravesó una grave crisis política y social, alcanzando niveles de pobreza y exclusión inauditos. En esos años, los diferentes tipos de violencia urbana mostraron un marcado incremento, en especial los homicidios cometidos mediante el uso de armas de fuego, constituyéndose en una problemática social con importantes repercusiones para la salud pública. El presente artículo es producto de una investigación cualitativa que indagó, mediante un análisis crítico del discurso, las diferentes modalidades con que los diarios La Nación y Clarín dieron cuenta de los hechos acaecidos -durante dicho período- en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Los datos se obtuvieron de la recopilación de material de hemeroteca, y fueron analizados a partir de una técnica propia referenciada en la Escuela Francesa de Análisis del Discurso. En cuanto a los resultados del estudio, se subraya: el posicionamiento más popular adoptado por el diario Clarín (lógica enunciativa de la verosimilitud, en contraposicióncon la búsqueda de objetividad de La Nación (lógica de la verificación, asumiendo ambos un carácter complementario en la producción y reproducción social de sentido, al dar cuenta de las muertes por homicidios ocasionadas mediante el uso de armas de fuego.

  7. VOCES EN EL BOSQUE: EL USO DE RECURSOS VEGETALES ENTRE CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES DE LA ZONA CENTRAL DE TIERRA DEL FUEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Caruso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las modalidades de aprovechamiento de las plantas entre los Selknam de Tierra del Fuego (Argentina y se presentan aquí los resultados obtenidos a partir del análisis de los restos de madera carbonizada y sin carbonizar del sitito Ewan, ocupado a principios del siglo XX para la realización de un ritual de iniciación. Los resultados permitieron una mejor comprensión de las estrategias de aprovechamiento de las plantas entre las sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras. La identificación de las especies empleadas y el registro de las principales características morfométricas permitió documentar el aprovechamiento del "ñire" (Nothofagus antarctica. Esta especie, dominante en el entorno, fue utilizada para la construcción de la vivienda y como combustible. En ambos casos se seleccionaron troncos de forma y tamaño adecuados. Los resultados del trabajo arqueobotánico y su confrontación con los datos etnográficos evidenciaron la importancia de los recursos vegetales dentro de la dinámica socioeconómica de este grupo humano. Los recursos vegetales, más allá de su rol alimentario, fueron relevantes en otros aspectos tales como la tecnología, la construcción, el combustible y debieron constituir una ventaja considerable en el ámbito de los bosques de la zona central de Tierra del Fuego.

  8. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  9. Terrestrial soil pH and MAAT records based on the MBT/CBT in the southern South China Sea: implications for the atmospheric CO2 evolution in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Liang Dong1, Li Li1, Qianyu Li1,2, Chuanlun L. Zhang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China 2School of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and/or the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) are derived from the branched glycerol dialkyl Glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of bacterial origin and are widely used to reconstruct the terrestrial soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAAT); however, these proxies are less frequently used in the oceanic settings. Here we provide the first high resolution records of soil pH and MAAT since the last glacial maximum based on the sedimentary core of MD05-2896 in the southern South China Sea. The MAAT record exhibited typical glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the winter insolation variation. The pH values were lower (6.4-7) in the glacial time and higher (7-8.4) in the interglacial time. Changes in soil pH allowed the evaluation of changes in soil CO2 based on the atmosphere-soil CO2 balance. The results imply that the lower winter MAAT variation with a lower winter atmospheric CO2 concentration might have resulted in a higher pH in the interglacial period. Our records provide a new insight into the evolution of atmospheric CO2 between glacial and interglacial cycles in East Asia. Key words: South China Sea, MBT/CBT, b-GDGTs, MAAT, pH

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  11. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Douze

    Full Text Available Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy.

  12. Seismic imaging of the southern California plate-boundary around the South-Central Transverse Ranges using double-difference tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Guo, H.

    2017-12-01

    We derive P and S seismic velocities within and around the South-Central Transverse Ranges section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), using a new double-difference tomography algorithm incorporating both event-pair and station-pair differential times. The event-pair data can determine high-resolution relative earthquake locations and resolve fine-scale structure in seismogenic zones, whereas station-pair data allow for better absolute locations and higher resolution of structure near the surface where stations are most dense. The tomographic results are based on arrival times of P and S waves generated by 17,753 M>1 local events from 1/1/2010 to 6/30/2015 recorded by 259 stations within a 222 km x 164 km region. The resulting P and S velocity models include low velocities along major fault segments and across-fault velocity contrasts. For example, at depths 50 km parallel to the SAF around Coachella Valley but offset to the NE by 13 km. This is interpreted to mark a dipping section of the SAF that separates granites at depth in the SW from gneisses and schists in the NE. Analysis of fault zone head waves propagating along these sections of the SAF and SJFZ show that major bimaterial interfaces are associated with the observed velocity contrasts. Additional features within the models include elongated low velocity anomalies extending from the SJFZ trifurcation area, which itself has associated low velocity at great depth (>14 km), to the Elsinore Fault in the SW. Moreover, a deep (>13 km) velocity contrast appears beneath the SBB with an east-west strike oblique to both the northern SJFZ and SAF traces. The latter is potentially related to the ancestral Banning Fault, which dips to the north, separating low velocity Pelona schist in the north from high velocity granites in the south.

  13. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  14. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Roberts

    Full Text Available The Middle Stone Age (MSA of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  15. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy L. Esterhuizen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B, many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as or betasatellites (DNA-βs. Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  16. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Henshilwood, Christopher S; van Niekerk, Karen L; Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  17. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Castor canadensis es considerado un ingeniero ecosistémico arquetípico, ya que altera el estado de factores bióticos y abióticos, mediante interacciones no tróficas, modificando sustancialmente los ecosistemas que habita. Esta especie fue introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego en 1946 por el gobierno argentino, con el fin de estimular la industria peletera. Actualmente se encuentra presente en las principales islas del archipiélago, incluyendo Tierra del Fuego, Navarino, Dawson y Hoste y ocupando habitat tan contrastantes como los bosques subpolares magallánicos, el matorral y la estepa patagónica. Su éxito en estos habitat sugiere que su expansión solo se verá limitada por la disponibilidad de recursos hídricos. De acuerdo a lo observado en Tierra del Fuego, en ausencia de un programa de control poblacional, los castores amenazan con establecerse en todos los bosques templados nativos del continente (entre los 35 y 55° S y ocupar los habitat de matorral y pastizal circundantes a los mismos. El presente artículo propone tres hipótesis referentes a los mecanismos subyacentes al éxito de esta invasión: el escape de enemigos naturales, la oportunidad de recursos, y la autofacilitación mediante interacciones no tróficas. Los antecedentes disponibles develan patrones conductuales (e.g., el establecimiento de colonias en forma independiente de la cercanía de recursos maderables, un aparente crecimiento poblacional irruptivo, así como una explotación centrada en Nothofagus pumilio, especie dominante en los bosques magallánicos que sugieren la operación de los mecanismos de escape de enemigos naturales y oportunidad de recursos. También se observa una mayor densidad de colonias activas en habitat que presentan mayor extensión de modificación ambiental, sugiriendo el accionar del mecanismo de autofacilitación. Si bien la información reunida no permite poner a prueba las hipótesis propuestas, sí entrega un marco

  18. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  19. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  1. REC profile 2: Southern Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented of South Electric plc, one of the United Kingdom's Regional Electricity Companies (RECs), at present distributing electric power in central southern England. Known in financial markets as an efficient performer, the staff reductions and changes of employment conditions undertaken to achieve this end are described. The need to maintain success in its core business, while simultaneously seeking diversification, drive the company's keen competitive edge. The relationship between the RECs and the electricity regulator is also explored, as Southern Electric considers a friendly merger with another REC to improve its market competitiveness in price terms. (UK)

  2. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two Southern Hemisphere tropical/subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa from ozonesondes, LIDAR, and in situ aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the Southwestern Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg. This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 ozonesondes, DIAL LIDAR and MOZAIC airborne instrumentation.

    The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: ozonesondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when the LIDAR profiles show greater values in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere when the LIDAR profiles show lower values during all seasons. These results show that the climatological value of LIDAR profiles must be discussed with care since LIDAR measurements can be performed only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit of the profile depends on the signal strength.

