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Sample records for frogs rana japonica

  1. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  2. Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqiang; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui; Chen Shunhua

    2002-01-01

    The research on the behaviors of 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14 C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos 14 C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos or 14 C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

  3. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to ... less of whether they are siblings or non-siblings in a group, which correlates well with ..... Sutherland W J and Parker G A 1992 The relationship between.

  4. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  5. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  6. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  7. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yoshimura

    Full Text Available The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  8. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  9. Helminth communities of two green frogs (Rana perezi and Rana saharica from both shores of the Alboran Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of two populations of green frogs from both shores of the Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean were studied. Of the 79 frogs examined for helminths, 39 individuals of the species Rana saharica were collected from Bab-Taza (Morocco, and 40 of the species Rana perezi were collected from the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema (Spain. Although the species richness of helminths was identical in the two sampled areas, the differences observed in the structure of the helminth infracommunities were quite important. Statistically, significant differences were found between the species richness and the diversity of the infracommunities of R. perezi female population and the other three studied statistical populations. The helminth component communities of these two green frogs can be considered as depauperate, although their infracommunities present interactive features.

  10. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

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    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  12. Long-Term United Kindrom Trends in the Breeding Phenology of the Common Frog, Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, W.A.; Pithart, David; Adamson, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2008), s. 89-96 ISSN 0022-1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Long-term * Common Frog * Breeding * Rana temporaria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2008

  13. Mating strategy and breeding patterns of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii) has declined across much of its native range in California. Improper stream management may lower egg mass survival and reduce the availability of suitable breeding habitats. We collected data during six breeding-seasons (2002-2007) along an unregulated stream in northwestern California. We monitored...

  14. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  15. First report of Hepatozoon sp. in the Oregon spotted frog, Rana pretiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2010-07-01

    From 2005 through 2008, we screened 650 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon, USA, for hemoparasites. A Hepatozoon sp., not previously reported in R. pretiosa, was found in one population of frogs, mostly as intracellular gamonts at a prevalence of 10.5% with parasitemias ranging from 0.02% to greater than 42% of erythrocytes within individual frogs. Intra-and extracellular merozoites were present, but rare. A potential vector, the mosquito Culex boharti, was common throughout the habitat of the population carrying Hepatozoon sp.

  16. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Beasley, Val R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  17. Morphometric variation in the Tunisian green frog, Rana saharica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana saharica is the most widely distributed anuran in Tunisia. We examined morphological variation in 124 specimens as a function of their geographical origin, using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional morphometrics. Our results supported the existence of three morphotypes of this species, correctly ...

  18. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  19. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  20. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  1. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  3. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  5. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.; Wright, R.K.; Cooper, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  6. Rana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing

    and for visualization. As a tool Rana offers a graphic user interface for live event visualization, agent feedback and simulation configuration. To establish Rana as an end-user tool, it is evaluated against the existing state of the art for multi-agent systems simulation tools and three different Rana models...... interface for defining the nature of an events propagation. This provides an interface for determination of event relevance during a simulation, and for visualization of a simulations event-scape. Two different simulations are presented that demonstrate event-processing functionality in agent design...

  7. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

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    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  8. BIOMETRIC STUDY TO RANA RIDIBUNDA FROG SPECIES NEARNESS TO TIMISOARA LOCALITY

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    M. BURA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Speciality literature provides little informations regarding Rana ridibunda frogbiometry. For supply this gap we studied the size and weight of 54 frogs sampled fromnearby Timişoara area ponds.The mean body lenght was 8,08 ± 0,54 cm for the females and respectively 6,17 ± 0,45cm for the males. Before evisceration on a par females weighted 62,28 ± 12,87 g andthe males 22,46 ± 5,3 g whereas after this action the carcase weighted 43,89 ± 8,91 gin the case of females and respectively 18,45 ± 4,42 g in the case of male lake frog. Themean leg lenght measured 12,59 ± 0,68 cm for female frogs and 9,78 ± 0,66 cm in thecase of male frogs. The hind stylopodium was estimated on a par as 13,23 ± 2,57 g forfemales and 5,33 ± 1,26 g for the males.

  9. Hemoparasites in Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from central Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2008-04-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, we screened blood smears of 156 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon for blood parasites. A Lankesterella sp. and a Trypanosoma sp. were detected in 31% and 35% of the frogs, respectively. Parasite loads were generally light, with Lankesterella sporozoites in 1-2% of erythrocytes, and extracellular trypanosomes were seen at rates of about one parasite per 200 fields of view at 1,000x. Little work has been published on hemoparasites of ranids in the western USA in the past 30 yr. Because of the recent taxonomic division of the Rana pretiosa complex, this may be the first published report of blood parasites for R. pretiosa sensu stricto. Both parasites reported here differed in morphologic features and morphometric comparisons from previous descriptions of anuran hemoparasites. Much work remains to sort out the taxonomy of hemoparasites among western USA ranids and to determine the ecological significance of these parasites; both tasks are important steps in understanding and managing these, and related, sensitive and threatened species.

  10. Habitat use and home range of the endangered gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Nam-Yong; Sung, Ha-Cheol; Cheong, Seokwan; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Eom, Junho; Park, Daesik

    2008-09-01

    Because of their complex life styles, amphibians and reptiles living in wetlands require both aquatic and terrestrial buffer zones in their protected conservation areas. Due to steep declines in wild populations, the gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica) is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. However, lack of data about its movements and use of habitat prevents effective conservation planning. To determine the habitat use and home range of this species, we radio-tracked 44 adult frogs for 37 days between 10 July and 4 Nov. 2007 to observe three different populations in the breeding season, non-breeding season, and late fall. The gold-spotted pond frog was very sedentary; its daily average movement was 9.8 m. Frogs stayed close to breeding ponds (within 6.6 m), and did not leave damp areas surrounding these ponds, except for dormancy migration to terrestrial sites such as dried crop fields. The average distance of dormancy migration of seven frogs from the edge of their breeding ponds was 32.0 m. The average size of an individual's home range was 713.8 m(2) (0.07 ha). The year-round population home range, which accounts for the home ranges of a population of frogs, was determined for two populations to be 8,765.0 m(2) (0.88 ha) and 3,700.9 m(2) (0.37 ha). Our results showed that to conserve this endangered species, appropriately sized wetlands and extended terrestrial buffer areas surrounding the wetlands (at least 1.33 ha, diameter 130 m) should be protected.

  11. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu; Jia Xiuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd 2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  12. Accelerated hatching of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) eggs in response to the presence of a crayfish Procambarus nigrocinctus predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; James B. Johnson; Cory K. Adams; Gage H. Dayton

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, such as morphological and behavioral changes in response to predators, is common in larval anurans. Less is known about inducible defenses in the embryonic stages of development. We investigated the predation risk imposed by crayfish (Procambarus nigrocinctus) on southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)...

  13. Water velocity tolerance in tadpoles of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii): Swimming performance, growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kupferberg; A. Lind; V. Thill; S. Yarnell

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of large magnitude flow fluctuations in rivers with dams, commonly referred to as pulsed flows, on tadpoles of the lotic-breeding Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We quantified the velocity conditions in habitats occupied by tadpoles and then conducted experiments to assess the tolerance to values at the upper limit...

  14. Enzymatic regulation of seasonal glycogen cycling in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2016-12-01

    Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose. We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and glycogen synthase (GS) relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate (Ohioan) and subarctic (Alaskan) populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels. In addition, glycogen levels in spring were the lowest of four seasonal samples, as energy input was likely directed towards metabolism and somatic growth during this period. Near-maximal glycogen levels were reached by mid-summer, and remained unchanged in fall and winter, suggesting that glycogenesis was curtailed during this period. Ohioan frogs had a high potential for glycogenolysis and glycogenesis in winter, as evidenced by large glycogen reserves, high levels of GP and GS proteins, and high GS activity, which likely allows for rapid mobilization of cryoprotectant during freezing and replenishing of glycogen reserves during thawing. Alaskan frogs also achieved a near-maximal liver glycogen concentration by summer and displayed high glycogenic and glycogenolytic potential in winter, but, unlike Ohioan frogs, started replenishing their energy reserves early in spring. We conclude that variation in levels of both glycogenolytic and glycogenic enzymes likely happens in response to seasonal changes in energetic strategies and demands, with winter survival being a key component to understanding the regulation of glycogen cycling in this species.

  15. Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Christopher A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2008-04-22

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of a few vertebrate species that have developed natural freeze tolerance, surviving days or weeks with 65-70% of its total body water frozen in extracellular ice masses. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia. Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase (AMPD) plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to approximately 1.0) and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg.ATP and Mg.ADP and inhibited by Mg.GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated) enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5 degrees C) and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose) that accumulates during freezing

  16. Climatic influences on the breeding biology of the agile frog ( Rana dalmatina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Magali; Pinaud, David; Barbraud, Christophe; Trotignon, Jacques; Brischoux, François

    2018-02-01

    Severe population declines of amphibians have been shown to be attributed to climate change. Nevertheless, the various mechanisms through which climate can influence population dynamics of amphibians remain to be assessed, notably to disentangle the relative synergetic or antagonistic influences of temperature and precipitations on specific life history stages. We investigated the impact of rainfall and temperature on the egg-clutch abundance in a population of agile frog ( Rana dalmatina) during 29 years (1987-2016) on 14 breeding sites located in Brenne Natural Park, France. Specifically, we examined the influence of environmental conditions occurring during five temporal windows of the year cycle corresponding to specific life history stages. Overall, our results suggest that the year-to-year fluctuations of egg-clutch abundances in Brenne Natural Park were partly dependent on local climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature). Climate seemed to influence breeding frogs during the autumn-winter period preceding reproduction. Spring and summer conditions did not influence reproduction. Additionally, we failed to detect effects of climatic conditions on newly metamorphosed individuals. Other factors such as density dependence and inter-specific interactions with introduced predators are likely to play a significant role in reproduction dynamics of the studied frog populations.

  17. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  18. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Green, E.D.; Longcore, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U.S. National Zoological Park (Washington, DC). This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans. Forty-one percent (158 of 387) of larval R. muscosa examined in the field with a hand lens and 18% (14 of 79) of preserved larvae had abnormalities of the oral disc. Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent (16 of 24) of these tadpoles were infected with B. dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Tadpoles with mouthpart abnormalities or confirmed chytrid fungus infections were collected at 23 sites spanning a distance of > 440 km and an elevational range from 1658-3550 m. Life-history traits of R. muscosa may make this species particularly susceptible to infection by Batrachochytrium. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis. Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another.

  19. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-wern; Hoffman, David J; Karasov, William H

    2007-04-15

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates.

  20. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: Implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2005, we studied the demography and seasonal movement of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) translocated into created ponds in Dilman Meadow in central Oregon. Our objectives were to inform future monitoring and management at the site, and to elucidate poorly known aspects of the species’ population ecology. Movement rates revealed complementary use of sites seasonally, with one small spring being preferred during winter that was rarely used during the rest of the year. Growth rates were significantly higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and larger size resulted in significantly higher survival. When variation in survival by size was accounted for there was little variation among ponds in survival. Seasonal estimates of survival were lowest for males during the breeding/post-breeding redistribution period, suggesting a high cost of breeding for males. Overwintering survival for both genders was relatively high. Our study supports others in suggesting Oregon spotted frogs are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements, and that predator-free springs may be of particular value. We suggest that any future monitoring include measures of the rate of pond succession. Demographic monitoring should include metrics of both frog reproduction and survival: counts of egg masses at all ponds during spring, and capture-recapture study of survival in mid and late summer when capture rates are highest. Additional study of early life stages would be particularly useful to broaden our understanding of the species’ ecology. Specifically, adding intensive capture and marking effort after larval transformation in fall would enable a full understanding of the annual life cycle. Complete study of the annual life cycle is needed to isolate the life stages and mechanisms through which Oregon spotted frogs are affected by stressors such as nonnative predators. Dilman Meadow, which lacks many hypothesized stressors, is an important reference for

  1. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  2. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  3. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its core range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We surveyed 93 sites in a rotating frame design (2010–13) in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species’ core extant range. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site (local extinction) and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy. This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species.

  4. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  5. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  6. Ranid Herpesvirus 3 and Proliferative Dermatitis in Free-Ranging Wild Common Frogs (Rana Temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Schmidt, B R; Lohmann, P; Otten, P; Akdesir, E; Gaschen, V; Aguilar-Bultet, L; Wahli, T; Sattler, U; Stoffel, M H

    2017-07-01

    Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae. RHV3 infection in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) was associated with severe multifocal epidermal hyperplasia, dermal edema, a minor inflammatory response, and variable mucous gland degeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were numerous in the affected epidermis together with unique extracellular aggregates of herpesvirus-like particles. The RHV3-associated skin disease has features similar to those of a condition recognized in European frogs for the last 20 years and whose cause has remained elusive. The genome of RHV3 shares most of the features of the Alloherpesviruses. The characterization of this presumptive pathogen may be of value for amphibian conservation and for a better understanding of the biology of Alloherpesviruses.

  7. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  8. Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, in a high-elevation Sierra Nevada basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2001-01-01

    Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in Dusy Basin (3470 m), Kings Canyon National Park, California, were characterized using passive integrated transponder (PIT) surveys and visual encounter surveys. We individually PIT-tagged 500 frogs during the summers of 1997 and 1998 and monitored these individuals during seven...

  9. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  10. Experimental Repatriation of Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Bradford, David F.; Pratt, David; Wood, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog) was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in 1993-1995 demonstrated that R. muscosa was absent from more than half of all suitable habitat within the park, including the Tableland area. At that same time, R. muscosa was still common at Sixty Lake Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, 30 km to the northeast. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. muscosa eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adult frogs from Sixty Lake Basin to four sites in the Tableland area in 1994 and 1995. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in 1994-1995, and intermittently in 1996-1997, to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. muscosa were refined during the study, and during 1995 resulted in high initial survival rates of all life history stages. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels. Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present. However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites (e.g., no new eggs or small tadpoles) and nearly all life history stages disappeared within 12 months. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was

  11. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate `Filippo Bottazzi`

    1997-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  12. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate ` Filippo Bottazzi`

    1998-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  13. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  14. Activation of eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, after localized UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambuichi, Hajime

    1981-01-01

    To analyze the mode of transmission of the activating stimulus, the change in time course of the 2nd maturation division was examined in eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata, which were activated by insemination or by pricking after UV-irradiation at either the animal or the vegetal hemisphere. Irradiation of the animal (UAF) or the vegetal (UVF) hemisphere before insemination retarded the 2nd maturation division in comparison with that in normally fertilized eggs (CF). When the eggs were pricked at the irradiated surface (UAP and UVP, respectively), however, the 2nd maturation division progressed faster than that of CF. The comparison of the velocity of the 2nd maturation division between UAF and UVF, and also between UAP and UVP, showed that the cortical reaction in the vegetal hemisphere was affected by UV-irradiation more severely than that in the animal hemisphere. The results suggested that the quality of the granules or the constituent within the egg cortex might vary according to the regional difference in the egg surface. (author)

  15. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  16. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  17. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Momo; Oba, Yurika; Nursal, Wim Ikbal; Igawa, Takeshi; Doi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Toshihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  18. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations

  20. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  1. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the adult population was resident at these sites. Adequate protection of red-legged frog populations inhabiting

  2. The role of desensititation in decay time of miniature endplate currents in frogs Rana ridibunda and Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giniatullin, R. A.; Talantova, M. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2001), s. 287-292 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA MŠk VS97099; GA MŠk OK 267 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 98-04-48044; INTAS(BE) 2000-1147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : frog * desensitisation * miniature endplate potential Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.770, year: 2001

  3. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica)

    OpenAIRE

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-01-01

    Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog perform...

  4. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çiçek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 males, 58 females, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 prey items were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed prey items were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. There was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. It appears that the species is feeding less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also evident that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on the elevation.

  5. Rana nigromaculata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ONLINE RESOURCES. Development and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the pond green frog (Rana nigromaculata). JIE GONG1,2, HONG LAN1,2, SHENG-GUO FANG1,2 and QIU-HONG WAN1,2∗. 1College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of ...

  6. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  7. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.M.; Antunes, S.C.; Pissarra, H.; Pereira, M.L.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised

  8. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com; Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pissarra, H. [Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica, Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, U.T.L., Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos (CICECO), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-01-31

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised.

  9. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ....' Gopher frogs inhabit xeric upland pine communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain from the southern half of the North Carolina coastal plain to southern Florida and westward to eastern Louisiana...

  10. Effects of X-irradiation on some aspects of protein metabolism in the frog, Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajarami Reddy, G.; Sasira Babu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the level of total proteins and protease in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were determined. Low doses of radiation produced an increment in protein level while high doses produced decrement. However, protease activity at all doses exhibited an elevatory trend. Exposure of frogs to lethal doses resulted in increased protease activity and decreased protein content during post-irradiation periods. The results are discussed on the basis of protein destruction and lysosomal damage. (auth.)

  11. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  12. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion ( wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  13. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-07

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  15. Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsbeek Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex life histories require adaptation of a single organism for multiple ecological niches. Transitions between life stages, however, may expose individuals to an increased risk of mortality, as the process of metamorphosis typically includes developmental stages that function relatively poorly in both the pre- and post-metamorphic habitat. We studied predator-mediated selection on tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, to identify this hypothesized period of differential predation risk and estimate its ontogenetic onset. We reared tadpoles in replicated mesocosms in the presence of the larval odonate Anax junius, a known tadpole predator. Results The probability of tadpole survival increased with increasing age and size, but declined steeply at the point in development where hind limbs began to erupt from the body wall. Selection gradient analyses indicate that natural selection favored tadpoles with short, deep tail fins. Tadpoles resorb their tails as they progress toward metamorphosis, which may have led to the observed decrease in survivorship. Path models revealed that selection acted directly on tail morphology, rather than through its indirect influence on swimming performance. Conclusions This is consistent with the hypothesis that tail morphology influences predation rates by reducing the probability a predator strikes the head or body.

