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Sample records for fruit juice entangled

  1. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  2. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  3. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  4. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  5. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  7. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  8. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  9. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  10. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  11. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  13. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  14. Cido fruit juice entangled in quality scare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu Veterinaar- ja Toidulabor avastas Lätis toodetud Cido greibimahlakontsentraadist 210 mg/kg mürkainet, mis on üle nelja korra lubatud määrast rohkem mürkainet. Cido turundusdirektori Dmitrijs Tairovsi sõnul leiti Lätis ja Saksamaal tehtud testide põhjal ainet tunduv alt vähem. Ettevõtte tegevdirektor Vadims Vlasovs kahtlustab Leedu konkurente

  15. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  18. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  19. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  1. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  2. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  3. Analyzing Households’ Fruit Juice Consumption and Purchasing Tendency: A Case Study From Isparta

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Mevlut; Akpinar, Goksel; Dagistan, Erdal; Yilmaz, Hilal; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    The investments of fruit juice industry had been begun in 1969 in Turkey and accelerated since 1983 in modern sense. 37 fruit juice firms are officially registered as trademark. The fruit juice consumption per head was increased in the beginning of 1970s by about 13 fold augmentation, however, this value is still considerably lower than the developed countries. Relatively high fresh fruit consumption is caused lower fruit juice consumption in Turkey. However, an increasing in the domestic dem...

  4. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  5. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  6. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  7. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  8. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  9. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  10. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  11. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  12. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K m values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydroge...

  13. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  14. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.

  15. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  16. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  17. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  18. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  19. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  20. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercially available fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yawar, W.; Rahman, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out for the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe in different varieties of commercially available packed fruit juices like apple, mango orange and mixed flavour by using flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. These juices are available at a reasonable price and are commonly used by public. Like many other articles the baseline levels of essential and toxic elements in Pakistani fruit juices are generally not available. It was, therefore, considered to monitor the levels of essential as well toxic elements in the juices. Hence a variety of juices was collected from local market and measurements of the above mentioned elements were made. (author)

  1. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as imp...

  2. Association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index among adult Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Danesh, N; Dehghan, M

    2010-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity and being overweight is rising among adult Canadians and diet is recognised as one of the main causes of obesity. The consumption of fruit and vegetables is shown to be protective against obesity and being overweight but little is known about the association of fruit juice consumption and obesity and being overweight. The present study aimed to investigate the association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index (BMI) among adult Canadians. This analysis is based on the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 3.1. A regression method was used to assess the association of fruit juice consumption with self-reported BMI in 18-64-year-old Canadians who had been adjusted for sex, age, total household income, education, self-rated health, and daily energy expenditure. Because the analysis is based on a cross-sectional dataset, it does not imply a cause and effect relationship. Almost 38.6% of adult Canadians reported a fruit juice intake of 0.5-1.4 times per day and 18.2% consumed fruit juice more than 1.5 times per day. Participants with normal weight were likely to consume more fruit juice than obese individuals. Regression analysis showed a negative association between fruit juice consumption and BMI after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, income, total fruit and vegetable intake, daily energy expenditure, and self-rated health. On average, for each daily serving of fruit juice, a -0.22 unit (95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.11) decrease in BMI was observed. The results obtained showed a moderate negative association between fruit juice intake and BMI, which may suggest that a moderate daily consumption of fruit juice is associated with normal weight status.

  3. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Susanne M.; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vege...

  4. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    P, Arsad; R, Sukor; WZ, Wan Ibadullah; NA, Mustapha; AS, Meor Hussin

    2015-01-01

    The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by in...

  5. Food Processing Innovation: A Case Study with Pressurized Passion Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Helena Laboissière; Rosires Deliza; Aline Mota Barros-Marcellini; Amauri Rosenthal; Lourdes Maria Camargo; Roberto Junqueira

    2007-01-01

    Tropical fruit juice production shows an annual increase in volume of 15 to 20% in Brazil. Growing demand for processed fruit pulp arouses juice industry interest to search for novel technologies. High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) is an innovative technology which allows juice production with improved sensory characteristics compared to pasteurization, meeting consumer demands for fresh-like foods. Despite recognized advantages of pressurized products described in the literature, a positive con...

  6. Antiproliferative effects of small fruit juices on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kawaii, S; Urashima, M; Fukase, T; Sato, T; Tanaka, R; Murofushi, N; Nishimura, H

    2000-01-01

    Juices prepared from small fruits, mainly growing in the northern part of Japan, were studied in an attempt to explore the feasibility of an assay that screens cytotoxic properties. Screening of 43 small fruit juices indicated that Actinidia polygama Maxim., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Vaccinium smallii A. Gray and Sorbus sambucifolia Roem, strongly inhibited the proliferation of all cancer cell lines examined and yet these juices were substantially less cytotoxic toward normal human cell lines.

  7. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Asadpoor; Masoud Ansarin; Mahboob Nemati

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the...

  8. The Analgesic Effect of Pineapple Fruit Juice on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Atiqah binti Hilmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a feeling stimulated by the nervous system which can be suppressed by giving an analgesic agent. Some studies revealed that pineapples have an analgesic effect. This study aim was to determine analgesic effect of pineapple on mice. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect was examined by using a writhing method on the 28 male mice. Subjects were divided into 4 groups with 7 mice each. The control group received aquades and other groups received pineapple fruit juice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration with the dosage of 10 mL/kg/body weight. After 30 minutes, 3% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally to induce pain. Writhing responseswere observed every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: The result for mean of total writhing reaction was 2.39±0.40, 1.92±0.40, 1.50±2.13, 1.66±0.11 respectively for group 1 to 4. These data indicated a significant decrease of total writhing response in mice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration compared to control group (p=0.023;p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Most optimal concentration was40% with the protective percentage equal to 71.8%. Conclusion: Pineapple fruit juice concentrations (20%, 40%, and 80%has an analgesic effect with the most optimal concentration of 40%.

  9. Variation in fruit juice consumption among infants and toddlers: associations with WIC participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElligott, James T; Roberts, James R; Varadi, Eliza A; O'Brien, Elizabeth S; Freeland, Katherine D; Basco, William T

    2012-07-01

    Juice is a common component of a child's diet. Excessive juice consumption may lead to adverse nutritional and dental outcomes. The objective of the study was to evaluate consumption patterns and parental perception regarding juice in a sample of children from families participating or not participating in Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services. Parents of children aged 12 months to 5 years completed a survey consisting of questions about beverage intake and related opinions. Practices were selected to provide a mix of families who do and do not use WIC services. Comparisons were made by WIC use and by quantity of juice consumption. Of 173 surveys, 51% of participants had received benefits from the WIC program. Overall, children who drank larger quantities of fruit juice drank less milk. One-third of all of the parents who responded to the survey reported that they believed that juice was at least as healthy as fresh fruit, with WIC parents reporting this belief more often (56% vs 9%; P juice before their child reached age 12 months, and this was more likely in WIC families (78% vs 54%; P juice consumption is associated with decreased milk consumption. Many parents expressed a belief that juice was at least as healthful as fresh fruit. Being a WIC recipient was associated with an earlier introduction of juice into a child's diet and a greater perception that juice was healthful.

  10. Amino Acid profile as a feasible tool for determination of the authenticity of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-12-01

    Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  11. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35 mM.

  12. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. S. Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35 mM.

  13. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  14. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Espinosa, Lady

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrating the fruit juice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P. peruviana fruit juice in a rabbit eye inflammatory model were investigated. A novel rabbit eye inflammation model was developed for studying the juice's anti-inflammatory activity (based on an adaptation of the Draize test). Cytostatic activity was evaluated by measuring and comparing growth rates of cultured fibroblasts exposed and not exposed to various fruit juice concentrations. P. peruviana fruit juice exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone, a known anti-inflammatory drug. An interesting dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblasts was also established. The data found suggest that the P. peruviana fruit juice anti-pterygium effect described in traditional medicine may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. The present study contributes to the pharmacologic knowledge regarding a remedy commonly used in Colombian traditional medicine.

  15. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...

  16. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) This section applies to any food that...

  17. Not-from-concentrate blueberry juice extraction utilizing frozen fruit, heated mash, and enzyme processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern h...

  18. Trace metal Levels in Some Packaged Fruit Juices Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-13

    Dec 13, 2015 ... chain. Majority of research confirms that 100% juices do not make children overweight (Kellen,. 2007). Fruit juices and most ... while the least was NF with a value of 1.09mg/L. ..... Nordberg, G. F., Vouk, V. B. Handbook on the.

  19. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  20. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainability as Sales Argument in the Fruit Juice Industry? An Analysis of On-Product Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Klink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Purpose/Value – The objective of this paper is to determine (1 the extent to which sustainability serves as a sales argument and (2 which areas of sustainability are communicated in the fruit juice industry. This seems promising against the background that there are several ethical challenges the fruit juice chain is increasingly confronted with and consumers demand for sustainable products is also rising. Design/Methodology – A market investigation at the Point-of Sale (POS was conducted in July 2013. On-product communication of all fruit juice products (‘not from concentrate (NFC’ fruit juices, ’reconstituted (RECON’ fruit juices, fruit nectars and smoothies from five retailers (two full-range retailers, two discounters, one organic supermarket was analyzed. The data was evaluated using content analysis. Results/Findings – Overall, 562 fruit juices were examined. Results reveal that nearly one quarter of the products has labels signaling sustainable aspects. However, most of those products were found in the organic food retailer and are organic juices. Only a small number of products consider other areas of sustainability, such as social concerns or regional production. Discussion/Conclusion – Communicating sustainability aspects of fruit juice production via on-package labels is scarce in conventional retail stores. In view of the ethical challenges present in the fruit juice chain and discussed in the paper, the increasing demand of consumers for sustainable products and the high competition in the sector, communicating different sustainability aspects can be an opportunity for fruit juice producers and retailers to differentiate their products on the highly saturated fruit juice market.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  2. Optimization of tropical fruit juice based on sensory and nutritional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira CURI

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was, through mixing design and response surface methodology, to optimize a reduced calorie mixed juice of persimmon, orange and pineapple based the sensory and nutritional characteristics. This study also aimed to carry out the survey of the physicochemical characteristics that are desirable in this product. It was found that juice of these fruits, when combined, have better sensory and nutritional characteristics than when isolated. The consumer has a preference for mixed fruit juices made up of orange, pineapple and persimmon that are sweeter and more acidic and regarding color, consumers prefer a juice with less intense red color. According to evaluation, the most recommended mixed juice formulations are 50% pineapple and 50% persimmon, and 33% pineapple, 33% persimmon, and 33% orange.

  3. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J; Graves, Martin J; Edwards, Andrea D; Joubert, Ilse; Set, Pat AK; Lomas, David J

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T 1 (243 ms) and shortest T 2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T 1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T 1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging

  4. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  5. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  6. Social Support Is a Primary Influence on Home Fruit, 100% Juice, and Vegetable Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children tend to eat more fruit and vegetables when more are available in the home. We proposed and tested a model that predicts the availability at home (hereinafter termed "home availability") of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables, using new measures of frequency of food shopping, purchase, and com...

  7. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  8. Uranium estimation in toothpastes and fruit juices using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    A fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in some toothpastes manufactured in India and fruit juices derived from the fruits available in the local market of Amritsar. The uranium content in these toothpastes has been found to vary from 0.91 to 3.56 ppm. The uranium content in fruit juices has been found to vary from 0.25 to 1.69 ppb. The present investigations have been carried out with an aim to estimate the level of U content in these materials for the studies of radiation health hazards. (author)

  9. Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François

    2003-10-08

    Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.

  10. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P passion fruit juice.

  11. Determination of patulin in fruit juices using HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukas, Athanasios; Panagiotopoulou, Vasiliki; Markaki, Panagiota

    2008-08-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) are described for the determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice. The limits of detection (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD method were found to be (DL=0.23μgkg(-1) QL=1.2μgkg(-1)) and (DL=5.8μgkg(-1) and QL=13.8μgkg(-1)), respectively. The recovery factors for HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD were found to be 99.5% (RSD%=0.73) and 41% (RSD%=10.03), respectively. The HPLC-DAD method was used to determine the occurrence of PAT in 90 samples of fruit juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 100% of the samples examined. The mean values of PAT in concentrated fruit juices and in the commercial fruit juices collected from the Greek market were found to be 10.54μg PAT kg(-1) and 5.57μg PAT kg(-1) juice, respectively. The most contaminated samples were four concentrated juices ranging from 18.10μg PAT kg(-1) to 36.8μg PAT kg(-1) juice. The daily exposure to patulin for the consumers of all ages in Greece, is ranging from 0.008μg PAT kg(-1) bw to 0.1μg PAT kg(-1) bw if the daily intake of fruit juices is from 0.1 to 0.5kg. With the exception to the most contaminated sample, the daily exposure due to the samples examined, is below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for PAT (0.4μg PAT kg(-1) bw). Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF JUICE FROM FRUIT RAW MATERIAL AND MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Aleksandrovich Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of technology development and the formulation of a fruit juice with honey, the study of the organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological properties of the resulting product. The best organoleptic properties are set for a sample containing small-fruited apple juice – 750 ml, honey – 25 ml, syrup hips – 50 ml, water – 175 ml. The results of the physicochemical tests showed that the content of soluble solids in the juice was 16.2% sugar – 37.6% titratable acids in terms of malic acid – 0.46%. Mesophilic clostridium, spore-forming mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms group asporogenous microorganisms, mold fungi, yeast in samples of blended juice is not detected. Inclusion in separate heat treatment technology for honey syrup – 60 degrees, and small-fruited apple juice – 75 degrees is necessary for the greatest saving in honey nutrients, and the receipt of the application of microbiological safety performance. In terms of industrial sterility of the sample corresponds to the technical regulations on juice products TR CU 023/2011.

  13. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p   Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  14. Nutraceutic Characteristics of the Extracts and Juice of Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Riviello-Flores

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions and antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL and nigrum spinosum (NS varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids and total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively, but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively. Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1, while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%. The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintained the original nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance.

  15. The association between blood pressure in adolescents and the consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juice--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Marta M C; de Araújo, Márcio F M; de Freitas, Roberto W J Freire; de Almeida, Paulo C; Zanetti, Maria L

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate blood pressure levels with the consumption of fruit, vegetables and pulses and fruit juice among Brazilian adolescents. Scientific evidence has shown a relationship between the regular consumption of vegetables and the prevention of cardiovascular disturbances, such as arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional and correlational study was designed involving a random sample of 794 adolescents from 12 private schools located in a metropolitan area in the north-east of Brazil. The subjects responded to a questionnaire structured so as to investigate their regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and juice. Blood pressure was measured three times, with an interval of one minute between each measurement. The average of the last two measurements was used for the study. The chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation were used to investigate the association between blood pressure and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and juice. Lower values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were identified in adolescents with a consumption of fruit ≥twice daily (pvegetables and pulses, systolic blood pressure was lower among adolescents who consumed more of this type of food (p=0·021). This study concluded that adolescents who consume more fruit have lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while those who regularly consume vegetables and pulses also had lower levels of systolic pressure. The results of this study suggest that nurses can develop health education activities in schools to encourage the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and fruit juices, especially among those adolescents who are more likely to develop arterial hypertension. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,

  17. The Text of an Agreement for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-08-12

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency, the Osterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for Collaboration in an International Programme on Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices, which was signed on 16 September 1964 and entered into force on 1 January 1965, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency,.

  18. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  19. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  20. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-05-19

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days followed by 14 days of customary diet. On day 4 we observed a significant decrease in weight and body mass index (p = 2.0E -05 ), which was maintained until day 17 (p = 3.0E -04 ). On day 4 the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in stool was significantly decreased and Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria was increased compared to baseline and was partially reversed on day 17. On day 4 plasma and urine nitric oxide was increased by 244 ± 89% and 450 ± 360%, respectively, and urinary lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde was decreased by 32 ± 21% compared to baseline. General well-being score was increased at the end of the study. In summary a 3-day juice-based diet altered the intestinal microbiota associated with weight loss, increase in the vasodilator NO, and decrease in lipid oxidation.

  2. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  3. Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Serrana

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 days caused a significant inhibition of mitosis. The irradiated juice induced the production of anaphase bridges, binucleate cells, cells, cells with elongated nucleus and cells with obliquely oriented equatorial plate.

  4. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  5. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  6. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (Pjuice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of different fruit juices used as carbon source on cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of various commercial fruit juices (used as plant carbon source) was assessed on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Liza at seedling stage under aseptic conditions. Seeds were germinated on ½MS medium (within 2-days) under dark conditions. They were sub-cultured on MS0 (MS.

  8. Optimization of the acceptance of prebiotic beverage made from cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Marina Cabral; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Afonso, Marcos Rodrigues Amorim

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes. A 2(2) central composite rotatable design was used, which produced 9 formulations, which were then evaluated using different concentrations of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernel, passion fruit juice, oligofructose, and 3% sugar. The use of response surface methodology to interpret the sensory data made it possible to obtain a formulation with satisfactory acceptance which met the criteria of bifidogenic action and use of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernels by using 14% oligofructose and 33% passion fruit juice. As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels, which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic methods. Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However, infrared spectroscopy distinguishes itself as a fast and reliable method for quantitative ...

  10. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic ... Introduction. Sugars are major sources of energy for all living entities. Plants produce sugars by photosynthesis and convert them into various disaccharides such as sucrose, or convert them into.

  11. Childhood obesity and the consumption of 100% fruit juice: Where are the evidence-based findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    With every food or beverage that contributes to total energy intake, it is important to weigh the contribution of the food or beverage to diet and health. Consumers of 100% fruit juice (FJ) showed better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality than nonconsumers, suggesting that 100% FJ ...

  12. Analysis of Different Brands of Fruit Juice with Emphasis on their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juice were analysed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar, total sugar, and metal contents. The sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method, sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry, calcium and magnesium by complexometric titration ...

  13. Erosive potential of cola and orange fruit juice on tooth colored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and ...

  14. Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M.A.; Imeokparia, O.E. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Jekayinfa, S.O.; Ojediran, J.O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Department

    2008-01-15

    Energy and exergy studies were conducted in an orange juice manufacturing industry in Nigeria to determine the energy consumption pattern and methods of energy optimization in the company. An adaptation of the process analysis method of energy accounting was used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the eight defined unit operations. The types of energy used in the manufacturing of orange juice were electrical, steam and manual with the respective proportions of 18.51%, 80.91% and 0.58% of the total energy. It was estimated that an average energy intensity of 1.12 MJ/kg was required for the manufacturing of orange juice. The most energy intensive operation was identified as the pasteurizer followed by packaging unit with energy intensities of 0.932 and 0.119 MJ/kg, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the pasteurizer was responsible for most of the inefficiency (over 90%) followed by packaging (6.60%). It was suggested that the capacity of the pasteurizer be increased to reduce the level of inefficiency of the plant. The suggestion has been limited to equipment modification rather than process alteration, which constitutes additional investment cost and may not be economical from an energy savings perspective. (author)

  15. Differentiation-inducing effects of small fruit juices on HL-60 leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kawaii, S; Urashima, M; Fukase, T; Sato, T; Murofushi, N; Nishimura, H

    2000-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that high intakes of fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of cancer, and several plant-derived drugs have been developed in medical oncology. Since only a small part of the flora has been tested for any kind of bioactivity, we chose small fruits as sources of differentiation-inducing activity against HL-60 leukemic cells. We have prepared juices from various small fruits that grow mainly in the northern part of Japan. Screening of 43 samples indicated that juices of Actinidia polygama Maxim., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Vaccinium smallii A. Gray, and Sorbus sambucifolia Roem. strongly induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to monocyte/macrophage characteristics in a concentration-dependent manner as indicated by histochemical and biochemical examinations.