    In addition, linear trends have been calculated from ozonesonde data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results show that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer that is affected by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratosphere-troposphere exchange is more frequently expected.

  3. Participatory development of peri-urban and rural poor communities in tourism in the Garden Route area of Southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory development approach facilitates implementation of principles of sustainable tourism development by creating better opportunities for local people to gain larger and more balanced benefits from tourism development taking place in their localities. The main objective of this study was to examine nature of community participation in tourism development in order to ensure their participation in the benefits of tourism in the Garden Route area in South Africa. A conceptual framework was developed by examining typologies of community participation. Under the guidance of this conceptual framework, a field research was designed and applied where ninety (90 different stakeholders in the tourism industry across the different sub-sectors were sampled. This Chi-Squared test was done to test the statistical significance on the differences of the responses from the respondents in the different group sectors (accommodation, government department, travel/tour operators, transport and other. It was found that community members expect to be involved in three different stages of the process of tourism development which are decision-making, actual development and marketing as well as the management of operating tourism projects in their areas.

  4. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  5. Distribución del ictioplancton en la Patagonia austral de Chile: potenciales efectos del deshielo de Campos de Hielo Sur Ichthyoplankton distribution in South Patagonia, Chile: potential effects of ice melting from the Southern Ice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio F Landaeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante octubre-noviembre de 2009 se realizó un crucero oceanográfico entre 50 y 53°S de Chile austral, en las cercanías del glaciar Campos de Hielo Sur. Las estaciones cercanas al glaciar presentaron baja temperatura (1-3°C y salinidad ( 0,1 ciclos s-1. Los principales taxa del ictioplancton fueron huevos y larvas de sardina fueguina Sprattus fuegensis, pez hacha Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae y merluza austral Merluccius australis. El desove principal de S. fuegensis (~ 8000 huevos 10 m-2 ocurrió en zonas mezcladas de la plataforma continental adyacente, mientras que el desove de M. parvipinnis ocurrió en canales intermedios asociado a valores intermedios de estabilidad (N~0,06 ciclos s-1. Se observó una nula o baja abundancia de huevos y larvas de peces en las cercanías del glaciar, y la abundancia de huevos de M. parvipinnis estuvo relacionada positivamente con la temperatura y salinidad de la columna de agua y negativamente con la estabilidad de la columna de agua. Además, hubo una relación negativa entre la densidad del agua de mar y el diámetro de los huevos de S. fuegensis. La relación entre deshielo e ictioplancton podría tener consecuencias en el transporte advectivo y mortalidad masiva de huevos y larvas de peces y el acople pelágico-bentónico en la Patagonia austral de Chile. Como el cambio climático global ha incrementado los deshielos de glaciares en latitudes altas, y el aumento del ingreso de aguas de baja temperatura y salinidad podría tener consecuencias en el ictioplancton de la Patagonia chilena.In October-November 2009, an oceanographic survey was carried out between 50 and 53°S off southern Chile, near the Southern Ice Field. The stations near the glacier showed low temperatures (1-3°C and salinity ( 0.1 cycles s-1. Main ichthyoplankton taxa were eggs and larvae of southern sprat Sprattus fuegensis, lightfish Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae, and southern hake Merluccius australis. The main

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  7. Integrating Paleodistribution Models and Phylogeography in the Grass-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Southern Lowlands of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykon Passos Cristiano

    Full Text Available Past climate changes often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of populations of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863, a leaf-cutting ant species restricted to the open plains of South America. Additionally, we modeled the distribution of this species to predict its contemporary and historic habitat. From the partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I of 128 A. striatus workers from 38 locations we estimated genetic diversity and inferred historical demography, divergence time, and population structure. The potential distribution areas of A. striatus for current and quaternary weather conditions were modeled using the maximum entropy algorithm. We identified a total of 58 haplotypes, divided into five main haplogroups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that the largest proportion of genetic variation is found among the groups of populations. Paleodistribution models suggest that the potential habitat of A. striatus may have decreased during the Last Interglacial Period (LIG and expanded during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM. Overall, the past potential distribution recovered by the model comprises the current potential distribution of the species. The general structuring pattern observed was consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting a balance between gene flow and drift. Analysis of historical demography showed that populations of A. striatus had remained constant throughout its evolutionary history. Although fluctuations in the area of their potential historic habitat occurred during quaternary climate changes, populations of A. striatus are strongly structured geographically. However, explicit barriers to gene flow have not been identified. These findings closely match those in Mycetophylax simplex, another ant species that in some areas occurs in sympatry

  8. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  9. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  10. Evidence for Cenozoic extensional basin development and tectonic inversion south of the flat-slab segment, southern Central Andes, Chile (33° 36°S.L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, R.; Baeza, O.; Elgueta, S.; Flynn, J. J.; Gans, P.; Kay, S. M.; Muñoz, N.; Wyss, A. R.; Zurita, E.

    2002-04-01

    The mainly volcanic Cenozoic deposits that make up much of the western part of the Principal Cordillera in Central Chile are generally subdivided into two major units: an older Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation and a younger Farellones Formation. Difficulty in differentiating these units has led to considerable debate. On the basis of the wide distribution, great thickness, and presence of sedimentary intercalations, it has been postulated that these arc volcanics were deposited in an intermontane basin; more recently, it has been proposed that this basin developed under extensional conditions and underwent subsequent tectonic inversion. We present field, geochronologic, geochemical, and thermal maturity data that support the latter interpretation. Collectively, this new information clarifies the stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic evolution of these deposits. The vast geographic extent of the Abanico Formation and lateral equivalents, which reach from at least 32°30' to 44°S along the Principal Cordillera, its great thickness, and the presence of repeated thick fluvial and lacustrine intercalations all indicate deposition in a large, strongly subsident, and probably north-south oriented basin, developed between middle to late Eocene and Oligocene. The unconformable contact with underlying Mesozoic units observed at several localities indicates that deposition followed a substantial erosional episode during late Cretaceous and/or early Cenozoic time. Basal deposits of the Abanico Formation near Termas del Flaco increase rapidly in thickness to the west. Still further to the west, a thick Abanico section contains, in its upper part, mammal fossils older than those found in the basal deposits near Termas. This evidence indicates a major space of deposition west of this locality, which had been filled before deposition took place at Termas. The east-vergent, high-angle El Fierro thrust fault on the east side of the westward-growing deposits is interpreted

  11. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  12. SAFARI 2000 Estimated BVOC Emissions for Southern African Land Cover Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative...

  13. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  14. Unprecedented emergency in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Despite knowledge of better prevention strategies, AIDS continues to be an unprecedented emergency in southern Africa. Statistics show that in 1998, 1.4 million people between the ages of 15 and 49 in the 9 countries of southern Africa were infected, with nearly three-quarters of a million of these new infections occurring in South Africa. In addition, some 2 million people died of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 and millions of new infections are occurring every year. Factors such as the loneliness suffered by migrant laborers, the wars and armed conflicts in Rwanda, and the stigma of shame, silence, and denial associated with AIDS all generate fertile conditions for the spread of HIV in southern Africa. Overcoming silence and denial, and bringing AIDS out into the open, has been considered by some countries in southern Africa. In Botswana and South Africa, appeals for greater awareness and openness by the top leadership have been coupled with a decision to set up government funding and AIDS. The challenge now will be to translate these into effective prevention and care programs.

  15. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  16. Effect of wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Nothofagus glauca forest, Chile Efecto del fuego en las propiedades físicas y químicas en un bosque de Nothofagus glauca en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREIGHTON M. LITTON

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a wildfire on soil chemical and physical properties in a Nothofagus glauca (Phil. Krasser forest in the Coastal Mountain Range of south-central Chile were investigated. Response of the soil during the first two years following a wildfire was examined, where data from soil in a burned forest were compared to that in an adjacent, unburned stand. The effects that wildfire have on soil properties in this highly fragmented ecosystem are not well understood, but results from this study suggest similar responses to those found in other mediterranean forest systems. Both physical (bulk density, percent soil moisture, and soil organic matter content and chemical properties (exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, and soil pH were examined, and data presented here suggest that soil properties vary in their initial response to fire in this ecosystem. Soil organic matter content and soil moisture decreased following fire and remained lower than values from unburned plots for the duration of the study. Exchangeable potassium increased initially after burning, but values in burned plots decreased with time and by the end of two years were significantly lower than in unburned soil. In turn, extractable phosphorus and soil pH both increased immediately following wildfire and values in burned plots remained significantly higher than unburned plots for the entire measurement period. Exchangeable inorganic nitrogen reached higher levels in soil of burned plots for the autumn measurements (April 1997 and 1998 and lower values in burned plots for the spring measurements (November 1997 and 1998. Soil bulk density remained unchanged following fire. In general, changes in soil properties following fire were greatest at the 0-5 cm layer and more modest at the 5-10 cm sampling depth. These changes were related primarily to oxidation of the detrital layer during fire and concurrent changes in the soil environment

  17. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana ARAMBURÚ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.