  16. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  17. Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Growth and developmental effects of coal combustion residues on Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) tadpoles exposed throughout metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2008-09-15

    The effects of aquatic deposition of coal combustion residues (CCRs) on amphibian life histories have been the focus of many recent studies. In summer 2005, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate (approximately 1 cm deep within plastic bins) and documented effects of sediment type on oral disc condition, as well as time to, mass at, and total body length at key developmental stages, including metamorphosis (Gosner stages (GS) 37, 42, and 46). We found no significant difference in mortality between the two treatments and mortality was relatively low (eight of 48 in the control group and four of 48 in the CCR group). Ninety percent of exposed tadpoles displayed oral disc abnormalities, while no control individuals displayed abnormalities. Tadpoles raised on CCR-contaminated sediment had decreased developmental rates and weighed significantly less at all developmental stages, on average, when compared to controls. The CCR treatment group was also significantly shorter In length than controls at the completion of metamorphosis (GS 46). Collectively, these findings are the most severe sub-lethal effects noted for any amphibian exposed to CCRs to date. More research is needed to understand how these long term effects may contribute to the dynamics of local amphibian populations.

  19. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands.

  20. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles' development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels

  1. The esophagus anatomic-histology of bull frog ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802 Anatomo-histologia do esôfago da rã touro ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lino Pinto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to describe the esophage functional morpho – histology of bull frog (Rana catebeiana Shaw, 1802, twenty bull frog, mean body weight of 85.00 ± 2.03 g, were used. The esophageal mucosa architecture is defined by thick longitudinal folds, showing an esophageal ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with mucous cells and pluricellular glands; the esophageal muscular coat is composed by inner circular muscular lamina, and by outer longitudinal muscular lamina.Com o objetivo de descrever a anatomo histologia funcional do esôfago da rã touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802, foram utilizados 20 (vinte exemplares de rã touro com peso médio de 85,00 ± 2,03 g. Verificou-se que a arquitetura da mucosa esofágica é definida por pregas espessas e longitudinais, com epitélio esofágico do tipo pseudo estratificado ciliado com células mucosas e glândulas pluricelulares; a túnica muscular esofágica é constituida pela túnica muscular circular, mais interna, e pela túnica muscular longitudinal, mais externa.

  2. Cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses to temperature and hypoxia of the winter frog Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hypoxia and temperature on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and plasma glucose levels of the winter bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Body temperature was maintained at 10, 15, 25 and 35oC for measurements of breathing frequency, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, metabolic rate, plasma glucose levels, blood gases and acid-base status. Reducing body temperature from 35 to 10oC decreased (P<0.001 heart rate (bpm from 64.0 ± 3.1 (N = 5 to 12.5 ± 2.5 (N = 6 and blood pressure (mmHg (P<0.05 from 41.9 ± 2.1 (N = 5 to 33.1 ± 2.1 (N = 6, whereas no significant changes were observed under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced changes in breathing frequency and acid-base status were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 25oC, less so at 15oC, and absent at 10oC. Hypoxia at 35oC was lethal. Under normoxia, plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl decreased (P<0.01 from 53.0 ± 3.4 (N = 6 to 35.9 ± 1.7 (N = 6 at body temperatures of 35 and 10oC, respectively. Hypoxia had no significant effect on plasma glucose concentration at 10 and 15oC, but at 25oC there was a significant increase under conditions of 3% inspired O2. The arterial PO2 and pH values were similar to those reported in previous studies on non-estivating Rana catesbeiana, but PaCO2 (37.5 ± 1.9 mmHg, N = 5 was 3-fold higher, indicating increased plasma bicarbonate levels. The estivating bullfrog may be exposed not only to low temperatures but also to hypoxia. These animals show temperature-dependent responses that may be beneficial since during low body temperatures the sensitivity of most physiological systems to hypoxia is reduced

  3. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic genes and disrupt tadpole growth patterns.

  5. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  6. Influence of larval period on responses of overwintering green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae exposed to contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P.; Baionno, J.A.; Broughton, J. [Towson State University, Towson, MD (US). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-06-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians exhibit large intra- and interspecific differences in the duration of the aquatic larval phase. In contaminated aquatic environments, a prolonged larval phase means prolonged exposure to pollutants and, potentially, more severe toxic effects. In the laboratory, we tested this hypothesis by exposing green frog larvae (Rana clamitans) to commercial clean sand (control), sediment from an abandoned surface mine (mine), or sediment contaminated with coal combustion waste (CCW). By collecting eggs late in the breeding season, we obligated larvae to overwinter and spend a protracted amount of time exposed to contaminated sediments. The experiment was continued until all larvae either successfully completed metamorphosis or died (301 d). Larvae exposed to mine sediments accumulated significant levels of Pb and Zn, whereas larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment accumulated significant levels of As, Se, Sr, and V. Larvae exposed to mine sediments suffered sublethal effects in the form of reduced growth and size at metamorphosis, but the proportion of larvae successfully completing metamorphosis (93%) was the same for both control and mine treatments. In contrast, larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment suffered greatly reduced survival (13%) compared to both control and mine treatments. Moreover, among larvae in the CCW treatment, the majority of mortality occurred during the latter part the overwintering period (after day 205), corresponding to the onset of metamorphosis in the controls. Our results suggest that the length of the larval period may be one of many life-history or ecological characteristics that influence the sensitivity of aquatic breeding amphibians to environmental pollutants.

  7. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p leopard frogs.

  8. Sexual dimorphism of extensor carpi radialis muscle size, isometric force, relaxation rate and stamina during the breeding season of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A; James, Rob S

    2007-02-01

    Mating success of individual male frogs within explosive breeding species can depend on their ability to compete for a mate and to hold onto that mate during amplexus. Such importance of amplexus has resulted in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the morphology and contractile characteristics of the anuran forelimb muscles used during amplexus. The aims of our study were to use an explosive breeding frog (Rana temporaria) during the breeding season to compare extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle length, mass, isometric activation times, relaxation times, absolute force, relative force (stress) and fatigue between male and female frogs. We found that ECR muscle mass and length were greater (tenfold and 1.4-fold, respectively), absolute tetanic muscle force and relative tetanic force (stress) were greater (16-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively) and relaxation times were slower in males than in females. Male ECR muscles incompletely relaxed during fatigue tests and showed less fatigue than female muscles. These sex differences are likely to be beneficial to the male frogs in allowing them to produce relatively high absolute muscle forces for prolonged periods of time to hold onto their mate during amplexus.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination.

  10. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar

  11. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  12. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzo, Domenico [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada); Hecnar, Stephen J. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephen.hecnar@lakeheadu.ca

    2006-03-15

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  13. Amphibian population genetics in agricultural landscapes: does viniculture drive the population structuring of the European common frog (Rana temporaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lenhardt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations have been declining globally over the past decades. The intensification of agriculture, habitat loss, fragmentation of populations and toxic substances in the environment are considered as driving factors for this decline. Today, about 50% of the area of Germany is used for agriculture and is inhabited by a diverse variety of 20 amphibian species. Of these, 19 are exhibiting declining populations. Due to the protection status of native amphibian species, it is important to evaluate the effect of land use and associated stressors (such as road mortality and pesticide toxicity on the genetic population structure of amphibians in agricultural landscapes. We investigated the effects of viniculture on the genetic differentiation of European common frog (Rana temporaria populations in Southern Palatinate (Germany. We analyzed microsatellite data of ten loci from ten breeding pond populations located within viniculture landscape and in the adjacent forest block and compared these results with a previously developed landscape permeability model. We tested for significant correlation of genetic population differentiation and landscape elements, including land use as well as roads and their associated traffic intensity, to explain the genetic structure in the study area. Genetic differentiation among forest populations was significantly lower (median pairwise FST = 0.0041 at 5.39 km to 0.0159 at 9.40 km distance than between viniculture populations (median pairwise FST = 0.0215 at 2.34 km to 0.0987 at 2.39 km distance. Our analyses rejected isolation by distance based on roads and associated traffic intensity as the sole explanation of the genetic differentiation and suggest that the viniculture landscape has to be considered as a limiting barrier for R. temporaria migration, partially confirming the isolation of breeding ponds predicted by the landscape permeability model. Therefore, arable land may act as a sink habitat

  14. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  15. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  16. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  17. Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment – a management tool for assessment of road effects on regional populations of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    viability. Analyses of maps without the planned road constructions will constitute a “null-model” against which other scenarios can be compared, making it possible to assess the effect of road projects on landscape connectivity and population dynamics. Analyses and comparisons of several...... demonstrate how SAIA can be used to assess which management measures would be best to mitigate the effect of landscape fragmentation caused by road constructions by means of a case study dedicated to the Moor frog (Rana arvalis).......An expanding network of roads and railways fragments natural habitat affecting the amount and quality of habitat and reducing connectivity between habitat patches with severe consequences for biodiversity and population persistence. To ensure an ecologically sustainable transportation system...

  18. Composition of Micro-eukaryotes on the Skin of the Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae and Patterns of Correlation between Skin Microbes and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan G. Kueneman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and other micro-eukaryotes. Here, we characterize skin-associated bacteria and micro-eukaryotic diversity found across life stages of Cascades frog (Rana cascadae and their associated aquatic environments using culture independent 16S and 18S rRNA marker-gene sequencing. Individuals of various life stages of Cascades frogs were sampled from a population located in the Trinity Alps in Northern California during an epidemic of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We filtered the bacterial sequences against a published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis in co-culture to estimate the proportion of the skin bacterial community that is likely to provide defense against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles had a significantly higher proportion of B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacterial sequence matches relative to subadult and adult Cascades frogs. We applied a network analysis to examine patterns of correlation between bacterial taxa and B. dendrobatidis, as well as micro-eukaryotic taxa and B. dendrobatidis. Combined with the published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis, we used the network analysis to identify bacteria that negatively correlated with B. dendrobatidis and thus could be good probiotic candidates in the Cascades frog system.

  19. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  20. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  1. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  2. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong

    2009-04-09

    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  3. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  4. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  5. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. In-situ caging of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae in wetlands formed from oil sands tailings materials (OSPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The reclamation of oil sand tailings through the formation of wetlands was examined during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 in a mesocosm study of indigenous amphibians (wood frogs). In both years, frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) and reference wetlands that did not contain any OSPM. In year 2 there were 14 sites, of which 7 were reference sites and 7 were OSPM- affected sites. The sites were classified as older or younger than 7 yrs. Four enclosures, each containing 50 tadpoles, were placed in each wetland. Survival time to metamorphosis, and thyroid hormone ratios of larvae raised in young OSPM wetlands were found to be different from those of reference wetlands and old OSPM wetlands. This presentation also provided data on liver EROD activity and whole-body triglyceride concentrations. The study showed that the formation of wetlands from tailings material may support populations of amphibians if the wetlands are given the time to age. The development and health of native amphibians reflects the sustainability of the different reclamation strategies and delineates how higher trophic level organisms may be affected by OSPM.

  7. Effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones on tissue respiration of streaked frog, Rana limnocharis, at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Chakrabarty, P

    1990-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied on the rate of liver and skeletal muscle respiration in both the sexes of R. limnocharis during active and inactive phases of the annual activity cycle. Triiodothyronine (L-T3) and thyroxine (L-T4) did not stimulate tissue (liver and muscle) respiration in any of the experiments irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone stimulated O2 uptake significantly irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline also stimulated tissue respiration significantly during the winter month. Since the ambient temperature was low even during the active phase (max. temperature 21 degrees C), it seems that the frog might have developed tissue sensitivity for gonadal and adrenal hormones at low temperatures when thyroid hormones are calorigenically ineffective.

  8. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim CICEK

    2011-06-01

    -ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} --> Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 ♂♂, 58 ♀♀, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 preys were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed preys were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. It was observed that there was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. The species was found to feed less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also striking that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on elevation. In conclusion, the species is an opportunistic and widely-foraging predator that feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects and its food composition varies by the availability of prey items around it.

  9. [The coiled bodies and satellite microbodies of the oocyte nuclei in hibernating Rana temporaria frogs contain actin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, A G; Kvasov, I D; Khaĭtlina, S Iu; Parfenov, V N

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of preparation of dispersed nuclei content in oocytes of III-IV stages of oogenesis, in terms of Dumont (1972), from hibernating grass frogs using monoclonal antibodies against actin, revealed two types of intranuclear structures containing this protein: coiled bodies (CB) and satellite microbodies (SM). Staining of these preparations with Rhodamin-phalloidin, known specifically to interact with fibrillar actin, did not reveal it in these structures. Results of our biochemical studies, using protease ESP32 specifically cutting only globular actin, are suggesting that both CB and SM contain globular actin. Gall et al. (1975) proposed that CB may be involved in assembling and sorting of small nuclear RNA for the three main RNA processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, and histone pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. Our finding of actin in CB allows a suggestion on actin involvement in the transport of RNA processing complexes from CB to some actual places where processing of RNA takes place. According to our previous data (Tsvetkov, Parfenov., 1994), SM participate in the karyosphere capsule formation. This process is preceded by SM fusion triggered presumably by actin.

  10. Development of Hepatozoon caimani (Carini, 1909 Pessôa, De Biasi & De Souza, 1972 in the Caiman Caiman c. crocodilus, the frog Rana catesbeiana and the mosquito Culex fatigans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogony of Hepatozoon caimani has been studied, by light microscopy, in the mosquito Culex fatigans fed on specimens of the caiman Caiman c. crocodilus showing gametocytes in their peripheral blood. Sporonts iniciate development in the space between the epithelium of the insect gut and the elastic membrane covering the haemocoele surface of the stomach. Sporulating oocysts are clustered on the gut, still invested by the gut surface membrane. Fully mature oocysts were first seen 21 days after the blood-meal. No sporogonic stages were found in some unidentified leeches fed on an infected caiman, up to 30 days following the blood-meal. When mosquitoes containing mature oocysts were fed to frogs (Leptodactylus fuscus and Rana catesbeiana, cysts containing cystozoites developed in the internal organs, principally the liver. Feeding these frogs to farm-bred caimans resulted in the appearance of gametocytes in their peripheral blood at some time between 59 and 79 days later, and the development of tissue cysts in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Transmission of the parasite was also obtained by feeding young caimans with infected mosquitoes and it is suggested that both methods occur in nature. The finding of similar cysts containing cystozoites in the semi-aquatic lizard Neusticurus bicarinatus, experimentally fed with infected C. fatigans, suggests that other secondary hosts may be involved.

  11. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  12. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  13. In vivo study of lens regeneration in Rana cyanophlyctis under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... enhanced the percentage lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also in froglets. Lens regeneration ability ... Influence of vitamin A and ascorbic acid on lens regeneration in young, mature tadpoles and froglets of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Group .... ingested by macrophages. Dorsal iris cells ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  15. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  16. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  17. Distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani: una especie de rana en riesgo de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México Distribution and abundance of Craugastor vulcani: an endangered frog species from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pineda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En México, más de la mitad de las especies de anfibios están amenazadas y de la mayoría no se genera información que permita conocer el estatus en el que se encuentran sus poblaciones. En este trabajo se evaluó la distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani, una rana endémica de la sierra de Los Tuxtlas Veracruz que se encuentra en riesgo de extinción, en función de la transformación de la selva. Para este trabajo, se consultaron bases de datos de registros históricos y se muestrearon 12 sitios que representan ambientes comunes de la región. Se registró un total de 524 individuos, de los cuales el 77% se encontraron en fragmentos de selva, el 20% en remanentes riparios y sólo el 3% en potreros. La mayor abundancia (62% se registró durante la época seca del año. La distribución conocida de C. vulcani está sesgada hacia el norte de la sierra, existe poca información sobre su presencia en la porción sur. La permanencia de la especie en la zona parece depender de los pocos fragmentos de bosque existentes. El aumento en el número, área y conectividad de tales remanentes son algunas de las medidas necesarias para conservar ésta y otras especies amenazadas en la región.More than a half of all amphibian species occurring in Mexico are threatened, and for most of them there is no current information to assess the status of their populations. Craugastor vulcani is an endemic frog from the Los Tuxtlas mountains, Veracruz, and it is classified as an endangered species. We examine the distribution and abundance of C. vulcani as a function of rainforest transformation in Los Tuxtlas. We consulted historical records in databases and sampled 12 sites representing common habitats of the region. We recorded a total of 524 individuals of which 77% were found in rainforest fragments, 20% were collected in riparian remnants and just 3% in cattle pastures. Most individuals (62% were recorded during the dry season. The known distribution

  18. Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae Osteology, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the frog genus Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. RAMÓN FORMAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un análisis osteológico de las especies del género Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, T. venustus, el que completa la definición genérica fundamentada exclusivamente en la osteología de T. bullocki y caracteres larvarios. Para cada especie se entrega nueva información distribucional, ecológica, reproductiva, morfométrica, cromosómica, alozímica y molecular. Se presenta una clave para identificar individuos adultos de las tres especies de Telmatobufo. Se publica por primera vez una lámina de Philippi perdida por casi un siglo, lo que permite aclarar de manera definitiva la identidad taxonómica de T. venustus. Con las distancias de Mahalanobis y las distancias genéticas de Rogers se determinan las similitudes morfológicas y genéticas entre las especies de Telmatobufo. Usando las secuencias para ARN 12S mitocondrial, frecuencias alélicas polarizadas de genes estructurales y caracteres morfológicos (osteológicos y morfológicos externos se propone una hipótesis de relaciones filogenéticas basada en los principios de máxima parsimonia y máxima probabilidad. Finalmente se entrega una proposición acerca de la especiación e historia evolutiva de este grupo de ranas endémicas de los bosques templados del centro-sur de ChileAn osteological analysis of the three species of the genus Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, and T. venustus was done. That analysis completes the generic definition based mainly on the osteology of T. bullocki and on morphological larval characters. New information on morphometry, chromosomes, reproductive biology, ecology, geographical range, allozymes, and molecular data is provided for each species. A key for the taxonomic determination of adult specimens of Telmatobufo is also presented. An unedited original plate by R.A. Philippi, lost for almost a century, is published for the first time; this plate allowed the restatement of the taxonomical identity of T. venustus. Mahalanobis

  19. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth and timing of metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) on the mainstem and selected tributaries of California's Trinity River - 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2013-01-01

    The cold temperatures maintained in the Trinity River are beneficial to fish but may be problematic for foothill yellow-legged frogs. We examined the timing of breeding, reproductive output, and growth and development of tadpoles for populations of foothill yellow-legged frogs on the mainstem and six tributaries of the Trinity River. On the colder mainstem, onset of...