  16. Alicyclobacillus spp. in the fruit juice industry: history, characteristics, and current isolation/detection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Sen; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The first Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated in 1982, and was originally thought to be strictly limited to thermophilic and acidic environments. Two years later, another Alicyclobacillus sp., A. acidoterrestris, was identified as the causative agent in spoilage of commercially pasteurized apple juice. Subsequent studies soon found that Alicyclobacillus spp. are soilborne bacteria, and do not strictly require thermophilic and acidic environments. Alicyclobacillus spp. posess several distinct characteristics; the major one is their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce off-flavors in fruit juices. The fruit juice industry has acknowledged Alicyclobacillus spp. as a major quality control target microorganism. Guaiacol and halophenols were identified as the offensive smelling agent in many Alicyclobacillus spp. related spoilage. Though the exact formation pathway of these off-flavors by Alicyclobacillus spp. are not yet identified, studies report that the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in the medium may be a major contributor to the formation of these off-flavors. Many identification methods and isolation media were developed in the last two decades. However, most of these methods were developed specifically for A. acidoterrestris, which was the first identified off-flavor producing Alicyclobacillus. However, recent studies indicate that other species of Alicyclobacillus may also produce guaiacol or the halophenols. In this respect, all Alicyclobacillus spp. should be monitored as potential spoilage bacteria in fruit juices. This article includes an overall review of the history of Alicyclobacillus spp., characteristics, suggested off-flavor production pathways, and commonly used identification methods for the currently identified Alicyclobacillus spp.

  17. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M C; Shenoy, Preethi J; Gokul, P

    2016-04-01

    The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The p juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (pjuice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  18. Encapsulation of Active Compounds in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing: Current State and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Gallo, Mariangela; Campaniello, Daniela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The production of value-added and/or functional juices has increased significantly in recent years, following an increased consumer demand to promote health and/or prevent disease through diet and nutrition. Micro and nano-encapsulation are promising technologies to protect and deliver sensitive compounds, allowing a controlled release in the target sites. This paper offers an overview of current applications, limits and challenges of encapsulation technologies in the production of fruit and vegetable juices, with a particular emphasis on products derived from different botanical sources. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and

  20. Separation of monoglycosides from fruit juice by diafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    The process of separating sugars from anthocyanins in black currant juice has been investigated. Diafiltration on a laboratory scale flat sheet module (Labstk M20, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark) loaded with an ultrafiltration membrane (ETNA01-PP, MWCO = 1,000 Da, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark......) with a total installed area of 0.25 squaremeters distributed on 14 sheets showed good retention of anthocyanins as compared to fructose and glucose. In order to investigate whether the different flow pattern in a commercial size module would affect separation experiments were conducted with the same membrane...

  1. The growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in fruit juices and its survival following elevated temperature treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michelle; Phillips, Carol A

    2007-06-01

    temperatures, some cells survived. However, in orange juice a proportion of cells survived at 95 degrees C for 10 min without pre-treatment and there was no significant difference between numbers surviving with and without pre-treatment. The results from this study demonstrate that P. cyclohexanicum is able to grow in a number of juices, other than orange juice, and able to survive a number of high temperature procedures. Therefore, if initially present in the raw materials P. cyclohexanicum might survive the pasteurization procedures used in the fruit juice industry, contaminate and consequently spoil the final product.

  2. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  3. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  4. Does a kampo medicine containing schisandra fruit affect pharmacokinetics of nifedipine like grapefruit juice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime

    2006-10-01

    Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.

  5. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    /kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...... following administration of orange juice, black currant juice, or the 1: 1 combination of apple and black currant juice. A significant increase in 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde was also observed in control rats given sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the drinking water at concentrations approximating...

  6. An anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative DNA damage and increases glutathione level in healthy probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Tamara; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Kulling, Sabine; Rüfer, Corinna; Johannes, Christian; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-04-01

    Oxidative cell damage is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Uptake of fruit juice with especially high content of antioxidant flavonoids/polyphenols, might reduce oxidative cell damage. Therefore, an intervention study was performed with a red mixed berry juice [trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC): 19.1 mmol/L trolox] and a corresponding polyphenol-depleted juice (polyphenols largely removed, TEAC 2.4 mmol/L trolox), serving as control. After a 3-week run-in period, 18 male probands daily consumed 700 mL juice, and 9 consumed control juice, in a 4-week intervention, followed by a 3-week wash-out. Samples were collected weekly to analyze DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (plasma malondialdehyde: HPLC/fluorescence; urinary isoprostanes: GC-MS), blood glutathione (photometrically), DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (ELISA) and plasma carotenoid/alpha-tocopherol levels (HPLC-DAD). During intervention with the fruit juice, a decrease of oxidative DNA damage (p<5x10(-4)) and an increase of reduced glutathione (p<5x10(-4)) and of glutathione status (p<0.05) were observed, which returned to the run-in levels in the subsequent wash-out phase. The other biomarkers were not significantly modulated by the juice supplement. Intervention with the control juice did not result in reduction of oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit juice clearly reduces oxidative cell damage in healthy probands.

  7. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ′Averrhoa bilimbi′ fruit juice ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

  8. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...

  9. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-09-01

    This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells.

  10. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-10-03

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm -1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm -1 , 872 cm -1 , 918 cm -1 and 975 cm -1 . In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm -1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  11. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  12. Microbiological safety of street vended fresh fruit juices, drinks and conventional blends in multan-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Riaz, M.; Ismail, T.; Farooq, U.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the safety of various fresh fruit juices, blends and drinks sold in the streets of Multan, Pakistan. The city was divided into 4 zones for the purpose of sample collection. Bacteriological analysis of 72 samples of fresh fruit juices, blends and drinks indicated the presence of total viable counts (2.48 +- 0.16 to 7.91 +- 0.62 log CFU/mL), total coliforms (0.70 +- 0.04 to 4.86 +- 0.29 log CFU/mL) and Escherichia coli (0.6 +- 0.03 to 3.83 +- 0.32 log CFU/mL). Qualitative data depicted apple juice to be highly contaminated with fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. Coliforms prevalence was highest in Zone IV and Zone II while that of Salmonella spp., in Zone IV and Zone III. The pragmatic levels of contaminants elucidate poor sanitary status of major entities deployed in juice manufacturing process adopted by the street vendors. (author)

  13. DRAGON FRUIT JUICE ADDITION IN PALM OIL-PUMPKIN EMULSION: PANELIST ACCEPTANCE AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahmadi*

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of dragon juice to emulsion products formulated from olein fraction of red palm oil and pumpkin juice was conducted as an effort to improve the taste thus it can be accepted by consumers. This study aims to (1 observe the acceptance of 60 panelists aged 17-21 years on the parameters of taste, aroma, mouthfeel, color, flavor and aroma of each contributing components of dragon fruit, palm oil, and raspberry flavor with the addition of dragon fruit juice at level 0 (control, 25, 50, and 75% (v/v, and (2 observe the changes in chemical components i.e. vitamin C and total titrable acids, total carotenoid by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH reduction method. The best formula was the one containing 75% (v/v of red dragon juice in fresh condition with vitamin C content of 19.32±0.62 mg/100 mL, antioxidant activity of 354.25±0.77 ppm, hedonic color, taste, and viscosity between favorable and very favorable. After 2 weeks of storage at room temperature (28±2ºC, the vitamin C, total carotene, and antioxidant activity of the mixture decreased by 29.72, 15.44, and 46.59%, res-pectively.

  14. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  15. Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2014-04-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices.

  16. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  17. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity.

  18. Linking Food Industry and Agriculture: The Case of Fruit-Juice Industry and Korean Food Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Choi, Ji-Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, the portion of food industry has increased, while the portion of agriculture keeps decreasing. The alliance between agriculture and food industry results in the synergy between both industries as well as higher farmers' income. The goal of this study is to analyze the current status of the linkages between two food industries (fruit-juice industry and Korean-style meal franchise industry) and agriculture, and then to present the ways to strengthen the linkages. The discussion in thi...

  19. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  20. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Abscission Zone Formation on Orange ( Citrus sinensis) Fruit/Juice Quality for Trees Affected by Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Manthey, John; Zhao, Wei; Raithore, Smita; Irey, Mike

    2018-03-21

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected ( Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, fruit that dropped collected, tree-retained fruit harvested, and all fruit juiced. For chemical analyses, sugars and acids were generally lowest in HLB dropped (HLB-D) fruit juice compared to nonshaken healthy (H), healthy retained (H-R), and healthy dropped fruit (H-D) in early season (December) but not for the late season (January) 'Hamlin' or 'Valencia' except for sugar/acid ratio. The bitter limonoids, many flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles were generally higher in HLB juice, especially HLB-D juice, compared to the other samples. The lower sugars, higher bitter limonoids, flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles in HLB-D fruit, loosely attached to the tree, contributed to off-flavor, as was confirmed by sensory analyses.

  3. Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2011-09-01

    Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Processed fruit juice ready to drink: screening acute toxicity at the cellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Leal da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute toxicity at the cellular level of processed juice ready for consumption Orange and Grape flavors, produced by five companies with significant influence on the food market of South American countries, especially in Brazil. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, directly with marketed liquid preparations. Based on the results, it was found that fruit juices, of all companies considered, promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristems at the exposure time of 24 hours and resulted in at both exposure times, statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and chromosomal breaks. Therefore, under the study conditions, all juice samples analyzed were cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic to root meristem cells. These results indicate that such beverages have relevant potential to cause cellular disorders and, thus, need to be evaluated more fully in more complex test systems, as those in rodents, and then establish specific toxicity at the cellular level of these juices and ensure the well-being of those who consume them.

  7. Local indigenous fruit-derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2018-03-01

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as sources of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for media such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity β, acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess the highest buffering capacity in both ranges. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed T. indica contained a high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ), while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g -1 ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ). 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66%) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817%) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66%). The shelf-life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits up to a week, in accordance with safety regulations. This investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  9. Study of the consumers of ready-to-drink juices and fruit nectars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bravim SANTOS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juices and fruit nectars are an important segment of the beverage market in Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze and characterize the profile of consumers of ready-to-drink juices and fruit nectars. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 389 patrons, intentionally and conveniently, when they approached the shelves. The chi-square test was applied to associate sociodemographic variables and consumption profile of the beverages with the type of establishment. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the variables associated with nectar acquisition. The level of education and knowledge about the beverages were significantly related. Practicality was the main reason that led respondents to consume these drinks, followed by quality and price, with the latter being associated with the level of education. Nectar was the most purchased option, and this choice was associated with increasing age and education, price and practicality. The consumption of juices and nectars with no added sugar was lower compared with traditional beverages. The information in the labels of these beverages was not sufficiently clear, for most of the participants. The most mentioned brand by the interviewed was the one with better sensory preference, regardless of flavour and the blinded or informed analysis.

  10. Role of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in the development of a disinfectant taint in shelf-stable fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, N; Whitfield, F B

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the bacterium and metabolic products contributing to a disinfectant taint in shelf-stable fruit juice and to determine some of the growth conditions for the organism. Microbiological examination of tainted and untainted fruit juice drinks detected low numbers of acid-dependent, thermotolerant, spore-forming bacteria in the tainted juices only. The presence of omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids was confirmed in two of the isolates by cell membrane fatty acid analysis. The isolates were subsequently identified as Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris by partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Studies on the isolates showed growth at pH 2.5-6.0 and 19.5-58 degrees C. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify 2,6-dibromophenol (2,6-DBP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) in the tainted juice. Challenge studies in a mixed fruit drink inoculated with the two isolates and the type strain of A. acidoterrestris, incubated at 44-46 degrees C for 4 d, showed the production of both metabolites, which were confirmed and quantified by GC/MS. The results show that A. acidoterrestris can produce 2,6-DBP and 2,6-DCP in shelf-stable juices. This is the first report detailing experimental methodology showing that A. acidoterrestris can produce 2,6-DCP in foods. Control of storage temperatures (to fruit juice industry to prevent spoilage by A. acidoterrestris.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF HEALTH EFFECT OF FRUIT JUICE FROM LINGONBERRY (VACCINIUM VITIS - IDEA VIA PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poli Radusheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidants reduce cell damaging effects of free radicals, they also are used as medications to treat various forms of brain injury. Forest fruits as a lingonberry contain a lot of flavonoids and antioxidant supplements which contribute to the protection of different types of cancers and cardiovascular health problems. Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the relations between natural fluorescence in juice from lingonberry and its total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity in view of the usefulness of these compounds for human health and hygiene of food. Materials and Methods: For this reason, the juices from lingonberry from the region of Velingrad еnriched with lactulose will be investigated by using optical methods (colour measuring, fluorescence spectroscopy, rheological properties and sensor analysis. It may be an alternative method for quantifying the phenols and vitamins in juice from wild berries. Results: The dependences between chemical parameters, colour characteristics and the ratio between the intensity of emission and the intensity of excitation for exciting wavelength 275 nm have been found. The dependence between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content also exists. Excitation in the UV region is suitable for distinguishing the phenolic content and antioxidant compounds. The most suitable wavelengths found to be 265 nm and 275 nm. Lingonberry juices with lactulose exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour and Ostwald-de-Waele model are applied to calculate its rheological properties. Conclusions: The natural fluorescence of the lingonberry juices was correlated with their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and lightness. From fluorescence spectra three groups of fluorescence components are determined – phenolic acids, tannins and flavonoids. The obtained results and discussion presented here give the direction for further studies and additional test for validation of the correlation

  12. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  13. Furan levels in fruit and vegetables juices, nutrition drinks and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jan-Willem; López-Sánchez, Patricia

    2010-07-05

    Furan, an oxygen containing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is considered possibly carcinogenic to humans. In the framework of the EU-project "Role of Genetic and Non-Genetic Mechanisms in Furan Risk", furan levels in food have been collected from the literature. Three food type categories have been selected on the basis of the collected data for sampling and analysis on furan with headspace GC-MS. This paper describes the results for the selected food categories, fruit and vegetables juices, nutrition drinks and bakery products. An attempt has been made to correlate the furan levels with the ingredients of the products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary pH changes in children after industrialized fruit juice consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Yassue Barbosa da SILVA; João Armando BRANCHER; João Gilberto DUDA; Estela Maris LOSSO

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The children presented dental erosion and caries in early infancy that were associated to a rich diet in sugars, including the frequent ingestion of industrialized fruit juice (conditioned in boxes).The drink ingestion with pH lower than 5.5 can cause teeth erosion mainly if it is associated with frequent and prolonged teeth contact.The natural protection of teeth is the saliva through its buffering capacity.Objective: Measure the children salivary pH before and after the grape ...

  15. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  16. Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.

  17. MEMPELAJARI KARAKTERISTIK SARI BUAH DARI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn. YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI FERMENTASI [Characteristic of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Juice Produced by Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne P Kusuma3

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the methods to get noni juice. In this research, noni is fermented in hanged system and submerged system for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The result showed the longer fermentation increased pH, alcohol content, turbidity, viscosity, microbial content, and decrease ascorbic acid and acid content, soluble solid content, color and flavor acceptance. Differennt system fermentation affected percent yield, soluble solid content, turbidity of juice, panels opinion to color significantly. Noni juice of submerged system has higher percent yield, higher soluble solid content, turbidity, but provided lighter color than noni juice of hanged system. Juice of submerged system is better than hanged system. Juice from three weeks fermentation indicated changes of metabolism activity which is shown by some characteristic changes. Fruit juice made by submerged fermentation system had more diverse compounds than fruit juice without fermentation.

  18. Detection of Alicyclobacillus species in fruit juice using a random genomic DNA microarray chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun Hyeong; Kim, Sun-Joong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Gu, Man Bock; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2011-06-01

    This study describes a method using a DNA microarray chip to rapidly and simultaneously detect Alicyclobacillus species in orange juice based on the hybridization of genomic DNA with random probes. Three food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus. The three Alicyclobacillus species were adjusted to 2 × 10(3) CFU/ml and inoculated into pasteurized 100% pure orange juice. Cy5-dCTP labeling was used for reference signals, and Cy3-dCTP was labeled for target genomic DNA. The molar ratio of 1:1 of Cy3-dCTP and Cy5-dCTP was used. DNA microarray chips were fabricated using randomly fragmented DNA of Alicyclobacillus spp. and were hybridized with genomic DNA extracted from Bacillus spp. Genomic DNA extracted from Alicyclobacillus spp. showed a significantly higher hybridization rate compared with DNA of Bacillus spp., thereby distinguishing Alicyclobacillus spp. from Bacillus spp. The results showed that the microarray DNA chip containing randomly fragmented genomic DNA was specific and clearly identified specific food spoilage bacteria. This microarray system is a good tool for rapid and specific detection of thermophilic spoilage bacteria, mainly Alicyclobacillus spp., and is useful and applicable to the fruit juice industry.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  20. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Chitosan-immobilized pectinolytics with novel catalytic features and fruit juice clarification potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Murtza, Aimen; Zafar, Muddassar; Bhatti, Khizar Hayat; Rehman, Abdul; Anwar, Zahid

    2017-11-01

    Biological macromolecules are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially relevant enzymes. The presence of polysaccharides in the form of the disrupted cell wall and cell materials are among major challenges in the fruit juice industry. The breakdown of such biological macromolecules including cellulose and pectin is vital for the juices processing. In this background, pectinolytic enzymes including polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PME) were isolated from Aspergillus ornatus, statistically optimized and purified via ammonium sulfate fractionation (ASF), dialysis, and Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography. After passing through Sephadex G-100 column, PG, PL, and PME were 2.60-fold, 3.30-fold, and 4.52-fold purified with specific activities of 475.2U/mg, 557.1U/mg, and 205.7U/mg. The active PG, PL, and PME, each separately, were surface immobilized using various concentrations of chitosan and dextran polyaldehyde as a macromolecular crosslinking agent. Prior to exploit for juice clarification purposes, various parameters including pH, thermal and Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of purified and chitosan-immobilized fractions were investigated. A considerable improvement in the pH and thermal profiles was recorded after immobilization. However, the negligible difference between the K m and V max values of purified free and chitosan-immobilized fractions revealed that the conformational flexibility of pectinolytics was retained as such. A significant color and turbidity reductions were recorded after 60min treatment with CTS-PG, followed by CTS-PME, and CTS-PL. It can be concluded that the clarification of apples, mango, peach, and apricot juices was greatly affected by CTS-PG, CTS-PME, and CTS-PL treatments rendering them as potential candidatures for food industry applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pasteurization of fruit juices of different pH values by combined high hydrostatic pressure and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Pan, Jian; Xie, Huiming; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Dianfei; Zhu, Zhaona

    2012-10-01

    The inactivation of the selected vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in physiological saline (PS) and in four fruit juices with pHs ranging from 3.4 to 6.3, with or without dissolved CO(2), was investigated. The inactivation effect of HHP on the bacteria was greatly enhanced by dissolved CO(2). Effective inactivation (>7 log) was achieved at 250 MPa for E. coli and 350 MPa for L. innocua and L. plantarum in the presence of 0.2 M CO(2) at room temperature for 15 min in PS, with additional inactivation of more than 4 log for all three bacteria species compared with the results with HHP treatment alone. The combined inactivation by HHP and CO(2) in tomato juice of pH 4.2 and carrot juice of pH 6.3 showed minor differences compared with that in PS. By comparison, the combined effect in orange juice of pH 3.8 was considerably promoted, while the HHP inactivation was enhanced only to a limited extent. In another orange juice with a pH of 3.4, all three strains lost their pressure resistance. HHP alone completely inactivated E. coli at relatively mild pressures of 200 MPa and L. innocua and L. plantarum at 300 MPa. Observations of the survival of the bacteria in treated juices also showed that the combined treatment caused more sublethal injury, which increased further inactivation at a relatively mild pH of 4.2 during storage. The results indicated that the combined treatment of HHP with dissolved CO(2) may provide an effective method for the preservation of low- or medium-acid fruit and vegetable juices at relatively low pressures. HHP alone inactivated bacteria effectively in high-acid fruit juice.

  4. Direct surface plasmon resonance immunosensing of pyraclostrobin residues in untreated fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriz, E; García-Fernández, C; Mercader, J V; Abad-Fuentes, A; Escuela, A M; Lechuga, L M

    2012-12-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay for on-line detection of the strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin in untreated fruit juices is presented. The analysis of pyraclostrobin residues is accomplished in apple, grape, and cranberry samples by monitoring the recognition events occurring separately in a two-channel home-made SPR biosensor. Covalent coupling of the analyte derivative results in a reversible method, enabling more than 80 measurements on the same sensor surface. Optimization of the immunoassay conditions provides limits of detection as low as 0.16 μg L(-1). The selectivity and reproducibility of the analysis is ensured by studying both non-specific interactions with unrelated compounds and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Excellent recovery ranging from 98 to 103% was achieved by a simple 1:5 dilution of fruit juice with assay buffer before the analysis. The lack of previous cleaning and homogenization procedures reduces the analysis time of a single food sample to only 25 min, including the regeneration cycle.