  18. EFECTO DE LA SEVERIDAD DEL FUEGO EN LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA ESTRUCTURA FORESTAL EN RODALES DE CONÍFERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Y. Ávila-Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un análisis exploratorio de la distribución espacial del arbolado en rodales mixtos de coníferas de la Sierra Madre Oriental, afectados por un incendio en el verano de 1998, con el fin de conocer el grado en que la severidad de un incendio modifica las características estructurales de los mismos. El área seleccionada comprendió tres rodales mixtos de coníferas con tres grados de severidad de incendio (bajo, medio y alto. Los patrones de distribución espacial del arbolado se analizaron a través de la función K de Ripley. Asimismo, se analizó la interacción espacial de los árboles en relación con sus dimensiones y especies mediante una función de correlación de marca kmm(r. Se observó que conforme la severidad del incendio aumenta, la distribución espacial del arbolado tiende a la agregación y a la formación de rodales dimensionalmente heterogéneos, mientras que la composición de especies no fue afectada. El fuego influyó en estos bos- ques como un promotor de la diversidad dimensional, a pesar de que la mezcla espacial de especies tuvo una tendencia a la homogeneidad.

  19. Herida por proyectil de arma de fuego en un niño: Presentación de un caso Gunshot wound in a child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución de un paciente masculino de 10 años que sufrió una herida por proyectil de arma de fuego en el párpado superior izquierdo jugando con otro niño, lo que lo provocó una ptosis palpebral marcada. Se realizó estudio radiográfico preoperatorio donde se encontró el proyectil alojado en la pared orbitaria superior. Se constató una excelente evolución posoperatoria del paciente una vez intervenido quirúrgicamente.The evolution of a 10-year-old male patient who had a marked palpebral ptosis as a result of a wound made by a bullet in the left upper eyelid while playing with another child, is presented. A preoperative radiographic study was conducted and the projectile was found in the upper orbital wall. An excellent postoperative evolution was observed once the patient underwent surgery.

  20. Del compromiso ético a la manipulación. Las fotografías de un reportero de guerra en bajo el fuego (R. Spottiswoode, 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Loma Muro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Es muy frecuente la presencia de la fotografía como elemento discursivo en el cine, de modo particular en las películas de tema bélico. La fotografía es una imagen de la realidad y, en el caso de la foto-documento (como por ejemplo la fotografía de guerra, pretende ser un reflejo veraz de la misma. Pero, por muchas razones, la objetividad de la fotografía puede verse alterada al permitir la técnica que su autor la manipule o al utilizarse con una finalidad distinta de para la que fue concebida. Sobre esa manipulación, sobre sus justificantes morales o sobre los intereses que la provocan se centran nuestras reflexiones. Estas se articulan a partir del filme Bajo el fuego (Roger Spottiswoode, 1983 que presenta la actuación de un reportero de guerra en el conflicto nicaragüense de 1979. Los tipos de instantáneas que realiza, sus intenciones y la ética de su comportamiento ofrecen muchos matices para el análisis.

  1. Treaty aids 'detensioning of southern Africa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1991-01-01

    South Africa's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is a significant step forward in trading non-weapons related nuclear technology with other world powers. In an interview with Dr Waldo Stumpf, chief executive officer of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, the impact of this decision on the Corporation and the whole of southern Africa is discussed

  2. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    private sectors lends evidence to sophisticated criminal activities.”5 As regional organizations contemplated on how to prevent and/or deter these crimes...distribution of Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. In most incidences, Cannabis profits dwarfs local income...had its source in Tanzania and Tanzanians have identified markets for their fake US dollars in South Africa. Cannabis South Africa, Lesotho

  3. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  4. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available and elsewhere- and to ensure the most efficient possible utilization of limited manpower and facilities, a national programme had to be formulated to achieve the required coordination and cooperation. Such a programme is presented in this report, compiled...

  5. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  7. The Mysterious Southern Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our

  8. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  9. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in 1999 as a result of concerns raised by natural resource managers, the science community, and the public regarding the status and likely future of forests in the South. These included changes to the region’s forests brought about by rapid urbanization, increasing timber demand, increasing numbers of...

  10. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  11. Southern forests: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson

    2004-01-01

    In the 20th century, southern forests changed dramatically. Those changes pale, however, when compared to what happened to the people of the region. In addition to growing over fourfold in numbers, the South's population has urbanized, globalized, and intellectualized in 100 years. Rural and isolated in the 19th century, they are today urban and cosmopolitan. One...

  12. Resource reviews | Naude | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petro Naude. Walk through the wilderness by Don Richards and Clive. Walker. Published by Endangered Wildlife Trust and Wilderness Trust of Southern Africa, Johannesburg. Second (revised) edition 1986. 146 pp., photographs, maps, charts and line drawings. Price R9,95. 2. Pat Irwin. Trout in South Africa edited by P.H. ...

  13. Manejo terapéutico inicial de las heridas por arma de fuego en el territorio maxilofacial Initial therapeutic management of firearm wounds in the maxillofacial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz Laza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las heridas por armas de fuego son poco frecuentes en nuestro medio, de ahí que la experiencia en el manejo de las mismas sea limitada. En este artículo mostramos la experiencia de nuestro Servicio en el tratamiento de estas lesiones y realizamos una revisión del tema para intentar protocolizar la actuación inicial ante este tipo de pacientes. Material y Método. Presentamos seis casos tratados en nuestro Servicio durante el año 2002. Estudiamos las características demográficas, etiología, patrón de lesiones y tratamiento recibido. Resultados. Cinco hombres y una mujer presentaron heridas por arma de fuego durante este período, con una edad media de 38 años (Rango 13-74. La etiología más frecuente fue la agresión, seguido del intento de autolisis. Sólo un paciente requirió estabilización urgente de vía aérea mediante traqueotomía. No existieron complicaciones postoperatorias y sólo un enfermo requirió intervenciones secundarias por secuelas. Discusión. El aspecto más controvertido en el tratamiento de estas lesiones es el manejo quirúrgico de pacientes con lesiones extensas de la cara que involucran partes blandas y hueso, ya que pueden tratarse con técnicas reconstructivas complejas en el primer acto operatorio o, por el contrario, esta reconstrucción se puede realizar de forma diferida tras una primera fase de tratamiento quirúrgico de desbridamiento, estabilización de fracturas y cierre de partes blandas con técnicas simples. Pensamos que la elección del tipo de tratamiento debe ser individualizada en cada caso, aunque solemos optar por una reconstrucción diferida de los defectos tan pronto como sea posible.Introduction. The firearm injuries are not very common in our country, and the experience in its management is limited. In this review we show the experience of our Service in this wounds and review the literature to systematize the initial management of the firearm injuries in maxillofacial

  14. Análisis de nuevos estándares para reducir datos de gravedad: aplicación en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pedraza De Marchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo consistió en investigar el uso de nuevos estándares y procedimientos para reducir datos de gravedad con el fin de mejorar la precisión, exactitud y utilidad geofísica de las anomalías de gravedad. Los nuevos estándares tienen en cuenta el mayor poder computacional actual, la moderna tecnología de posicionamiento satelital para determinar la altura y el posicionamiento de las estaciones gravimétricas, las mejoras en las bases de datos topográficos/batimétricos y nuevos algoritmos matemáticos. Están basados en procedimientos, protocolos, ecuaciones y parámetros internacionalmente aceptados y que en muchos casos difieren de los presentados en los actuales libros de textos y bases de datos gravimétricos existentes. El cambio más importante que sugieren los nuevos estándares es el uso del elipsoide de referencia terrestre internacionalmente adoptado para definir el datum vertical o superficie de referencia para las alturas (Hinze et al., 2005, debido al creciente uso del Sistema Global de Posicionamiento (GPS para realizar trabajos de campo gravimétricos. Las anomalías calculadas con los nuevos estándares podrían ser modificadas por el adjetivo "elipsoidal" (Hinze et al., 2005 para diferenciarlas de las anomalías que se calculan mediante las elevaciones convencionales referidas al geoide. Se usó la información existente en la provincia de Tierra del Fuego para hacer reducciones, siguiendo los procedimientos tradicionales y las nuevas recomendaciones y estándares. Se utilizaron los modelos digitales de terreno y modelos geopotenciales a fin de evaluar la eficacia de su uso en las reducciones gravimétricas. Se integró la información gravimétrica terrestre con anomalías de aire libre derivadas de la altimetría satelital en el mar, en un mapa combinado de anomalías isostáticas elipsoidales.The main objective of this study was to investigate the use of new standards and procedures for

  15. Dinámica de la humedad de los combustibles y su relación con la ecología y el manejo de fuego en la región chaqueña occidental (Argentina) I: conceptos básicos

    OpenAIRE

    DEFOSSÉ, G.; BIANCHI, L.; DENTONI M.; KUNST, C.; LEDESMA, R.; BRAVO, S.