  20. Eriobotrya japonica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... pyrophosphatase (V-PPiase) were isolated from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) pulp. Thereafter, northern analysis ... #These authors contributed equally to this work. ... (TA) correlates highly with malate concentration, but does not correlate ... (1997) have shown that, a nonacid sweet lime (Citrus limmetioides) ...

  1. Alimentación de las ranas pardas, Rana gr. temporaria, en el circo de Piedrafita, (Pirineos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Vieites, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of high Pyrenean mountain brown frogs were studied in the pre-wintering period. The main prey is beetles (44'97o, two-winged flies (12'9% and bees, wasps, ants, etc (11'4%. For the whole of the frogs, the most frequent prey size is the small (smaller than 10 mm. Big frogs tend to consume bigger prey in not ,o. many quantity, while small frogs consume more quantity of preys but smaller in size. From prey way of life, frogs eat mainly terrestrial and aerial preys, although capture of aquatic prey was observed (11'5% and these preys were eaten inside the water.

    Se ha estudiado la dieta de las ranas pardas en alta montaña pirenaica durante el periodo pre-invernal. Las ranas consumen principalmente coleópteros (44'9%, dípteros (12'9% e himenópteros (11'4%. Para el conjunto de todas las ranas estudiadas, las presas más consumidas son las de pequeño tamaño (menores de 10 mm. Las ranas de mayor talla tienden a consumir presas más grandes y en poca cantidad, mientras que las ranas pequeñas consumen más presas aunque de pequeño tamaño. En cuanto a forma de vida las presas más consumidas son terrestres y aéreas, aunque también se ha comprobado la captura de presas acuáticas (11'5% que son consumidas por las ranas dentro del agua.

  2. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  3. Delayed metamorphosis and recurrence of bacterial infection in irradiated Rana clamitans tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    X-ray doses of 5 and 10 Gy (1 Gy/min) given to premetamorphic Green Frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles delayed their metamorphosis relative to unirradiated controls. Previous pathogenic bacterial infections recurred in irradiated animals prior to metamorphic climax. Limited mortality occurred during metamorphic climax, 80-105 days after irradiation

  4. A frog's-eye view of the landscape : quantifying connectivity for fragmented amphibian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial habitat requirements are studied for two amphibian species: the tree frog ( Hyla arborea ) and the moor frog ( Rana arvalis ). Fragmentation, the destruction of suitable habitat, results in small fragments that are separated by

  5. Surveys for California red-legged frog and arroyo toad on the Los Padres National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie K. Hubbartt; Thomas G. Murphey

    2005-01-01

    Starting in the spring of 1999 through the fall of 2000, USDA Forest Service biologists have conducted surveys throughout the Los Padres National Forest for the federally-listed California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and arroyo toad (Bufo californicus). Sites known to have frogs or toads present were monitored for...

  6. A stockpile of ova in the grass frog Rana temporaria is established once for the life span. Do ovaries in amphibians and in mammals follow the same evolutionary strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka; Augustyńska, Renata; Ihnatowicz, Jerzy; Paśko, Łukasz

    2013-04-01

    Most anuran amphibians produce high numbers of eggs during several consecutive breeding seasons. The question is still open whether oocytes are formed anew as a result of oogonial proliferation after each spawning or the definitive pool of oocytes is established during the juvenile period and is sufficient for the whole reproductive life span of a female. Our quantitative studies show that primary oogonia in adult female frogs can proliferate, but they fail to differentiate further and do not enter meiosis, and thereby there is no supplementation of new generations of oocytes after each spawning. Ovaries of one-year-old grass frogs contain (median) 53,447 diplotene oocytes, in two-years-old frogs this number decreased to 33,583 and eventually reached 25,679 in virgin mature females. More than 50% decrease in the total oocyte number was accompanied by massive degeneration (atresia) of oocytes. The final number of oocytes in a female forms a stock for 11-12 breeding seasons and exceeds the number of eggs produced during the potential reproductive life span of this species. The phylogenetic context of oocyte recruitment modes in the major clades of vertebrates is discussed in respect to their ability to replenish the stock (a renewable stock in ovaries named "open" vs. a non-renewable stock in ovaries named "closed"). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Apomorphine effects on frog locomotor behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Joanne; Wilczynski, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The neuroanatomical pathways of the DA systems have been shown to be largely conserved across many vertebrate taxa. It is less certain whether the structural similarities seen between mammals and amphibians reflect a similar functional homology. DA is well known for its role in facilitating motor behaviors in mammals. We examined whether a similar role for DA exists in amphibians using the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens). We investigated the effects of the nonspecific DA agonist, apomorp...

  8. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  9. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  10. Chiricahua leopard frog status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, with a monitoring framework for the species' entire range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones; Michael J. Sredl

    2005-01-01

    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically widespread in suitable habitat throughout its range. Reports of recent population declines led to inventories of Chiricahua leopard frog localities. Surveys reported here establish a new baseline of occurrence in the Galiuros: only two of 21 historical localities were found to be...

  11. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  12. Cuscuta japonica Choisy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the aqueous extract of Japanese Dodder (Cuscuta japonica) on the velocity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been shown. To accelerate the growth of Myc. tuberculosis, dry culture media of FAST-3L and of Lowenstein Jensen were mixed with the aqueous extract of Cuscuta japonica. It was found out that the complex chemical composition of the aqueous extract made of dry seeds or dry vegetative stems of the plant parasite Cuscuta japonica has a biological effect on Myc. tube...

  13. Frog Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics

  14. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  15. Ugrizna rana lica

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Bojana; Knežević, Predrag; Uglešić, Vedran; Zubčić, Vedran

    2006-01-01

    Ugrizne rane jedne su od najčešćih ozljeda u ljudi. Najčešći su ugrizi pasa (više od 80%), mačaka i ljudi. U velikom postotku ugrizne rane locirane su na licu, osobito kod djece. Najčešće bakterije koje se mogu naći u ugriznoj rani su aerobi i anaerobi iz oralne flore napadača i aerobi s kože žrtve. Liječenje ugriznih rana lica je specifično u odnosu prema ostalim dijelovima tijela. Ugrizne rane lica primarno se šivaju, a zbog dobre prokrvljenosti komplikacije su rijetke, no ako se dogode mog...

  16. Interference of a short-chain phospholipid with ion transport pathways in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unmack, M A; Frederiksen, O; Willumsen, N J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of mucosal application of the short-chain phospholipid didecanoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DDPC; with two saturated 10-carbon acyl chains) on active Na+ transport and transepithelial conductance (G) in the frog skin (Rana temporaria) were investigated. Active Na+ transport...... of the frog skin epithelium and opens a paracellular tight junction pathway. Both effects may be caused by incorporation of DDPC in the apical cell membrane....

  17. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia) commercialized in France

    OpenAIRE

    Ohler, Annemarie; Nicolas, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya ca...

  18. Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. II. Spike timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the directionality of spike timing in the responses of single auditory nerve fibers of the grass frog, Rana temporaria, to tone burst stimulation. Both the latency of the first spike after stimulus onset and the preferred firing phase during the stimulus were studied. In addition, the ...

  19. Inherent rhythmcity and interstitial cells of Cajal in a frog vein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interstitial cells of Cajal are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels. The existence of these cells and spontaneous rhythmicity were noticed in amphibian vein and the findings are reported in this paper. The postcaval vein was identified in the frog, Rana tigrina ...

  20. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Measey, G. John; Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F. Andr?; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M.; Davies, Sarah J.; Edwards, Shelley; Altwegg, Res

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet ...

  1. Peatlands and green frogs: A relationship regulated by acidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of site acidification on amphibian populations have been thoroughly addressed in the last decades. However, amphibians in naturally acidic environments, such as peatlands facing pressure from the peat mining industry, have received little attention. Through two field studies and an experiment, I assessed the use of bog habitats by the green frog (Rana clamitans melanota), a species sensitive to various forestry and peat mining disturbances. First, I compared the occurrence and breeding patterns of frogs in bog and upland ponds. I then evaluated frog movements between forest and bog habitats to determine whether they corresponded to breeding or postbreeding movements. Finally, I investigated, through a field experiment, the value of bogs as rehydrating areas for amphibians by offering living Sphagnum moss and two media associated with uplands (i.e., water with pH ca 6.5 and water-saturated soil) to acutely dehydrated frogs. Green frog reproduction at bog ponds was a rare event, and no net movements occurred between forest and bog habitats. However, acutely dehydrated frogs did not avoid Sphagnum. Results show that although green frogs rarely breed in bogs and do not move en masse between forest and bog habitats, they do not avoid bog substrates for rehydrating, despite their acidity. Thus, bogs offer viable summering habitat to amphibians, which highlights the value of these threatened environments in terrestrial amphibian ecology.

  2. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  3. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  4. The Observation of Frog Species at State University of Malang as a Preliminary Effort on Frog Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratri Wulandari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Frog is an amphibian which is widely spread around the world. Indonesia houses 450 species which represent 11% of frog species in the world. In Java Island alone, there live 42 species of frogs and toads. Frogs can be used as an environment indicator in that the presence of frog in a particular place indicates that the place stays natural and unpolluted. The 1st Campus of State University of Malang, which is located in the heart of Malang District, has been developing rapidly currently. Thus, it requires the construction of new various facilities to support its huge activities. Extensive construction can be destructive even damaging to the habitat of frog, which potentially threats the frog’s life, if it does not take the environmental impact into careful consideration. This study is aimed to identify the species of frog which survives at State University of Malang with, particularly the frog species found in 1995. Species identification was conducted by observing the morphological character. This study found that there were four species with three species remained survived in 1995; those were Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Polypedates leucomystax, and Kaloula baleta; and one new species called Rana chalconota. This study also revealed that there were four species which were extinct; those were Fejervarya cancrivora, Fejervarya limnocharis, Ingerophrynus biporcatus, and Occidoziga lima. This situation shows the decreasing amount of species from 7 to 4 within the last 17 years. This result indicates that there is a serious environmental degradation which causes the losing of frog habitats. Further research is needed to study the ecological condition changing in order to save the frog species.

  5. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  6. Terrestrial movements and habitat use of gopher frogs in longleaf pine forests: a comparative study of juveniles and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Roznik; Steve A. Johnson; Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2009-01-01

    Many animals exhibit changes in patterns of movement and habitat use as they age, and understanding such ontogenetic shifts is important for ensuring that habitat management is appropriate for all life stages. We used radiotelemetry to study movements and habitat use of juvenile and adult gopher frogs (Rana capito) as they migrated from the same ponds following...

  7. Effects of acute exposure to magnetic field on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, A.; Hafedh, A.; Mohsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interaction between magnetic field and cadmium on ionic composition of frog sciatic nerve. Design: The combined effect of magnetic field and cadmium (1.5mg/kg; in lymphatic sac) were studied in frog sciatic nerves (Rana Esculenta). Sciatic nerve samples were extracted, weighed and mixed in bidistilled water in order to analyze by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionic composition. Setting: Frogs (Rana Esculenta) were reared in swimming-pool (Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Tunisia). Frogs were cared for under the Tunisian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific purpose and the Experimental Protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee. Subjects: Treated and control groups (n=6) weighing 50-100g at the time of experiments were housed in the same condition three weeks before the beginning of the experiments. Results: Acute exposure to magnetic field increased significantly the calcium (+298%, p<0.05) and iron (+50%, p<0.05) contents of frog sciatic nerve, whereas magnesium and copper contents remained unchanged. The association between magnetic field and cadmium, induced marked increase of calcium (+360%, p<0.05), whereas magnesium content remained stable. Conclusions: Magnetic field exposure alters the ionic composition in the frog sciatic nerve, especially calcium and iron. Magnetic field magnifies the effect of cadmium on calcium homeostasis. (author)

  8. Allozyme comparison of three Trypanosoma species (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) of toads and frogs by starch-gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Desser, S S; Hong, H

    1992-04-01

    Six metabolic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, from clonal isolates of 3 presumptive species of Trypanosoma (T. fallisi, T. ranarum, and T. rotatorium) from 3 anuran hosts (Bufo americanus, Rana clamitans, and Rana catesbeiana) were compared using starch-gel electrophoresis. Although bands were shared among the different zymodemes of isolates of the same host genus, low genetic polymorphism of the enzyme loci was observed with few apparent shared bands between samples isolated from frogs and toads. A distance value calculated between toad and frog trypanosome isolates suggests the likelihood of long-time separation of species. Cluster analysis based on overall similarity distinguished the trypanosomes of toads and frogs as separate taxa, suggesting that host specificity and observed morphological differences are consistent with heritable allozyme differences.

  9. Diagnostic Assay for Rickettsia japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Nozomu; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kawabata, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakata, Akiko; Azuma, Yoshinao; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takano, Ai; Watanabe, Haruo; Kishimoto, Toshio; Shirai, Mutsunori; Kurane, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    We developed a specific and rapid detection system for Rickettsia japonica and R. heilongjiangensis, the causative agents of spotted fever, using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe for a particular open reading frame (ORF) identified by the R. japonica genome project. The target ORF was present only in R. japonica–related strains. PMID:19961684

  10. Acute Toxicity of an Organophosphate Insecticide Chlorpyrifos to an Anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.

  11. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  12. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  13. Helminth parasites of the levantine frog (Pelophylax bedriagae Camerano, 1882 from the western part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demır S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.

  14. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measey, G John; Vimercati, Giovanni; de Villiers, F André; Mokhatla, Mohlamatsane M; Davies, Sarah J; Edwards, Shelley; Altwegg, Res

    2015-01-01

    Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis. Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet. Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species.

  15. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. John Measey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested.Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis.Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet.Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species.

  16. Alternative leech vectors for frog and turtle trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, M E; Desser, S S

    1992-06-01

    Trypanosoma pipientis infections were achieved by exposing laboratory-raised bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) to the leech Desserobdella picta that had fed on infected frogs. Likewise, a laboratory-raised snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was infected with Trypanosoma chrysemydis following exposure to infected Placobdella ornata. Transmission of the trypanosomes by these leeches constitutes new vector records for the parasites. The biology of D. picta and P. ornata suggests that they are more important in transmitting these flagellates than the species of leech previously reported as vectors.

  17. Laboratory studies bearing on pigment pattern polymorphisms in wild populations of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, D J

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for 2,393 progeny from a number of crosses related to a study in ecological genetics of the Burnsi and Kandiyohi polymorphisms in natural populations of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. No significant differences in viability were found between wild-type homozygotes (+/+) and Burnsi heterozygotes (B/+) or homozygotes (B/B). Similarly, no difference in viability was found between wild-type (+/+) and Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) and homozygotes (K/K). However, there appears to be slight reduction in viability of the double dominant heterozygote (B/+; K/+) in comparison with (+/+), (B/+), and (K/+) progeny from the same cross.-The Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) appeared to have a more rapid rate of development from fertilization through metamorphosis than wild-type (+/+) or Burnsi (B+/) or Burnsi-Kandiyohi heterozygotes (B+K/+). Since Kandiyohi is associated primarily with the prairie habitat (Merrell 1965), this finding suggests that the adaptive advantage of Kandiyohi lies in the more rapid rate of development of frogs carrying this gene, enabling them to complete metamorphosis before the prairie breeding ponds dry up.-Data are presented from crosses involving dorsal spot number. The results suggest that heredity plays a role in the determination of dorsal spot number but that non-genetic influences are also of considerable importance.-The results of these crosses are discussed with respect to their bearing on the formation of pigment patterns in Rana pipiens. From the available data it is clear that the pigment pattern in Rana pipiens is a complex trait influenced by major gene loci, by modifying genes, and by environmental effects. The relative importance of these factors varies depending on the particular combination of genetic and environmental conditions.

  18. Exposures to estradiol, ethinylestradiol and octylphenol affect survival and growth of Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2006-08-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are often detected in the aquatic environment and can negatively affect the health of wildlife populations. However, little is known about the sensitivity of native amphibians to EDCs. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were exposed to three estrogenic EDCs: estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). In addition, R. pipiens were exposed during two developmental stages (Gosner stages 26 and 36) to examine life-stage differences in sensitivity. Tadpoles were exposed for 2 wk to 8 nominal concentrations (0.25 microM-10 microM) of each compound. Individual mortality was recorded during the exposure period, while body weight was measured at the end of 2 wk. LC50 values were calculated, and differences in body weight between vehicle control and exposed groups were assessed. Rank order toxicity of the compounds for both R. pipiens stages and both species was OP > EE2 > E2. Gosner stage 26 tadpoles were more sensitive (LC50: E2 [5.57 microM], EE2 [3.01 microM], OP [1.36 microM]) to all three compounds when compared to stage 36 tadpoles (LC50: E2 [>10 microM], EE2 [4.17 microM], OP [2.80 microM]). Interspecies comparisons revealed R. sylvatica tadpoles (LC50: E2 [2.50 microM], EE2 [1.89 microM], OP [0.74 microM]) as being more sensitive to the three compounds than R. pipiens (LC50: E2 [4.56 microM], EE2 [2.75 microM], OP [1.42 microM]). Xenoestrogen exposure also affected tadpole body weight which may have long-term adverse effects on the rate of metamorphosis. These results provide toxicological data needed for assessing sublethal effects of estrogenic compounds on amphibian development and suggest that environmental levels of OP may pose a serious risk to the health of amphibian populations.