  5. Flavorings as new sources of contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus of fruit juices and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Juan Martin; Soto, Silvina; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2014-02-17

    This study aimed to report the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and pear flavorings (n=42) and to assess the effect of guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris strains on apple flavorings stored at 4, 20 and 45 °C. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for simultaneous confirmation of alicyclobacilli. A total of six isolates were identified as A. acidoterrestris, and only one strain was not able to produce guaiacol. The storage of apple flavoring at the optimum growth temperature of A. acidoterrestris (45 °C) resulted in the reduction in the spores' counts within 30 days of storage. On the other hand, during chilling (4 °C) and ambient storage conditions (20 °C) the counts of spores that remained stable for up to 60 days. An A. acidoterrestris strain inoculated in flavoring and further added to apple juice was able to grow and produce guaiacol in high amounts between 1-7 days of storage at 30 °C. In the current study it was shown that flavorings may be contaminated by deteriogenic A. acidoterrestris strains that are able to survive during storage in a wide range of temperature for long periods and further contaminate and spoil formulated fruit juices and beverages. A novel potential source of fruit juices and beverages contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus was shown. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and fate of Alicyclobacillus and A. acidoterrestris in flavorings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of imidacloprid residues in fruits, vegetables, cereals, fruit juices, and baby foods, and daily intake estimation in and around Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, Ashutosh Kumar; Patel, D K; Garg, Veena; Srivastava, L P

    2013-03-01

    A total of 250 samples-including fruits, fruit juices, and baby foods (50 samples each), vegetables (70 samples), and cereals (30 samples)-were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of imidacloprid residues. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method of extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis were carried out, and imidacloprid residues were qualitatively confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imidacloprid was not detected in samples of fruit juices and baby foods. It was, however, detected in 38 samples of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which is about 15.20% of the total samples. Of samples of fruits, 22% showed the presence of imidacloprid, and 2% of samples showed residues above the maximal residue limit. Although imidacloprid was detected in 24% of vegetable samples, only 5.71% showed the presence of imidacloprid above the maximal residue limit. However, 33% of cereal samples showed the presence of imidacloprid, and about 3% of samples were above the maximal residue limit. The calculated estimated daily intake ranged between 0.004 and 0.131 µg/kg body weight, and the hazard indices ranged from 0.007 to 0.218 for these food commodities. It is therefore indicated that lifetime consumption of vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, baby foods, wheat, rice, and pulses may not pose a health hazard for the population of Lucknow because the hazard indices for imidacloprid residues were below one. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  9. 100% Juice, Fruit, and Vegetable Intake Among Children in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and Nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Kelsey A; Moran, Alyssa J; Zatz, Laura Y; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-05-15

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides monthly food packages to low-income children (aged 1-4 years) in the U.S., including 128 ounces of 100% fruit juice and an $8 cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables. The fruit juice allowance translates to 71%-107% of the maximum intake recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (4-6 ounces/day). Careful examination of WIC food package allocations is necessary because overconsumption of fruit juice among young children has been linked to weight gain and juice lacks important nutrients found in whole fruit (e.g., fiber). A total of 1,576 children aged 2-4 years were assessed using the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Multiple linear regressions were conducted in 2017 to analyze the association between WIC program participation and intake of 100% fruit juice, whole fruits, and vegetables. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between WIC program participation and the odds of exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics maximum intake for juice. Adjusting for child and parent/caregiver characteristics, WIC participants consumed significantly more 100% fruit juice (β=0.22 cup equivalents/day, 95% CI=0.04, 0.40) compared with income-eligible nonparticipants, but not more whole fruits or total vegetables. WIC participants had 1.51-times greater odds (95% CI=1.06, 2.14) of exceeding the age-specific American Academy of Pediatrics maximum intake for juice compared with income-eligible nonparticipants. These findings support recommendations to reduce 100% fruit juice allowances in the WIC program and reallocate those funds to the cash value voucher to increase whole fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of pH modulation and trace elements of various fruit juices on enamel erosion: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S.G Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruit juices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruit juices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruit juices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic.

  11. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  12. REDUCTION OF BENZO (A PYRENE IN CHARCOAL GRILLED DUCK MEAT BY MARINATING WITH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, DC FRUIT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sinaga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of andaliman fruit juice marination on the amounts of benzo (a pyrene in charcoal grilled duck meat were investigated in this research. Completely randomized design was used to determine the effect of 4 treatments of andaliman fruit juice concentration (w/v. Twenty four duck meat samples were devided into 4 treatment groups, those were 0% (I, 10% (II, 20% (III and 30% (IV. Each group consisted of 6 samples. Total Fat, Tio Barbituric Acid (TBA value and antioxidant activity were measured from all samples. The result showed there was no effect on total fat of duck meat. Antioxidant activity was 18.60 %, 18.06 %, 19.99 % and 7.54 % for andaliman fruit juice of 10%, 20%, 30% and 0%, respectively. TBA value was 1.03 %, 0.89 %, 0.09 % and 0.10 % for treatment II, III, IV and I, respectively. Antioxidant activity of andaliman fruit was decreased the amounts of Benzo (a pyrene of duckmeat. Charcoal duck meat without andaliman fruit produced 787 ng, it was higher than charcoal duck meat with andaliman fruit (295 ng.

  13. Water Consumption in European Children : Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices

  14. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  15. Carbon isotope ratios and isotopic correlations between components in fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchnicki, Ryszard

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.

  16. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yien Yien; Tan, Wen Siang; Rosfarizan, Mohamad; Chan, Eng Seng; Tey, Beng Ti

    2012-10-01

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans. Current research revealed the use of biochemical analyses and molecular approaches to identify the microbial population particularly lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Use of ion chromatography for monitoring microbial spoilage in the fruit juice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, A; Saccani, G; Gherardi, S; Vicini, E; Spotti, E; Previdi, M P; Ndagijimana, M; Cavalli, S; Reschiotto, C

    1997-05-16

    Fruit juices and purees are defined as fermentable, but unfermented, products obtained by mechanical processing of fresh fruits. The presence of undesired metabolites derived from microbial growth can arise from the use of unsuitable fruit or from defects in the production line or subsequent contamination. This involves a loss in the overall quality that cannot be resolved by thermal treatment following the start of fermentation. With these considerations, together with microbiological control, the analysis of different metabolites, which can be considered as microbial growth markers, such as alcohols (i.e. ethanol, etc.), acids (i.e. acetic, fumaric, lactic, etc.) is fundamental in order to achieve a better evaluation of product quality. Enzymatic determination and other single-component analytical techniques are often used for the determination of these metabolites. When the microbial spoilage is not well known, this results in a long and cumbersome procedure. A versatile technique that is capable of determining many metabolites in one analysis could be helpful in improving routine quality control. For this purpose, an ion chromatographic technique, such as ion exclusion, for separation, and diode array spectrophotometry and conductivity, for detection, were evaluated. Both different industrial samples and inoculated samples were analyzed.

  18. Analytical strategies for controlling polysorbate-based nanomicelles in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtkova, Veronika; Schulzova, Vera; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the detection and quantification of organic micelle-type nanoparticles (NPs) with polysorbate components (polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80) in their micelle shells that could be used to load biologically active compounds into fruit juice. Several advanced analytical techniques were applied in the stepwise method development strategy used. In the first phase, a system consisting of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography employing a size exclusion column coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-SEC-ELSD) was used for the fractionation of micelle assemblies from other, lower molecular weight sample components. The limit of detection (LoD) of these polysorbate micelles in spiked apple juice was 500 μg mL(-1). After this screening step, mass spectrometric (MS) detection was utilized to confirm the presence of polysorbates in the detected micelles. Two alternative MS techniques were tested: (i) ambient high-resolution mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time ion source coupled with an Orbitrap MS analyzer (DART-Orbitrap MS) enabled fast and simple detection of the polysorbates present in the samples, with a lowest calibration level (LCL) of 1000 μg mL(-1); (ii) ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRTOF-MS) provided highly selective and sensitive detection and quantification of polysorbates with an LCL of 0.5 μg mL(-1).

  19. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  20. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  1. Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

    2014-08-15

    The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Salmos Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF. Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p<0.05. Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real.

  3. District Policies and Practices Vary in Their Association With Adolescents' Consumption of Milk and 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Miller, Gabrielle F; Brener, Nancy D; Park, Sohyun; Merlo, Caitlin L

    2017-05-01

    Researchers previously examined the relationship between school beverage policies and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. This study addressed a research gap by examining cross-sectional associations between district-level policies and practices and U.S. high school students' consumption of milk and 100% fruit juice. Data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study and 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were linked for 12 large urban school districts. Outcome variables were daily milk consumption (≥1 glass/day) and 100% fruit juice consumption (≥1 time/day). Exposure variables were five district policies (i.e., restrict SSB sales, maintain closed campuses, offer/sell healthful alternatives, restrict promotional products, and require nutrition education). Logistic regression models estimated the odds of consuming milk or 100% fruit juice daily, conditional on the policies and adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, weight status, and district free/reduced-price lunch eligibility (n = 23,173). Students in districts that required/recommended restricting the times of SSB sales had 55% higher (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87) odds of consuming ≥1 glass/day of milk than students in districts without this policy. Closed campus policies were associated with lower odds of consuming milk (AOR, .72; 95% CI, .63-.82) and higher odds of consuming juice (AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50). Policies requiring/recommending that districts offer/sell healthful alternatives were associated with lower odds of consuming 100% fruit juice daily. Results suggest that restricting SSB sales may support adolescents' milk consumption. Future studies should assess whether the implementation of federal standards that further restrict SSB sales in school leads to increased milk consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Does ascorbic acid supplementation affect iron bioavailability in rats fed micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate fortified fruit juice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; Rincón, Francisco; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Vidal, Maria Luisa

    2008-12-01

    Food iron (Fe) fortification is an adequate approach for preventing Fe-deficiency anemia. Poorly water-soluble Fe compounds have good sensory attributes but low bioavailability. The reduction of the particle size of Fe fortificants and the addition of ascorbic acid might increase the bioavailability of low-soluble compounds. The present work aims to compare the Fe absorption and bioavailability of micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate (MDFP) (poorly soluble) to ferrous sufate (FS) (highly soluble) added to a fruit juice in presence or absence of ascorbic acid (AA) by using the hemoglobin repletion assay in rats. After a hemoglobin depletion period, four fruit juices comprised of (1) FS, (2) MDFP, (3) FS + AA, (4) MDFP + AA were produced and administered to a different group of rats (n = 18) over 21 days. During the repletion period, Fe balance, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), relative bioavailability (RBV) and Fe tissue content were determined in the short, medium and long term. Fe absorption and bioavailability showed no significant differences between fortifying the fruit juice with FS or MDFP. The addition of AA to the juice enhanced Fe absorption during the long-term balance study within the same Fe source. HRE and Fe utilization increased after AA addition in both FS and MDFP groups in every period. Fe absorption and bioavailability from MDFP were comparable to FS added to a fruit juice in rats. Further, the addition of AA enhanced Fe absorption in the long term, as well as Fe bioavailability throughout the repletion period regardless of the Fe source employed.

  5. Platelet inhibitory effects of juices from Pachyrhizus erosus L. root and Psidium guajava L. fruit: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaptimthong, Thitiporn; Kasemsuk, Thitima; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of this study is to investigate cardiovascular benefits of juices obtained from two commonly consumed fruits in Thailand, Pachyrhizus erosus, L. (yam bean) and Psidium guajava, L. (guava), by examining their acute cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Possible involvements of the dietary nitrate on their effects were investigated as well. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups of 10 subjects per group and each group was allocated to drink 500 ml of freshly prepared yam bean root juice, guava fruit juice, or water. Systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum K(+) concentrations, ex vivo platelet aggregation, and plasma cGMP concentrations were monitored at the baseline and at various time points after the intake of juices or water. Data were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. Following the ingestion of both yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice, collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation was attenuated. Ingestion of yam bean root juice increased systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations whereby elevated nitrite concentrations correlated with the extent of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, positive correlation between systemic nitrite and plasma cGMP concentrations and negative correlation between plasma cGMP concentrations and the extent of collagen-induced platelet aggregation were revealed. Nevertheless, yam bean root juice reduced only diastolic blood pressure while guava fruit juice reduced heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The present study has illustrated, for the first time, acute inhibitory effects of yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice on ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Dietary nitrate was shown to underlie the effect of yam bean root juice but not that of guava fruit juice. Following yam bean root juice ingestion, systemic nitrate apparently

  6. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  7. Effect of tropical fruit juices on dentine permeability and erosive ability in removing the smear layer: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanittha Kijsamanmith

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that tropical fruit juices, especially green mango and lime, increase dentine permeability and have a strong erosive ability to remove the smear layer, which causes dentine hypersensitivity.

  8. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  9. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  10. The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass-ionomers and 'compomers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliping-McKenzie, M; Linden, R W A; Nicholson, J W

    2004-11-01

    The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, two resin-modified glass-ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0.9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0.9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass-ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks.

  11. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with consumption of high fruit-juice and vegetable diet affect antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Jian; Li, Nan; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no data have yet shown the combined effects of GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with high consumption of a fruit and vegetable diet on the body's antioxidant capacity. A 2-wk dietary intervention in healthy participants was conducted to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant biomarkers in individuals with different glutathione-S-transferases (GST) genotypes will be different in response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet. In our study, 24 healthy volunteers with different GST genotypes (12 GSTM1+/GSTT1+ and 12 GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants) consumed a controlled diet high in fruit-juice and vegetables for 2 wk. Blood and first-void urine specimens were obtained at baseline, 1-wk, and 2-wk intervals. The antioxidant capacity-related biomarkers in blood and urine were observed and recorded at the scheduled times. Erythrocyte GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet are GST genotype-dependent. Two weeks on the high fruit-juice and vegetable diet increased GST and GR activities in the GSTM1+/GSTT1+ group (P juice and vegetable diet than GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. The diet intervention was effective in enhancing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in all participants (P 0.05). The effects of a diet rich in fruit-juice and vegetables on antioxidant capacity were dependent on GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The application of NMR and MS methods for detection of adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, N; Kosir, I J; Spangenberg, J E; Kidric, J

    2003-06-01

    This review covers two important techniques, high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), used to characterize food products and detect possible adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil, all important products of the Mediterranean Basin. Emphasis is placed on the complementary use of SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation nuclear magnetic resonance) and IRMS (isotope-ratio mass spectrometry) in association with chemometric methods for detecting the adulteration.

  13. Evaluation of radurizited and pasteurized fruits juices during 12 months of storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilska-Jeszka, J.; Skorupinska, A.

    1975-01-01

    Stability of radurized red and black currant, bilberry, plum and tomato juices, stored at a temperature of 20+-3 0 C, was investigated. With 60 Co as radiation source, doses of 0,5 to 1,5 Mrad were applied. In a 12-month period no significant changes in pH, total and volatile acidity were found. Anthocyanic pigment and ascorbic acid losses were greater in radurized than in pasteurized juices. No organoleptic changes occurred after irradiation with 1 Mrad in tomato juices, very little change in plum and bilberry juices and considerable unfavorable changes in currant juice

  14. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  15. The prediction of food additives in the fruit juice based on electronic nose with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Food additives are added to products to enhance their taste, and preserve flavor or appearance. While their use should be restricted to achieve a technological benefit, the contents of food additives should be also strictly controlled. In this study, E-nose was applied as an alternative to traditional monitoring technologies for determining two food additives, namely benzoic acid and chitosan. For quantitative monitoring, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme learning machine (ELM) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were applied to establish regression models between E-nose signals and the amount of food additives in fruit juices. The monitoring models based on ELM and RF reached higher correlation coefficients (R 2 s) and lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) than models based on PLSR and SVM. This work indicates that E-nose combined with RF or ELM can be a cost-effective, easy-to-build and rapid detection system for food additive monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrouki, Souhaib; Rihani, Rachida; Bentahar, Fatiha; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry was carried out in a batch digester. To study the effect of the pH values as well as the nutrient medium on the fermentation process, different parameters were monitored under mesophilic temperature, such as cumulative biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total sugar, and biomass growth. It was found that for all cases, the COD concentration decreased with time. The lowest value reached was obtained when the nutrient medium was added; it was about 110 g/L after 480 h. In such cases, the COD removal reached about 80%; the highest cumulative biogas volume of about 5,515.8 NmL was reached after 480 h testing; and the lowest value reached was about 2,862.3 NmL in the case of peach-substrate containing sodium sulfite. The addition of nutrient medium improved the cumulative biogas production as well as the COD abatement. Measurement of the biogas composition highlighted three gaseous components, namely, methane (56.52%), carbon dioxide (20.14%), and hydrogen sulfide (23.34%). The modified Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic model were used to describe the cumulative biogas production and the organic matter removal, respectively. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental data.

  17. Family and child-care provider influences on preschool children's fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, T A; Baranowski, T; Baranowski, J C; Cullen, K; Rittenberry, L; Olvera, N

    2001-07-01

    Children's intakes of fruit, juice, and vegetables (FJV) do not meet the recommended minimum of five daily servings, placing them at increased risk for development of cancer and other diseases. Because children's food preferences and practices are initiated early in life (e.g., 2-5 years of age), early dietary intervention programs may have immediate nutritional benefit, as well as reduce chronic disease risk when learned healthful habits and preferences are carried into adulthood. Families and child-care settings are important social environments within which food-related behaviors among young children are developed. FJV preferences, the primary predictor of FJV consumption in children, are influenced by availability, variety, and repeated exposure. Caregivers (parents and child-care providers) can influence children's eating practices by controlling availability and accessibility of foods, meal structure, food modeling, food socialization practices, and food-related parenting style. Much remains to be learned about how these influences and practices affect the development of FJV preferences and consumption early in life.

  18. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repon Kumer Saha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional components present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compound in seeds and juice. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay and total reducing assay. Receptor binding activities was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Anti-inflammatory assay and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay was also investigated. Disc diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis activities, hemagglutination inhibition activities and membrane stabilization activities than those of fresh juice. However, fresh juice showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities than those of methanolic seed extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols and flavanoids than those of fruit juice. Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  20. How do Brazilian consumers perceive a non-traditional and innovative fruit juice? An approach looking at the packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Karen R; Rosenthal, Amauri; Deliza, Rosires

    2015-08-01

    Consumer interest in nutritious and innovative foods encourages the development of products based on raw materials with nutraceutical potential. The health benefits provided by pomegranate have been recognized; therefore, the development of pomegranate juice may match consumer expectations regarding this goal. However, the concept has to first be accepted by the consumer. The aim of the study was to utilize a rating based conjoint analysis to investigate how Brazilian consumers perceive pomegranate juice by identifying the role of packaging attributes relevant to the consumer's intention to purchase. Five factors were considered in the study: technology used in the juice production (high hydrostatic pressure - HHP - a technology that preserves nutritional and sensory properties), antioxidants, price, preservatives, and colorant. Eight hypothetical pomegranate juice packages were created following an incomplete block design and evaluated by 150 fruit juice consumers. Three clusters were identified. The average results revealed that antioxidants were the attribute of greatest relative importance to cluster 1 (RI: 36%), followed by HHP (RI: 25%) and colorants (14%). Consumers in cluster 2 considered price as the most important attribute (RI: 41%), followed by antioxidants (RI: 21%) and HHP (RI: 18%). Cluster 3, as well as cluster 2, considered price the most important attribute (RI: 28%), followed by antioxidants (RI: 26%) and HHP (RI: 22%). The results showed that consumers valued information on the health benefits of antioxidants as well as on the technology, suggesting that both types of information may be relevant tools to increase the intention to purchase the product. The application of HHP for pomegranate juice processing was positively perceived by consumers, suggesting a potential commercial application in the Brazilian industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  2. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Šic Žlabur; Nadica Dobričević; Stjepan Pliestić; Ante Galić; Daniela Patricia Bilić; Sandra Voća

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant...