    2014-01-01

    El fuego es un modelador de la mayoría de los ecosistemas vegetales del mundo, entre ellos, los correspondientes a la región chaqueña argentina donde asimismo ha sido usado ampliamente como una herramienta de manejo de la vegetación. Dada una fuente de ignición, para que un fuego pueda prosperar deben existir ciertas condiciones. Entre ellas, el contenido de humedad del combustible (CH) juega un rol fundamental ya que su magnitud influirá en la probabilidad de ignición, en el posterior compor...

  16. Herida penetrante del tórax por un proyectil de arma de fuego localizado inicialmente en el ventrículo izquierdo y luego en la arteria renal derecha

    OpenAIRE

    Cosío Lima, Ludmila; Gámiz González, Raúl; Cosío Pascal, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Objetivo: Presentar un caso de herida penetrante del corazón con migración del proyectil y comentar los criterios actuales para el manejo de este tipo de pacientes. Las heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego penetrantes a tórax cada día son más frecuentes en todo el mundo y traen aparejada una mortalidad considerable, ya que el calibre y el poder de las armas también son actualmente más letales. Los heridos que logran llegar vivos al hospital están generalmente supeditados a la atenc...

  17. Aspectos macroscópicos del hueso sometido al fuego. Revisión de las cremaciones descritas en el País Vasco desde la Arqueología.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Etxeberria

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras haber revisado la mayoría de las colecciones arqueológicas con restos humanos afectados por el fuego, se reinterpreta el fenómeno del ritual funerario valorando tambien otras posibilidades que deben ser tenidas en consideración. Con base en algunas experiencias propias realizadas, se describen los aspectos macroscópicos que presenta el hueso tras haber sido sometido a altas temperaturas constatando el diferente comportamiento entre el tejido fresco y el seco o antiguo.

  18. El incremento de la mortalidad por armas de fuego y su relación con el estancamiento de la esperanza de vida en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Julián González-Pérez

    Full Text Available Resumen Este estudio analiza la mortalidad por armas de fuego (AF en México y su impacto en la esperanza de vida (EV – comparado con otras causas de muerte- entre los trienios 2000-2002 y 2010-2012 e identifica el papel de los grupos de edad en la pérdida de años de EV por esta causa. A partir de datos oficiales se elaboraron tablas de vida abreviadas para México, por sexo, para ambos trienios; esto permitió calcular la EV temporaria entre 15 y 75 años y los años de esperanza de vida perdidos (AEVP entre ambas edades, por causa. Entre los hombres, la mortalidad por AF pasó de ser la causa que menos AEVP provocó en 2000-2002 a ser la principal causa de AEVP entre 15 y 75 años en 2010-2012. Entre las mujeres, fueron los AEVP por esta causa los que relativamente más crecieron. En ambos sexos el mayor aumento de los AEVP por AF fue entre 20 y 34 años. Los hallazgos indican que el aumento de la mortalidad por AF, sobre todo entre los jóvenes, ha contribuido sustancialmente al estancamiento de la esperanza de vida, e incluso a su descenso entre los hombres. Esto refleja que la violencia ligada a las AF no es solo un problema de seguridad sino también un problema de salud colectiva que debe ser afrontado de forma interdisciplinaria e intersectorial si se pretende incrementar la esperanza de vida del país.

  19. Herida facial por arma de fuego: presentación de un caso Facial wound caused by firearm: A case psresentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un niño yemenita de 6 años de edad del poblado de Maabar que fue atendido por el equipo interdisciplinario de profesores cubanos del Hospital Al Waheda perteneciente a la Universidad de Thamar, el cual recibió una herida maxilofacial por proyectil de arma de fuego, que le ocasionó gran destrucción de los tejidos de la región nasal, zona por donde salió el proyectil. Se expone en el trabajo cómo se le salvó la vida a este niño y se reconstruyó el defecto facial gracias a la ardua labor de los profesores cubanos, que devolvieron a este niño a la sociedad con vida, con una excelente rehabilitación estética y funcional, demostrando una vez mas la humana labor de la medicina cubana en países hermanos.The case of a Yemenite child aged 6 with a maxillofacial wound caused by firearm involving destruction of nasal area tissues, oulet point of projectile, he is resident of Maabar built-up area is presented, who was cared by interdisciplinary staff of Cuban professors of Al Waheda Hospital of Thamar University. In present paper is showed the way how his life was saved, and facial defect was reconstructed thanks to arduous work of Cuban professors, who returned this child alive to society with an excellent cosmetic and functional rehabilitation, showing once again the human work of Cuban medicine in brother countries.

  20. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  1. Severe wind phenomena in Southern Africa and the related damage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ) and the major factor promoting the spread of bushfires. 3. Origin and character of severe wind storms A schematic map of the occurrence of strong wind events over southern Africa, based on Griffith (1972), Lundholm (1979), Goliger and Milford (1998... the southern tip of the sub- continent and originate in extra-tropical cyclones. 3. Shallow south-easters, which develop as a result of localised coastal lows. Their influence extends along the western and southern coast of South Africa, from Luderitz...

  2. Southern hemisphere coal characteristics and their impact on plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y Y; Dickson, A J; Lowe, A; Pearson, J M; Pitman, B L; Semark, P M [Taiwan Power Company (Taiwan)

    1992-09-01

    The paper reports performance information of specific utilities fired by coal mined in the Southern Hemisphere. It includes information from Pacific Power Services, Australia, the China Light and Power Company, Hong Kong, the Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan, and the South Africa Electricity Power Company, South Africa. 12 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Geographers and ecosystems: a point of view | Gamble | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short note pertaining to the new ecosystems section of the South African Standard 10 core Syllabus in Geography. The ideas were presented at a workshop for teachers held in tile Southern Transvnal region by the South African geographical Society. They are intended only to provide a perspective on thegeographical ...

  4. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina First record of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae in Chilean swallow nests Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.Chilean swallows Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis nest in the central area in Chile and Southwest in Argentina. In winter, they migrate to Bolivia, Paraguay and Southeast of Brazil. A nest box population of Chilean swallows was established in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. After the breeding season, we collected all nests, treated them with ethyl acetate, and inspected all the nest material for hematophagous arthropods. We found adult fleas, which were fixed, cleared, diaphanized, dehydrated, and mounted in a clove derivative for observation under a microscope. We identified males and females of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. In Argentina, this flea is only known for Sierra de la Ventana

  5. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  6. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected via surface underway survey from Volunteer Observing Ship AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 1992-10-19 to 2001-12-12 (NODC Accession 0081031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and Atmospheric fCO2 measurements in the Southern Ocean during the VOS Project line onboard the oceanographic ship Aurora Australis.

  7. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, and other data from CTD and bottle casts in the Southern Ocean (> 60 South) from the R/V NATHANIEL B. PALMER from 14 September 1994 to 12 October 1994 (NODC Accession 0000481)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report includes the primary ocean station data collected in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during cruise 9405 of the Nathaniel B. Palmer. The cruise...