  19. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  20. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  1. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  2. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... values are 3.1 and 17.2 nM, respectively. Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s. Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded...

  3. The postglacial recolonization of Northern Europe by Rana arvalis as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T; Merilä, J

    2009-02-01

    The postglacial history of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) in Northern Europe was investigated with the aid of eight variable microsatellite loci and a 661 bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A division between eastern and western mitochondrial lineages was discovered, supporting two recolonization routes to Fennoscandia since the last glacial maximum. This result was corroborated by the microsatellite data, which revealed a contact zone between the two lineages in Northern Sweden. These findings add to the increasing evidence that an intraspecific genetic biodiversity founded on the existence of eastern and western clades is a common element in Fennoscandian fauna and flora.

  4. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  5. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  6. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2003-10-15

    Walter's Machina speculatrix inspired the name Rana computatrix for a family of models of visuomotor coordination in the frog, which contributed to the development of computational neuroethology. We offer here an 'evolutionary' perspective on models in the same tradition for rat, monkey and human. For rat, we show how the frog-like taxon affordance model provides a basis for the spatial navigation mechanisms that involve the hippocampus and other brain regions. For monkey, we recall two models of neural mechanisms for visuomotor coordination. The first, for saccades, shows how interactions between the parietal and frontal cortex augment superior colliculus seen as the homologue of frog tectum. The second, for grasping, continues the theme of parieto-frontal interactions, linking parietal affordances to motor schemas in premotor cortex. It further emphasizes the mirror system for grasping, in which neurons are active both when the monkey executes a specific grasp and when it observes a similar grasp executed by others. The model of human-brain mechanisms is based on the mirror-system hypothesis of the evolution of the language-ready brain, which sees the human Broca's area as an evolved extension of the mirror system for grasping.

  8. Persistence of a circadian rhythmicity for thyroid hormones in plasma and thyroid of hibernating male Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, E R; Delmotte, N M; Darras, V M

    1983-06-01

    The presence and circadian rhythmicity of thyroid hormones was studied in plasma and the thyroid gland of male Rana ridibunda before and during hibernation. Hibernating January frogs do have a lower T3 and T4 content of their thyroid gland whereas plasma levels of T3 are maintained and of T4 increased compared to fed September or October frogs. It seems likely that the increased photoperiod in January will be responsible for this increased T4 secretion, since controlled laboratory experiments performed in December did not reveal any influence of low temperature on circulating T3 or T4 levels. Also feeding does not influence circulating levels and thyroid content of thyroid hormones in frogs kept at room temperature during the month of January. A circadian rhythmicity of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is present in fed October frogs and in non fed December frogs acclimated at 5 degrees C for 12 days with an acrophase for T3 at approximately 1500 h and for T4 at around 1900 h, whereas in plasma only T3 does have circadian variations (acrophase about midnight) but not T4. When December frogs are acclimated to room temperature for 12 days, frogs are active again, but do not eat and have a lower body weight than frogs hibernating at 5 degrees C. Their T3 content of the thyroid gland has disappeared, but T4 thyroid content and plasma levels of T3 and T4 are maintained. As in hibernating frogs, no circadian variations in T4 plasma concentrations are present whereas the circadian thyroid T4 rhythm disappears. At the same time a dampening in rhythmicity for plasma T3 as judged by the significantly lower amplitude occurs. It is concluded that the persistence of circulating levels of thyroid hormones and of a circadian cyclicity for T3 in plasma in non feeding hibernating frogs may reflect the special metabolic state e.g. availability of food reserves in these animals.

  9. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kyek

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo and the common frog (Rana temporaria. The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  10. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    thresholds from 0.02 cm/s2. The sound and vibration sensitivity was compared for each fiber using the offset between the rate-level curves for sound and vibration stimulation as a measure of relative vibration sensitivity. When measured in this way relative vibration sensitivity decreases with frequency from......We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  11. Basic response characteristics of auditory nerve fibers in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B; Kanneworff, M

    1998-01-01

    -excitatory suppression (PS) of their spontaneous activity. The duration of PS increased with sound level, also in fibers showing a decrease in firing rate at high intensities. Most fibers showing one-tone suppression did not show PS at their best suppression frequencies. Strong suppression was observed also in very......Responses to free-field sound of 401 fibers from the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria, are described. The spontaneous activities of the fibers ranged from 0 to 75 spikes/s, showing only weak correlation with frequency or sensitivity of the fibers. The highest spontaneous activities...... were approximately twice as high as reported previously for frogs. Best frequencies ranged from 100 to 1600 Hz and thresholds ranged from 21 to 80 dB SPL. The median dynamic range was 20 dB and the slopes of the rate-level curves ranged from 5 to 20 spikes/(s-dB). Most of the units showed post...

  12. Severe IgE-mediated anaphylaxis following consumption of fried frog legs: definition of alpha-parvalbumin as the allergen in cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Grigioni, F; Thill, L; Mertens, L; Hentges, F

    2002-11-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to bullfrog and edible frog have been reported. The implicated allergens have not been defined so far. The frog material and the patient's serum from a case of severe food-induced anaphylaxis were used to define the implicated allergen at the protein and DNA level. Immunoblotting techniques and N-terminal protein microsequencing were used to define the allergen recognized by the patient's serum. Back translation from the identified protein sequence was used to design degenerated primers to amplify the allergen's cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We defined the nucleotide sequence of the allergen from the frog of Indonesian origin that was consumed by the patient, and the homologous cDNA from Rana esculenta. Protein microsequencing revealed that the implicated frog allergen belonged to the parvalbumin family. cDNAs coding for alpha- and beta-parvalbumin of R. esculenta and Rana species were cloned. Recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The patient's serum IgE antibodies recognized parvalbumin prepared from frog muscle and recombinant alpha-parvalbumin from R. species but not from R. esculenta. Recombinant beta-parvalbumin was not recognized by the IgE antibodies. This work defines at the protein and DNA levels alpha-parvalbumin as the allergen implicated in a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to frog muscle. It also shows that a protein belonging to the parvalbumin family is implicated in type I allergies outside the fish species.

  13. Choosy females and indiscriminate males: mate choice in mixed populations of sexual and hybridogenetic water frogs (Rana lessonae, Rana esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Engeler, B; Reyer, H U

    2001-01-01

    For several decades, behavioral ecologists have studied the effects of the environment on the behavior of individuals; but only fairly recently they have started to ask the reverse question: how do the behavioral strategies of individuals affect the composition and dynamics of populations and communities? Although intuitively obvious, this feedback from individual to higher levels is difficult to demonstrate, except in systems with exceptionally fast and marked responses of the populations to...

  14. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  15. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  16. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Courtship in Frogs Role of Acoustic Communication in Amphibian Courtship Behaviour. Debjani Roy. General Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 39-48 ...

  17. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections

  18. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  19. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Evaluation of use of tiletamine/zolazepam for anesthesia of bullfrogs and leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Durante, R

    1995-07-01

    Use of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (1:1 fixed ratio combination) as an anesthetic agent in 2 anuran species was studied. A dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight, administered IM, resulted in variable weak tranquilization. Intramuscular administration at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg induced variable states of tranquilization or anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (R catesbeiana). The dosages of 50 mg/kg induced anesthesia with greater consistency than lower dosages in bullfrogs, but resulted in mortalities. The same dosage was uniformly fatal in leopard frogs. Neither gross nor histologic lesions were identified in the frogs that died. Depth and duration of anesthesia was dosage related. At the 20 and 50 mg/kg dosages, leopard frogs attained a greater depth of anesthesia and remained anesthetized for a significantly greater duration than did bullfrogs; however, at the 5 and 10 mg/kg dosages, bullfrogs developed greater tranquilization for longer periods than did leopard frogs. Results of this study revealed profound intraspecies variation in depth and duration of effect of tiletamine/zolazepam; therefore, the drug does not appear to be a suitable injectable anesthetic in anurans.

  1. Spatial-ecological divergence of the common frog (Rana temporaria L. and the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss. within their geographic ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly

    2017-03-01

    It is only where there is the interpenetration of «core» landscapes of each species (large areas of the northern and western parts of the East European Plain, and a part of the West Siberian Plain contiguous to the Urals, one can observe the examples of real sympatry of R. arvalis and R. temporaria.

  2. Apomorphine effects on frog locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joanne; Wilczynski, Walter

    2007-05-16

    The neuroanatomical pathways of the DA systems have been shown to be largely conserved across many vertebrate taxa. It is less certain whether the structural similarities seen between mammals and amphibians reflect a similar functional homology. DA is well known for its role in facilitating motor behaviors in mammals. We examined whether a similar role for DA exists in amphibians using the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens). We investigated the effects of the nonspecific DA agonist, apomorphine (APO) on a complex motor task that included two distinct components known to be differentially modulated by DA in mammals: swimming and climbing. We demonstrated that a high single dose of APO (20 mg/kg, body weight) strongly increased the amount of time spent completing the motor task. Furthermore, we showed that although APO did not significantly alter several aspects of swimming behavior, two aspects of climbing behavior were disrupted. Both climbing speed and climbing ability were impaired by APO treatment. These results increase our understanding of DA function in amphibians and add to our understanding of structure-function homologies of dopamine function across vertebrate taxa.

  3. Endocrine control of active sodium transport across frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.

    1959-01-01

    I. Action of the neurohypophyseal peptides on sodium transport. 1) On Rana Esculenta, oxytocin alone is active on the sodium transport (not vaso pressin). 2) The post hypophysis of R.e. contains an hormonal factor even more specific on Na transport (12 times more active than oxytocin). 3) This new factor must be closely related to oxytocin. II. Action of the adrenal corticoids. 1) The skin of frogs adapted to a salt-rich external medium, shows a considerable diminution in sodium uptake. 2) This decreased sodium uptake is brought back to normal by the injections of aldosterone. 3) This suggests that salt loading of amphibians (as well as mammals) inhibits the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenals. (author) [fr

  4. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ranid frogs and northern water snakes from a hazardous waste site and a contaminated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, L W; Noble, G P; Akins, J M; Stephens, M D; Cobb, G P

    2000-04-01

    Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated watershed and hazardous waste site located in Pickens County, South Carolina, contained significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (2.33 and 2.26 ppm, respectively) than those from a reference site (0.05 ppm). Green frogs (R. clamitans) from the two contaminated sites also accumulated higher levels of PCBs (2.37 and 3.88 ppm, respectively) than those from the reference site (0.02 ppm). No temporal variation was observed in PCB concentrations of bullfrogs or green frogs from the contaminated sites between 1992 and 1993. Levels of PCBs in the livers of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) were significantly higher in snakes from the contaminated watershed (13.70 ppm) than in those from the waste site (2.29 ppm) and two reference sites (2.50 and 1.23 ppm). When compared to frogs, significantly higher bioaccumulation occurred in water snakes from the contaminated watershed. No significant differences in PCB levels were found with respect to sex or body size (snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass) for frogs or snakes. PCBs were detected also in eggs of both frogs and snakes. Results of this study provide baseline data and document the bioaccumulation of PCB residues in frog and snake tissues; however, the significance of these tissue residues to reproduction, survival, growth/development, and population dynamics in contaminated habitats is unknown.

  5. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well-defined physical characteristics and a clear biological meaning. ... men t most successfully were the frogs and toads (hereafter referred ... Sound Pressure Level (SPL) in decibels = 20 loglOPt/Pr where,. Pt is the .... R.erythraea (left) and mean spectrum and sonagram of the female ... and egg laying activities initiated. 5.

  6. A novel 35 kDa frog liver acid metallophosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalewicz, A; Radomska, B; Strzelczyk, B; Kubicz, A

    1999-04-12

    The lower molecular weight (35 kDa) acid phosphatase from the frog (Rana esculenta) liver is a glycometalloenzyme susceptible to activation by reducing agents and displaying tartrate and fluoride resistance. Metal chelators (EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline) inactivate the enzyme reversibly in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The apoenzyme is reactivated by divalent transition metal cations, i. e. cobalt, zinc, ferrous, manganese, cadmium and nickel to 130%, 75%, 63%, 62%, 55% and 34% of the original activity, respectively. Magnesium, calcium, cupric and ferric ions were shown to be ineffective in this process. Metal analysis by the emission spectrometry method (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) revealed the presence of zinc, iron and magnesium. The time course of the apoenzyme reactivation, the stabilization effect and the relatively high resistance to oxidizing conditions indicate that the zinc ion is crucial for the enzyme activity. The presence of iron was additionally confirmed by the visible absorption spectrum of the enzyme with a shoulder at 417 nm and by the electron paramagnetic resonance line of high spin iron(III) with geff of 2.4. The active center containing only zinc or both zinc and iron ions is proposed. The frog liver lower molecular weight acid phosphatase is a novel metallophosphatase of lower vertebrate origin, distinct from the mammalian tartrate-resistant, purple acid phosphatases.

  7. Changes in growth rate and macroelement and trace element accumulation in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. during the growing season in relation to environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The temporal variations in plant chemistry connected with its life cycle may affect the cycling of elements in an ecosystem as well as determine the usefulness of the species in phytoremediation and bioindication. In this context, there is a gap in knowledge on the role of floating plants for elements cycling in aquatic reservoirs. The aim of the study was to determine if there are variations in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit) bioaccumulation capacity and the growth rate of its population during the growing season and to test the impact of environmental pollution on these features. The content of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, S) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in H. morsus-ranae collected monthly from June to October from habitats differing in environmental contamination. The results showed that the highest content of most trace metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and some nutrients (N, P) in plants as well as the greatest bioaccumulation efficiency occurred simultaneously in the beginning of the growing season. In the following months, a dilution effect (manifested by a decrease in content) related to the rapid growth was observed. Co, Mn, and Ni content in plant tissues reflected the level of environmental contamination throughout the growing season which makes H. morsus-ranae a potential biomonitor of pollution for these metals. Considering the great bioaccumulation ability, high sensitivity to contamination, and low biomass of European frog-bit in polluted systems, further investigation is required to assess the real phytoremediation capability of the species.

  8. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  9. Anatomical evidence for brainstem circuits mediating feeding motor programs in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C W

    2001-09-01

    Using injections of small molecular weight fluorescein dextran amines, combined with activity-dependent uptake of sulforhodamine 101 (SR101), brainstem circuits presumed to be involved in feeding motor output were investigated. As has been shown previously in other studies, projections to the cerebellar nuclei were identified from the cerebellar cortex, the trigeminal motor nucleus, and the vestibular nuclei. Results presented here suggest an additional pathway from the hypoglossal motor nuclei to the cerebellar nucleus as well as an afferent projection from the peripheral hypoglossal nerve to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Injections in the cerebellar cortex combined with retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve demonstrate anatomical convergence at the level of the medial reticular formation. This suggests a possible integrative region for afferent feedback from the hypoglossal nerve and information through the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. The activity-dependent uptake of SR101 additionally suggests a reciprocal, polysynaptic pathway between this same area of the medial reticular formation and the trigeminal motor nuclei. The trigeminal motor neurons innervate the m adductor mandibulae, the primary mouth-closing muscle. The SR101 uptake clearly labeled the ventrolateral hypoglossal nuclei, the medial reticular formation, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Unlike retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve, stimulating the hypoglossal nerve while SR101 was bath-applied labeled trigeminal motor neurons. This, combined with the dextran labeling, suggests a reciprocal connection between the trigeminal motor nuclei and the cerebellar nuclei, as well as the medulla. Taken together, these data are important for understanding the neurophysiological pathways used to coordinate the proper timing of an extremely rapid, goal-directed movement and may prove useful for elucidating some of the first principles of sensorimotor integration.

  10. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ...; one is a candidate species for listing as Threatened or Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the other two are former candidates now unofficially considered 'Species of Concern...

  11. Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuri, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen of thediseased bullfrog specimens. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility assay, and further identified by using the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. We designed two pair of specific PCR primers (22-25 mers which are complimentary to the β-lactamase gene in the reference strain ofE. meningoseptica ATCC49470. The result showed all the bacterial isolates shared similar phenotypic characters and antibiotic susceptibility. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the bacterial isolates had very high sequence homology (100% with E. meningospetica ATCC49470 and E. meningoseptica isolates from mosquito. The two PCR primers were very specific to E. meningoseptica isolates of this study. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first isolation and characterization of bacterial pathogen, E. meningoseptica in cultured American bullfrog (Rana catesbeina that suffered from eye cataract and ‘red-leg’syndrome in Sabah, Malaysia. It is suspected that one of the possible transmission routes of the bacterial pathogen could be via mosquito bites. The findings suggest that there is urgent requirement for standard guideline of good farming practice to be adopted in frog farms throughout the country. Such a guideline can help in minimizing economic losses, preventing transmission of the zoonotic bacterial pathogen to farm workers, and sustaining the industry in Malaysia andupgrading

  12. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  13. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Suter

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishing spiders (Pisauridae frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana and green frogs (R. clamitans on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances, rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%, or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%. Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°. The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements, and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack.

  14. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations

  15. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: dsparl@siu.edu; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  17. Lithobates sylvaticus (wood frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam

    2016-01-01

    A single specimen found southwest of Hattiesburg in Timberton (31.270391oN, 89.327675oW; WGS 84). 23 July 2015. Gary, Kat, and Ron Lukens. Verifi ed by Kenneth Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History (UF-Herpetology 176455). This species has never been recorded from the state of Mississippi before (Dodd 2013. Frogs of the United States and Canada – Volume 2. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982 pp.). According to Dodd (2013), the closest population is located in east central Alabama, approximately 400 km to the northeast, as documented by Davis and Folkerts (1986. Brimleyana 12:29-50).