  3. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  4. The performance of five fruit-derived and freeze-dried potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains in apple, orange and grape juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Luciano, Winnie Alencar; de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; de Oliveira Arcanjo, Narciza Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-30

    This study assessed the survival of the fruit-derived and freeze-dried L. plantarum 49, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108, L. fermentum 111 and L. pentosus 129 strains during frozen storage and when incorporated into apple, orange and grape juice stored under refrigeration. Physicochemical parameters of juices containing the freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains and the survival of the test strains in the fruit juices during in vitro digestion were also evaluated. No decreases in survival rates (log N/log N0) of the freeze-dried cells were observed up to 1 month of storage. The survival rates of the freeze-dried strains L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 were >0.75 up to 4 months of storage. All freeze-dried strains exhibited survival rates of >0.75 up to 2 weeks of storage in apple juice; only L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 showed similar survival rates in orange and grape juices up to 2 weeks of storage. The contents of the monitored organic acids or sugars during storage varied depending on the added strain and the type of fruit juice. At the end of the in vitro digestion, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108 and L. fermentum 111 showed survival rates of >0.80 in apple juice. Apple juice was as the best substrate to the survival of the tested freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains over time. L. paracasei 108 and L. plantarum 49 as the strains presenting the best performance for incorporation in potentially probiotic fruit juices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti Diabetic Effect of Fruit Juice of Morinda Citrifolia (Tahitian Noni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the therapeutic use of Tahitian Noni Juice® (TNJ) or noni juice in controlling hyperglycaemia as claimed in folk medicine. Twenty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats with body weights ranging from 145 to 230g were used for the experiment. They were randomly allocated into 4 groups of five, rats each.

  6. Influence of nanoparticles on filterability of fruit-juice industry wastewater using submerged membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Guler Turkoglu; Dizge, Nadir; Acar, Turkan Ormanci; Salmanli, Oyku Mutlu; Tufekci, Nese

    2017-07-01

    In this study, polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membrane surface was modified with nano-sized zinc oxide (nZnO) and silver (nAg) to improve the membrane filterability of the mixed liquor and used to treat fruit-juice industry wastewater in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). The nAg was synthesized using three different methods. In the first method, named as nAg-M1, PES membrane was placed on the membrane module and nAg solution was passed through the membrane for 24 h at 25 ± 1 °C. In the second method, named as nAg-M2, PES membrane was placed in a glass container and it was shaken for 24 h at 150 rpm at 25 ± 1 °C. In the third method, named as nAg-M3, Ag nanoparticles were loaded onto PES membrane in L-ascorbic acid solution (0.1 mol/L) at pH 2 for 24 h at 150 rpm at 25 ± 1 °C. For the preparation of nZnO coated membrane, nZnO nanoparticles solution was passed through the membrane for 24 h at 25 ± 1 °C. Anti-fouling performance of pristine and coated membranes was examined using the submerged MBR. The results showed that nZnO and nAg-M3 membranes showed lower flux decline compared with pristine membrane. Moreover, pristine and coated PES membranes were characterized using a permeation test, contact angle goniometer, and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Spray-drying of passion fruit juice using lactose-maltodextrin blends as the support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Cabrera Miguel Angel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 ºC, and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa. The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (pO objectivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da efectividade das misturas en diferentes níveis de lactose-maltodextrina (8:5, 10:5, 12:5 % w/v durante a pulverização do sumo de maracujá. A secagem foi feita em um atomizador de laboratório de pulverização (modelo Pulvis GB 22 com 2 entradas de temperatura de ar (180 e 190 ºC, e 2 compressores de pressão de ar (0.10 e 0.20 MPa. O índice da mistura, higroscopicidade e retenção de vitamina C foram avaliados no pó obtido. As curvas de superfície de resposta (p<0.05 mostram que os valores mais baixos do índice da mistura e higroscopicidade foram alcançados no intervalo de temperatura de 188-190 ºC e com uma concentração de 12:5 % w/v de lactosemaltodextrina; o melhor nível de retenção de vitamina C ocorreu a 180 ºC e 0.2 MPa.

  8. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šic Žlabur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  9. Low dose irradiation influence on yield and quality of fruit juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, D.J.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Nottingham, S.M.; Hammerton, K.

    1991-01-01

    Granny Smith apples, Valencia oranges, and Pearlette grapes grown in Queensland, Australia were irradiated at 0, 75, 300 and 600 Gy. Following irradiation, juice was extracted and analysed for quality and compositional changes. Irradiation treatment significantly (p0.05) decreased yield of apple juice (by 6.3% w/w at 600 Gy) and grape juice (by 4.8% w/w at 600 Gy) but did not significantly (p0.05) affect yield of orange juice (OJ). Acceptability significantly (p0.05) decreased in OJ after 600 Gy treatment. Other changes in quality and composition were minimal. Juice from irradiated apples and oranges stored at 5 degrees C for 8 wk showed similar results

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Bilić, Daniela Patricia; Voća, Sandra

    2017-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  11. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  12. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (pcomposition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit juices by combined treatments of citrus fruit essential oils and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Somolinos, María; Ouazzou, Abdenour Ait; Condón, Santiago; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2012-09-17

    This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 μL/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 μL/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 μL/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 μL/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Fruit Juices and Wine by Voltammetry Performed at Pt and Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Pisoschi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r2 = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM. R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r2 = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM. R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement.

  15. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola) (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA) FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan; Maria Bintang

    2014-01-01

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatm...

  16. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analysis for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Theresa; Klaffke, Horst; Richards, Keith; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-07-15

    An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of 12 Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices was developed. Excellent chromatographic performance was demonstrated for tenuazonic acid (TeA) in a multi-analyte method. This comprehensive study is also the first to report the determination of TeA, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and altenuene (ALT), altertoxin I (ATX-I), altertoxin II (ATX-II), altenuisol (ATL), iso-altenuene (isoALT), altenuic acid III (AA-III) and the AAL toxins TB1 und TB2 in samples from the German market. Several types of HPLC columns were tested for the liquid chromatographic separation of the toxins of interest that widely differ in their polarities. The focus was on gaining suitable retention while avoiding derivatization steps especially for TeA and AA-III. Three atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used with liquid chromatography (electrospray, chemical and photo ionization) were tested to obtain the best selectivity and sensitivity. Samples were diluted with sodium hydrogen carbonate buffer and extracted on a diatomaceous earth solid phase extraction cartridge. Method validation was carried out by using tomato juice, citrus juice and white wine as blank matrices. Limits of detection ranged from 0.10 to 0.59μgL(-1) and limits of quantification ranged from 0.4-3.1μgL(-1) depending on the toxin and matrix. Recoveries were around 100±9% for all toxins except stemphyltoxin III (STTX-III) and altenusin (ALS) due to instability during sample clean up. Matrix-induced effects leading to ion suppression especially for ATX-I, ATX-II and AA-III were investigated. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) and intermediate reproducibility (RSDR) were ≤9.3 and ≤17.1, respectively, for the toxins in different matrices at levels of 5 and 30μgL(-1). Finally, 103

  17. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  18. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Changes in fruit, vegetable and juice consumption after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Camilla; Discacciati, Andrea; Åkesson, Agneta; Orsini, Nicola; Brismar, Kerstin; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Given the importance of prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), we aimed to examine changes over time in consumption of fruits, vegetables and juice among men who were diagnosed with T2D in comparison with men without diabetes. The prospective Cohort of Swedish Men, aged 45-79 years in 1997, was used to examine changes in diet after diagnosis of T2D. Dietary intake was assessed using FFQ in 1997 and 2009. In all, 23 953 men who were diabetes free at baseline (1997) and completed both FFQ were eligible to participate in the study. Diagnosis of T2D was reported by subjects and ascertained through registers. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to examine changes in mean servings/week over time. In total, 1741 men developed T2D during the study period. Increased consumption of vegetables and fruits was observed among those who developed T2D (equivalent to 1·6 servings/week, 95 % CI 1·08, 2·03) and men who remained diabetes free (0·7 servings/week, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). Consumption of juice decreased by 0·6 servings/week (95 % CI -0·71, -0·39) among those who developed T2D and increased by 0·1 servings/week (95 % CI 0·05, 0·15) in those who were diabetes free. Changes over time and between groups were statistically significant. Although improvements in diet were observed, only 36 % of those with T2D and 35 % of those without diabetes consumed ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/d in 2009.

  20. Volatile composition and enantioselective analysis of chiral terpenoids of nine fruit and vegetable fibres resulting from juice industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Marsol i Vall, Alexis; Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Eras i Joli, Jordi; Balcells Fluvià, Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging...

  1. Food safety issues of high pressure processed fruit/vegetable juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Totušek, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Gabrovská, D.; Otová, B.; Gresová, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 157-162 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Vegetable juices * High pressure processing * Food safety * Anti-mutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007

  2. Effect of physical damage and storage of pineapple fruits on their suitability for juice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Soumanou, M.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Boekel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of physically damaged pineapples, variety “MD2,” that were stored for up to 9 days at 20C for the production of fresh pineapple juice. Fresh pineapples were bruised and cut in different ways. The study showed an interaction effect of the physical damage

  3. Bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene is superior to other carotenoids from selected fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli-Brahm, Paula; Corte-Real, Joana; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-08-15

    Phytoene and phytofluene are major abundant dietary carotenoids largely ignored in the context of agro-food and health. The bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene in tomato, carrot, blood orange (sanguinello cultivar), and apricot juices was analysed following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion with coffee cream as a lipid source, and compared with that of other main carotenoids from these matrices. The bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene, and also total carotenoid bioaccessibility, followed the order: sanguinello>apricot>tomato>carrot. Phytoene was consistently the carotenoid with the highest bioaccessibility, up to 97%, generally followed by phytofluene. The higher bioaccessibility of these carotenoids could mainly be due to their marked difference in chemical structure and matrix distribution. For most juices, cis-isomers presented a higher bioaccessibility than their all-trans counterparts (P<0.05). The dietary source that provided highest amounts of potentially absorbable phytoene/phytofluene was by far tomato juice (5mg/250mL juice). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  5. Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lippevelde, W.; te Velde, S.J.; Verloigne, M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Manios, Y.; Bere, E.; Jan, N.; Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Kovacs, E.; Brug, J.; Maes, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of

  6. Determination of saccharides in fruit juices by capillary electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Chmelík, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2001), s. 417-421 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : fruit juices * adulteration * matrix-assisted laser deasorption Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.685, year: 2001

  7. Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

    1997-10-17

    A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS.

  8. Immunochemical and PCR analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B (SEB in milk and fruit juices collected in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxins secreted by S. aureus are known as a food-poisoning agent that is associated with various gastro-intestinal pathological conditions. In this study, a one-step immunodetection method was devised for routine checking of SEB in milk and fruit juices available locally. Antibodies against recombinant SEB were raised, purified, and cross reactivity was checked against clinically important bacteria (Shigella flexneri, Streptococci, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella and Bacillus subtilis. Purified anti-SEB antibodies were conjugated with gold nanoparticles (Ab-GNPs for direct detection of SEB in samples. SEB (33%, 4.76% and 15% was found in non-sterilized milk (118, sterilized milk (42 and juices (60, respectively. Coagulase, MSA tests and PCR amplification of 725 bp of the SEB gene confirmed the presence of S. aureus in the collected samples positive for SEB. Immunoassay is easy, reliable and less time consuming and will be helpful to detect the SEB in food samples at local level.

  9. Price versus Non-price Incentives for Participation in Quality Labeling: The Case of the German Fruit Juice Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bleich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance and labeling play an important and increasing role in firms’ marketing strategies. In almost all cases, a price incentive has been stressed as the major incentive for firms to participate in such schemes. We argue here that important non-price incentives for participation in quality labeling may exist, too. In German retailing, it can be observed that discount retailers are listing more and more foods with quality labels. Processors may then participate in voluntary quality labeling in order to enter the large and growing market of discount retailers. The price-premium versus the market-entry hypothesis are analyzed theo-retically. We investigate then in an empirical hedonic pricing model for the German fruit juice market and for participation in the quality label of the Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG which of the two hypotheses is consistent with the data. There is strong support for the market-entry hypothesis

  10. Hybrid Model Based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM Applied to Variable Selection within Fruit Juice Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fernandez-Lozano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM. Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA, the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected.

  11. Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1998-10-01

    Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively.

  12. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  13. CE-UV for the characterization of passion fruit juices provenance by amino acids profile with the aid of chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Heloisa Moretti; Cieslarova, Zuzana; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2016-07-01

    A separation method was developed in order to quantify free amino acids in passion fruit juices using CE-UV. A selective derivatization reaction with FMOC followed by MEKC analysis was chosen due to the highly interconnected mobilities of the analytes, enabling the separation of 22 amino acids by lipophilicity differences, as will be further discussed. To achieve such results, the method was optimized concerning BGE composition (concentrations, pH, and addition of organic modifier) and running conditions (temperature and applied voltage). The optimized running conditions were: a BGE composed by 60 mmol/L borate buffer at pH 10.1, 30 mmol/L SDS and 5 % methanol; running for 40 min at 23°C and 25 kV. The method was validated and applied on eight brands plus one fresh natural juice, detecting 12 amino acids. Quantification of six analytes combined with principal component analysis was capable to characterize different types of juices and showed potential to detect adulteration on industrial juices. Glutamic acid was found to be the most concentrated amino acid in all juices, exceeding 1 g/L in all samples and was also crucial for the correct classification of a natural juice, which presented a concentration of 22 g/L. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  15. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  16. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  17. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  18. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  19. Synergistic combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and essential oils or their constituents and their use in preservation of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Laglaoui, Amin; Mackey, Bernard M; Pagán, Rafael

    2013-01-15

    This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 μL/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety evaluation of an acai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, Alexander G.; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horvath, Janos; Thuroczy, Julianna; Beres, Erzsebet; Vertesi, Adel; Hirka, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active ® , fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active ® juice is non-toxic.

  1. Development of immunoaffinity columns for pyraclostrobin extraction from fruit juices and analysis by liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2011-07-29

    Pyraclostrobin belongs to a new generation of fungicides widely used to preserve high valuable crops. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies with different affinities to this modern strobilurin have been evaluated for their usefulness in the production of immunoaffinity columns suitable for the solid-phase extraction, concentration, and clean-up of residues from food commodities. Different immunosorbents were produced and characterized in terms of antibody immobilization efficiency, immunosorbent binding capacity, optimum elution conditions, and reusability. Covalent coupling of the antibodies to Sepharose-CNBr gel took place with high yield (over 90%), whereas the immunosorbent efficacy to retain the analyte (from 28 to 68%) was shown to depend on the amount and type of antibody immobilized on the support. As a matter of fact, columns prepared with the monoclonal antibody PYs5#14 were able to selectively bound up to 53 μg of pyraclostrobin per gram of beads. Acetonitrile solutions were preferred over methanolic ones for analyte elution, and some immunosorbents could be reused at least 4-6 times provided that the amount of pyraclostrobin and the volume of sample did not overload the column. Effectiveness of the selected immunoaffinity column was evidenced by the development of an extraction procedure for pyraclostrobin residues from fruit juices and further determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A concentration factor of 50 times was achieved with the developed immunoaffinity column, which eventually resulted in a limit of quantification of 0.01 mg L(-1). Finally, quantitative recoveries were obtained on apple juice and red grape must samples spiked with pyraclostrobin from 0.01 to 1 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of polyphenol rich fruit juices using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes: towards a rapid sensor for antioxidant capacity and individual antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaba, Jordi Giné; Terry, Leon A

    2012-02-15

    The analysis of antioxidants in different foodstuffs and especially fruits has become an active area of research which has lead to numerous antioxidant-assays being recently developed. Many antioxidants exhibit inherent electroactivity, and hence employing electrochemical methods could be a viable approach for evaluating the overall antioxidant capacity of a fresh produce matrix without the need for added reactive species. This work shows the possibility of using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and other electrochemical methods with disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes, to quantify and assess antioxidant activity and abundance of specific antioxidants, mainly polyphenols in selected soft fruit juices. Freshly squeezed black currant and strawberry juices of different cultivars and maturity stages were chosen according to known differences in their antioxidant profile. As a result of the increasing applied potential (0-1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) the electroactive compounds present in the juices were oxidised leading to a characteristic voltammetric profile for each of the samples analysed. Generally, black currant juices had greater oxidation peaks at lower potentials (<400 mV) which were indicators of higher antioxidant capacities. The relationship between sensor cumulative responses at different applied potentials and total or individual antioxidants, as determined by conventional spectrophotometric methods (FRAP, Folin-Ciocalteu) and HPLC (individual anthocyanins and ascorbate), respectively, are discussed in the context of the development of a rapid sensor for antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pigments and antioxidant activity of optimized Ready-to-Drink (RTD Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. - passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa juice blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nadanasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to optimize the beetroot-passion fruit blended juice. The independent variables were beetroot juice (30-70 ml, passion fruit juice (10-30 ml and sucrose (9.00-10.50g. The combined effect of these independent variables on pH, °Brix and overall acceptability were investigated. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. The optimized blended juice was prepared in bulk, thermally pasteurized and studied the effects on pigments, antioxidant activity, CIE Color (L*, a*, b*, E*, Browning Index*, native microflora and other physicochemical quality parameters were also evaluated during the storage at 27-30 ± 2 °C. The processing and storage had a significant effect on (p < 0.05 degradation in the pigments, antioxidant activity during storage. The decrease in antioxidant activity was correlated (r = 0.9895 with a decrease in betalain pigment. The product was safe from microflora after thermal pasteurization and during 180 days of storage with good sensory acceptability.

  4. High hydrostatic pressure processing of fruit juices and smoothies: research and commercial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several world-wide health organizations such as WHO and FAO have pointed out the importance of increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet because they can provide essential bioactive compounds as well as health beneficial phytochemicals. Consumers are also increasingly more conscious...

  5. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  6. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit Juices; Projet International d'Irradiation des Fruits et des Jus de Fruits; Mezhdunarodnyj simpozium po voprosam oblucheniya pishchevykh produktov; Proyecto Internacional de Irradiacion de Frutas y Zumos de Fruta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, K. [Institute of Biology and Agriculture, Reaktorzentrum, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1966-11-15

    To extend the application of irradiation to food preservation in a more general way, and to obtain the best conditions for this new technique, more fundamental research is needed. The main problem is to reduce the dose as much as possible. Reducing to the minimum the degradation due to radiation of the constituents of food assures organoleptic quality and wholesomeness and renders the product economic. Fruit juice was selected as a model substance for fundamental studies for the following reasons: (a) The components are representative for most foods; (b) The components can be easily separated; (c) The microorganism spoiling the fruit juice is mainly yeast, on which extended research work has been done; and (d) The item has economic value. The programme includes the following lines of research; Fundamental research. This has dealt mainly with the radiosensitization of microorganisms, that is, yeast in the case of fruit juice and, to a certain extent, mould. Technological studies. Based on the results of the basic research, studies on technological feasibility have been undertaken, including organoleptic and microbiological analysis of volatile and non-volatile substances. The results on apple juice are promising. Wholesomeness tests. Animal feeding studies on rats, mice and pigs started with tests of the amount of apples and apple juice which can be tolerated by the animals. Tissue cultures have been cultivated for the biological screening of degradation products. Irradiation facility. An irradiation plant of a new design for about 30 to 40 000 Ci and 10 000 Ci {sup 60}Co is under construction. (author) [French] Pour generaliser l'application des rayonnements a la conservation des produits alimentaires et utiliser cette nouvelle methode dans les meilleures conditions, il est necessaire de pousser davantage les recherches fondamentales. Le probleme principal consiste a reduire la dose le plus possible. La reduction au minimum de la radiodeterioration des composants

  8. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  9. Rapid and specific spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits juices and in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arayne, M.S.; Bibi, Z.; Sultana, N.

    2009-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most important water soluble vitamin in the human diet, present naturally in a wide range of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) from a variety of sources like fresh fruits or from human plasma using spectrophotometric technique or by RP-HPLC. Initially, estimation of vitamin C was carried out spectrophotometrically as UV spectroscopy is a trusted technique to monitor small quantities of drugs and vitamins. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 mi cro g/mL/sup -I/. In the second procedure, we attempted to separate and quantitate ascorbic acid from fruit juices as well as from human plasma by RP-HPLC with UV detection. This has been possible because of the diversity of columns and conditions of analysis available. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on a pre-packed Kromasil 100, C/sub 18/ (5 macro m 25 x 0.46) column using acetonitrile water (60:40; v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/sup -min/ and effluent monitored at 265 nm. The assay was also linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 micro g/mL/sub -1/, with recovery ranging from 99.0-100.0 % and intra and inter day CV <3 % when applied to the analysis of ascorbic acid from fruit juice available in Pakistan at the time of study Grape fruit, malta, mosami, sweetlemon, fruiter, lemon, lime, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya juice were found to be very rich in as ascorbic acid, while chikoo, pear, apricot, peach, carrot and some other fruits were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. (author)

  10. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  11. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  12. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages.