  8. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  9. Historia natural y conservación de los mutualismos planta-animal del bosque templado de Sudamérica austral Natural history and conservation of plant-animal mutualisms in the temperate forest of southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO A. AIZEN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El bosque templado de Sudamérica austral (BTSA se caracteriza por poseer un biota altamente endémica y una flora que exhibe una de las más altas incidencias de polinización biótica (particularmente ornitofilia y dispersión animal (particularmente endozoocoria registradas para cualquier bioma templado. A la luz de importantes avances realizados en los últimos años en el conocimiento de estas interacciones, en este trabajo realizamos una revisión sobre (1 los grupos animales que intervienen en estos mutualismos y su importancia relativa, (2 la estructura comunitaria de estas interacciones, y (3 la existencia de variación geográfica en estas relaciones en base a estudios similares realizados en dos o más localidades a ambos lados de los Andes. También comparamos los mutualismos entre plantas y animales del BTSA con los presentes en otros biomas. Por último, reseñamos la evidencia existente sobre los efectos que la deforestación, la fragmentación, y otras formas de perturbación antrópica están teniendo sobre estos mutualismos. Este trabajo avala la hipótesis de que la alta riqueza de plantas que son polinizadas o dispersadas por vertebrados depende de un ensamble extremadamente pobre de animales mutualistas. Por el contrario, en el caso de la polinización por invertebrados este trabajo revela que las flores entomófilas del BTSA interactúan con un ensamble insospechadamente diverso de insectos, rico en grupos taxonómicos exclusivos de este bioma. Aunque muchos de estos mutualismos parecen ser resilientes, otros aparentan tener un alto grado de sensibilidad a distintas formas de perturbación antrópicaThe temperate forest of southern South America (TFSSA has a highly endemic biota with a flora that exhibits one of the highest incidences of biotic pollination (particularly ornithophily and animal dispersal (particularly endozoochory found in any temperate biome worldwide. Much knowledge has been gained in the last few years on

  10. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-12-29 to 2010-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0156926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156926 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0163187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163187 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  14. Diseño de conexiones mecánicas tipo canal en vigas compuestas bajo fuego//Design of channel mechanical connections in composite beam in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisel Larrua‐Pardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propusieron dos métodos, uno simplificado y otro gráfico alternativo para el diseño de la conexión mecánica tipo canal en vigas compuestas de hormigón y acero en situación de incendio, a partir del estudio de su comportamiento. Se utilizó como herramienta la modelación numérica. El método simplificado desarrollado considera temperaturas definidas a través de la modelación térmica del ensayo push-out en situación de incendio y es coherente con las expresiones de diseño de las conexiones mecánicas tipo canal a temperatura ambiente y la formulación existente para el diseño de las conexiones tipo perno a elevadas temperaturas. El método gráfico alternativopropuesto constituye una opción que permite obtener de una forma directa y rápida, la resistencia a elevadas temperaturas de la conexión mecánica tipo canal para un tiempo de resistencia al fuego, en función de su resistencia a temperatura ambiente.Palabras claves: conexión mecánica tipo canal, método simplificado, método gráfico alternativo, modelación numérica, incendio._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper two methods to design of channel mechanical connection are proposed, a simplified one and graphical alternative another, both using the numerical analysis for the study of the mechanical connection behavior. The developed simplified method considers temperatures defined through thethermal modelling of the push-out test in fire and it is coherent with the design expressions of the channel mechanical connections to ambient temperature, and the current formulation for the design of the stud connections al elevated temperatures. The proposed alternative graphical method constitutes an option that allows obtaining, in a direct and quick way, the resistance to elevatedtemperatures of the channel mechanical connections for a determined time of resistance to the fire, according to its

  15. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  16. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  17. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-01-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  18. The beach-seine and gill-net fisheries are South Africa's oldest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Previous works on the South African gill-net and beach-seine ... catch and effort between four different regions along the South ... evaluate participation in and management of the ... mesh on the West Coast and the Southern and Eastern.

  19. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere Ocean Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka (Japan); Kim, C. -S. [Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Roos, P. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Yim, S. A. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP-SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water of the central South Pacific (32.5{sup o}S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m{sup 3}. The {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20{sup o}S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic surface waters (30{sup o}S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The {sup 239}Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging. (author)

  20. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  1. Laser ablation studies in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Edric; Forbes, A.; Turner, G. R.; Michaelis, Max M.

    2000-08-01

    With the launch of the South African National Laser Centre, new programs will need to be defined. Medical, environmental and industrial laser applications must obviously take top priority -- as opposed to the uranium isotope separation and military applications of the past. We argue however, that a small effort in laser ablation for space propulsion is justifiable, since a few very large CO2 lasers are available and since two tentative propulsion experiments have already been conducted in South Africa. We attempt to give LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) an equatorial and a Southern dimension.

  2. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007 : conference abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editorial

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007, Pestana Kruger Lodge, Malelane, South Africa

  3. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  4. Las imágenes inducidas de Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Cambios y permanencias en el contenido de la promoción turística oficial (1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Mosti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La imagen turística es una construcción mental y social que guarda relación con los atributos tangibles e intangibles del destino. La promoción turística contribuye a conformar la imagen del destino atendiendo a los imaginarios de los posibles consumidores y a los atributos del territorio que se deciden poner en valor y promocionar. El objetivo general de esta investigación es indagar sobre las continuidades y los cambios en el contenido del discurso promocional oficial de Tierra del Fuego y su vinculación con el imaginario de la región austral. Se analizó el contenido visual y textual del discurso promocional que se difunde en los folletos turísticos elaborados desde la década del 90’ hasta el presente.

  5. Atención a pacientes con heridas maxilofaciales producidas por armas de fuego Care of patients presenting with maxillofacial wounds by firearms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Los traumatismos y fracturas maxilofaciales ocasionan deformidades difíciles de ocultar por ser la cara la porción más visible del cuerpo. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo documentar la atención a un grupo de pacientes con heridas maxilofaciales producidas por arma de fuego, que fueron atendidos por la brigada médica cubana del Hospital Al-Waheda de Maabar (República de Yemen. MÉTODOS. Se analizó un grupo de 9 pacientes con heridas maxilofaciales, atendidos en el Hospital Al-Waheda de Maabar, perteneciente a la Universidad de Thamar (Yemen, entre los años 2006 y 2008. Se recogieron los datos siguientes: nombre y apellidos edad, sexo, lesión principal, lesiones asociadas y tipo de tratamiento, así como la evolución de los pacientes. El método estadístico empleado fue el cálculo porcentual. RESULTADOS. Entre las principales lesiones tratadas se encontraron las fracturas mandibulares, nasales y dentoalveolares, para cuyo tratamiento se siguieron las normas de los protocolos establecidos para la atención de este tipo de afección. Los resultados fueron excelentes en todos los pacientes y hubo una rápida recuperación en todos los casos. Se obtuvieron muy buenos resultados estéticos y funcionales. CONCLUSIONES. Al comparar el estado preoperatorio y posoperatorio de los pacientes, se demostró la importancia de la atención integral del equipo de profesores cubanos.INTRODUCTION. Traumatisms and maxillofacial fractures cause deformities difficult to hide because of the face of the more visible portion of the body. The aim of present paper is to document the care to group of patients presenting with maxillofacial wounds caused by firearms, treated by the Cuban medical brigade of Thamar University Al-Waheda Hospital of Maabar (Republic of Yemen. METHODS. A group of 9 patients presenting with maxillofacial wounds caused by firearms treated in above mentioned hospital between 2006 and 2008. Following data were collected

  6. EL EFECTO DEL FUEGO EN LA RIQUEZA DE ESPECIES DE HONGOS MICORRIZÓGENOS ARBUSCULARES ASOCIADA A PLANTAS DE MATORRAL XERÓFILO EN EL PARQUE ECOLÓGICO “CUBITOS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chimal-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA son esenciales para el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, entre ellos, los áridos y semiáridos. Esta investigación evaluó el efecto del fuego sobre la riqueza de especies de HMA asociada a Cylindropuntia imbricata , Mimosa biuncifera y Zaluziana augusta . En el Parque Ecológico “Cubitos” de Pachuca, Hidalgo, se seleccionaron dos matorrales xerófilos: i conservado y ii perturbado por un incendio forestal. En cada matorral y de tres individuos de C. imbricata , M. biuncifera , Z. augusta y en áreas abiertas (AA libres de plantas, se recolectaron muestras de suelo (1 kg para la extracción de esporas y determinar la riqueza taxonómica de HMA por género y especie, así como la humedad y pH del suelo. Con un análisis de varianza, similitud y correspondencia se analizaron estas variables. La riqueza de HMA consistió de once morfo-especies distribuidas en seis familias. M. biuncifera en el sitio conservado presentó la mayor riqueza de HMA a nivel de género (6 y especie (6 y en el sitio perturbado fue C. imbricata con cuatro géneros y seis especies. El fuego redujo la riqueza de especies de HMA en un 50, 25 y 50% en M. biuncifera , Z. augusta y en las AA, respectivamente; mientras que, en C. imbricata se incrementó en un 34 %. La familia Gigasporaceae sólo estuvo asociada a M. biuncifera y Z. augusta en la condición conservada. El análisis de correspondencia sugiere que la identidad de la especie vegetal afecta la composición de especies de HMA.