  18. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S; Pilliod, David S

    2015-09-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species' range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  19. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  20. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinder, Per

    2013-01-01

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring

  1. Correlates of virulence in a frog-killing fungal pathogen: evidence from a California amphibian decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Pope, Karen; Worth, S Joy; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Poorten, Thomas; Refsnider, Jeanine; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Wells, Heather L; Rejmanek, Dan; Lawler, Sharon; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused declines and extinctions in amphibians worldwide, and there is increasing evidence that some strains of this pathogen are more virulent than others. While a number of putative virulence factors have been identified, few studies link these factors to specific epizootic events. We documented a dramatic decline in juvenile frogs in a Bd-infected population of Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) in the mountains of northern California and used a laboratory experiment to show that Bd isolated in the midst of this decline induced higher mortality than Bd isolated from a more stable population of the same species of frog. This highly virulent Bd isolate was more toxic to immune cells and attained higher density in liquid culture than comparable isolates. Genomic analyses revealed that this isolate is nested within the global panzootic lineage and exhibited unusual genomic patterns, including increased copy numbers of many chromosomal segments. This study integrates data from multiple sources to suggest specific phenotypic and genomic characteristics of the pathogen that may be linked to disease-related declines.

  2. Effects of water management, connectivity, and surrounding land use on habitat use by frogs in rice paddies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Risa; Yamasaki, Michimasa; Lmanishi, Ayumi; Natuhara, Yosihiro; Morimoto, Yukihiro

    2012-09-01

    In Japan, rice paddies play an important role as a substitute habitat for wetland species, and support rich indigenous ecosystems. However, since the 1950s, agricultural modernization has altered the rice paddy environment, and many previously common species are now endangered. It is urgently necessary to evaluate rice paddies as habitats for conservation. Among the species living in rice paddies, frogs are representative and are good indicator species, so we focused on frog species and analyzed the influence of environmental factors on their habitat use. We found four frog species and one subspecies (Hyla japonica, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa, Lithobates catesbeianus, and Pelophylax porosa brevipoda) at our study sites in Shiga prefecture. For all but L. catesbeianus, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors related to rice paddy structure, water management and availability, agrochemical use, connectivity, and land use on breeding and non-breeding habitat use. We constructed generalized additive mixed models with survey date as the smooth term and applied Akaike's information criterion to choose the bestranked model. Because life histories and biological characteristics vary among species, the factors affecting habitat use by frogs are also expected to differ by species. We found that both breeding and non-breeding habitat uses of each studied species were influenced by different combinations of environmental factors and that in most cases, habitat use showed seasonality. For frog conservation in rice paddies, we need to choose favorable rice paddy in relation to surrounding land use and apply suitable management for target species.

  3. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua on cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Liang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica are used as a medicinal herb in China, Japan and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. This article presents an overview of the effects of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction based on literature searched from Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies found that Sophora japonica reduced the size of cerebral infarction and neurological deficits and reduced microglial activation, interleukin-1β release and number of apoptotic cells in ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats. Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function.

  4. Involvement of adrenal hormones in tissue respiration of sub-tropical hibernating and non-hibernating species of frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Mahanta, A

    1997-03-01

    Effects of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), corticosterone and cortisol were studied both in vivo and in vitro on the rate of oxygen consumption of tissues (liver, skeletal muscle and kidney) of sub-tropical Indian frogs Rana limnocharis (a hibernating species) and Rana cyanophlyctis (a non-hibernating species) exposed to natural climatic conditions during winter and summer/rainy seasons. Further, the effects of NE and EP were also studied in vitro in the presence of specific beta- and alpha-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol and prazosin). NE, EP and corticosterone, when administered in vivo or in vitro, significantly stimulated the respiratory rate of the tissues of both the species irrespective of the seasons/temperature. Results suggest that NE, EP and corticosterone are directly involved in regulation of the energy metabolism of both hibernating and non-hibernating species of sub-tropical frogs. The calorigenic action of NE and EP seems to be mediated by both beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors. However, the temporal involvement of beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors seems to be tissue-dependent.

  5. Type I collagen from bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) fallopian tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana catesbeiana) with a yield of 16.4%, on a dry weight basis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the PSC contained two alpha components (α1 and α2) and was classified as type I collagen ...

  6. Reproducción de la rana Hyla labialis Reproducción del rana Hvla labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Alice S.

    1962-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Se estudió la ovogénesis en la Hyla labialis para compararla con el mismo proceso en las ranas que viven en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. Por inyección de glándula pituitaria se pueden obtener huevos fertilizados durante los meses de octubre a junio, y rara vez en los otros meses. 2. Se midieron y se contaron ovocitos enteros en muestras de ovarios maduros, inmaduros y después de la ovulación, Hay ovocitos de todos los tamaños presentes en los ovarios maduros; en los ovarios no maduros, y después de la ovulación hay células de todos los tamaños hasta 1.200 mm. de diámetro. 3. En secciones de ovarios se midió el diámetro de las células y de los núcleos y plaquetas vitelinas. Se estudiaron los cambios citológicos de los núcleos y también del citoplasma. Las plaquetas vitelinas aparecen en células que tienen un diámetro de 0.350 a 0.400 mm, La melanina aparece en ovocitos que tienen 0.700 mm. o más de diámetro. En general, los cambios citológicos son muy semejantes a los descritos por otros investigadores en otras especies. 4. La diferencia más obvia e interesante entre la ovogénesis de la Hyla Iabialis y la de otras especies descritas es la presencia de ovocitos de todos los tamaños y en cantidades grandes en el ovario inmediatamente después de la ovulación. Se piensa que los resultados demuestran que el proceso de ovogénesis sigue durante todos los meses sin detenerse como se hace en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. 1. Oögenesis of the frog, Hyla labialis has been studied in order to Compare it with the same process in frogs which live in countries with definite climatic seasons. Fertilized eggs can be obtained after pituitary injection during the months of October through June and occasionally during the rest of the year. 2. Whole oöcytes were measured and counted in samples taken from mature ovaries, immature ovaries and ovaries after ovulation had taken place. There are o

  7. The role of MEF2 transcription factors in dehydration and anoxia survival in Rana sylvatica skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam P. Hoyeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wood frog (Rana sylvatica can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement. Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2 transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis. This study examined the role of MEF2A and MEF2C proteins as well as select downstream targets (glucose transporter-4, calreticulin, and muscle and brain creatine kinase isozymes in 40% dehydration and 24 h anoxia exposure at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels using qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and subcellular localization. Mef2a/c transcript levels remained constant during dehydration and anoxia. Total, cytoplasmic, and nuclear MEF2A/C and phospho-MEF2A/C protein levels remained constant during dehydration, whereas a decrease in total MEF2C levels was observed during rehydration. Total and phospho-MEF2A levels remained constant during anoxia, whereas total MEF2C levels decreased during 24 h anoxia and P-MEF2C levels increased during 4 h anoxia. In contrast, cytoplasmic MEF2A levels and nuclear phospho-MEF2A/C levels were upregulated during anoxia. MEF2 downstream targets remained constant during dehydration and anoxia, with the exception of glut4 which was upregulated during anoxia. These results suggest that the upregulated MEF2 response reported in wood frogs during freezing may in part stem from their cellular responses to surviving prolonged anoxia, rather than dehydration, leading to an increase in GLUT4 expression which may

  8. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  9. Population trends, survival, and sampling methodologies for a population of Rana draytonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A.W.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating population trends provides valuable information for resource managers, but monitoring programs face trade-offs between the quality and quantity of information gained and the number of sites surveyed. We compared the effectiveness of monitoring techniques for estimating population trends of Rana draytonii (California Red-legged Frog) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA, over a 13-yr period. Our primary goals were to: 1) estimate trends for a focal pond at Point Reyes National Seashore, and 2) evaluate whether egg mass counts could reliably estimate an index of abundance relative to more-intensive capture–mark–recapture methods. Capture–mark–recapture (CMR) surveys of males indicated a stable population from 2005 to 2009, despite low annual apparent survival (26.3%). Egg mass counts from 2000 to 2012 indicated that despite some large fluctuations, the breeding female population was generally stable or increasing, with annual abundance varying between 26 and 130 individuals. Minor modifications to egg mass counts, such as marking egg masses, can allow estimation of egg mass detection probabilities necessary to convert counts to abundance estimates, even when closure of egg mass abundance cannot be assumed within a breeding season. High egg mass detection probabilities (mean per-survey detection probability = 0.98 [0.89–0.99]) indicate that egg mass surveys can be an efficient and reliable method for monitoring population trends of federally threatened R. draytonii. Combining egg mass surveys to estimate trends at many sites with CMR methods to evaluate factors affecting adult survival at focal populations is likely a profitable path forward to enhance understanding and conservation of R. draytonii.

  10. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  12. Pemanfaatan kulit kodok (bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Lutfie

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the tensile strength and the elongation of finished leather made from Bull Frog skin, so that the utilization of that leather can be specified. The samples used were twenty pieces of wet salted Bull Frog skin from East Java which have been processed to finished leather using chromosal B. and Irgatan LV as the tanning agents. Laboratory tests shawed that the average tensile strength was 177,675 Kg/Cm2 and the average elongation was 89,9%. Based on those results, it can be concluded that Bull Frog leather was suitable for leather goods such as bag, wallet, etc. so it can be used as substitute for Glace leather.

  13. Effect of magnetic fields on green color formation in frog skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kashiwagi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on a dynamic and efficient optical control system that is made possible by investigation of the body surfaces of various animals. Specifically, we expect Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica skin to provide a model for a flexible display device actuator mechanism. Tree frogs change body color from their original green to other colors in response to background colors. The color formation is controlled not only by chromatophores, but also by guanine microcrystals in iridophores. We collected sample microcrystals from the frog’s dorsal skin and made a model display sheet using the green skin layers. The transparent chamber that contained the crystal suspension was layered to enhance light reflection. Sheet color was observed while the angle of light incidence was varied, with and without magnetic field exposure at 0.3 T. A slight increase in red and green intensity was detected. Additionally, reflected intensity increased with increasing angle of incidence. These results indicate that the guanine crystal platelets in frog skin can efficiently switch the reflected light direction under application of a magnetic field. This in turn suggests that a several-micron-sized microcrystal of this type is a candidate material for development of flexible optical chips for ambient light control.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  15. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  16. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  17. Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri. [Rana catesbeiana, Ondatra zibethicus; Butorides striatus; Nerodia sipedon; Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Riparia riparia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niethammer, K.R.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Samson, F.B.

    1985-03-01

    Five species of riparian vertebrates (425 individuals) primarily representing upper trophic levels were collected from the Big River and Black River drainages in two lead mining districts of southeastern Missouri, 1981-82. Big River is subject to metal pollution via erosion and seepage from large tailings piles from inactive lead mines. Black River drains part of a currently mined area. Bull-frogs (Rana catesbeiana), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), and green-backed herons (Butorides striatus) collected downstream from the source of metal contamination to Big River had significantly higher lead and cadmium levels than specimens collected at either an uncontaminated upstream site or on Black River. Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) had elevated lead levels below the tailings source, but did not seem to accumulate cadmium. Levels of lead, cadmium, or zinc in northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) were not related to collecting locality. Carcasses of ten bank swallows (Riparia riparia) collected from a colony nesting in a tailings pile along the Big River had lead concentrations of 2.0-39 ppm wet weight. Differences between zinc concentrations in vertebrates collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were less apparent than differences in lead and cadmium. There was little relationship between metal concentrations in the animals studied and their trophic levels. Bull-frogs are the most promising species examined for monitoring environmental levels of lead, cadmium, and zinc.

  18. Ranalexin. A novel antimicrobial peptide from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skin, structurally related to the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D P; Durell, S; Maloy, W L; Zasloff, M

    1994-04-08

    Antimicrobial peptides comprise a diverse class of molecules used in host defense by plants, insects, and animals. In this study we have isolated a novel antimicrobial peptide from the skin of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. This 20 amino acid peptide, which we have termed Ranalexin, has the amino acid sequence: NH2-Phe-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ile-Val-Pro-Ala-Met-Ile-Cys-Ala-Val-Thr- Lys-Lys - Cys-COOH, and it contains a single intramolecular disulfide bond which forms a heptapeptide ring within the molecule. Structurally, Ranalexin resembles the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin, which contains a similar heptapeptide ring. We have also cloned the cDNA for Ranalexin from a metamorphic R. catesbeiana tadpole cDNA library. Based on the cDNA sequence, it appears that Ranalexin is initially synthesized as a propeptide with a putative signal sequence and an acidic amino acid-rich region at its amino-terminal end. Interestingly, the putative signal sequence of the Ranalexin cDNA is strikingly similar to the signal sequence of opioid peptide precursors isolated from the skin of the South American frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and Phyllomedusa bicolor. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that Ranalexin mRNA is first expressed in R. catesbeiana skin at metamorphosis and continues to be expressed into adulthood.

  19. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernández, María G. H.; Jasso, José L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (pparesthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  20. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernandez, Maria G. H.; Jasso, Jose L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p 000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  1. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Blériot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ∼4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t delay , the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t delay exceeds the frog libration period P lib , and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t delay ib , then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Blériot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P lib ≅ 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Blériot's t delay ∼ 0.01P lib , which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  2. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, I.S.; Roubos, E.W.; Mangoni, M.L.; Yoshizato, K.; Vaudry, H.; Kloepper, J.E.; Pattwell, D.M.; Maderson, P.F.A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a

  3. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  4. Adaptive plasticity of skeletal muscle energetics in hibernating frogs: mitochondrial proton leak during metabolic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Robert G; St-Pierre, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The common frog (Rana temporaria) spends the coldest months of each year overwintering in ice-covered ponds where temperatures can vary from 0.5 to 4.0 degrees C. Over the course of a winter season, the animals enter progressively into a state of metabolic depression that relies almost exclusively on aerobic production of ATP. However, if aerobic metabolism is threatened, for example by increasingly hypoxic conditions, decreases in the animal's metabolic rate can reach upwards of 75% compared with the 50% decrease seen during normoxia. Under these conditions, the major proportion of the overall reduction in whole-animal metabolic rate can be accounted for by metabolic suppression of the skeletal muscle (which makes up approximately 40% of body mass). Little is known about the properties of mitochondria during prolonged periods of metabolic depression, so we have examined several aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle of frogs over periods of hibernation of up to 4 months. Mitochondria isolated from the skeletal muscle of frogs hibernating in hypoxic water show a considerable reorganisation of function compared with those isolated from normoxic submerged animals at the same temperature (3 degrees C). Both the active (state 3) and resting (state 4) respiration rates of mitochondria decrease during hypoxic, but not normoxic, hibernation. In addition, the affinity of mitochondria for oxygen increases during periods of acute hypoxic stress during normoxic hibernation as well as during long-term hibernation in hypoxic water. The decrease in mitochondrial state 4 respiration rates during hypoxic hibernation evidently occurs through a reduction in electron-transport chain activity, not through a lowered proton conductance of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The reduced aerobic capacity of frog skeletal muscle during hypoxic hibernation is accompanied by lowered activities of key enzymes of mitochondrial metabolism caused by changes in the intrinsic

  5. Response surface methodology based optimization for degradation of align in Laminaria japonica feedstuff via fermentation by Bacillus in Apostichopus japonicas farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xitao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: This study provides an alternative and economical way to reduce the algin content in L. japonica through degradation by WB1, making it a promising potential source of feed for cultured L. japonica.

  6. ULOGA DEBRIDMANA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    HULJEV, DUBRAVKO; GAJIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; TRILLER, CIRIL; KECELJ LESKOVEC, NADA

    2013-01-01

    Debridement je proces uklanjanja mrtvog tkiva iz rane. Struktura, boja i neugodni mirisi devitaliziranog tkiva se razlikuju. osim toga, devitalizirano tkivo može biti suho ili sa secernacijom. Devitalizirano tkivo usporava ili u potpunosti onemogućuje zarastanje rane te je indicirano da ga se u okviru liječenja rana mora odstraniti. Cilj debridmana je pretvaranje kronične rane u stanje akutne rane i iniciranje procesa zaraštavanja. Debridement je osnovni postupak u liječenju svake rane, ali i...

  7. RANA, a real-time multi-agent system simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing; Demazeau, Yves; Hallam, John

    2016-01-01

    for individualisation and abstraction while retaining efficiency. Events are managed by the C++ simulator core. Full run state can be recorded for post-processed visualisation or analysis. The new tool is demonstrated in three different cases: a mining robot simulation, which is purely action based; an agent......-based setup that is verifies the high precision exhibited by RANAs simulation core; and a state-based firefly-like agent simulation that models real-time responses to fellow agents' signals, in which event propagation and reception affect the result of the simulation....