  13. Modeling the kinetics nonenzymatic browning reactions and rheological behavior in the termal process of fruit juices and pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Manayay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacture of fruit juices and pulps, is of paramount importance to refer to non-enzymatic browning and rheological behavior. The non-enzymatic browning is a phenomenon of darkening of a purely chemical (Braverman, 1980, is characterized by the presence of brown polymers called melanoidins, generated by the Maillard reaction or condensation of melanoidins, the caramelization and degradation of acid ascorbic, while the rheological behavior is define as the proportion deformation of the material when exposed to shear stress (σ caused by a rheometer (Muller, 1978; Ibarz, 2005. Modeling studies of colour formation and definition of rheological behavior, considered in this review, aimed at the conclusion of the existence of a zero kinetic and first order respectively, and the most influential factors with the reactions are mainly Maillard, temperature, amino acids presence, water activity and pH, while the rheological behavior is affected by temperature, solid concentration and particles size that make up the suspension in the specific case of the pulps.

  14. Extracellular Pectinase from a Novel Bacterium Chryseobacterium indologenes Strain SD and Its Application in Fruit Juice Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Roy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is one of the important enzymes of industrial sectors. Presently, most of the pectinases are of plant origin but there are only a few reports on bacterial pectinases. The aim of the present study was to isolate a novel and potential pectinase producing bacterium as well as optimization of its various parameters for maximum enzyme production. A total of forty bacterial isolates were isolated from vegetable dump waste soil using standard plate count methods. Primary screening was done by hydrolysis of pectin. Pectinase activity was determined by measuring the increase in reducing sugar formed by the enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin. Among the bacterial isolates, the isolate K6 exhibited higher pectinase activity in broth medium and was selected for further studies. The selected bacterial isolate K6 was identified as Chryseobacterium indologenes strain SD. The isolate was found to produce maximum pectinase at 37°C with pH 7.5 upon incubation for 72 hours, while cultured in production medium containing citrus pectin and yeast extract as C and N sources, respectively. During enzyme-substrate reaction phase, the enzyme exhibited its best activity at pH of 8.0 and temperature of 40°C using citrus pectin as substrate. The pectinase of the isolate showed potentiality on different types of fruit juice clarification.

  15. Sensory acceptability and physical stability evaluation of a prebiotic soy-based dessert developed with passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a factorial design approach for developing a palatable and stable soy-based dessert with the addition of Soy Protein (SP, oligofructose, and Passion Fruit Juice (PFJ. Panelists (n = 50 used a seven-point hedonic scale to assess the overall liking, degree of liking of creaminess, taste, and color of the desserts. In addition, the samples were submitted to a preference ranking test in order to evaluate the products' preference. Water Holding Capacity (WHC and backscattering (BS measures were also determined to assess the physical stability of the trials. Sample F3 (35% PFJ and 2% SP was the only one that presented a WHC index of 94.8%; moreover, none of the developed samples had synerisis after 72 hours of storage indicating adequate physical stability of the emulsion process. Samples F2 (25% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, F4 (35% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, and F5 (30% PFJ, and 2.5% SP presented mean hedonic scores above 'slightly liked' for all sensory attributes. The acceptance index of samples varied from 62.50 to 88% showing the great sensory potential of such products.

  16. Finding of pesticides in fashionable fruit juices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E

    2012-10-15

    Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 μg/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  18. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

    2014-03-03

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Lloyd, Steven W; Bett-Garber, Karen L; Grimm, Casey C; Watson, Michael A; Lea, Jeanne M

    2017-01-01

    High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not-from-concentrate (NFC) 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry juices. Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L * and hue angle color, while a * , b * , and C * decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non-clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 months storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices; however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Pataro, Gianpiero; Lamanauskas, Nerijus; Šatkauskas, Saulius; Viškelis, Pranas; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    The influence of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pre-treatment of blueberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), both on the extraction yield and antioxidant properties of juice obtained by pressing and on the on the recovery of bioactive compounds from berry by-products (press cake) by extraction with solvent, was investigated. PEF treatments carried out at field strengths of 1, 3, and 5 kV/cm and an energy input of 10 kJ/kg achieved a cell disintegration index (Z p ) of 0.70, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Mechanical pressing (1.32 bar for 8 min) of PEF-treated berries (1, 3, and 5 kV/cm at 10 kJ/kg) significantly increased the juice yield (+28 %) compared with the untreated sample. The juice obtained from PEF pre-treated berries also had a significantly higher total phenolic content (+43 %), total anthocyanin content (+60 %) and antioxidant activity (+31 %). However, PEF treatment intensity higher than 1 kV/cm did not significantly improve the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the juice. Compared to the untreated sample, higher amounts of total phenolics (+63 %), total athocyanins (+78 %) and antioxidant activity (+65 %) were detected in the press cake extracts. PEF treatment of higher intensity resulted in better extractability of bioactive compounds from blueberry press cake. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of PEF as a mild pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of the industrial processing of berry fruits.

  2. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  3. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  4. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  5. Desenvolvimento do perfil sensorial e avaliação sensorial/instrumental de suco de maracujá Sensory profile development and sensory/instrumental passion fruit juice evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Della Modesta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As mais importantes frutas tropicais na categoria de sucos são maracujá e manga, especialmente desejadas por sua impressão aromática e intensa. O aroma e o sabor são resultados da presença de numerosos constituintes que se encontram em concentrações variáveis, extremamente sensíveis às mudanças durante o tratamento térmico na produção de suco. Há a necessidade do desenvolvimento dos perfis sensorial e de cor, que podem ser alterados durante o processamento do suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver esses perfis e avaliar os sucos de maracujá entamborado: despolpado, pasteurizado, entamborado e congelado; pronto para beber (formulado com açúcar e água; e pasteurizado. Treze atributos compuseram o perfil sensorial. O experimento de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa foi delineado com 2 fatores, sucos e provadores. Os resultados foram também submetidos a uma análise de componentes principais. Houve diferença significativa entre os três sucos nos atributos sensoriais, exceto para aromas de maracujá e doce. O aroma artificial, e os aromas e os sabores de cozido e fermentado aumentaram significativamente no suco processado. Os dois primeiros componentes principais concentraram 57% da variação nos atributos sensoriais. Os parâmetros de cor, à exceção do turbidez, apresentaram variações significativas entre os sucos. O suco entamborado foi o mais escuro. A intensidade de vermelho nos sucos entamborado e formulado foi similar, menos acentuada no pasteurizado, enquanto a intensidade de amarelo foi mais acentuada no formulado, decrescendo nos pasteurizado e entamborado.The most important tropical fruits used in juice production are passion fruit and mango. They are especially liked due to their intense aromas. Aroma and flavor are results of many constituents that are present in different concentrations, which are very sensitive to changes during thermal treatment used in the juice production. This work aimed at

  6. Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining

    2014-09-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    OpenAIRE

    LUZIANA HOXHA; ONEIDA KYCYK; RENATA KONGOLI; ERANDA MANE

    2014-01-01

    Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102) a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatoph...

  8. Improvement of Probiotic Survival in Fruit juice and under Gastrointestinal conditions using Pectin-Nanochitin-Nanolignocellulose as a Novel Prebiotic Gastrointestinal-Resistant Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Chackoshian Khorasani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Increasing survivability of probiotics in low pH juices and in gastrointestinal conditions is important for probiotic food industry. Nanofibers can reinforce the structure of entrapment matrices protecting probiotics in harsh conditions. This study investigated pectin-based bionanocomposites improved with nanochitin, nanolignocellulose and bacterial nanocellulose to introduce a prebiotic gastrointestinal-resistant matrix for enhancing the survival of Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic.Material and Methods: The bionanocomposites with various compositions were designed using mixture design method. These were fabricated based on cross-linking of calcium ions with pectin for entrapment of Bacillus coagulans. The survivability of probiotic was evaluated at 4°C or 25°C over a 5-week storage in peach juice and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.Results and Conclusion: The prebiotic score of the pectin-nanochitin-nanolignocellulose (50:25:25% w w-1 was determined as 1.36. The survivability of Bacillus coagulans entrapped within the pectin-nanochitin-nanolignocellulose matrix was ~65% under gastrointestinal treatment. The surface structure of the matrix was relatively smooth coherent, compact and wrinkled due to the three-dimensional arrangement of the nanofibers of chitin and lignocellulose incorporated within pectin. The highest survivability of the entrapped bacteria was ~68% compared to the survivability of the free cell (~53% at the end of 5-week storage period. After 21 day storage in the juice, the survivability of the entrapped bacteria treated under sequential digestion was ~58% as compared to that of the free cell (~43%. The present findings proposed a promising prebiotic matrix to protect probiotics in low pH fruit juice and the gastrointestinal tract.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  9. A rapid gas chromatographic injection-port derivatization method for the tandem mass spectrometric determination of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Balcells, Mercè; Eras, Jordi; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2016-07-01

    A novel method consisting of injection-port derivatization coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. The method allows the rapid assessment of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and patulin content in apple and pear derivatives. The chromatographic separation of the compounds was achieved in a short chromatographic run (12.2min) suitable for routine controls of these compounds in the fruit juice industry. The optimal conditions for the injection-port derivatization were at 270°C, 0.5min purge-off, and a 1:2 sample:derivatization reagent ratio (v/v). These conditions represent an important saving in terms of derivatization reagent consumption and sample preparation time. Quality parameters were assessed for the target compounds, giving LOD of 0.7 and 1.6μg/kg and LOQ of 2 and 5μg/kg for patulin and HMF, respectively. These values are below the maximum patulin concentration in food products intended for infants and young children. Repeatability (%RSD n=5) was below 12% for both compounds. In addition, the method linearity ranged between 25 and 1000μg/kg and between 5 and 192μg/kg for HMF and patulin, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to study HMF and patulin content in various fruit juice samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  11. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  12. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  13. Volatile Composition and Enantioselective Analysis of Chiral Terpenoids of Nine Fruit and Vegetable Fibres Resulting from Juice Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Marsol-Vall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging from 52.7% in lemon to 94.0% in tangerine flesh. Noncitrus fibres showed more variable compositions, with the predominant classes being aldehydes in apple (57.5% and peach (69.7%, esters (54.0% in pear, and terpenoids (35.3% in carrot fibres. In addition, enantioselective analysis of some of the chiral terpenoids present in the fibre revealed that the enantiomeric ratio for selected compounds was similar to the corresponding volatile composition of raw fruits and vegetables and some derivatives, with the exception of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, which showed variation, probably due to the drying process. The processing to which fruit residues were submitted produced fibres with low volatile content for noncitrus products. Otherwise, citrus fibres analysed still presented a high volatile composition when compared with noncitrus ones.

  14. Effect of abscission zone formation on orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit/juice quality for trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected (Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, f...

  15. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  16. Dehydrated Basella alba Fruit Juice as a Novel Natural Colorant: Pigment Stability, In Vivo Food Safety Evaluation and Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.

  17. Development of salt and pH-induced solidified floating organic droplets homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction of ten pyrethroid insecticides in fresh fruits and fruit juices followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Torbati, Mostafa; Nabil, Ali Akbar Alizadeh; Mohebbi, Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    A new microextraction method named salt and pH-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed in a home-made extraction device for the extraction and preconcentration of some pyrethroid insecticides from different fruit juice samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the present work, an extraction device made from two parallel glass tubes with different lengths and diameters was used in the microextraction procedure. In this method, a homogeneous solution of a sample solution and an extraction solvent (pivalic acid) was broken by performing an acid-base reaction and the extraction solvent was produced in whole of the solution. The produced droplets of the extraction solvent went up through the solution and solidified using an ice-bath. They were collected without centrifugation step. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection and quantification were obtained in the ranges of 0.006-0.038, and 0.023-0.134ngmL -1 , respectively. The enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of the selected analytes ranged from 365-460 to 73-92%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower than 9% for intra- (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions at a concentration of 1ngmL -1 of each analyte. Finally, some fruit juice samples were effectively analyzed by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilaboratory Validation of First Action Method 2016.04 for Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubachka, Kevin; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Conklin, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Before being designated AOAC First Action Official MethodSM 2016.04, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's method, EAM 4.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice, underwent both a single-laboratory validation and a multilaboratory validation (MLV) study. Three federal and five state regulatory laboratories participated in the MLV study, which is the primary focus of this manuscript. The method was validated for inorganic arsenic (iAs) measured as the sum of the two iAs species arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) by analyses of 13 juice samples, including three apple juice, three apple juice concentrate, four grape juice, and three pear juice samples. In addition, two water Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed. The method LODs and LOQs obtained among the eight laboratories were approximately 0.3 and 2 ng/g, respectively, for each of the analytes and were adequate for the intended purpose of the method. Each laboratory analyzed method blanks, fortified method blanks, reference materials, triplicate portions of each juice sample, and duplicate fortified juice samples (one for each matrix type) at three fortification levels. In general, repeatability and reproducibility of the method was ≤15% RSD for each species present at a concentration >LOQ. The average recovery of fortified analytes for all laboratories ranged from 98 to 104% iAs, DMA, and MMA for all four juice sample matrixes. The average iAs results for SRMs 1640a and 1643e agreed within the range of 96-98% of certified values for total arsenic.

  19. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  20. Influência dos sucos de frutas sobre a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida dos medicamentos Influence of fruit juices on bioavailability and half-life of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mariante de Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A administração de medicamentos juntamente com sucos de frutas pode determinar variações na farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica, comprometendo a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida dos compostos envolvidos. Objetivo: Verificar e classificar informações sobre ocorrências de interações que resultam da co-administração de medicamentos e sucos de frutas. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão na literatura a cerca do tema proposto. Os dados sobre interações foram obtidos de pesquisa em diferentes bancos de dados e livros relacionados, realizada no período de 2008/2009. O método utilizado no estudo incluiu a análise de informações obtidas a partir de bases de dados como PUBMED, SCIELO, BDENF, BBO e natural medicine comprehensive database, sendo que os descritores utilizados consistiram em: interações, interactions, sucos de frutas, fruit juice, CYP 450, P-glicoproteínas e OATP (organic anion transporter polypeptide. Resultados: Ficou evidente a existência de um número significativo de interações, identificadas a partir de estudos experimentais, casos-controle e relatos de caso. Referências sobre agravamento de um efeito ou ineficácia terapêutica, decorrentes da associação de fármacos com sucos de frutas, foram citadas por diversos autores. Conclusão: O estudo evidenciou que interações entre sucos de laranja e toranja consistem nas ocorrências mais comumente citadas, muitas vezes responsáveis por variações sobre a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida de fármacos o que, em última instância, determina variações na resposta terapêutica.Administering medications together with fruit juices may lead to variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with repercussions on the bioavailability and half –life of the compounds. Pharmacokinetic mechanisms are usually related to intestinal and hepatic enzymes of cytochrome P-450 (CYP 450 interference, as well as in transporter enzymes of the mucosa (P

  1. Effect of Fruit Lemon Juice Addition to The Content of Protein, Fat, Lactose and Probiotic on Soy Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Zackiyah; Azizah, N.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of lemon juice to the content of protein, fat, lactose and probiotics, in beverages soy yogurt. Soy yogurt which produced was a multifunction yogurt drink high levels of antioxidants, contains probiotics and can be used by people with lactose intolerance. The research method includes the production of fortified soy yogurt with lemon juice, were made with the ratio between the lemon juice and soy yogurt were 0:10 (L0); 1:9 (L1); 2:8 (L2); and 3:7 (L3). Analysis of the results include the content of protein by Kjeldahl method, the content of fat by Soxhletasi method, lactose test by Luff Schoorls method and content of probiotics with total plate count enumeration techniques. The results showed fortified yogurt had a protein content greater than before fortification (L3 > L2 > L1 > L0); The fat content L0 > L1 > L2 > L3. Fortified yogurt lactose content is smaller than before fortification (L0 > L1 > L2 > L3). The content of probiotic yogurt fortified L1 > L3 > L2. From this research can be concluded that the yoghurt fortified (L3) is the best, with the highest protein content, low fat, low lactose than L1 and L2, and had probiotics content. It is advised to conduct further research on the expired time of fortified soy yogurt products

  2. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits Doçura ideal de sucos mistos de frutas da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.Sucos de frutas "prontos para beber" representam grande fatia do mercado e importante alvo do desenvolvimento de produtos. A mistura de frutas pode trazer melhorias no aspecto sensorial e nutricional destas bebidas e aproveitar a diversidade de frutos exóticos da região Amazônica. Torna-se necessário, então, selecionar misturas de frutas e sua doçura ideal segundo a aceitação dos consumidores. Consumidores da cidade de Belém (Brasil avaliaram cinco concentrações de açúcar usando escala do ideal de dois blends selecionados em teste de ordenação preferência. Para o blend cupuaçu-acerola-açaí, a concentração ótima de açúcar foi 9,5 g/100 mL; para blend graviola-camucamu-taperabé a concentração ótima foi 10,7 g/ 100 mL.

  3. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fruit Juice Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines Expression and Contributes to the Maintenance of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in DSS Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied.

  5. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  6. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  9. Safety evaluation of an açai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active(®)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Alexander G; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horváth, János; Thuroczy, Julianna; Béres, Erzsébet; Vértesi, Adél; Hirka, Gabor

    2010-11-28

    The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Zanovec, Michael; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2011-02-13

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y) (n = 1665), 6-12 y (n = 2446), 13-18 y (n = 3139), and 19+y (n = 8861). Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables), using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day) among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups (diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.

  11. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanovec Michael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y (n = 1665, 6-12 y (n = 2446, 13-18 y (n = 3139, and 19+y (n = 8861. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables, using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups ( Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.

  12. Consumption patterns and demographic factors influence on fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption pattern variables (Table 3) of the different fruit juice classifications were ..... Elepu G, Nabisubi J, Sserunkuuma D. Segmentation of processed fruit juice consumers in urban .... Liquid fruit market report. [homepage on the ...

  13. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  14. The influence of bird netting on yield and fruit, juice, and wine composition of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pagay

    2013-03-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Use of bird netting is becoming more prevalent by grape growers worldwide due to changing migratory patterns of birds that feed on grapes. This study shows that bird netting is not detrimental to yield and fruit and wine quality especially when applied early in the growing season.

  15. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  16. A new method of UA_CPE coupled with spectrophotometry for the faster and cost-effective detection of proline in fruit juice, honey, and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağdeviren, Semahat; Altunay, Nail; Sayman, Yasin; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2018-07-30

    The study developed a new method for proline detection in honey, wine and fruit juice using ultrasound assisted-cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) and spectrophotometry. Initially, a quaternary complex was built, containing proline, histamine, Cu(II), and fluorescein at pH 5.5. Samples were treated with ethanol-water mixture before extraction and preconcentration, using an ultrasonic bath for 10 min at 40 °C (40 kHz, 300 W). After the optimization of variables affecting extraction efficiency, good linearity was obtained between 15 and 600 µg L -1 with sensitivity enhancement factor of 105. The limits of detection and quantification were 5.7 and 19.0 µg L -1 , respectively. The recovery percentage and relative standard deviations (RSD %) were between 95.3 and 103.3%, and 2.5 and 4.2%, respectively. The accuracy of the method was verified by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 2389a). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Constitutive expression, purification and characterisation of pectin methylesterase from Aspergillus niger in Pichia pastoris for potential application in the fruit juice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuping; Chen, Peng; Yin, Maolu; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) catalyses the hydrolysis of the methyl ester of pectin, yielding free carboxyl groups and methanol. PME is widely used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PME from Aspergillus niger was constitutively expressed to a high level in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant PME was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography, giving an overall yield of 28.0%. It appeared as a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. Optimal activity of the enzyme occurred at a temperature of 50 °C and a pH of 4.7. The K(m), V(max) and k(cat) values of the enzyme with respect to pectin were 8.6 mmol L⁻¹ [Formula: See Text], 1.376 mmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ and 8.26 × 10² s⁻¹ respectively. Cations such as K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ni²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ slightly inhibited its activity, whereas Na⁺ had no effect. PME from A. niger was constitutively expressed to a high level in P. pastoris without methanol induction. The recombinant PME was purified and characterised and shown to be a good candidate for potential application in the fruit juice industry. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low K m (8.4mM), high I max (77.2μAcm -2 ), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm -2 mM -1 ). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  20. Entanglement detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: otfried.guehne@uibk.ac.at; Toth, Geza [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque-Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo 36, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-04-15

    How can one prove that a given quantum state is entangled? In this paper we review different methods that have been proposed for entanglement detection. We first explain the basic elements of entanglement theory for two or more particles and then entanglement verification procedures such as Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, the determination of nonlinear properties of a quantum state via measurements on several copies, and spin squeezing inequalities. An emphasis is given to the theory and application of entanglement witnesses. We also discuss several experiments, where some of the presented methods have been implemented.