  7. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  8. Medical ethics education: thoughts on a South African medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education ... emphasised the place of bioethics within the emerging integrated medical curricula in southern Africa. ... There has been little development of African syllabi in bioethics that reflect the plasticity of ...

  9. Determining the appropriate code in a South African business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the appropriate code in a South African business environment. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... would be perceived to enhance the quality of the interaction between client and service provider.

  10. Sustainable Cities: Local Solutions in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-06

    Apr 6, 2012 ... ... on sustainable natural resource management and urban issues in Asia, West Africa and Southern Africa. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation ... New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South.

  11. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  12. Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hot Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7degS, 67.7degW), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  13. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  14. SAFARI 2000 Estimated BVOC Emissions for Southern African Land Cover Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)...

  15. The War Against Trucks Aerial Interdiction in Southern Laos 1968-1972

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nalty, Bernard C

    2005-01-01

    This history recounts an ambitious attempt by the Air Force to interdict traffic on the Ho Chi Minh Trail of southern Laos, as part of a plan to support the war in South Vietnam by impending the flow...

  16. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  17. A Selection of Abstracts Presented at the 44th Annual Conference of the Anatomical Society of Southern Africa (ASSA), May 8-11, 2016, Bloem Spa Hotel and Conference Centre, Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-23

    In memory of Professor Willie Vorster who was a long-standing member of ASSA and served on the Council for many years. He was a devoted teacher of Anatomy and Embryology at various tertiary institutions in South Africa, and the founding member of the School of Medicine at the University of Namibia where he served as the first Professor in Anatomy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Finance and Development: The Case of Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Faini, Riccardo; Giannini, Curzio; Ingrosso, Fulvio

    1992-01-01

    We look at the role of the financial sector in the context of the relatively backward regions of Southern Italy (the so-called Mezzogiorno). Commercial banks in the South typically have higher operating costs and charge higher interest rates than Northern banks. Econometric analysis on a large set of individual loan contracts suggests that borrowers in the South are considerably riskier than those elsewhere in Italy. It also indicates, however, that risk accounts for only half of the 200 basi...

  19. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  20. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.

  1. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  2. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Marabyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  3. Dinámica de la humedad de los combustibles y su relación con la ecología y manejo de fuego, region chaqueña occidental (Argentina) II: follaje y residuos de árboles y arbustos

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Carlos Roberto Guillermo; Ledesma, Ramona Ofelia; Bravo, S.; Defossé, Guillermo Emilio; Godoy, J.; Navarrete, V.

    2017-01-01

    El fuego es fenómeno frecuente en la región chaqueña argentina. El contenido de agua (CH, %) es un factor que define la inflamabilidad de los combustibles vegetales, y sus cambios en magnitud pueden ser usados para comprender la ecología y régimen del fuego en una región, para planificar su uso como prescripto; o como un indicador de riesgo para su prevención. En este trabajo se evaluó la dinámica de CH a través del tiempo del follaje (combustible vivo), hojarasca y residuos leñosos de distin...

  4. Dinámica de la humedad de los combustibles y su relación con la ecologíay manejo de fuego, region chaqueña occidental (Argentina) II: follaje y residuos de árboles y arbustos

    OpenAIRE

    KUNST,C; LEDESMA, R; BRAVO, S.; DEFOSSÉ, G.; GODOY, J.; NAVARRETE, V.

    2014-01-01

    El fuego es fenómeno frecuente en la región chaqueña argentina. El contenido de agua (CH, %) es un factor que define la inflamabilidad de los combustibles vegetales, y sus cambios en magnitud pueden ser usados para comprender la ecología y régimen del fuego en una región, para planificar su uso como prescripto; o como un indicador de riesgo para su prevención. En este trabajo se evaluó la dinámica de CH a través del tiempo del follaje (combustible vivo), hojarasca y residuos leñosos de distin...

  5. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  6. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  7. Pest Fact Sheet 2007: Southern Pine Beetle prevention initiative: Working for healthier forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R-8 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    From 1999 to 2003, southern pine beetle (SPB) caused unprecedented damage to pine forests in southern Appalachian mountains. These losses severely impacted the natural resource base that supports the South's tourism and wood-based manufacturing industries and also destroyed the habitat of threatened and endangered species, such as the red-cockaded woodpecker....

  8. The genus Acellomyia González, a new taxonomic arrangement of its species and descriptions of a new genus and two new species from southern South America (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Christian R

    2017-10-20

    The tabanid tribe Diachlorini (Diptera) is the most genus-rich tribe in the Tabanidae; the tribe is cosmopolitan, but the greatest species richness and morphological diversity are found in the Australasian and Neotropical Regions. A new arrangement for the species of Acellomyia González is given; Acellomyia lauta (Hine) is transferred to a new genus, Montismyia gen.n., based on its morphological differences from Acellomyia and geographical distribution. The morphological differences between Acellomyia and Montismyia gen. n. are discussed. Two new species, Acellomyia casablanca sp.n. and Acellomyia puyehue sp.n., are described from specimens collected in southern Chile. Comparison of the morphology of Acellomyia paulseni mapuche (Coscarón & Philip) stat.nov. indicate that they should be elevated to species rank. A key to species of Acellomyia is provided and diagnostic characters are illustrated.

  9. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  10. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  11. Morphological and molecular evidence on the existence of a single estuarine and rocky intertidal acanthocephalan species of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Diaz, Julia I; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Profilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón & Dei-Cas, 1977 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) has been reported to parasitise different grapsid species as intermediate hosts along the South Atlantic shores, i.e. Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana) and Neohelice granulata (Dana) in Uruguay and Cyrtograpsus altimanus (Rathbun) in Argentina. Larvae of a similar acanthocephalan described as Profilicollis antarcticus Zdzitowiecki, 1985 were recorded in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards) from an estuarine habitat on the Southeast Pacific shore in Chile. Earlier studies have questioned the specific assignation of the Chilean estuarine populations of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931. The aim of this study was to re-examine the identification of these acanthocephalans by means of morphological and molecular analyses of cystacanths of Profilicollis spp. gathered from C. angulatus, N. granulata, C. altimanus and H. crenulatus. Our analyses showed that a single species of Profilicollis, P. chasmagnathi, parasitises these four crab species. The assessment of specimens from the South Shetlands Islands, the type-locality of P. antarcticus, is needed before formally proposing that P. antarcticus is a junior subjective synonym of P. chasmagnathi.

  12. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  13. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  14. Assessment of the Teleconnection Between El Nino Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cluster analysis grouped the rainfall data into three clusters namely Coastal South, Middle belt and Sahel North, while Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data from 1988 to 2013 was retrieved from National Ocean Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as updated by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  15. Prerequisites for successful nuclear generation in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semark, P.

    1990-01-01

    The prerequisites and the requisites for successful nuclear powered electricity generation in southern Africa are explored. There are four elements essential to success, namely, the mission or vision; the appropriate means; the right and sufficient time, and the skilled, committed executor. The ongoing success of nuclear powered electricity generation in South Africa is discussed in the light of these four elements. 2 ills

  16. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  17. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis visit the coasts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Counts and photographs of right whales Eubalaena australis taken on aerial surveys of the southern coast of. South Africa between ... of 0.08–2.89 km.h-1. Theodolite tracking of undisturbed groups of right whales from Cape Columbine produced ...... right whales on the coast of Argentina (Outer Coast) between 1971 and ...

  18. Extra-territorial African police and soldiers in Southern Rhodesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...