  8. Snoring puddle frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this paper is to hold a biological mirror in front of ourselves, the nuclear energy community, and to suggest that the reflection we will see there will help us both professionally and as members of a broader society. Let us start with sex. For sex to function as a means of reproduction, a male and a female of a particular species have to recognise each other and mate. The important terms here are 'particular species' and 'recognise'. Within most species, extraordinarily precise mate recognition systems have evolved. The precise frequency of the croak of a particular species of frog; the precise seasonal coloration of a particular species of salmon; the precise length of the tail of a particular species of bird; each is recognisable instantly to a prospective mate, though not to untrained human ears or eyes. 'The Recognition Concept of Species' (1985) is a monograph that has become something of a 'classic' in annals of evolutionary biology. Its author, HEH Paterson, suggests that a species can be defined as a group of organisms that share a common mate recognition system. Mating is an exchange of genes, and creatures that do not recognise each other do not exchange genes. A mate recognition system closes off the gene pool and may increasingly isolate its participants from even their nearest relatives. Biological evolution has numerous links and parallels with the evolution of human cultures. Some of our recognition systems seem to have a knack for drawing everyone in - American popular culture, for example, is now inescapable. Other recognition systems repel all but a few - take, or rather don't take, the Hell's Angels or the Ku Klux Klan. We, as members of the nuclear energy culture, are members of a closed and even repellent gene pool. We share a recognition system by which we perpetuate ourselves from generation to generation, from Hiroshima to Chernobyl. Outsiders do not understand our language: terms like 'credit for fission products

  9. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  10. Studies on the oligosaccharide heterogeneity of the isoelectric forms of the lower molecular weight acid phosphatase of frog liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicz, A; Szalewicz, A; Chrambach, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The lower molecular weight, heterogeneous acid phosphatase (AcPase) from the frog liver (Rana esculenta) containing AcPase I, II, III and IV was separated into enzymatically active components by isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. 2. The blotted enzyme bands were characterized by their different binding patterns obtained with the lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Lens culinaris hemagglutinin (LcH) and peanut agglutinin (PNA). 3. In situ neuraminidase treatment reduced the staining intensity of some WGA-bands and increased that of PNA-bands. 4. The finding that AcPases I, II, III and IV differ in their carbohydrate chain composition, together with previous results showing different bioactivities of AcPases III and IV, indicates a correlation between the glycosylation state of enzyme forms and their physiological action.

  11. FROG INTESTINAL PERFUSION TO EVALUATE DRUG PERMEABILITY: APPLICATION TO P-gp AND CYP3A4 SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima eYerasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo evaluate the reliability of using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique for permeability assessment of carrier transported drugs which are also substrates for CYP enzymes. Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP studies were performed in frogs of the species Rana tigrina using established method for rats with some modifications after inducing anesthesia. Effective permeability coefficient (Peff of losartan and midazolam was calculated in the presence and absence of inhibitors using the parallel-tube model. Peff of losartan when perfused alone was found to be 0.427 ± 0.27×10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, significant change in Peff was observed. Peff of midazolam when perfused alone was found to be 2.03 ± 0.07 × 10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, no significant change in Peff was observed. Comparison of Peff calculated in frog with that of other available models and also humans suggested that the Peff values are comparable and reflected well with human intestinal permeability. It is possible to determine the Peff value for compounds which are dual substrates of P-gp and CYP3A4 using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique. The calculated Peff values correlated well with reported Peff values of probe drugs. comparison of the Peff value of losartan obtained with that of reported human’s Peff and Caco 2 cell data, and comparison of the Peff value of midazolam with that of reported rat’s Peff, we could conclude that SPIP from model can be reliably used in preclinical studies for permeability estimation. This model may represent a valuable alternative to the low speed and high cost of conventional animal models (typically rodents for the assessment of intestinal permeability.

  12. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  13. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Efectivos poblacionales de la Rana ágil (Rana dalmatina y uso del hábitat reproductor en Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La población navarra de Rana dalmatina se encuentra fragmentada en 4 núcleos incomunicados, con baja disponibilidad de humedales para la reproducción (entre 2 y 15 por área. La población de hembras adultas fluctúa anualmente entre 1000 y 1500 individuos, sin considerar de la La Barranca, todavía no investigada. La conservación de la especie depende de la gestión de las zonas húmedas.

  15. The Influence of Different Processing Methods on Component Content of Sophora japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Zhu, H. J.; Xin, G. S.; Wei, C.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the effect of different processing methods on the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica, and to determine the content of rutin and quercetin in Sophora japonica under different processing methods by UV spectrophotometry of the content determination. So as to compare the effect of different processing methods on the active ingredient content of Sophora japonica. Experiments can be seen in the rutin content: Fried Sophora japonica>Vinegar sunburn Sophora> Health products Sophora japonica> Charred sophora flower, Vinegar sunburn Sophora and Fried Sophora japonica difference is not obvious; Quercetin content: Charred sophora flower> Fried Sophora japonica> Vinegar sunburn Sophora>Health products Sophora japonica. It is proved that there are some differences in the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica in different processing methods. The content of rutin increased with the increase of the processing temperature, but the content decreased after a certain temperature; Quercetin content will increase gradually with time.

  16. Vasotocin- and mesotocin-induced increases in short-circuit current across tree frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Makoto; Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Hokari, Shigeru

    2011-02-01

    In adult amphibian skin, Na(+) crosses from outside to inside. This Na(+) transport can be measured as the amiloride-blockable short-circuit current (SCC) across the skin. We investigated the effects of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT), and those of antagonists of the vasopressin and oxytocin receptors, on the SCC across Hyla japonica skin. (1) Both AVT (100 pmol/L or more) and MT (1 nmol/L or more) increased the SCC. (2) The AVT- and MT-induced increases in SCC recovered with time (downregulation). (3) These AVT/MT-induced effects were blocked by application of OPC-31260 (vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist). (4) The OPC-31260 concentration needed to block the AVT-induced response was lower upon post-application (after application of agonist) than upon pre-application (before application of agonist), suggesting the number of receptors may have decreased after AVT application. (5) Upon repeated application of AVT (100 pmol/L), the induced SCC increase did not differ significantly between the 1st and 2nd applications. (6) The time to reach the half-maximum value of the AVT-induced or MT-induced increase in SCC was not significantly different between washout and post-application of OPC-31260, suggesting that post-application of OPC-31260 cleared AVT and MT from their receptors. The effects of AVT, MT, and their antagonists in H. japonica, which is adapted to a terrestrial habitat, are compared with our previously published data on Rana catesbeiana (=Lithobates catesbeianus), which is adapted to a semiaquatic habitat.

  17. Japonica rice variety Yangfujing 7 bred by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Wang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    A japonica variety, Yangfujing 7, which possessing high yield potential, good quality and disease resistance was developed through cross breeding combined mutation breeding. The variety met the needs of agricultural environment in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Austin eHammond

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs, materials that have one dimension less than 100 nm, are used in manufacturing, health and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife. The thyroid hormones (THs, thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3, are involved in development and metabolism in vertebrates including humans and frogs. Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. We used the cultured tailfin (C-fin assay to examine the exposure effects of 0.1-10 nM (~8-800 ng/L of three types of ~20 nm TiO2 NPs (P25, M212, M262 and micron-sized TiO2 (μTiO2 ±10 nM T3. The actual Ti levels were 40.9 – 64.7% of the nominal value. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive thyroid hormone receptors (thra and thrb and Rana larval keratin type I (rlk1, as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa (hsp30, superoxide dismutase (sod, and catalase (cat. The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25 and M212 while no effect was observed with M262 exposure. Therefore the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signalling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously

  19. KARBOKSITERAPIJA – POTPORNA TERAPIJA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    SINOŽIĆ, TAMARA; KOVAČEVIĆ, JADRANKA

    2014-01-01

    Karboksiterapija je potporna metoda liječenja kroničnih rana koja se provodi kutanim ili supkutanim ubrizgavanjem medicinskog ugljičnog dioksida (Co2). osnovni princip djelovanja ubrizganog plina Co2 je korekcija tkivne hipoksije temeljem bohrovog efekta. Djelujući na endotelne faktore rasta potiče neoangiogenezu te stimulirajući fibroblaste na sintezu kolagena što sve zajedno dovodi do boljeg zacjeljivanja rana. brojna su područja primjene karboksiterapije - od liječenja kroničnih rana, bole...

  20. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  1. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  2. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  3. Cuando un príncipe besa a una rana: ¡Sorpresa! Una propuesta didáctica desde la homosexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Jódar Sánchez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En esta propuesta didáctica, utilizamos el álbum ilustrado como herramienta para la enseñanza de contenido lingüístico, así como valores sociales y cívicos a un grupo de estudiantes de ELE de nivel A2. Utilizamos el álbum ilustrado El día de la rana roja que narra la historia de dos príncipes que se enamoran y adoptan a una niña huérfana. Estructuramos nuestra propuesta en cuatro fases (introducción, comprensión, consolidación, resignificación, de las cuáles las dos últimas son las dos que más desarrollamos. Planteamos una entrevista a la rana del cuento, un teatro con marionetas, y el dibujo del mapa del reino como actividades de introducción. En la fase de comprensión se sugieren actividades de léxico y gramática sencillas, tratando, por ejemplo, los tiempos de presente y futuro. En la fase de consolidación, el profesor tiene la opción de realizar el taller del adivinador de sueños o la puesta en escena de declaraciones de amor entre animales. Finalmente, para la fase de resignificación, se cuestiona por qué el rey y la reina cambian el vestido por unos pantalones al averiguar que su hijo se casará con un chico. Palabras clave: Homosexualidad, español como lengua extranjera, álbum ilustrado, El día de la rana roja.   Abstract: This teaching material is based on the picture book El día de la rana roja, the story of a prince who marries another man and together adopt an orphan child. It is targeted to students of Spanish as a foreign language of any country, including the United States, with an A2 level. Picture books are useful tools to teach, not only language and grammar, but also civility and good manners in society. The proposal is divided into four phases (introduction, comprehension, consolidation, and intellectual challenge, the latter of which are explained in detail. For the introduction phase, we propose interviewing the frog in the story, having a puppet role play narrating the story, and

  4. Peripheral origins and functional characteristics of vibration-sensitive VIIIth nerve fibers in the frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøgensen, Morten Buhl; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    were studied. 2) Vibration-sensitive fibers were found in both the anterior and posterior branch of the VIIIth nerve. 3) No vibration-sensitive fibers were found in the lagenar nerve. 4) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the posterior branch probably innervated the amphibian papilla and many...... of these fibers also responded to low-frequency sound. 5) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the anterior branch probably innervated the sacculus and the utriculus. 6) Hence, the grassfrog has at least two, and probably three, vibration-sensitive organs in the inner ear. 7) All fibers had V-shaped vibrational...... tuning curves. In the posterior branch best frequencies (BFs) ranged from 10 to 300 Hz, in the anterior branch from 10 to 100 Hz. In the posterior branch spike-rate thresholds at BF ranged from 0.04 to 1.28 cm/s2, in the anterior branch from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2. All fibers showed strong synchronization...

  5. Identification of parental chromosomes in hybridogenetic water frog Pelophylax esculentus (Rana esculenta) by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zalésna, A.; Choleva, Lukáš; Ogielska, M.; Rábová, Marie; Marec, František; Ráb, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 16 (2010), s. 754-755 ISSN 0967-3849. [19th International Colloquium on animal cytogenetics and gene mapping. 06.06.-09.06.2010, Krakow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : parental chromosomes * Pelophylax esculentus * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  7. LOS FANTASMAS EN RANAS DE ARISTÓFANES

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Planchas Gallarte

    2015-01-01

    THE GHOSTS IN ARISTOPHANES’ FROGS. The aim of the following paper is to present and analyze the passages of the comedies of Aristophanes related to ghostly apparitions. By offering an overview of this issue, so recurrent among classical authors, we will be able to sketch, on the one hand, how the Athenian comic playwright configures this topic in one of his works. On the other, by contextualizing Aristophanes’ treatment of ghosts in his genre, we will have the opportunity of focusing ...

  8. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  9. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av goelgroda, stoerre vattensalamander och gulyxne i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring.

  10. Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, K C

    1999-01-01

    While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular cont...

  11. Prey specialization and diet of frogs in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlm, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies of the diet of frogs indicate that most adult frogs are mainly insectivorous. Overall, frogs are viewed more as generalists than specialists in terms of their diet. However, despite earlier studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge regarding what frogs tend to eat and the degree of specialization. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet choice of frogs in a tropical ecosystem. The present study was conducted in a well-known hotspot for frogs with 66 of the 156 k...

  12. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Detritus Quality and Locality Determines Survival and Mass, but Not Export, of Wood Frogs at Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Milanovich

    Full Text Available Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts. We used aquatic mesocosms to raise wood frogs (Rana sylvatica from two regions of the United States with whole plants from purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, leaf litter from native hardwood trees, and a mixture of both. We examined several metrics of amphibian fitness and life history, including survival, number of days to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. Further, we quantified whether the effects of detritus type could translate to variation in anuran biomass or standing stock of nitrogen or phosphorus export. Our results show detritus with high nutrient quality (purple loosestrife negatively influenced survival of wood frogs, but increased size of metamorphic individuals in two different regions of the United States. Despite the decrease in survival, the increase in size of post-metamorphic anurans raised with high quality detritus resulted in anuran biomass and standing stock of N and P export being similar across treatments at both locations. These results further demonstrate the role of plant quality in shaping wetland ecosystem dynamics, and represent the first demonstration that effects are consistent within species across ecoregional boundaries.

  14. Incidence of climate on common frog breeding: Long-term and short-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, André

    2009-09-01

    In Brittany (northwest France), the climate is showing a trend toward warming. This change is increasingly suspected to have a role in driving amphibian decline, but it is very difficult to determine at what level the climate affects the future of species. Recently, some studies have detected some direct effects on breeding phenology and indirect effects on energy allocation. The present study explores some of these effects on the common frog ( Rana temporaria) from 1984 to 2007. The results show two trends: a long-term change in breeding activities and a short-term influence due to the 2003 climatic anomaly. For the period of study, the start of egg-laying shows a precocity that was correlated with thermal conditions during the preceding 40 days as well as milder springs during the previous year. This degree of precocity is currently the highest found in Europe (+26.6 days). As a result of the 2003 heat wave, the clutch mean fecundity in 2004 was smaller than for other years, the fecundity rates were reduced and abortions were numerous (unlike other years). Moreover, young females were the smallest observed in recent years and some females seemed to exhibit a trade-off between fecundity and growth. Before or after egg-laying, female body condition and mean weight of mature ovules were both lower. The year 2005 appears as a transition period before the recovery in 2006-2007. The results show that climate warming endangers the vital rates of the common frog, while the 2003 climatic events seem more detrimental than the long-term warming trend.

  15. [Two kaempferol triglycosides from pericarps of Sophora japonica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y P; Lou, F C; Wang, J H

    2001-12-01

    To study the flavonol triglycosides in the pericarps of Sophora japonica. Various chromatographic techniques were used to isolate and purify the constituents. The structures were elucidated by chemical evidence and spectral analysis, especially by 2D NMR experiments. Two kaempferol triglycosides were isolated and identified as kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-sophoroside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-beta-D-glucosyl)-beta-D-rutinoside. Both of them were reported in S. japonica for the first time.

  16. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  17. Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of freshly isolated frog retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Wen; Li, Yi-Chao; Ye, Tong; Strang, Christianne; Keyser, Kent; Curcio, Christine A; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cellular sources of autofluorescence signals in freshly isolated frog (Rana pipiens) retinas. Equipped with an ultrafast laser, a laser scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope was employed for sub-cellular resolution examination of both sliced and flat-mounted retinas. Two-photon imaging of retinal slices revealed autofluorescence signals over multiple functional layers, including the photoreceptor layer (PRL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL). Using flat-mounted retinas, depth-resolved imaging of individual retinal layers further confirmed multiple sources of autofluorescence signals. Cellular structures were clearly observed at the PRL, ONL, INL, and GCL. At the PRL, the autofluorescence was dominantly recorded from the intracellular compartment of the photoreceptors; while mixed intracellular and extracellular autofluorescence signals were observed at the ONL, INL, and GCL. High resolution autofluorescence imaging clearly revealed mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors; and sub-cellular bright autofluorescence spots, which might relate to connecting cilium, was observed in the cone photoreceptors only. Moreover, single-cone and double-cone outer segments could be directly differentiated.

  18. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Factors associated with the catastrophic decline of a cloudforest frog fauna in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R Mendelson III

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of recent and historical surveys of frog populations in cloudforest habitat in Sierra de las Minas,Guatemala,indicated population declines and local extirpation of several species.Pathological exams of diseased tadpoles indicated infection by amphibian chytridiomycosis. The local habitat has been severely altered by recent establishment of large-scale leatherleaf fern production.Analysis of water chemistry at our study site suggested increased nitrogenation associated with the leatherleaf industry.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:991-1000. Epub 2005 Jun 24.Una comparación entre un inventario anterior y otro reciente de poblaciones de ranas de bosque nublado en la Sierra de Las Minas de Guatemala demostró disminuciones poblacionales y ausencia localizada de varias especies.El examen patológico de un renacuajo muerto indicó infección por un hongo quítrido propio de los anfibios.El hábitat local ha sido gravemente alterado por el establecimiento reciente de producción a gran escala de helechos ornamentales.El análisis químico del agua en el área de estudio señaló un aumento en nitrogenación asociado al cultivo de helechos.