  1. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  2. Co-administration of fresh grape fruit juice (GFJ and bergamottin prevented paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refuoe Baleni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate small doses of known cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, grapefruit juice (GFJ and one of its components, bergamottin (BGT, for the prevention of paracetamol (PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after overdose in rats. Six groups of 15 Sprague Dawley (SD rats each were treated with single oral doses of either saline, PAR only 1725 mg/kg, PAR + GFJ low dose (2 ml and PAR + GFJ high dose (3 ml, PAR + BGT 0.05 mg/kg (BGT-low and PAR + BGT 0.22 mg/kg (BGT-high. Thereafter, 5 rats from each group were sacrificed after 24, 48 and 72 h and, on each occasion, blood samples were collected for determination of liver and renal function, full blood count (FBC and PAR concentration. A piece of liver was sent for histopathology. By 48 h the liver enzymes in the PAR-only group were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than in the PAR + GFJ and PAR + BGT groups, i.e., alanine transaminase (ALT 837 ± 268 u/L and aspertate transaminase (AST 1359 ± 405 for PAR only; versus ALT 34 ± 48.8 u/L and AST 238 ± 221 for PAR + GFJ-high; ALT 22 ± 13.9 and AST168 ± 49.6 for PAR + BGT-high; and ALT 52 ± 7.2 u/L and AST 147 ± 153 for the control group. The results correlated with the histopathology findings where livers of the PAR-only group exhibited severe centrilobular and hepatocyte necrosis. In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans.

  3. Elaboração de bebida composta por mistura de garapa parcialmente clarificada-estabilizada e sucos de frutas ácidas Elaboration of beverage composed by blends of clarified-stabilized sugar cane and juice's acid fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é grande produtor e consumidor de sucos de frutas, além de ser o maior produtor mundial de cana-de-açúcar. O caldo de cana, também conhecido popularmente como garapa, é uma bebida de grande aceitação pelo consumidor brasileiro, e nos vendedores ambulantes, normalmente é comercializada em misturas com sucos de frutas ácidas. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar físico-química e sensorialmente as misturas de garapa parcialmente clarificada-estabilizada com sucos de limão, abacaxi e maracujá, e posteriormente eleger a bebida preferida do ponto de vista sensorial. Foram realizados Testes Sensoriais de Aceitação e de Intenção de Compra. As outras determinações foram pH, ºBrix, acidez, relação ºBrix/Acidez, teor de ácido ascórbico, cor e turbidez. Os resultados das análises sensoriais indicaram que a mistura preferida foi aquela elaborada com garapa clarificada e 5% de suco de maracujá, seguida da mistura que continha 10% de suco de abacaxi. No entanto, pelo Teste de Intenção de Compra a maioria dos consumidores afirmaram que "possivelmente compraria" todas as misturas avaliadas. Todos os produtos apresentaram boa retenção nos níveis de vitamina C após o tratamento térmico. Microbiologicamente todas as bebidas apresentaram-se adequadas para consumo.Brazil is a great producer and consumer of fruit juices, in addition to being the World's largest producer of sugar cane. Sugar cane juice, popularly known as garapa, is a beverage highly appreciated by the Brazilian population and the street vendors usually sell it in mixtures with acid fruit juices. The objective of this study was the sensory and physical-chemical evaluation of partially clarified-stabilized sugar cane juice in mixtures with lemon, pineapple and passion fruit juices, aimed at choosing the most appreciated beverage from the sensory point of view. The sensory analyses were those of acceptance and intention to buy and the remaining determinations

  4. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  5. Entangled entanglement: A construction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.Uchida@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Währinger Strasse 29, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bertlmann, Reinhold A., E-mail: Reinhold.Bertlmann@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-30

    The familiar Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a third qubit state, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in a constructive way we obtain all eight independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a cyclic geometry, a Merry Go Round, that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications.

  6. A juicy future for functional beverages : Analysis of the main drivers of the purchase intention for functional fruit and vegetable mixed juices in Italy : evaluating consumer attitudes, demographics and segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zamengo, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Consumer´s changing beverage habits and their demand for healthier drinks with ´functional´ benefits resulted in the launch of an innovative drink: functional fruit and vegetable mixed juices. Launching a new product in the food category is always challenging, and in order to be successful, product development needs to be guided by concept testing and consumer research. In this context, this study firstly investigates the socio-demographic and attitudinal factors able to predict Italian´s pur...

  7. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  8. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  9. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  10. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  11. Changes in water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of fruit juice-milk beverages as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or heat during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Peña, Mariana; Rojas-Graü, Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2011-09-28

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruit juices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruit juices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of strobilurin fungicides in fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Liu, Guojiao; Wang, Fang; Wang, Wanting

    2013-05-01

    A novel method, ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (UASEME-SFOD), has been developed for the extraction of four strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) in fruit juices. In the UASEME-SFOD technique, Tween 80 was used as emulsifier, and 1-undecanol was used as extraction solvent without using any organic dispersive solvent. Several parameters that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the kind and volume of extraction solvent, the type and concentration of the surfactant, extraction time, extraction temperature and salt addition were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction condition, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 5 to 10,000 ng mL(-1) for the targeted analytes with the correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. The enrichment factors were in the range between 95 and 135, and the limits of detection of the method were 2-4 ng mL(-1). The fruit juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and the relative recoveries at fortified levels of 50 and 100 ng mL(-1) were in the range of 82.6-97.5%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots as a novel magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction sorbent for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in real water and fruit juice samples prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzade, Samaneh; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Ghorbani, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    A selective and sensitive magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction (MDSPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (Sevin, Fenitrothion, Malathion, Parathion, and Diazinon) in fruit juice and real water samples. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs@ Fe) as a new and effective sorbent were prepared and applied for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides using MDSPME method. In order to study the performance of this new sorbent, the ability of rGOQDs@ Fe was compared with graphene oxide and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite by recovery experiments of the organophosphorus pesticides. Several affecting parameters in the microextraction procedure, including pH of donor phase, donor phase volume, stirring rate, extraction time, and desorption conditions such as the type and volume of solvents and desorption time were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method showed a wide linear dynamic range with R-square between 0.9959 and 0.9991. The limit of detections, the intraday and interday relative standard deviations (n = 5) were less than 0.07 ngmL -1 , 4.7, and 8.6%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides in real water samples (well, river and tap water) and fruit juice samples (apple and grape juice). The obtained relative recoveries were in the range of 82.9%-113.2% with RSD percentages of less than 5.8% for all the real samples.

  14. Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

    2000-06-01

    After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement.

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  16. Avaliação da vida de prateleira do suco de maracujá (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa desidratado Shelf life evaluation of dehydrated passion fruit juice (Passiflora Edullis f. flavicarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Endo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Suco de maracujá desidratado por spray-drying, natural e adicionado de açúcar, foi embalado em embalagens laminadas e armazenado em ambientes de 30 e 40 °C e 84% de umidade relativa. Os sucos embalados tiveram sua vida útil avaliada por determinações físicas e microbiológicas. A adição de açúcar aumentou a solubilidade, a molhabilidade, o tamanho da partícula e os valores de L* luminosidade do produto, e diminuiu os parâmetros de cor a* (intensidade da cor vermelha e b* (intensidade da cor amarela do produto. Durante o armazenamento, os produtos se mantiveram microbiologicamente estáveis, mas fisicamente foram alterados em relação aos parâmetros de cor e tamanho da partícula, tornando-se escuros e aglomerados, notadamente aqueles adicionados de açúcar e expostos a 40 °C, não sendo recomendada esta adição. Do ponto de vista físico, o período seguro para armazenamento de suco de maracujá natural desidratado foi de 120 dias a 30 °C e 60 dias a 40 °C.Passion fruit juice dehydrated by spray-drying, with and without commercial sugar addition, was wrapped in laminated packing. The packaged juice powder was stored and the shelf life was analyzed by physical and microbiology determinations, at room temperature of 30 and 40 °C and 84% of relative humidity. Adding sugar increased the solubility, wetability, particle size and luminosity L* value and decreased a* (red colour intensity and b* (yellow colour intensity colour parameters. During storage the dehydrated juice was microbiologically stable but, physically it was altered in relation to the colour and particle size of the parameters, becoming dark and agglomerated, especially for the added sugar exposed to 40 °C. Therefore this added sugar was not recommended. From the physical standpoint, the safe dehydrated natural passion fruit juice shelf life was estimated at 120 days at 30 °C, and 60 days at 40 °C.

  17. The Effect of Selected Fruit Juice Concentrates Used as Osmotic Agents on the Drying Kinetics and Chemical Properties of Vacuum-Microwave Drying of Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the osmotic dehydration of pumpkin slices in chokeberry, flowering quince, and raspberry concentrated juices. Products obtained were subjected to vacuum-microwave finish drying (VMD. The objective of the study was to evaluate the drying kinetics and the chemical properties, that is, total polyphenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the vacuum-microwave-dried pumpkin products. The concentration and temperature of the juices were 40°Brix and 45°C, respectively. The pumpkin slices were pretreated in concentrated juices for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. Vacuum-microwave finish drying was carried out at the power of magnetrons that ensured the maintenance of the safe temperature (below 90°C of the slices measured with the use of infrared camera. The results of the study showed that the moisture content of samples during the pretreatment in concentrated juices was decreasing until the equilibrium stage. The logarithmic model was used to describe the drying kinetics of pumpkin during VMD. Osmotic pretreatment resulted in a decrease in colour coordinates, improved the antioxidant activity of dried product, and prolonged the duration of VMD.

  18. Estabilidade sensorial de suco de maracujá pronto para beber acondicionado em latas de aço Sensorial stability of ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in tinplate cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Segantini Saron

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a preservação das características sensoriais e físico-químicas de suco de maracujá pronto para beber acondicionado em latas de três peças em folha-de-flandres eletrossoldadas, com diferentes condições de envernizamento interno do corpo e costura lateral, através de teste de estocagem. O suco de maracujá foi acondicionado em latas com camada nominal interna de 2,0 g de Sn.m-2, com três sistemas de revestimento orgânico interno e condicionado a 25 e 35 °C durante 360 dias. Ocorreu um acentuado decréscimo do conteúdo de ácido ascórbico até os 180 dias, mantendo-se estável até 360 dias em todas as condições estudadas. A avaliação de cor demonstrou o escurecimento do suco até os 120 dias e posteriormente sua descoloração, entre os 300 e 360 dias, nas duas temperaturas estudadas. A avaliação sensorial durante a estocagem demonstrou desempenho similar para todas as latas, sendo inferior apenas para a lata Pó a 35 °C. As principais alterações verificadas no produto ao longo da estocagem foram associadas às alterações intrínsecas à bebida e não à interação suco/embalagem. O estudo permitiu concluir que os três sistemas de envernizamento das latas estudadas podem ser utilizados no acondicionamento de suco de maracujá pronto para beber para uma vida-de-prateleira mínima de 12 meses.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the preservation of the sensorial and physicochemical characteristics of ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in three-piece welded tinplate cans with different internal coatings of the body and side strips, based on a storage test. The product evaluated was ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in cans with an internal layer of 2.0 g.m-2 of tin, with three inner organic coating systems, stored at 25 and 35 °C for 360 days. A sharp decrease in ascorbic acid content was recorded up to day 180, after which it remained constant until the end of

  19. Impact of noncovalent interactions between apple condensed tannins and cell walls on their transfer from fruit to juice: studies in model suspensions and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2007-09-19

    The adsorption of procyanidins (condensed tannins) on cell-wall material was quantified by bringing into contact solutions of procyanidins and suspensions of cell-wall material. A model was developed on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm formulation and a factorial experimental design. The parameters that influenced the adsorption were the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, the ionic strength of the solution, the temperature, and the apple cell-wall concentration. The model was applied to partitioning of procyanidins from apple between juice and mash. The parameters to be taken into account are the composition of the apples and, specifically, (i) the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, (ii) their acidity and pH as a determinant of the ionic strength, and (iii) their cell-wall content and the temperature at pressing. To estimate the ability of the model to relate procyanidin concentrations in the juice to their concentration in the apple, apples of three varieties of widely different procyanidin compositions were pressed in conditions that prevent oxidation. In these conditions, yields in the juice were >80% for phenolic acids or catechin monomers but <50% for procyanidins, with the lowest rates obtained for the higher polymers in accordance with the model.

  20. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  1. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and ...

  2. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  3. Consumption of 100% Pure Fruit Juice and Dietary Quality in French Adults: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey in the Context of the WHO Recommended Limitation of Free Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bellisle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n = 1607. About a half of the participants (44% consumed FJ, most often at breakfast time (60%. Average intake in FJ consumers was 115.6 ± 4.0 mL/day (46.3 ± 1.7 kcal/day. Prevalence of consumption increased with education and income and decreased with age, but no association was observed with body mass index (BMI, physical activity, or smoking. In consumers, FJ brought 2% daily energy and contributed larger proportions of vitamins (B1 7%, B2 3%, B5 5%, B6 6%, B9 10%, C 32%, E 9%, beta-carotene 5%, minerals (magnesium 4%, potassium 7%, and free sugars (19%. FJ consumers ingested more whole fruits, vegetables, and many other foods than non-consumers did. Free sugars represented 11.2% of the daily energy in FJ consumers versus 8.6% in non-consumers. This cross-sectional survey reveals that FJ contributes to diet quality without association with excess body weight. These observations should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. They support the view that contribution to diet quality should be specifically recognized in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO recommended decrease of free sugar intake.

  4. Studying entanglement-assisted entanglement transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Liyi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study catalysis of entanglement transformations for n-level pure entangled states. We propose an algorithm of finding the required catalystic entanglement. We introduce several examples by way of demonstration. We evaluate the lower and upper bound of the required inequalities for deciding whether there are m-level appropriate catalyst states for entanglement transformations for two n-level pure entangled states

  5. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  6. Microbiological testing and physical and chemical analysis of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water
    Avaliação microbiológico e caracterização físico-quimica de refrescos e água de coco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. PILÓ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water sold for immediate consumption in bars, restaurants and bakeries, and by street vendors in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbial quality was determined by counting coliforms, yeasts, staphylococci and salmonellae. Total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids of these beverages were recorded. For coconut water samples, the total reducing sugar content was also determined. The “juices” collected included reconstituted orange, cashew and grape-fl avored juice powders and concentrated cashew juice. Sixty samples of these juices and 45 of coconut water were collected. More than half (55% of the juice samples did not comply with current Brazilian legislation, which states that there must be a total absence of coliforms in a 50 mL sample. Sixteen percent of the coconut water samples exceeded the bacterial count limits defi ned in Brazilian law, with thermotolerant coliform densities above 102 MPN / mL. The high levels of sugar and low pH found in the coconut water were possibly related to the high yeast counts in most samples. Forty-seven percent of coconut water samples showed staphylococcal counts above 103 CFU/mL. The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and staphylococci found suggest unsatisfactory hygienic practices during the preparation of these beverages. Salmonellae were not detected in any of the samples. The physical and chemical properties of the drinks varied among the samples. Our results suggest that both the reconstituted juices and coconut waters need better hygienic and sanitary control.

  7. Vitamin C stability in pineapple, guava and baobab juices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    associated with many health benefits such as promoting health cell ... such as juices are processed to ensure availability even when they are not in ... as fruit juices to extend the shelf life. The use of .... results show that vitamin C was highly retained in freezing .... College of Agriculture for providing funding for the work.

  8. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  9. comparative in vitro antioxidant properties of water juice from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUICE FROM SELECTED AFRICAN FRUITS CONSUMED IN ... from African star apple (Chrysophyllumafricanum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were significantly (p<0.05) higher .... the formula as given by Chinaka and colleagues, and.

  10. Efeito da adição de suco de maracujá e tempo de cozimento sobre a qualidade de doces do albedo de maracujá em calda Effect of the addition of passion fruit juice and cooking time on the quality of passion fruit albedo preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pereira Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil gera toneladas de resíduos de cascas e sementes de maracujá amarelo que podem ser aproveitados na alimentação humana. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar os efeitos dos parâmetros do processo (volume do suco de maracujá empregado e tempo de cozimento dos albedos sobre as propriedades físico-químicas (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e açúcares totais de doces em calda elaborados com a casca do maracujá, bem como sua aceitação sensorial pelos consumidores, visando o reaproveitamento dos resíduos gerados na indústria de alimentos. Utilizou-se um planejamento fatorial 2² completo para avaliação dos parâmetros e respostas. Avaliou-se a aceitação sensorial dos doces, utilizando-se escala hedônica de 9 pontos, e intenção de compra, usando-se escala de 5 pontos. Valores mais baixos de pH foram alcançados em volumes de suco e tempo de cozimento mais altos, tanto para o albedo como para a calda do doce. Maiores valores de sólidos solúveis no albedo foram encontrados em tempos de cozimento altos e em menores volumes de suco empregado. Resultados globais indicaram como condições adequadas, ao processamento do albedo de maracujá em calda, tempo de cozimento superior a 10 minutos e concentração mais elevada de suco de maracujá.Brazil produces tons of yellow passion fruit skin and seed residues that could be used for human consumption. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of the process parameters (volume of passion fruit juice used and cooking time of the albedos, on the physicochemical properties (pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and total sugars of compote prepared with passion fruit skin, and the sensory acceptance by consumers aiming to use the residues produced by food industries. A complete 2² factorial design was used to evaluate the parameters and responses. The sensory acceptance of the preserves was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale and buying intention

  11. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. ... consideration, which consists of two entangled two-level atoms A and B with ...

  12. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Influência dos estádios de maturação na qualidade do suco do maracujá-amarelo Influence of the ripening stages on quality of the yellow passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Vianna Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a influência dos estádios de maturação sobre as características químicas do suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener, durante o período que antecedeu a mudança de cor da casca até o período de abscisão dos frutos, quando apresentavam coloração da casca totalmente amarelada. Durante o amadurecimento dos frutos, foi observado aumento progressivo dos parâmetros de Hunter L e b, sendo que a região inferior do fruto apresentou aumento de luminosidade e do amarelecimento mais rapidamente do que a superior. O conteúdo de Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST aumentou progressivamente, desde a condição de frutos imaturos, com 52 Dias Após Antese (DAA, até os 76 DAA, quando apresentaram cerca de 65% de cor amarela, permanecendo constante após este período. As medidas de acidez titulável e de pH indicaram pequeno acúmulo de ácidos orgânicos até os 60 DAA e, posteriormente, durante o amadurecimento dos frutos de maracujazeiro, ocorreu um consumo parcial desses ácidos, confirmados pela redução da acidez titulável e aumento de pH. Observou-se também, neste período, que a relação SST/AT aumentou progressivamente.This work evaluated the influence of the ripening stages on the chemical characteristics of the yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener., during the period that precedes the peel color change until the period of fruits abscission, when they show the peel totally yellowish. During the ripening of the fruits was observed a progressive increase in the Hunter L and b parameter, in a way that the lower area of the fruit presented higher brightness and yellowing indexes than the upper area. The content of SST showed a progressive increase from an immature condition of the fruits (52 DAA until a ripening stage with 65% of yellowish peel, in 76 DAA, staying constant after this period. The measures of total acidity and pH indicated a small

  15. Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  17. Electro-driven extraction of polar compounds using agarose gel as a new membrane: Determination of amino acids in fruit juice and human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Samira; Tabani, Hadi; Nojavan, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    In this work, polypropylene hollow fiber was replaced by agarose gel in conventional electro membrane extraction (EME) to develop a novel approach. The proposed EME method was then employed to extract two amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) as model polar analytes, followed by HPLC-UV. The method showed acceptable results under optimized conditions. This green methodology outperformed conventional EME, and required neither organic solvents nor carriers. The effective parameters such as the pH values of the acceptor and the donor solutions, the thickness and pH of the gel, the extraction voltage, the stirring rate, and the extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (acceptor solution pH: 1.5; donor solution pH: 2.5; agarose gel thickness: 7mm; agarose gel pH: 1.5; stirring rate of the sample solution: 1000rpm; extraction potential: 40V; and extraction time: 15min), the limits of detection and quantification were 7.5ngmL -1 and 25ngmL -1 , respectively. The extraction recoveries were between 56.6% and 85.0%, and the calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients above 0.996 over a concentration range of 25.0-1000.0ngmL -1 for both amino acids. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 5.5-12.5%, and relative errors were smaller than 12.0%. Finally, the optimized method was successfully applied to preconcentrate, clean up, and quantify amino acids in watermelon and grapefruit juices as well as a plasma sample, and acceptable relative recoveries in the range of 53.9-84.0% were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Viability of L.casei in symbiotic carrot juice during fermentation and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Hadzieva, Jasmina; Smilkov, Katarina; Geskovski, Nikola; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Although dairy products are generally good matrices for the delivery of probiotics to humans and traditionally the most used, fruit juices are of growing interest, due to their pleasant taste profile and refreshing characteristics. However, the low survival rate of probiotics in fruit juices resulting from acid environment is of concern.In this study, carrot juice was inoculated with free probiotic cells of L. casei and symbiotic microparticles loaded with L. casei to compare the survival rat...