  19. A history of southern forest science, management, and sustainability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2004-01-01

    The 13 Southern States from Virginia to Texas have a combined area of approximately 500 million acres. Our understanding of the complex cultural and ecological history of this large region is still evolving. It may be fair to say that until recently, our view of the native peoples of the South and the landscape in which they lived derived chiefly from reports provided...

  20. Identity and distribution of southern African sciaenid fish species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Umbrina species, U. canariensis Valenciennes 1843 and U. robinsoni Gilchrist and Thompson 1908, are recognised from southern Africa. The latter species was hitherto believed to be a synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 (type locality Canary Islands). U. canariensis is distributed along the South Africa ...

  1. New project examining Bearded Vulture movements in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    southern Africa to inform wind turbine placement. Tim Reid. 1. , Sonja Krüger. 1,2 and Arjun Amar. 1. 1. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST/NRF Centre of. Excellence, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town,. Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. 2. Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, P.O. Box ...

  2. Biopsying southern right whales : Their reactions and effects on reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, PB; Reeb, D; Rew, MB; Palsboll, PJ; Schaeff, C; Brandao, A

    Collecting skin biopsies from large whales for genetic analysis is often subject to national permit, and in the case of cow-calf pairs, it may be prohibited. We present results of 906 biopsy attempts on southern fight whales (Eubalaena australis) in South African waters between 1995 and 1997,

  3. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  4. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  5. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  6. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  7. Comparison of 'electrojet' indices from the northern and southern hemispheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, C.G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Akasofu, S. I.; Zaitzev, A.N.; Popov, V.; Wilkinson, P.J.; Wolfe, A.

    1991-01-01

    A unique data set of digital and digitized analog magnetic recordings from 22 stations in the Antarctic was used to construct the southern hemisphere equivalent of the northern hemisphere auroral electrojet index, AE, for two separate intervals of magnetic disturbance (totaling seven days) in June 1982. A second index constructed using only 9 stations between ∼ 60 degrees-70 degrees geomagnetic south latitude showed only small differences from that using all 22 stations. For the universal time interval (00-11 UT inclusive) when a reasonably good coverage of ground stations exists in the austral auroral zone, it is found that there is a good correlation between the northern and southern hemisphere indices; this is the case even though the southern ionosphere is largely in total darkness during the interval studied. No effect of the north-south direction of the interplanetary magnetic field is found on the correlation

  8. Cost-productivity analysis of South African pine sawtimber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the productivity of these systems, for which data is currently limited for South Africa, is an important step to maximise the utilisation of machines being used. A time study of a mechanised cut-to-length system was conducted in Pinus elliottii sawtimber plantations in the Southern Cape forestry region of South ...

  9. Inclusive education for Deaf students: Literacy practices and South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusive education for Deaf students: Literacy practices and South African Sign Language. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... of inclusive education for Deaf students in a mainstream Further Education and Training (FET) classroom through the use of a South African Sign Language interpreter.

  10. Annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The joint annual congress of the South African Society of Pathologists, International Academy of Pathology, South African Association of Clinical Biochemists and the Southern African Microbiology Society, was held from 13 to 15 July 1981 in Bloemfontein. This congress covered facets of clinical biochemistry, anatomical pathology, virology, microbiology, immunology and molecular biology

  11. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. Abstract. South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa and stands at some risk from negative pollution i apa~ To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first attempt toapply the critical loads approach...

  12. South African Red Data Book: Plants - fynbos and Karoo biomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report a list is given of 1 808 rare, threatened and recently extinct plants in the fynbos and karoo biomes in the Cape Province of South Africa. The area covers the south-western and southern Cape, Namaqualand and the Karoo. Following...

  13. South-South Migration and Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William

    2007-01-01

    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  14. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  15. Record of Rüppell's Griffon Gyps rueppellii in southern KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    Modderfontein, 1645, South. Africa. ² P.O. Box 26776, Plains, 4243, South Africa. Rüppell's Griffon Gyps rueppellii is considered to be a rare vagrant to southern Africa (Hockey et al. 2005) and the first record for this species for the region is from Wabai ...

  16. 3He and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Jamous, D.; Mantisi, F.; Memery, L.; Universite Paris 6

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of 3 He across the Southern Ocean is depicted on the basis of a meridional section between Antarctica and South Africa measured during the INDIGO-3 survey (1988). A core of δ 3 He values above 10% is observed south of the Polar Front, associated with very low CFC concentrations. This 3 He enriched layer is documented from the GEOSECS and INDIGO 3 He data in the Southern Ocean. It is found at a density level around θ σ =27.8 in all the waters close to Antarctica (i.e. south of 50 degS). Its zonal distribution suggests that it is likely that it originates from the central/eastern Pacific. Hence, it provides an indication of the deep Pacific waters in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which are not easily detectable from the standard hydrographic parameters. (author). 19 refs.; 8 figs

  17. Rwandan family medicine residents expanding their training into South Africa: the use of South-South medical electives in enhancing learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinkenflögel, Maaike; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega; Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; De Maeseneer, Jan

    2015-08-01

    International medical electives are well-accepted in medical education, with the flow of students generally being North-South. In this article we explore the learning outcomes of Rwandan family medicine residents who completed their final year elective in South Africa. We compare the learning outcomes of this South-South elective to those of North-South electives from the literature. In-depth interviews were conducted with Rwandan postgraduate family medicine residents who completed a 4-week elective in South Africa during their final year of training. The interviews were thematically analysed in an inductive way. The residents reported important learning outcomes in four overarching domains namely: medical, organisational, educational, and personal. The learning outcomes of the residents in this South-South elective had substantial similarities to findings in literature on learning outcomes of students from the North undertaking electives in the Southern hemisphere. Electives are a useful learning tool, both for Northern students, and students from universities in the South. A reciprocity-framework is needed to increase mutual benefits for Southern universities when students from the North come for electives. We suggest further research on the possibility of supporting South-South electives by Northern colleagues.

  18. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  19. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  20. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  1. Forest science in the South - 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2007-01-01

    Welcome to the Southern Research Station's 2006 Forest Science in the South. Our summary highlights key accomplishments and activities from this past fiscal year, October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006.This was a dynamic year for the Station! We recently realigned our 28 research work units (RWUs) into 15 RWUs grouped under five science areas –...

  2. Forest science in the South - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01

    It is my pleasure to present the 2008 Forest Science in the South, a summary of accomplishments of the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS). This annual report includes a CD with details about our research and products, as well as links for ordering or downloading publications.

  3. Forest science in the South - 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2003-01-01

    Forest Science in the South includes the Southern Station's accomplishments, emerging research priorities, and products - journal articles, books, Station publications, presentations, and Web postings. This report details budget allocations, highlights collaborative research, includes a directory of research units and experimental forests, and summarizes...

  4. The South African species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available While writing up the three South African species of  Teucrium for the Flora o f Southern Africa it became necessary to replace two well-known names as follows:  T. trifidum Retz. (1779 ( = T.  capense Thunb., 1800 and  T. kraussii Codd  {=T. riparium Hochst., 1845, non Rafin., 1838.

  5. Biogeographic congruence in the south Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seberg, Ole

    1991-01-01

    Ever since J. D. Hooker's famous 'Introductory Essay' to Flora NOVE-Zelandise, a classical problem in biogeography has been to give a casual explanation of southern hemisphere distribution patterns. An attempt is made to see whether the cladograms for the circum-Pacific areas (South America, New ...