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Rana catesbeiana [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Rana catesbeiana 名詞 一般 * * * * ウシ...ガエル ウシガエル ウシガエル Thesaurus2015 200906051181134488 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Rana catesbeiana

  1. Frogs as a part of the Eneolithic diet. Archaeozoological records from the Czech Republic (Kutná Hora-Denemark site, Řivnáč Culture)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), s. 143-157 ISSN 0305-4403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : amphibians * common frog (Rana temporaria) * prehistoric food * anatomy representation * seasonality * chalcolithic * Central Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.779, year: 2008 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH8-4NT57V1-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=393499f111a5c12f133425d45f4f6f01

  2. Endocrine control of active sodium transport across frog skin; Le controle endocrinien du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau de grenouille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    I. Action of the neurohypophyseal peptides on sodium transport. 1) On Rana Esculenta, oxytocin alone is active on the sodium transport (not vaso pressin). 2) The post hypophysis of R.e. contains an hormonal factor even more specific on Na transport (12 times more active than oxytocin). 3) This new factor must be closely related to oxytocin. II. Action of the adrenal corticoids. 1) The skin of frogs adapted to a salt-rich external medium, shows a considerable diminution in sodium uptake. 2) This decreased sodium uptake is brought back to normal by the injections of aldosterone. 3) This suggests that salt loading of amphibians (as well as mammals) inhibits the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenals. (author) [French] I. Action des peptides neurohypophysaires chez Rana esculenta. 1) Le transport actif de Na est sensible a l'action de l'ocytocine mais non a l'hormone antidiuretique. 2) La posthypophyse de ces grenouilles contient un facteur plus specifique encore, puisque 12 fois plus actif que l'ocytocine. 3) Ce facteur est cependant tres voisin de l'ocytocine au point de vue chimique. lI. Action des corticoides surrenaliens chez Rana Esculenta. 1) L'adaptation des grenouilles a un milieu riche en sel a pour effet une diminution considerable du transport actif de sodium, visible in vivo et in vitro. 2) L'injection d'aldosterone a des grenouilles adaptees dans ces conditions restaure le transport actif a un niveau comparable a celui que l'on observe chez les animaux conserves dans de l'eau courante. 3) Ces faits suggerent que la surcharge en NaCI produirait chez les amphibiens, comme chez les mammiferes, une mise au repos de la fonction mineralotrope de la surrenale. (auteur)

  3. Endocrine control of active sodium transport across frog skin; Le controle endocrinien du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau de grenouille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    I. Action of the neurohypophyseal peptides on sodium transport. 1) On Rana Esculenta, oxytocin alone is active on the sodium transport (not vaso pressin). 2) The post hypophysis of R.e. contains an hormonal factor even more specific on Na transport (12 times more active than oxytocin). 3) This new factor must be closely related to oxytocin. II. Action of the adrenal corticoids. 1) The skin of frogs adapted to a salt-rich external medium, shows a considerable diminution in sodium uptake. 2) This decreased sodium uptake is brought back to normal by the injections of aldosterone. 3) This suggests that salt loading of amphibians (as well as mammals) inhibits the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenals. (author) [French] I. Action des peptides neurohypophysaires chez Rana esculenta. 1) Le transport actif de Na est sensible a l'action de l'ocytocine mais non a l'hormone antidiuretique. 2) La posthypophyse de ces grenouilles contient un facteur plus specifique encore, puisque 12 fois plus actif que l'ocytocine. 3) Ce facteur est cependant tres voisin de l'ocytocine au point de vue chimique. lI. Action des corticoides surrenaliens chez Rana Esculenta. 1) L'adaptation des grenouilles a un milieu riche en sel a pour effet une diminution considerable du transport actif de sodium, visible in vivo et in vitro. 2) L'injection d'aldosterone a des grenouilles adaptees dans ces conditions restaure le transport actif a un niveau comparable a celui que l'on observe chez les animaux conserves dans de l'eau courante. 3) Ces faits suggerent que la surcharge en NaCI produirait chez les amphibiens, comme chez les mammiferes, une mise au repos de la fonction mineralotrope de la surrenale. (auteur)

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Eriobotrya japonica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: In the present work we determined phenolic and flavonoids content of Eriobotrya japonica leaves extracts and fractions and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives: To evaluate the inhibition of inflammatory PLA2 and antioxidant effects of extracts and fractions from Erio-.

  5. The naturalization of "loquat", Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae, Maloideae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deluchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on herbarium specimens collected in our country, Eriobotrya japonica(Thunb. Lindl. (Rosaceae is mentioned for the first time as naturalized plant in Argentina. Ecological observations and information about various local uses are included. The species is described and illustrated.

  6. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  7. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ∼4 years, similar to the ∼3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  8. Geographic Variation in Advertisement Calls in a Tree Frog Species: Gene Flow and Selection Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon; Hahm, Eun Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soyeon; Won, Yong-Jin; Choe, Jae C.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. Methodology We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR), note duration (ND), and dominant frequency (DF), along with snout-to-vent length. Results The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. Conclusions Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japoinca. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with restricted gene

  9. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  10. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...... compartment [EH Larsen et al. (2009) Acta Physiologica 195: 171–186]. It is concluded that the source of EWL of the frog on land is the fluid secreted by the mucous glands and not water diffusing through the skin. The study supports the hypothesis [EH Larsen (2011) Acta Physiologica 202: 435–464] that volume...

  11. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  12. Hematophagous insects as vectors for frog trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, B; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    1977-12-01

    Experimental infections of three hematophagous arthropods (Rhodnius prolixus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens) with a trypanosome of the Trypanosoma rotatorium complex found in the frogs Hyla crepitans and Leptodactylus insularum revealed that A. aegypti is a good host for the flagellate; the course of development in the intestinal tract of the mosquito is described from 15 minutes to 168 hours. C. pipiens showed only low intestinal infections and R. prolixus did not permit development of the parasite. It is postulated that, in addition to the transmission of T. rotatorium by leeches, batrachophilic mosquitoes may transmit the parasite to frogs of more terrestrial habits by being ingested by these anurans.

  13. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2010-01-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  14. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  15. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  16. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  17. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.; Hong, Mei-Chu; Chang, T.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage

  18. Effects of storage and gamma irradiation on (japonica) waxy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw; Hong, Mei-Chu [TaiChung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-S. [Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    Japonica cultivar, Taichung waxy 70 (TCW 70), was exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 2.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on waxy rice pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, mochi, were compared to the effects of storage over 12 months. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 kGy can decrease the paste viscosity of waxy rice as those obtained after 6 months of storage. Radiation treatments were less effective to decrease the hardness of mochi than waxy rice samples stored over 6 months. It was shown the effects of gamma irradiation on shortening the japonica waxy rice aging time and improving the quality of rice products, like mochi, were not as good as the effects of storage.

  19. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  20. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  1. Characteristics and Application Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Containing Sophora Japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.

  2. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  3. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Byoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2(filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively. In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97% than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a

  4. Influence of transgenic rice expressing a fused Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on frogs in paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Mei; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Liang, Yu-Yong; Zhu, Hao-Jun; Ding, Jia-Tong; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-11-01

    As genetic engineering in plants is increasingly used to control agricultural pests, it is important to determine whether such transgenic plants adversely affect non-target organisms within and around cultivated fields. The cry1Ab/1Ac fusion gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has insecticidal activity and has been introduced into rice line Minghui 63 (MH63). We evaluated the effect of transgenic cry1Ab/1Ac rice (Huahui 1, HH1) on paddy frogs by comparing HH1 and MH63 rice paddies with and without pesticide treatment. The density of tadpoles in rice fields was surveyed at regular intervals, and Cry1Ab/1Ac protein levels were determined in tissues of tadpoles and froglets collected from the paddy fields. In addition, Rana nigromaculata froglets were raised in purse nets placed within these experimental plots. The survival, body weight, feeding habits, and histological characteristics of the digestive tract of these froglets were analyzed. We found that the tadpole density was significantly decreased immediately after pesticide application, and the weight of R. nigromaculata froglets of pesticide groups was significantly reduced compared with no pesticide treatment, but we found no differences between Bt and non-Bt rice groups. Moreover, no Cry1Ab/1Ac protein was detected in tissue samples collected from 192 tadpoles and froglets representing all four experimental groups. In addition, R. nigromaculata froglets raised in purse seines fed primarily on stem borer and non-target insects, and showed no obvious abnormality in the microstructure of their digestive tracts. Based on these results, we conclude that cultivation of transgenic cry1Ab/1Ac rice does not adversely affect paddy frogs.

  5. Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S; Arkle, Robert S; Robertson, Jeanne M; Murphy, Melanie A; Funk, W Chris

    2015-09-01

    Amphibian species persisting in isolated streams and wetlands in desert environments can be susceptible to low connectivity, genetic isolation, and climate changes. We evaluated the past (1900-1930), recent (1981-2010), and future (2071-2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. We developed a predictive model of current climate suitability and used it to predict the historic and future distribution of suitable climates. We then modeled changes in surface water availability at each time period. Finally, we quantified connectivity among existing populations on the basis of hydrology and correlated it with interpopulation genetic distance. We found that the area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined by approximately 49% over the last century and will likely continue to decline under future climate scenarios. Climate conditions at currently occupied locations have been relatively stable over the last century, which may explain persistence at these sites. However, future climates at these currently occupied locations are predicted to become warmer throughout the year and drier during the frog's activity period (May - September). Fall and winter precipitation may increase, but as rain instead of snow. Earlier runoff and lower summer base flows may reduce connectivity between neighboring populations, which is already limited. Many of these changes could have negative effects on remaining populations over the next 50-80 years, but milder winters, longer growing seasons, and wetter falls might positively affect survival and dispersal. Collectively, however, seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation, and stream flow patterns could reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for frogs and possibly other aquatic species inhabiting streams in this arid region.

  6. Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Robertson, Jeanne M; Murphy, Melanie; Funk, W. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian species persisting in isolated streams and wetlands in desert environments can be susceptible to low connectivity, genetic isolation, and climate changes. We evaluated the past (1900–1930), recent (1981–2010), and future (2071–2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. We developed a predictive model of current climate suitability and used it to predict the historic and future distribution of suitable climates. We then modeled changes in surface water availability at each time period. Finally, we quantified connectivity among existing populations on the basis of hydrology and correlated it with interpopulation genetic distance. We found that the area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined by approximately 49% over the last century and will likely continue to decline under future climate scenarios. Climate conditions at currently occupied locations have been relatively stable over the last century, which may explain persistence at these sites. However, future climates at these currently occupied locations are predicted to become warmer throughout the year and drier during the frog's activity period (May – September). Fall and winter precipitation may increase, but as rain instead of snow. Earlier runoff and lower summer base flows may reduce connectivity between neighboring populations, which is already limited. Many of these changes could have negative effects on remaining populations over the next 50–80 years, but milder winters, longer growing seasons, and wetter falls might positively affect survival and dispersal. Collectively, however, seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation, and stream flow patterns could reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for frogs and possibly other aquatic species inhabiting streams in this arid region.

  7. Low levels of the herbicide atrazine alter sex ratios and reduce metamorphic success in Rana pipiens tadpoles raised in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Carew, Amanda C; Pauli, Bruce D; Wade, Michael G; Cooke, Gerard M; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-04-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Tadpoles were exposed in outdoor mesocosms to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.8 microg/L of formulated ATZ from Gosner stage 27 (G27) to metamorphic climax (G42). Exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.5 microg/L) provided a positive control for induction of testicular oocytes in males. Endocrine-related gene expression and gonadal histopathology were examined at G42 and in a subset of premetamorphic G34 tadpoles that failed to metamorphose. Gonadal gross morphology revealed that the 1.8-microg/L ATZ treatment produced 20% more females compared with the control. Histologic analysis revealed that 22% of EE2-treated males had testicular oocytes, whereas none were observed in any animals from the control or either ATZ groups. ATZ increased brain estrogen receptor alpha mRNA to 2.5 times that of the control at premetamorphosis and altered liver levels of 5beta-reductase activity at metamorphosis. In contrast, brain aromatase mRNA level and activity did not change. ATZ treatments significantly reduced metamorphic success (number of animals reaching metamorphosis) without affecting body weight, snout-vent length, or age at metamorphosis. Gene expression analysis indicated that ATZ decreased the expression of deiodinase type 3 in the tail at premetamorphosis. Our study indicates that exposure to low concentrations of ATZ in experimental mesocosms alters gonadal differentiation and metamorphosis in developing R. pipiens.

  8. [Photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts during parasitization and after detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hu, Fei; Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Jun; Kong, Chui-Hua

    2007-08-01

    The study on the photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts showed that there was a negative correlation between the photosynthetic pigment content (PPC) of C. japonica and its hosts. The PPC increased in the C. japonica-preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves, but decreased in its less preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves. The leaves parasitized by C. japonica and their neighboring far from the parasitized ones had a lowered net photosynthesis rate P(n), and the decreasing order accorded with that of parasitization. The decrease of P(n) for C. japonica-less preferred hosts was mainly due to the stomatal factors, but that for the preferred hosts was regulated by multi-factors. Under light, the PPC of C. japonica detached from preferred hosts increased faster than that of C. japonica detached from less preferred hosts, but the dry matter decrease was in adverse. In dark, however, the changes in PPC and dry matter content of C. japonica were not significant, whatever hosts it was detached from.

  9. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Trapa japonica Shell Extract Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DooJin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Geunpyo; Kim, Jong Dai

    2017-01-01

    Trapa japonica shell contains phenolic compounds such as tannins. Studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of Trapa japonica shell cultivated in Korea are still unclear. Antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities were measured by in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, reducing power, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and iron chelating ability in 3T3-L1 cells. We also measured the total phenol and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) in Trapa japonica shell extract. Our results show that TPC and TFC of Trapa japonica shell extract were 157.7±0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 25.0±1.95 mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. Trapa japonica shell extract showed strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and other methods. Especially, the whole antioxidant activity test of Trapa japonica shell extract exhibited higher levels than that of butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. Furthermore, Trapa japonica shell extract inhibited lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Trapa japonica shell extract possessed a significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic property, which suggests its potential as a natural functional food ingredient. PMID:29333386

  11. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, Olivier; Miaud, Claude; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Bocher, Aurore; Mouchet, Florence; Guittonneau, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 μg L -1 ); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a new

  12. Variation in genotoxic stress tolerance among frog populations exposed to UV and pollutant gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Miaud, Claude, E-mail: claude.miaud@univ-savoie.fr [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Ficetola, Gentile Francesco [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS 5553, Universite de Savoie, Technolac, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Department of Biology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bocher, Aurore [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Mouchet, Florence [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR CNRS-UPS-INPT 5245, Institut National Polytechnique-ENSAT, Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Guittonneau, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Devaux, Alain [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, INRA-EFPA, Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2009-11-08

    Populations of widely distributed species can be subjected to unequal selection pressures, producing differences in rates of local adaptation. We report a laboratory experiment testing tolerance variation to UV-B and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among common frog (Rana temporaria) populations according to their natural exposure level in the field. Studied populations were naturally distributed along two gradients, i.e. UV-B radiation with altitude and level of contamination by PAHs with the distance to emitting sources (road traffic). Tadpoles from eight populations were subjected to (1) no or high level of artificial UV-B; (2) four concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0, 50, 250, 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}); (3) simultaneously to UV-B and BaP. Since both stressors are genotoxic, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in circulating red blood cells was used as a bioindicator of tadpole sensitivity. High-altitude populations appear to be locally adapted to better resist UV-B genotoxicity, as they showed the lowest MNE numbers. Conversely, no correlation was observed between levels of PAH contamination in the field and tadpole tolerance to BaP in the laboratory, indicating the absence of local adaptation for BaP tolerance in these populations. Nevertheless, the decrease of MNE formation due to BaP exposure with altitude suggests that high-altitude populations were intrinsically more resistant to BaP genotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis of a co-tolerance between UV-B and BaP in high-altitude common frog populations: local adaptation to prevent and/or repair DNA damage induced by UV-B could also protect these highland populations against DNA damage induced by BaP. The results of this study highlight the role of local adaptation along pollutant gradients leading to tolerance variation, which implies that is it necessary to take into account the history of exposure of each population and the existence of co-tolerance that can hide toxic effects of a

  13. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  14. Cellular mechanisms of nociception in the frog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuffler, D. P.; Lyfenko, Alla; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2002), s. 1843-1850 ISSN 0022-3077 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Grant - others:NATO(XX) Grant 977062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cellular mechanisms of nociception * frog Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2002

  15. Abundancia relativa y uso de microhábitat de la rana Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae en dos hábitats en Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martínez Baños

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La rana Geobatrachus walkeri pertenece a un género monotípico y endémico del área de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en el bosque secundario natural y en una plantación de pino (dominada por Pinus patula. Para comparar la abundancia relativa y el uso del microhábitat en estos dos hábitat y durante los períodos de máxima y mínima precipitación, se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 30 cuadrantes en cada bosque sobre los que se registraron el número de individuos y los microhábitats ocupados. Además se reconocieron otros aspectos de la historia natural mediante muestreo por encuentros casuales (VES, se incluye en los dos hábitats áreas no muestreadas por los cuadrantes. La mayor abundancia de ranas se obtuvo en la plantación de pino y durante la época de lluvias. El microhábitat más usado fue la hojarasca de pino. Geobatrachus walkeri es una especie exitosa en las plantaciones de pino, asociada permanentemente a su hojarasca en donde parece desarrollar todo su ciclo de vida. Las claras modificaciones derivadas de la introducción de las plantaciones de pino en el suelo y el agua, parecen no haber afectado la supervivencia y mantenimiento exitoso de esta especie categorizada como en peligro de extinción.Relative abundance and microhabitat use by the frog Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura:Strabomantidae in two habitats of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Geobatrachus walkeri belongs to a monotypic frog genus endemic to the San Lorenzo area, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. This species has been categorized as endangered because of its small distribution area and the decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It inhabits two forest types with different composition and structure, the native secondary forest and a pine plantation (dominated by Pinus patula. To compare the relative abundance and microhabitat use of this species in these habitat types, 30 quadrants/environment were

  16. Biogeographic patterns of Colombian frogs and toads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, John D.; Ruiz Carranza, Pedro M; Ardila Robayo, Maria Cristina

    1997-01-01

    Using the data provided in Ruiz-Carranza et al. (1996) the distributions of the 540 species of frogs and toads are partitioned among ten ecogeographic units of Colombia defined on the basis of precipitation and elevation. Some lowlands areas (pacific lowlands, Amazonian) exhibit high diversity (85-94 species) but lowlands areas in general are impoverished (30-52 species), especially when contrasted with upland areas. The three Andean cordilleras harbor between 87 and 121 species of frogs and toads, demonstrating that the biodiversity of Colombia resides primarily in its montane components, not in its lowland rain forests. When biological endemicity is separated from political endemicity, five areas of high endemicity remain (the three Andean cordilleras, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and the pacific lowlands). We endeavor to explain this description by recourse to cladistic analyses of several groups of leptodactylid frogs where we find that the general pattern of diversification is by means of horizontal diversification (allopatric speciation) with a minor contribution from vertical diversification

  17. Coding of amplitude-modulated signals in the cochlear nucleus of a grass frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, N. G.