  19. Brownian entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.

    2005-01-01

    For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion

  20. Quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect

  1. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  2. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-01-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices

  3. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  4. Effect of Fruit/Vegetable-Drug Interactions on CYP450, OATP and p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To review the concomitant use of certain drugs with fruit/vegetable juices that may lead to drug-juice interactions resulting in medication-related problems. Method: In this systematic review, online databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct) were searched for information on juices derived from fruits ...

  5. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  6. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  7. Entanglement without nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases

  8. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  9. An Investigation of Potential Fraud in Commercial Orange Juice Products in Malaysian Market by Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, S.E.; Abbas Fadhl Mubarek Al-Karkhi; Mohd Khairuddin Mohd Talib; Azhar Mat Easa; Hoong, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was triggered by Malaysia Ministry of Health to monitor quality of commercial orange juice products sold in Malaysia market. A total of 19 orange juice samples from 14 different brands of packed orange juice products and 5 different brands of fresh orange fruit juices were analyzed for total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, sugar composition and amino acid profiles. Hierarchical Cluster analysis (HCA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) on amino acid composition alone allowed visual discrimination between fresh squeezed orange juices and commercial packed orange juices. Suspicion of mislabel was raised in cases of miss-classification. (author)

  10. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  11. Levels of Major and Minor Elements in Some Commercial Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the macro- and micro-nutrient elements of some commercially available fruit juices in Serbia. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique was employed for determination of the major and minor elements in samples of two different types of fruit juices - clear ...

  12. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  14. Comparação entre centrifugação e microfiltração na clarificação do suco tropical de maracujá = Comparison between centrifugation and microfiltration on the clarification of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso de Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available No sentido de desenvolver uma alternativa ao processo convencional decentrifugacao realizou-se neste trabalho um estudo da microfiltracao para clarificar o suco tropical de maracuja. A influencia da pressao transmembrana e do pre-tratamento enzimatico do suco, foram estudadas no processo de clarificacao por microfiltracao. Os ensaios de clarificacao por microfiltracao do suco tropical de maracuja foram realizados numa unidade de microfiltracao construida em aco inox. As membranas ceramicas usadas apresentam diametro medio de corte de 0,3 e 0,8 ƒÊm. Os niveis de pressao transmembrana foram de 1,0 e 3,0 bar num processo isotermico a 35oC. Os niveis de concentracao de enzima Cytrozym Ultra L utilizados no pre-tratamento do suco foram de 100 e 200 ppm. A condicao de microfiltracao que resultou num suco de boa qualidade foi com a membrana de 0,3 ƒÊm operada a 1,0 bar com suco pre-tratado com 100 ppm de enzima. Nesta condicao, obteve-se fluxo de permeado igual 56 kg h-1 m-2 e obtendo-se 100% na reducao de solidosem suspensao e 97% na reducao da turbidez. Comparativamente o processo de centrifugacao com o mesmo suco apresentou resultados praticamente equivalentes, mas com uma reducao de solidos suspensos inferior a de 100% observada para a microfiltracao, sendo a obtencao de um suco isento de particulas suspensas, um dos principais objetivosdeste trabalho.Aiming at n alternative to the conventional centrifuge process of clarification, this work presents a study of the microfiltration processes to clarify the tropical juice of passion fruit. The influence of transmembrane pressure and the enzyme pre-treatment of the juice were studied in the process of clarification by microfiltration. Tests of microfiltration for clarification of tropical juice of passion fruit were performed in a microfiltration unit built in stainless steel. The ceramic membranes used have diameter cut-off 0.3 and 0.8 ƒÊm. The levels of transmembrane pressureinvestigated were 1

  15. Associação entre consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal em escolares da rede pública de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a associação entre o consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em 1.423 estudantes, entre 9 e 16 anos, de escolas públicas de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O consumo de bebidas foi avaliado por meio do recordatório alimentar de 24 horas e questionário de freqüência de consumo alimentar. Peso e estatura foram coletados para o cálculo do IMC. As análises de regressão linear foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por atividade física, idade e efeito do conglomerado (classes. Verificou-se associação positiva entre freqüência de consumo de refrigerante e idade (p = 0,05 e negativa entre consumo de leite e idade (p = 0,004. Apenas para as meninas, o IMC associou-se positivamente com o consumo de sucos (β = 0,02; p = 0,03. Para as outras bebidas não foram encontradas associações entre IMC e freqüência usual de consumo. O consumo de refrigerantes e sucos representou cerca de 20% do total de energia média consumida diariamente. Os resultados indicam que esforços para reduzir a ingestão de energia por meio de bebidas devem enfatizar também os sucos.The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05 and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004. For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (β = 0.02; p = 0.03. For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and

  16. Determinação da escala de coloração da casca e do rendimento em suco do maracujá-amarelo em diferentes épocas de colheita Determination of the peel color scale and juice yield of yellow passion fruits in different harvest seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Vianna Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar uma escala de coloração da casca para identificar o estádio de maturação do maracujá-amarelo e avaliar o rendimento em suco, em diferentes épocas de colheita. Os experimentos foram constituídos de 2 épocas de colheita, contemplando a estação de menor temperatura e menor precipitação de chuvas (EP1-Maio/Setembro, a estação de maior temperatura e precipitação de chuvas (EP2-Outubro/Dezembro e 7 estádios de maturação, com 10 repetições. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. O parâmetro b de Hunter foi utilizado como o indexador da mudança da coloração amarela. Verificou-se que a mudança de coloração ocorreu no sentido da base para o pedúnculo do fruto. Os frutos da época EP2 apresentaram a maior espessura de casca e o menor rendimento em suco, nos estádios iniciais de amadurecimento. Nos frutos com mais de 65,9% da casca amarelada, a época de colheita não influenciou na espessura da casca e no rendimento em suco, apresentando níveis máximos de suco. Frutos da época EP1 apresentaram o máximo rendimento a partir do estádio com 21,3% de cor amarela.This work had the aim to determinate the peel color scale intended to identify the ripening stage of the yellow passion fruit and evaluate its juice yield in different harvest seasons. The experiments were constituted of 2 harvest seasons and they were accomplished during the period of low temperatures and less precipitation (EP1 - May/September and high temperatures and more precipitation (EP2 - October/December, and seven ripening stages using ten replications. The results were compared by applying the Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. Hunter b parameter was used as the yellowing index. It was verified that the yellow color progressed from the base to the fruit peduncle. Fruits from the EP2 season presented the lowest juice yield and the highest peel thickness in the early

  17. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  18. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Majorana entanglement bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.

  20. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies.

  1. Not-from-concentrate pilot plant ‘Wonderful’ cultivar pomegranate juice changes: Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot plant ultrafiltration was used to mimic the dominant U.S. commercial pomegranate juice extraction method (hydraulic pressing whole fruit), to deliver a not-from-concentrate (NFC) juice that was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and stored at 4 and 25 °C. Recovered were 46 compounds, of ...

  2. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  3. Lack of modulatory effect of asparagus, tomato, and grape juice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the potency of asparagus-, tomato- and red grape-juice to modify the proportion of polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in male NIH mice. Groups of five mice were given the fruit juices (25, 50 or 100%) ...

  4. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  5. Remarks on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    In two partially entangled states, entanglement swapping by Bell measurement will yield the weaker entanglement of the two. This scheme is optimal because the average entanglement cannot increase under local operation and classical communication. However, for more than two states, this scheme does not always yield the weakest link. We consider projective measurements other than Bell-type measurement and show, numerically, that while Bell measurement may not be unique, it is indeed optimal among these projective measurements. We also discuss the non-uniqueness of Bell measurements. (letter to the editor)

  6. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  7. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  8. Survival, injury and inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, salmonella and aerobic mesophilic bacteria in apple juice and cider amended with nisin-edta

    Science.gov (United States)

    For health reasons, people are consuming fresh juices or minimally processed fruit and vegetable juices, thereby, exposing themselves to the risk of foodborne illness if such juices are contaminated with bacteria pathogens. Behavior of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmon...

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  10. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  11. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  12. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  13. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  15. Multi-photon entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, M.L.

    2000-09-01

    The motivation of this thesis was to create higher-order entanglements. The first experimental observation of a four-photon entanglement was presented in the experiment of this thesis. And the visibility of this entanglement was 0.79+-0.06, which is sufficient to make claims of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. This therefore lays a foundation for experiments showing the nonlocality of teleportation, and the purification of entanglement. The work of this thesis brings together a lot of earlier work done by the Zeilinger Group, and lays a foundation for future experiments. Earlier experiments such as teleportation together with entanglement swapping, which are 'complete teleportation' in as much as the state teleported is entirely undefined, can be combined and re-done with this four-photon entanglement. This result would be the first demonstration of complete, nonlocal teleportation. Also this experiment can be slightly modified and used to perform the first experimental quantum purification of entanglement, which is of vital importance to the fields of quantum information, and also is interesting for fundamental experiments on entanglement. Another direct application of this experiment is to perform the first 'event-ready' testing of Bell's Inequality. Here the four-photon entanglement can be used as a source of entangled photons, whereby the photons have no common source. This would enable an even more stringent testing of Bells theorem. Finally this experiment can be used for the demonstration and investigation of many practical, directly applicable quantum information schemes. For instance quantum cryptography, error correction, and computing. (author)

  16. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  17. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina VERGARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  18. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. .... the fruit market in D/Line area of Port Harcourt. .... [16] Neville A.M. 2006 . Properties of concrete. 4th ed.,. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi, India. [17] NIS 235 (1987). Nigerian Industrial Standards. Standards for ...

  19. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  20. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  1. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  2. Oleate functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José Luis; Sánchez -Brunete, Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic oleate-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were applied to the extraction of PCBs from fruit juices that were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two methods were evaluated: The first method involves a two-step procedure that combines dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, and the second one involves magnetic solid-phase extraction (mSPE) carried out in a single step. The mSPE procedure is shown to be more sensitive, and therefore, it was optimized and applied to the analysis of PCBs in juices. The detection limits for all target PCBs are below 6 ng∙L −1 for apple juice, and 3 ng∙L −1 for grape juice. The enrichment factor is 125. Analysis of spiked fruit juice samples gave relative recoveries higher than 70 % for all PCBs except for PCB28 and PCB52. (author)

  3. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  4. Multiple-copy entanglement transformation and entanglement catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Runyao; Feng Yuan; Li Xin; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    We prove that any multiple-copy entanglement transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)] can be implemented by a suitable entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)]. Furthermore, we show that the combination of multiple-copy entanglement transformation and the entanglement-assisted one is still equivalent to the pure entanglement-assisted one. The mathematical structure of multiple-copy entanglement transformations then is carefully investigated. Many interesting properties of multiple-copy entanglement transformations are presented, which exactly coincide with those satisfied by the entanglement-assisted ones. Most interestingly, we show that an arbitrarily large number of copies of state should be considered in multiple-copy entanglement transformations

  5. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  6. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  7. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  8. Witnessing entanglement by proxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Bruß, Dagmar; Kampermann, Hermann; Huber, Marcus; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is a ubiquitous feature of low temperature systems and believed to be highly relevant for the dynamics of condensed matter properties and quantum computation even at higher temperatures. The experimental certification of this paradigmatic quantum effect in macroscopic high temperature systems is constrained by the limited access to the quantum state of the system. In this paper we show how macroscopic observables beyond the mean energy of the system can be exploited as proxy witnesses for entanglement detection. Using linear and semi-definite relaxations we show that all previous approaches to this problem can be outperformed by our proxies, i.e. entanglement can be certified at higher temperatures without access to any local observable. For an efficient computation of proxy witnesses one can resort to a generalised grand canonical ensemble, enabling entanglement certification even in complex systems with macroscopic particle numbers. (paper)

  9. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  10. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  11. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multipartite entanglement and firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.

  13. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-08-30

    Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  14. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  15. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  16. Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.

  17. Device-independent entanglement certification of all entangled states

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Joseph; Šupić, Ivan; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Acín, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We present a method to certify the entanglement of all bipartite entangled quantum states in a device-independent way. This is achieved by placing the state in a quantum network and constructing a correlation inequality based on an entanglement witness for the state. Our method is device-independent, in the sense that entanglement can be certified from the observed statistics alone, under minimal assumptions on the underlying physics. Conceptually, our results borrow ideas from the field of s...

  18. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Couto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix corresponding to a Volumetric Concentration Factor (VCF of 2.9. The concentration of soluble solids, total solids, and total acidity increased proportionally to FCV. The concentrated juice and three commercial concentrated pineapple juices were evaluated regarding preference and purchase intention by 79 pineapple juice consumers. The concentrated juice by reverse osmosis was the preferred among consumers. It can be concluded that this process may be considered an alternative to the pre-concentration of fruit juices.

  19. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  20. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  1. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  2. Cosmological quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2012-01-01

    We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)

  3. Optimization of entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, M.; Kraus, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Horodecki, P.

    2000-11-01

    An entanglement witness (EW) is an operator that allows the detection of entangled states. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be optimal, i.e., to detect entangled states in an optimal way. We show how to optimize general EW, and then we particularize our results to the nondecomposable ones; the latter are those that can detect positive partial transpose entangled states (PPTES's). We also present a method to systematically construct and optimize this last class of operators based on the existence of ``edge'' PPTES's, i.e., states that violate the range separability criterion [Phys. Lett. A 232, 333 (1997)] in an extreme manner. This method also permits a systematic construction of nondecomposable positive maps (PM's). Our results lead to a sufficient condition for entanglement in terms of nondecomposable EW's and PM's. Finally, we illustrate our results by constructing optimal EW acting on H=C2⊗C4. The corresponding PM's constitute examples of PM's with minimal ``qubit'' domains, or-equivalently-minimal Hermitian conjugate codomains.

  4. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  5. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  6. Effects of lead arsenate sprays on the fruit growth and sugar and acid contents in Natsudaidai (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, K; Kuraoka, T; Matsumoto, K

    1965-01-01

    The juice of the fruit of Citrus natsudaidai is characterized by high acidity. The acidity of the juice was most effectively reduced by treatment with lead arsenate spray at an early fruit growth stage when the acids were being most actively formed. The water-soluble organic acid content of leaves was not affected. The sugar content of the juice was increased by the treatment. The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was lowered in the vesicles of fruit sprayed with lead arsenate. It was also much depressed in the extracts from normal fruit when arsenic trioxide was added. Arsenic was detected in the vesicles of treated fruit. 15 references, 9 figures.

  7. Encapsulação de suco de maracujá por co-cristalização com sacarose: cinética de cristalização e propriedades físicas Encapsulation of passion fruit juice by co-crystallization with sucrose: crystallization kinetics and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailer Astolfi-Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de co-cristalização consiste na concentração de um xarope de sacarose até a supersaturação, quando então é adicionado o material a ser encapsulado. A partir daí, a mistura é submetida a uma intensa agitação que induz à nucleação e à aglomeração do produto. Neste trabalho, a encapsulação de suco concentrado de maracujá em sacarose por co-cristalização foi avaliada, determinandose o efeito da fração de suco adicionada e do pH do suco sobre a umidade, solubilidade, densidade aparente e ângulo de repouso do produto final e acompanhando-se a cinética de cristalização em um reo-reator, constituído de um cristalizador acoplado a um reômetro rotacional de cilindros concêntricos, cujo cilindro interno foi substituído por um agitador. A cinética de co-cristalização foi representada por um modelo empírico ajustado aos dados obtidos. A co-cristalização foi acelerada em função do aumento do pH e da redução da porcentagem de suco. Os produtos co-cristalizados apresentaram menor umidade e maior solubilidade em baixas concentrações de suco. A densidade aparente e o ângulo de repouso foram similares aos da matriz encapsulante e situaram-se na faixa em que se encontram a maioria dos pós alimentícios.Co-crystallization is an encapsulation process where a second ingredient is incorporated in a porous conglomerate of sucrose microcrystals formed by spontaneous crystallization. The process is carried out by concentrating a sucrose syrup until supersaturation and, then, adding the core material, with the mixture being submitted to an intensive agitation that leads to nucleation and product agglomeration. In the present work, encapsulation of passion fruit concentrated juice by co-crystallization with sucrose was evaluated by determining the effects of added juice fraction and juice pH on moisture content, solubility, apparent density and repose angle of final product, as well as by following the co

  8. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  9. Universal entanglement transformations without communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Wim van; Hayden, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We show that in the presence of finite catalysts, any pure bipartite entangled state can be converted into any other, to unlimited accuracy, without the use of any communication, quantum or classical. We call this process embezzling entanglement because it involves removing a small amount of entanglement from the catalyst in a physically unnoticeable way

  10. Quantum Statistics and Entanglement Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, L. E. H.; Lumsden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Interpretations of quantum measurement theory have been plagued by two questions, one concerning the role of observer consciousness and the other the entanglement phenomenon arising from the superposition of quantum states. We emphasize here the remarkable role of quantum statistics in describing the entanglement problem correctly and discuss the relationship to issues arising from current discussions of intelligent observers in entangled, decohering quantum worlds.

  11. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  12. Images in quantum entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-28

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction {psi}{sub O} plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: {psi}= 1/{radical}2 ({psi}{sub O}{+-}{psi}{sub I} ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle {nu}{sub 123} entanglement, two-particle entanglements {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23} and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23}, {nu}{sub 123} and {phi}{sub 123} are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function ({alpha}{sub 1}, {beta}{sub 1}), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  13. Images in quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G J

    2009-01-01

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction Ψ O plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: Ψ= 1/√2 (Ψ O ±Ψ I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν 123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 , ν 123 and φ 123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α 1 , β 1 ), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  14. Stable isotopic carbon composition of apples and their subfractions--juice, seeds, sugars, and nonvolatile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    The 13C:12C ratios of 8 authentic apple juice samples and their subfractions were determined by mass spectrometry. Apples from Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States were processed into juice; pulp was collected from the milled fruit and seeds were collected from the press-cake. Sugars, nonvolatile acids, and phenolics were isolated from the juice by treatment with ion-exchange resins and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP). The mean value for all juice samples was -24.2% which is close to the values reported by other investigators. Juice from apples grown in Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand did not differ from U.S. samples. The isotopic composition of the subfractions ranged from -22.0 to -31.0%. The values for the pulp were essentially the same as for juice. The sugar fraction was slightly less negative than the juice; the nonvolatile acid and phenolic fractions were more negative. The levels of nonvolatile acids and phenolics in apple juice are low, however, so these compounds contribute little to overall delta 13C values in juice.

  15. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  16. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  17. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  18. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-02-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  19. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  20. Entanglement in miscible blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The entanglement length Le of polymer chains (corresponding to the entanglement molecular weight Me) is not an intrinsic material parameter but changes with the interaction with surrounding chains. For miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(tert-butyl styrene) (PtBS), changes of Le on blending was examined. It turned out that the Le averaged over the number fractions of the Kuhn segments of the components (PI and PtBS) satisfactorily describes the viscoelastic behavior of pseudo-monodisperse blends in which the terminal relaxation time is the same for PI and PtBS.

  1. Wormholes and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John C Baez; Vicary, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle–antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model. (paper)

  2. Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal

    2001-09-01

    Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.

  3. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  4. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  6. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  7. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check for bound entanglement where appropiate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes...