  6. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  7. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  8. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  11. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  12. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  13. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal actively seeks to publish articles investigating the impact of Shakespeare in other parts of the world, such as India, the United States, South East Asia and South America. Other websites ... Interview: Introducing Sonny – the story of “The Robben Island Bible” · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  14. Detection and follow-up of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. the pulmonary risk in South America (PRISA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Héctor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on studies performed in Europe or North America and little is known about the prevalence, patient characteristics and change in lung function over time in patients in developing countries, such as those of Latin America. This lack of knowledge is in sharp contrast to the high levels of tobacco consumption and exposure to biomass fuels exhibited in Latin America, both major risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have also demonstrated that most Latin American physicians frequently do not follow international chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The PRISA Study will expand the current knowledge regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay to inform policy makers and health professionals on the best policies and practices to address this condition. Methods/Design PRISA is an observational, prospective cohort study with at least four years of follow-up. In the first year, PRISA has employed a randomized three-staged stratified cluster sampling strategy to identify 6,000 subjects from Marcos Paz and Bariloche, Argentina, Temuco, Chile, and Canelones, Uruguay. Information, such as comorbidities, socioeconomic status and tobacco and biomass exposure, will be collected and spirometry, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and electrocardiogram will be performed. In year four, subjects will have repeat measurements taken. Discussion There is no longitudinal data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease incidence and risk factors in the southern cone of Latin America, therefore this population-based prospective cohort study will fill knowledge gaps in the prevalence and incidence of

  15. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  16. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury concentrations documented for 10 species of penguins (26 breeding populations). • Mercury concentrations ⩽2.00 ppm in feathers from 18/26 penguin populations. • Trophic level calculations revealed source of population-level variation in mercury. • First documentation of geographic mercury ‘hotspots’ for penguin populations. - Abstract: The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00 ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic ‘hot spots’ of mercury availability

  17. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tectonic/climatic control on sediment provenance in the Cape Roberts Project core record (southern Victoria Land, Antarctica): A pulsing late Oligocene/early Miocene signal from south revealed by detrital thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, V.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    , three peaks are detected reflecting different bedrock provenance areas. Two peaks older than 40 Ma (P2 and P3) are compatible with thermochronological data from TAM bedrock that underwent a stepwise denudation in Cretaceous times. A Peak younger than 40 Ma (P1) has been detected occasionally, recording the signal of a source area exhumed during late Oligocene /early Miocene with a constant denudation rate of 0.4 mm/yr (constant lag-time up-section), but absent in the onshore portion of the proximal TAM. Indeed, when compared with AFT data from ANDRILL cores, the relatively young P1 ages, suggest that part of sediments in the Cape Robert Rift basin have a provenance from source regions probably located far away in the south (i.e. Skelton-Byrd glaciers region) where bedrock experienced compatible thermal histories. This provenance would imply glacial systems with main flow patterns from south to the north, therefore orthogonal to the orientation of present-day drainage. We thus infer that the post-Eocene glacial and erosional history of the TAM front was significantly controlled by the N-S-trending transtensional regime that affected the western Ross Sea margin during transition from orthogonal to oblique rifting in the region. The appearance and disappearance of P1 along the drill-cored stratigraphic succession seems to be linked to the oscillation in the extent of the ice sheet.

  19. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  20. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, Barometric pressure sensor and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-24 (NODC Accession 0108153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108153 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-01-03 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157348 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0148769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148769 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-09 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0157386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157386 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-22 to 2007-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157245 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-22 to 2011-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0157336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157336 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-03-14 to 2012-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0157397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157397 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-12-17 to 2006-12-15 (NCEI Accession 0157311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157311 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1999-03-06 to 2000-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0157370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157370 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-02 to 2011-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0157259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157259 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-28 to 2005-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0157262)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157262 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  12. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  13. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 4, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and...

  14. Driving a Fishery along the Bumpy Ride of Today's Globalisation: The Case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Lu, J.; English, F.; McBride, R.

    2012-01-01

    The case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association describes real issues faced by the Market Development Manager of a collective agri-food organization (SRL) representing all the southern rock lobster fishermen in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The case deals with recent

  15. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis wind products with in situ wave glider wind observations in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmidt, KM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available observations in the Southern Ocean 2 3 Kevin M. Schmidta, Sebastiaan Swartb,c,d, Chris Reasonc, Sarah Nicholsonb,c 4 a Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa 5 b Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observatory, Council...

  16. A synoptic decomposition of rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewers: Alice Favre afavre@csag.uct.ac.za Expert in cut-off lows occurring over South Africa Chris Reason chris.reason@uct.ac.za Expert in southern Africa climate variability Michael Pook mike.pook@csiro.au Expert in developing synoptic climatology...

  17. Prioridades de conservación aplicando información filogenética y endemicidad: un ejemplo basado en Carabidae (Coleoptera de América del Sur austral Conservation priorities using phylogenetic information and endemicity: an example based on Carabid beetles from Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de la información distribucional de las especies de Carabidae (Coleoptera de América del Sur austral, se reconocieron 17 áreas de endemismo. Para cada una de ellas se estimó la diversidad gamma, el porcentaje de endemismo, el valor filogenético y la complementariedad, exceptuando Juan Fernández del cual no se pudo obtener ningún valor filogenético. El cálculo del valor filogenético se realizó a través del uso de cuatro índices, el valor filogenético sin ninguna modificación (W, considerando la endemicidad (We, y sus respectivas estandarizaciones (Ws y Wes. Los resultados muestran que la estandarización del valor filogenético (Ws produce un sesgo cuando los cladogramas difieren en tamaño y que el complemento entre áreas es una herramienta secundaria de gran utilidad. Sin embargo, los resultados muestran que para determinar la importancia de las áreas, el complemento debe ser usado en conjunto con la diversidad específica y la endemicidad. Las comparaciones de los resultados obtenidos usando W, We y análisis de complementariedad estrictos y modificados muestran que el valor filogenético que admite endemicidad (We puede ser aplicado como único valor para determinar la importancia de cada área. Aplicando We, las seis primeras áreas seleccionadas acumulan el 72 % del valor filogenético y el 74 % de la diversidad gamma de los carábidos de América del Sur austral, mientras que ninguno de los otros parámetros usados acumula el 70 % de las especies antes de sumar la séptima área. Las seis áreas seleccionadas son la Selva valdiviana, las Sierras pampeanas, Coquimbo, Patagonia occidental, Chile central y La Araucanía. Es de hacer notar que las Sierras pampeanas y la Patagonia occidental son ambientes de pastizales, Coquimbo y Chile central son ambientes áridos y semiáridos, y solo la Selva valdiviana y Araucanía son típicos bosques australesBased on information of the Southern South American carabid

  18. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  19. Análisis de la repelencia al agua en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica afectada por fuego controlado en el área montañosa central de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is described and analyzed the water repellency observed in a small catchment subject to prescribed burning and located in mountainous central part of Portugal. As well, a discussion about the methodologies usually used to measure the soil hydrophobocity, the replicability between field and laboratory data is established. The results show the little influence in soil physical parameters and organic matter content of prescribed burning and indicate a close relationship between spatial distribution of Erica sp. and water repellency. The replicability between soil hydrophobocity data from the field and laboratory is limited; nevertheless, a high level of correspondence exists between Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet and Water Drop Penetration Time data in the laboratory.

    [es] - En el presente trabajo se describe y analiza la repelencia al agua detectada en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica afectada por fuego controlado en el área montañosa central de Portugal. También se establece una discusión acerca de los métodos utilizados para medir la hidrofobia y el grado de correspondencia entre los resultados obtenidos en el campo y en el laboratorio. Los resultados muestran la escasa influencia del fuego controlado sobre los parámetros físicos y contenido de materia orgánica del suelo, indicando, sin embargo, una estrecha relación entre la distribuci��n espacial de Erica sp. y suelos más hidrófobos. El grado de replicación entre la hidrofobia medida en el campo y en el laboratorio es discreto; no obstante, en el laboratorio sí se ha encontrado un buen nivel de correspondencia entre las dos técnicas utilizadas (Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet y Water Drop Penetration Time. [fr] Dans cet article est décrit puis analysé le phénomène de répulsion à l'eau qui a été observé dans un petit bassin hydrographique soumis au feu contrôlé dans la zone montagneuse centrale du Portugal. Une discussion est

  20. URAT South Parallax Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Jao, Wei-Chun

    2018-04-01

    We present 916 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of newly discovered nearby stars from the United States Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). Observations were taken at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory over a 2-year period from 2015 to 2017 October covering the entire sky south of about +25° decl. SPM4 and UCAC4 early epoch catalog data were added to extend the temporal coverage for the parallax and proper motion fit up to 48 years. Using these new URAT parallaxes, optical and near-IR photometry from the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey and Two Micron All-Sky Survey catalogs, we identify possible new nearby dwarfs, young stars, low-metallicity subdwarfs and white dwarfs. Comparison to known trigonometric parallaxes shows a high quality of the URAT-based results confirming the error in parallax of the URAT south parallaxes reported here to be between 2 and 13 mas. We also include additional 729 trigonometric parallaxes from the URAT north 25 pc sample published in Finch & Zacharias here after applying the same criterion as for the southern sample to have a complete URAT 25 pc sample presented in this paper.