  8. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  10. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R

    2016-12-20

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  12. Experimental test of entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Duan, Lu-Ming; Hou, Pan-Yu; Wilczek, Frank; Xu, Da; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Zu, Chong

    2017-12-01

    Entangled histories arise when a system partially decoheres in such a way that its past cannot be described by a sequence of states, but rather a superposition of sequences of states. Such entangled histories have not been previously observed. We propose and demonstrate the first experimental scheme to create entangled history states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type. In our experiment, the polarization states of a single photon at three different times are prepared as a GHZ entangled history state. We define a GHZ functional which attains a maximum value 1 on the ideal GHZ entangled history state and is bounded above by 1 / 16 for any three-time history state lacking tripartite entanglement. We have measured the GHZ functional on a state we have prepared experimentally, yielding a value of 0 . 656 ± 0 . 005, clearly demonstrating the contribution of entangled histories.

  13. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  14. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  15. Facets of tripartite entanglement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical correlations between results of measurments on entangled ..... It is interesting that motivation underpinning Einstein locality is not the relativistic re- quirement of no faster-than-light signalling but rather a consideration related .... of the relevant studies see, for instance, D Home, Conceptual foundations.

  16. Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei

    Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of

  17. Studies on Juice Quality Obtained from Pomegranate and Various Vegetables Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the interest in antioxidants, mainly present in fruits and vegetables, has prompted research in the field of commercial beverages. Taking into account new requirements to improve the quality of feeding behaviour by getting juices without added sugar, the consumer health benefits and high organoleptics properties, it was decided to study the correlation quality of raw pomegranates with other vegetables such as celery, carrot and sharon fruit in order to obtain pomegranate juice with vegetable additions. The vegetable raw materials were chosen in order to improve the quality and organoleptic properties of the pomegranate juice with vegetable additions by optimizing the “in-house” method, to obtaining a stable formulation. The main objectives of the study were characterization of raw and addition materials, studied by psycho-chemical analysis, evaluating of the antioxidant capacity of 4 types of pomegranate juice with additions in different proportions,  establish the best type of mixture juice. Consumer preference was established in sensory analysis  based on hedonic test with 9 point scale, the type of juice with additions with the following concentrations: pomegranate 50%, Sharon 10%, celery 30%, carrot 10%. Positive correlations were performed between antioxidant capacity and type of juice preferred by consumers.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

  19. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Du Toit; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Jerling, Johann

    2006-02-22

    The polyphenolic and ascorbate (ASC) components as well as the antioxidant capacity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice were analyzed and compared to three other fruit juices. The Kei-apple juice had significantly the highest total polyphenolic concentrations (1013 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and solid phase (C(18)) fractionation identified the majority of these polyphenols to be phenolic acids. The Kei-apple juice also had significantly the highest ASC concentrations (658 mg/L), which showed exceptional heat stability with very little conversion to dehydroascorbate (DHA). Antioxidant capacities of both the unfractionated fruit juices and their solid phase-extracted fractions, as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses, correlated well to the polyphenol concentrations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenol present (128.7 mg/L) in the Kei-apple juice; it contributed to 63% of the total antioxidant capacity (of all of the individual compounds identified). Other notable polyphenols identified in higher concentrations included p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Our results therefore support the putative high antioxidant value linked to this fruit and better define this potential in terms of the major antioxidants that exist in the Kei-apple.

  20. [Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Pipette-tip solid-phase extraction using poly(1-vinylimidazole-co-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) as a new molecularly imprinted polymer in the determination of avermectins and milbemycins in fruit juice and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Roseane Andrade; Flores, Diego Hernando Ângulo; da Silva, Ricky Cássio Santos; Dutra, Flávia Viana Avelar; Borges, Keyller Bastos

    2018-10-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed for the determination of abamectin (ABA), eprinomectin (EPR), and moxidectin (MOX). Pipette-tip molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (PT-MIP-SPE) using poly(1-vinylimidazole-co-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) as a selective adsorbent material was studied in detail, including the washing solvent, type and volume of eluent, pH, quantity of adsorbent material and sample volume. The performance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, robustness and stability have been assessed and were within the recommended guidelines. The mean extraction recoveries/relative standard deviation for ABA 1b, EPR, ABA 1a and MOX were 98.77 ± 3.82%, 88.19 ± 2.57%, 110.54 ± 1.52% and 100.42 ± 0.59%, respectively. Finally, the results proved that PT-MIP-SPE coupled to HPLC-UV is an economical, simple and easy-to-perform technique, and presented a high potential for extraction of macrocyclic lactones in mineral water and grape and juice samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic Teleportation of the Three-Particle Entangled State viaEntanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路洪

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a three-particle entangled state via entanglement swapping is proposed. It is shown that if a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state (both are not maximum entangled states) are used as quantum channels, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be realized.

  3. Entanglement reactivation in separable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)

  4. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  5. The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can

    2002-01-01

    We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN

  6. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollabashi, Ali; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting N=4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S 5 direction, instead of the AdS 5 direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy

  8. Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.

  9. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  10. Entangled network and quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-11-21

    A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.

  11. Quantum entanglement via nilpotent polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Akulin, Vladimir M.; Smilga, Andrei V.; Viola, Lorenza

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general method for introducing extensive characteristics of quantum entanglement. The method relies on polynomials of nilpotent raising operators that create entangled states acting on a reference vacuum state. By introducing the notion of tanglemeter, the logarithm of the state vector represented in a special canonical form and expressed via polynomials of nilpotent variables, we show how this description provides a simple criterion for entanglement as well as a universal method for constructing the invariants characterizing entanglement. We compare the existing measures and classes of entanglement with those emerging from our approach. We derive the equation of motion for the tanglemeter and, in representative examples of up to four-qubit systems, show how the known classes appear in a natural way within our framework. We extend our approach to qutrits and higher-dimensional systems, and make contact with the recently introduced idea of generalized entanglement. Possible future developments and applications of the method are discussed

  12. Levels of Major and Minor Elements in Some Commercial Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, ... Purpose: To evaluate the macro- and micro-nutrient elements of some commercially available fruit juices in ... national regulations. ... the consumption of natural products, such as fruit ... analytical techniques, each with its advantages.

  13. Signature of quantum entanglement in NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy, E-mail: tanmoy@iiserkol.ac.in; Singh, Harkirat; Mitra, Chiranjib, E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, PO: BCKV Campus Main Office, Mohanpur 741252, Nadia, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-21

    Entangled solid state systems have gained a great deal of attention due to their fruitful applications in modern quantum technologies. Herein, detection of entanglement content from experimental magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data is reported for NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O in its solid state crystalline form. NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O is a prototype of Heisenberg spin 1/2 dimer system. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility and specific data are fitted to an isolated dimer model and the exchange coupling constant is determined. Field dependent magnetization isotherms taken at different temperatures are plotted in a three dimensional plot. Subsequently, entanglement is detected both from susceptibility and specific heat through two different entanglement measures; entanglement witness and entanglement of formation. The temperature evolution of entanglement is studied and the critical temperature is determined up to which entanglement exists. Temperature dependent nature of entanglement extracted from susceptibility and specific heat shows good consistency with each other. Moreover, the field dependent entanglement is also investigated.

  14. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  15. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  16. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  17. Global entanglement in multiparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, David A.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    2002-01-01

    We define a polynomial measure of multiparticle entanglement which is scalable, i.e., which applies to any number of spin-(1/2) particles. By evaluating it for three particle states, for eigenstates of the one dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and on quantum error correcting code subspaces, we illustrate the extent to which it quantifies global entanglement. We also apply it to track the evolution of entanglement during a quantum computation

  18. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  19. EVALUACIÓN DEL USO DE ENZIMAS Y FILTRACIÓN POR GRAVEDAD PARA LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE UNA MEZCLA DILUIDA DE PULPA DE FRUTOS DE CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE, JUGOS DE NARANJA Y TORONJA EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENZYMES AND GRAVITY FILTRATION FOR CLARIFICATION OF DILUTED MIXTURE OF CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE FRUITS PULP, ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela los frutos de cactus (Opuntia boldinguii son de escasa utilidad comercial. Para su aprovechamiento se evaluó el efecto del uso combinado de enzimas fibrolíticas y filtración por gravedad en la clarificación de una mezcla diluida de pulpa de frutos de cactus, jugos de naranja y toronja. Se compararon los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado de las mezclas hidrolizada y sin hidrolizar mediante la prueba t de Welch. La concentración óptima de enzimas fue 0,76% (v/v. La hidrólisis enzimática previa a la pasteurización no afectó el color de la mezcla. Durante los ensayos de pasteurización (62 ± 1 ºC por 30 min hubo grandes cambios de coloración, solo en la mezcla hidrolizada, por degradación de las betalaínas y la adición de ácido ascórbico (0,5% p/v permitió preservar el color. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado (PIn Venezuela the fruits of cactus (Opuntia boldinguii are of scarce commercial usefulness. For its utilization the effect of combined use of fibrolytic enzymes and gravity filtration for clarification of diluted mixture of cactus fruits pulp, orange and grapefruit juices was evaluated. The values of filtered-flow curves of hydrolyzed and not hydrolyzed mixtures were compared by means of Welch’s t-test. The optimal enzymes concentration was 0.76% (v/v. The prior enzymatic hydrolysis to the pasteurization does not affect the color of the mixture. During the pasteurization assays (62 ± 1 ºC for 30 min there were large changes of coloring, only in the hydrolyzed mixture, by betalains degradation and the addition of ascorbic acid (0.5% w/v permitted to preserve the color. There were highly significant differences between the filtered-flow curves values (P<0.01. The filtered-flow of the hydrolyzed mixture elapsed 110 min (0.159 mL·min-1 was greater to the not hydrolyzed mixture (control flow to the 8 min (0.100 mL·min-1. The juice production

  20. Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.

  1. Error exponents for entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases

  2. Entanglement in a parametric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu

    2008-07-28

    In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.

  3. SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT JUICE AS A SUBSTRATE FOR WINE FERMENTATION. ... The analysis of the sugars showed glucose, fructose and sucrose as the predominant sugars present. Vitamin C content was substantially high (35 mg/100 g), but fat content was low (0.25%).

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-01-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×10 5 and 9.5×10 4 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products. - Highlights: ► We examined the effects of irradiation of fresh vegetable juices (ashitaba and kale) for industrial application. ► Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level. ► Ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. ► Content of flavonoids did not change whereas that of polyphenols increased. ► There was no change in sensory properties after irradiation.

  5. Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Yanhua

    1999-01-01

    The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...

  6. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Partial recovery of entanglement in bipartite-entanglement transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh

    2002-01-01

    Any deterministic bipartite-entanglement transformation involving finite copies of pure states and carried out using local operations and classical communication (LOCC) results in a net loss of entanglement. We show that for almost all such transformations, partial recovery of lost entanglement is achievable by using 2x2 auxiliary entangled states, no matter how large the dimensions of the parent states are. For the rest of the special cases of deterministic LOCC transformations, we show that the dimension of the auxiliary entangled state depends on the presence of equalities in the majorization relations of the parent states. We show that genuine recovery is still possible using auxiliary states in dimensions less than that of the parent states for all patterns of majorization relations except only one special case

  8. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2003-12-01

    correlations were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa submitted to thermal processing treatment, during 120 days of storage under two different temperatures. The color characteristics, Hunter 'L', 'a'and 'b'values, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose, volatile compounds (ethyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, ethyl caproate and hexyl caproate and furfural were correlated with sensory characteristics (juice homogeneity of color, orange color, characteristic aroma, floral aroma, sweet aroma, characteristic flavor, off flavor, oxidized flavor, cooked flavor, sweet taste and bitter taste by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The color parameters and sensory characteristic correlations such as juice homogeneity of color and orange color, and a-value was proportional, instead ofL and b-values. Important correlations were observed between volatile compounds and characteristics flavor and aroma, sweet and floral aroma; furfural and oxidized, cooked and off flavor. The sucrose levels were statistically correlationated with sweet and floral aroma, characteristic flavor and sweet taste, while the reducing sugars were correlated with off flavor and bitter taste. From the results it can be concluded that the instrumental methods can be indicated, such as the browning color where colorimetric parameters like a-value is the best one.

  9. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L. obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L. obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Valença DA SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajás (Spondias lutea L., oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil, em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C. A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L por 30 min, à temperatura de 25°C, o pH natural (2,98, seguido o processo mecânico de extração. Foi empregado como processo de preservação do suco integral o método "hot-fill" + aditivos. Segundo o ponto de vista estatístico as características físico-químicas permaneceram inalteradas ao longo de 120 dias, apresentando os seguintes valores médios: pH (2,78, sólidos solúveis (11,19 °Brix, acidez titulável total (1,46 g% de ácido cítrico, açúcares redutores (6,91 g% em glicose, taninos (77,36 mg% de ácido tânico, cor (0,125 em leitura de absorbância a 440 nm, pectina (0,12 g% em pectato de cálcio e viscosidade (10,8 cps. A análise sensorial classificou o suco polposo como de "boa" e "muito boa", sendo que as maiores médias couberam aos parâmetros aparência, cor e sabor.Caja fruit (Spondias lutea L. from Maranguape (Ceará-Brazil obtained at the full maturity stage were processed at a pilot-scale level with the purpose to obtain pulpy juice through enzymatic-mechanical process. The final product was analysed regarding physical-chemical characteristics as well as in relation to sensorial profile after 120 days of storage at room temperature (28°C. The pulp was treated by 120 ppm of pectinolytics enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L during 30 minutes at 25°C, keeping natural pulp pH (2,98. The "hot-fill " + aditives were used as a preservation process for the pulpy juice. At a statistical point of view physical-chemical characteristics

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  11. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  12. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  13. Juices in the diet of a child and an adult: Their significance for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Juices are of great importance in human rational nutrition during the first years of life. In accordance with the generally accepted recommendations, they are introduced into the infant diet no earlier than 4 months of age, usually after the first complementary foods. Juices provide essential macro- and micronutrients for the infant, promote his/her adaptation to a new eating pattern, and play an important role in the formation of taste preferences and food programming. Juices are a source of vitamins (primarily vitamin C, some minerals (iron, fibers, and water. At the same time, juices contain significant amount of other organic compounds important for the human body, such as polyphenols that are an important component of plant products. They are present in vegetables and fruits, both fresh foods and drinks. Polyphenols include phenolic acid and flavonoids: flavonols (catechins and proanthocyanidines, anthocyanins, etc. Fruit juices contain an average of 34 mg/ 100 ml polyphenols and tomato juice does 69 mg/100 ml. Polyphenols play the most important role in the body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms. Their anti-atherogenic and anti-cancer effects (reducing the risk of myocardial infarction and that of lung and rectal cancers are shown in the long term.

  14. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2009-02-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  15. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-02-06

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  16. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics

  17. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  18. Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quantum systems (methods such as entanglement swapping [5] fall in this ... continued till the particles anti-bunch, in which case they are entangled. 2. .... in the context of the scattering of ballistic electrons from a magnetic impurity in a semi-.

  19. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  20. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...

  1. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  2. Enzymatic extraction of star gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) juice with high antioxidant level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Do Thi Thanh; Tra, Tran Thi Thu; Nguyet, Ton Nu Minh; Man, Le Van Viet

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds are main antioxidants in star gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) fruit. In this study, Pectinex Ultra SP-L preparation with pectinase activity was used in the extraction of star gooseberry juice. The effects of pectinase concentration and biocatalytic time on the content of ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the fruit juice were firstly investigated. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the conditions of enzymatic extraction for maximizing the antioxidant activity of the star gooseberry juice. The optimal pectinase concentration and biocatalytic time were 19 polygalacturonase units per 100g pulp dry weight and 67 min, respectively under which the maximal antioxidant activity achieved 5595±6 µmol Trolox equivalent per 100g juice dry weight. On the basis of kinetic model of second-order extraction, the extraction rate constant of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in the enzymatic extraction increased approximately 21% and 157%, respectively in comparison with that in the conventional extraction. Application of pectinase preparation to the fruit juice extraction was therefore potential for improvement in antioxidant level of the product.

  3. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T., cv. Tahiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Netto Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented higher peel percentage than the conventional ones leading to lower juice yield. On the other hand, fructose, glucose, total soluble solids contents, potassium, manganese, iron, and copper were higher in the conventional samples. These results indicated few nutritional differences between organic and conventional acid lime juices in some constituents. Nevertheless, fruit juice from biodynamic crops could be a good choice since it is free from pesticides and other agents that cause problems to human health maintaining the levels similar to those of important nutritional compounds.

  4. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  5. High dimensional entanglement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2190 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name McLaren_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 High dimensional... entanglement M. McLAREN1,2, F.S. ROUX1 & A. FORBES1,2,3 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of the Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland 3. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...

  6. Spacetime equals entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Salzetta, Nico, E-mail: nsalzetta@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.

  7. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  8. Would an increase in vegetable and fruit intake help to reduce the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-10

    Feb 10, 2013 ... in South African children include stunting, underweight, vitamin A deficiency, the .... All the titles and abstracts of articles identified by searches were screened ... However, increased fruit juice intake was associated with excess.

  9. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  10. Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.

  11. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  12. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  13. Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter’s technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.

  14. Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Honda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.

  15. Entanglement in a Dimerized Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun

    2008-01-01

    The entanglement properties in an antiferromagnetic dimerized Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain are investigated. The entanglement gap, which is the difference between the ground-state energy and the minimal energy that any separable state can attain, is calculated to detect the entanglement. It is found that the entanglement gap can be increased by varying the alternation parameter. Through thermal energy, the witness of the entanglement can determine a characteristic temperature below that an entan...

  16. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  17. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  18. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  19. Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2007-01-01

    Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x> we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η>as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x>and |η>. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x>may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x>.

  20. Bound entanglement and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation

  1. Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G

    2009-01-01

    melanocarpa is among the red fruits with the highest content of antioxidants [2] and has gained must interest due to the content of phenolic acids, procyanidins and polyphenolic compounds as anthocyanins [3]. In this study, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) has been tested for the concentration of not only...... sugars, but in particular potentially bioactive components such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. OMD is carried out on 37 kg aronia juice at 30°C and the juice is concentrated from 12 wt% to 74 wt% dry matter. The juice is filtered to remove kernels, peel residues etc before concentration by OMD...

  2. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).

  3. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  4. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhaneen Afzal Mazlan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R,23(S-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.

  5. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M Suffian M; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.

  6. Gaussian entanglement revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.

  7. Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....

  8. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  9. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  10. Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)

  11. Entanglement scaling in lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.

  12. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  13. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  14. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-04-15

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  15. Estimating localizable entanglement from witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, David; Müller, Markus; Pal, Amit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Computing localizable entanglement for noisy many-particle quantum states is difficult due to the optimization over all possible sets of local projection measurements. Therefore, it is crucial to develop lower bounds, which can provide useful information about the behaviour of localizable entanglement, and which can be determined by measuring a limited number of operators, or by performing least number of measurements on the state, preferably without performing a full state tomography. In thi...

  16. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...

  17. Entanglement as a signature of quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ghose, Shohini; Sanders, Barry C; Hu, Bambi

    2004-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of entanglement in classically chaotic systems by considering a multiqubit system that behaves collectively as a spin system obeying the dynamics of the quantum kicked top. In the classical limit, the kicked top exhibits both regular and chaotic dynamics depending on the strength of the chaoticity parameter kappa in the Hamiltonian. We show that the entanglement of the multiqubit system, considered for both the bipartite and the pairwise entanglement, yields a signature of quantum chaos. Whereas bipartite entanglement is enhanced in the chaotic region, pairwise entanglement is suppressed. Furthermore, we define a time-averaged entangling power and show that this entangling power changes markedly as kappa moves the system from being predominantly regular to being predominantly chaotic, thus sharply identifying the edge of chaos. When this entangling power is averaged over all states, it yields a signature of global chaos. The qualitative behavior of this global entangling power is similar to that of the classical Lyapunov exponent.

  18. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  19. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  20. Quantum entanglement of identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yu

    2003-01-01

    We consider entanglement in a system with a fixed number of identical particles. Since any operation should be symmetrized over all the identical particles and there is the precondition that the spatial wave functions overlap, the meaning of identical-particle entanglement is fundamentally different from that of distinguishable particles. The identical-particle counterpart of the Schmidt basis is shown to be the single-particle basis in which the one-particle reduced density matrix is diagonal. But it does not play a special role in the issue of entanglement, which depends on the single-particle basis chosen. The nonfactorization due to (anti)symmetrization is naturally excluded by using the (anti)symmetrized basis or, equivalently, the particle number representation. The natural degrees of freedom in quantifying the identical-particle entanglement in a chosen single-particle basis are occupation numbers of different single-particle basis states. The entanglement between effectively distinguishable spins is shown to be a special case of the occupation-number entanglement