    2002-07-01

    To study the mechanisms that govern the coding of temporal features of complex sound signals, responses of single neurons located in the dorsal nucleus of the medulla oblongata (the cochlear nucleus) of a curarized grass frog ( Rana temporaria) to pure tone bursts and amplitude modulated tone bursts with a modulation frequency of 20 Hz and modulation depths of 10 and 80% were recorded. The carrier frequency was equal to the characteristic frequency of a neuron, the average signal level was 20 30 dB above the threshold, and the signal duration was equal to ten full modulation periods. Of the 133 neurons studied, 129 neurons responded to 80% modulated tone bursts by discharges that were phase-locked with the envelope waveform. At this modulation depth, the best phase locking was observed for neurons with the phasic type of response to tone bursts. For tonic neurons with low characteristic frequencies, along with the reproduction of the modulation, phase locking with the carrier frequency of the signal was observed. At 10% amplitude modulation, phasic neurons usually responded to only the onset of a tone burst. Almost all tonic units showed a tendency to reproduce the envelope, although the efficiency of the reproduction was low, and for half of these neurons, it was below the reliability limit. Some neurons exhibited a more efficient reproduction of the weak modulation. For almost half of the neurons, a reliable improvement was observed in the phase locking of the response during the tone burst presentation (from the first to the tenth modulation period). The cooperative histogram of a set of neurons responding to 10% modulated tone bursts within narrow ranges of frequencies and intensities retains the information on the dynamics of the envelope variation. The data are compared with the results obtained from the study of the responses to similar signals in the acoustic midbrain center of the same object and also with the psychophysical effect of a differential

  18. Survival and DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated haploid and diploid cultured frog cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, J.J.; Hoess, R.H.; Angelosanto, F.A.; Massey, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Survival and repair of DNA following ultraviolet (254-nm) radiation have been investigated in ICR 2A, a cultured cell line from haploid embryos of the grassfrog, Rana pipiens. Survival curves from cells recovering in the dark gave mean lethal dose value (D 0 ) in the range 1.5-1.7 Jm -2 for both haploid and diploid cell stocks. The only significant difference observed between haploids and diploids was in the extent of the shoulder at low fluence (Dsub(q)), the value for exponentially multiplying diploid cells (3.0 Jm -2 ) being higher than that found for haploids (1.2 Jm -2 ). Irradiation of cultures reversibly blocked in the G1 phase of the cell cycle gave survival-curve coefficients indistinguishable between haploids and diploids. Post-irradiation exposure to visible light restored colony-forming capacity and removed chromatographically estimated pyrimidine dimers from DNA at the same rates. After fluences killing 90% of the cells, complete restoration of survival was obtained after 60-min exposure to 500 foot-candles, indicating that in this range lethality is entirely photoreversible and therefore attributable to pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Dimer removal required illumination following ultraviolet exposure, intact cells and physiological temperature, implying that the photoreversal involved DNA photolyase activity. Excision-repair capacity was slight, since no loss of dimers could be detected chromoatographically during up to 48 h incubation in the dark and since autoradiographically detected 'unscheduled DNA synthesis' was limited to a 2-fold increase saturated at 10 Jm -2 . These properties make ICR 2A frog cells useful to explore how DNA-repair pathways influence mutant yield. (Auth.)

  19. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carlos; Knapp, Roland A

    2007-03-01

    More than 40% of Earth's 5700+ amphibian species have undergone recent declines. Despite the likely involvement of multiple factors in driving these declines, most studies continue to focus on single stressors. In California (USA), separate studies have implicated either introduced fish or pesticides as causal agents. To date, however, no study has simultaneously evaluated the respective roles of these two potential stressors nor attempted to assess their relative importance, information critical for the development of effective conservation efforts and environmental policies. We examined the role and relative effect of fish and pesticides on the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) using unusually detailed data sets for a large portion of R. muscosa's historic range in California's Sierra Nevada. Habitat characteristics and presence/absence of R. muscosa and fish were quantified at each of 6831 sites during field surveys. Pesticide use upwind of each site was calculated from pesticide application records and predominant wind directions. Using generalized additive models, we found that, after accounting for habitat effects, the probability of R. muscosa presence was significantly reduced by both fish and pesticides, with the landscape-scale effect of pesticides much stronger than that of fish. The degree to which a site was sheltered from the predominant wind (and associated pesticides) was also a significant predictor of R. muscosa presence. Taken together, these results represent the strongest evidence to date that windborne pesticides are contributing to amphibian declines in pristine locations. Our results suggest that amphibian declines may have complex multi-factorial causes, and caution that single-factor studies that demonstrate the importance of one factor should not be used as evidence against the importance of other factors.

  20. An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay M Savage

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive new species of Atelopus is described from Parque Nacional Chirripó Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3 400-3 500 m. It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. it differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1 600 km. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 381-386. Epub 2009 June 30.Se describe una nueva especie de Atelopus del Parque Nacional Chirripó Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3 400-3 500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se parece a poblaciones del complejo de Atelopus ignescens de los Andes del norte de Ecuador y del sur de Colombia. Principalmente difiere de estas ranas en el patrón de desarrollo de espículas y conos en la garganta, pecho, manos y pies. La especie de Costa Rica es atípica dentro del complejo por estar inexplicablemente separada geográficamente de sus más cercanos representantes por una distancia aproximada de 1 600 km por tierra.

  1. Extremely Low Genomic Diversity of Rickettsia japonica Distributed in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers". The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. N.C. Rana: The Life of a `Comet' in the Astrophysical World

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Ray, Saibal

    2014-01-01

    Narayan Chandra Rana, a person with extraordinary potential from a remote village of Bengal, India, came into the limelight of the international scientific world through his exceptional talent, zeal and courage. In his very short life-span, he excelled not only into various branches of astrophysics, but also took a leading role in science popularization, text book writing etc. In this paper, life and works of that budding scientist of India have been discussed from multifarious viewpoints.

  3. Ultrastructure and localisation of late-sporogonic developmental stages of Sphaerospora ranae (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 311-321 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Europe * kidneys * myxospore * Myxozoa * Rana * sporogony * synchronisation * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  4. O sufixo -rana no português falado pelo caboclo amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo -rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo¹, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo -rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo -rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  5. Efficient induction of spawning of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Vance L; Schueler, Frederick W; Navarro-Martin, Laia; Hamilton, Christine K; Bulaeva, Elizabeth; Bennett, Amanda; Fletcher, William; Taylor, Lisa

    2013-02-25

    Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions. We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly(10), D-Ala(6), Pro-NHEt(9)-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5-6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and metamorphosed successfully. We

  6. Assessment of frog meat utilisation in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...

  7. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  8. Efficacy of ivermectin as an anthelmintic in leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Glade, M

    1992-02-15

    Ivermectin administered cutaneously at dosages of 2 mg/kg of body weight eliminated nematode infections in leopard frogs. Three clinical trials were conducted. In the first trial, 5 groups of 11 frogs were given ivermectin IM at dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 2, or 20 mg/kg. All frogs given ivermectin IM at dosages of 2.0 mg/kg or greater died. In trial 2, 44 frogs, allotted to 5 groups, were given ivermectin cutaneously at 0, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg. Cutaneously administered ivermectin was not toxic at dosages up to 20 mg/kg. In trial 3, nematode infections were eliminated in all 10 frogs treated cutaneously with ivermectin at 2.0 mg/kg.

  9. Identification and characterisation of ROS modulator 1 in Lampetra japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on chemical constituents of Polygala japonica Houtt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting-zhao; ZHANG Wei-dong; LIU Run-hui; CHEN Hai-sheng; ZHANG Chuan; SU Juan; XU Xi-ke

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents of Polygala japonica Houtt.. Methods:The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatographies with silical gel, RP-silical gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data (IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC). Results: Totally 15 compounds were obtained from Polygala japonica Houtt. And their structures were identified as castaprenol-12 (Ⅰ), β-sitosterol (Ⅱ), stigmasterol (Ⅲ),stigmasta-7,22-di-ene-3-one (Ⅳ), n-dotriacontanol ( Ⅴ ), n-hexadecanol ( Ⅵ ), arachidic acid (Ⅶ), erogosterol (Ⅷ), kaempferol (Ⅸ), quercetin (Ⅹ), daucosterol (Ⅺ), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (Ⅻ),coumaric acid (ⅩⅢ), rhamnocitrin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (ⅪⅤ), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (ⅩⅤ). Conclusion: Compounds Ⅰ , Ⅲ , Ⅳ, Ⅴ , Ⅵ, Ⅶ, Ⅷ, Ⅻ , ⅩⅢ and ⅩⅣ were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  11. Transcriptome sequencing and De Novo analysis of Youngia japonica using the illumina platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Peng

    Full Text Available Youngia japonica, a weed species distributed worldwide, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is an ideal plant for studying the evolution of Asteraceae plants because of its short life history and abundant source. However, little is known about its evolution and genetic diversity. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted for the first time for the comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. The Y. japonica transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 21,847,909 high-quality reads for Y. japonica and assembled them into contigs. A total of 51,850 unigenes were identified, among which 46,087 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 41,752 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. We mapped 9,125 unigenes onto 163 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. In addition, 3,648 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource currently available for Y. japonica. C4 photosynthesis unigenes were found in the biological process of Y. japonica. There were 5596 unigenes related to defense response and 1344 ungienes related to signal transduction mechanisms (10.95%. These data provide insights into the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. Numerous SSRs contributed to the development of novel markers. These data may serve as a new valuable resource for genomic studies on Youngia and, more generally, Cichoraceae.

  12. Different gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in Lonicera japonica revealed by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P≤0.05 between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6,602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including Metabolic process, Response to stimulus, Cellular process and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future.

  13. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  14. Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Dong, L.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Sun, Ch.; Tan, J.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2011), s. 499-518 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Neogene * Bufo * Macropelobates * Rana * Tadpole * East Asia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  15. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Netherlands; Courtney A. Cook; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Louis H. du Preez; Nico J. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  16. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  17. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  18. An annotated review of the Salamander types described in the Fauna Japonica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The whereabouts of the salamander types described by Temminck & Schlegel in the Fauna Japonica (1838) are discussed and lectotypes are selected from the syntypes for the following nominal species : Salamandra naevia Temminck & Schlegel, S. unguiculata Temminck & Schlegel, S. subcristata Temminck &

  19. Study on the isolation of active constituents in Lonicera japonica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lonicera japonica has antibacterial and gall bladder-protective effects. Objective: To study the .... Dexamethasone acetate cream (999 Pi Yan. Ping), xylene, dry yeast ... 3 ml of yeast solution. (concentration of 20%) at dorsal skin, after inducing.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Frog virus 3, Isolated from a Strawberry Poison Frog (Oophaga pumilio) Imported from Nicaragua into the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, Bernardo; Hughes, Joseph; van Beurden, Steven J; Suárez, Nicolás M; Haenen, Olga L M; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal; Gröne, Andrea; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-08-31

    Frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) imported from Nicaragua via Germany to the Netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Frog virus 3 isolate Op /2015/Netherlands/UU3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the reference Frog virus 3 isolate. Copyright © 2017 Saucedo et al.

  1. Characteristic features of computed tomography (CT) in hepatic schistosomiasis japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakemi, Taisuke; Sakai, Terufumi; Majima, Yasuo [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-06-01

    Characteristic finding of CT in the liver of hepatic schistosomiasis japonica were compared with histological changes. The study was made on 7 cases with schistosomatic liver cirrhosis (SLC) and 7 SLC cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Characteristic CT findings were high density funicular patterns showing turtle shell appearance (4 cases), high density spotty patterns (3 cases) and both mixed patterns (7 cases). These patterns were not changed by contrast medium study. Funicular and mixed patterns were observed in both lobes of the liver, however, spotty patterns were seen only in the right lobe. It was difficult to distinguish liver tissue surrounded by funicular patterns from HCC lesion. Histopathological study of autopsied livers and CT scanning of thin cut livers revealed that high density funicular patterns represent deposits of calcified schistosomal ova in the fibrous septa.

  2. Distribution and metabolism of galactitol in Euonymus japonica L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersig, M.R.; Negm, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of [ 14 C]-galactitol was studied in immature and mature leaves of Euonymus japonica L. The highest rates of galactitol metabolism occurred in young expanding leaves. After a 12 h incubation in [ 14 C]-galactitol, the proportions of label remaining in galactitol were 82 and 96% in immature and mature tissues, respectively. A NAD dependent galactitol dehydrogenase reaction was demonstrated in extracts from immature leaves. The product of this reaction was the aldose sugar, galactose. Label from [ 14 C]-galactitol was detected in two unidentified carbohydrates as well as in sucrose, glucose, fructose and galactose. When incubated with [ 14 C]-galactose, immature and mature leaf strips, respectively, accumulated 1 and 22% of the label in the form of galactitol

  3. Development of microsatellite markers from loquat, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, A D; Lopez-Capuz, I; Soriano, J M; Llacer, G; Romero, C; Badenes, M L

    2009-05-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a minor fruit which has become an interesting alternative into the European fruit industry. This interest resulted in a loquat germplasm collection established at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain. Currently, it is the main reservoir of this species outside Asia. We developed and characterized the first 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci from a CT/AG-enriched loquat genomic library. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.20 and 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.17 and 0.81, three markers were multilocus and eight loci departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These markers will facilitate diversity and genetic studies into the species. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Frog virus 3, Isolated from a Strawberry Poison Frog (Oophaga pumilio) Imported from Nicaragua into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saucedo, Bernardo; Hughes, Joseph; van Beurden, Steven J; Suárez, Nicolás M; Haenen, Olga L M; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; Gröne, Andrea; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-01-01

    Frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from Nicaragua via Germany to the Netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Frog virus 3 isolate Op/2015/Netherlands/UU3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the

  6. Complete genome sequence of frog virus 3, isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from nicaragua into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saucedo, Bernardo; Hughes, Joseph; Beurden, van Steven J.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Haenen, Olga L.M.; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal; Gröne, Andrea; Kika, Marja J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from Nicaragua via Germany to the Netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Frog virus 3 isolate Op/2015/Netherlands/UU3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the

  7. Effects of two endocrine disruptors Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development of Rana Temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    to complete phenotypic sex reversal. The effect of the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz on sexual differentiation in Rana temporaria, a species exhibiting natural juvenile hermaphroditism, was investigated. Prochloraz caused an increase in the percentage......  Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity...

  8. O SUFIXO -RANA NO PORTUGUÊS FALADO PELO CABOCLO AMAZONENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo –rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo –rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo –rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  9. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  10. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Marcela Alejandra; Panzeri, Ana María; Moreno, Víctor Jorge; Dulout, Fernando Noel

    2003-01-01

    Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L). The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per...

  11. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid......-base equivalents marginally, suggesting that mobilisable CaCO3 stores were depleted during the first exposure to hypercapnia and that they were not refilled. The CaCO3 stores may normally be mobilised during the slowly developing internal hypercapnia that occurs during metamorphosis....

  12. FROG: The Fast And Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL [3] and GLUT [4] libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  13. Metabolomic profiling of Green Frogs exposed to Mixed Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GC/MS data from the metabolomic profiling of green frog livers after exposure to pesticides and their mixtures. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. Essential Oil from Cryptomeria japonica Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells via Mitochondrial Stress and Activation of Caspases

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Kim, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica) has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle), and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and p...

  15. Identification of individual foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) using chin pattern photographs: a non-invasive and effective method for small population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Marlow; K.D. Wiseman; Clara Wheeler; J.E.  Drennan; R.E.  Jackman

    2016-01-01

    The ability to identify individual animals is a valuable tool in the study of amphibian population dynamics, movement ecology, social behavior, and habitat use. Numerous methods of marking amphibians have been employed including the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, radio-transmitters, elastomers, branding, and mutilation techniques such as toe...

  16. Parasitic copepod (Lernaea cyprinacea) outbreaks in foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) linked to unusually warm summers in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah J. Kupferberg; Alessandro Catenazzi; Kevin Lunde; Amy J. Lind; Wendy J. Palen

    2009-01-01

    How climate change may affect parasite–host assemblages and emerging infectious diseases is an important question in amphibian decline research. We present data supporting a link between periods of unusually warm summer water temperatures during 2006 and 2008 in a northern California river, outbreaks of the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea, and...

  17. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the frogs Leptodactylus albilabris and Rana pipiens pipiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Narins, P M

    1993-01-01

    and to sound from 40 dB SPL by increasing their spike rate. Best frequencies (BFs) ranged from 60 to 900 Hz, and only fibers with BFs below 500 Hz responded to vibrations. The fibers had identical BF's for sound and vibration. The saccular fibers had BFs ranging from 10 to 80 Hz with 22 fibers having BFs at 40......-50 Hz. The fibers responded to sound from 70 dB SPL and to vibrations from 0.01 cm/s2. 3. No differences in sensitivity, tuning or phase-locking were found between the two species, except that most BP-fibers in R. pipiens pipiens had BFs from 1.2 to 1.4 kHz, whereas those in L. albilabris had BFs from 2...

  18. Ion channel regulation of the dynamical instability of the resting membrane potential in saccular hair cells of the green frog (Rana esculenta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, F; Kroese, ABA

    2005-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the ion channel regulation of the resting membrane potential of hair cells with the aim to determine if the resting membrane potential is poised close to instability and thereby a potential cause of the spontaneous afferent spike activity. Methods: The ionic mechanism and the

  19. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  20. Plasticity of peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity in Emei music frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Zhang

    Full Text Available In anurans reproductive behavior is strongly seasonal. During the spring, frogs emerge from hibernation and males vocalize for mating or advertising territories. Female frogs have the ability to evaluate the quality of the males' resources on the basis of these vocalizations. Although studies revealed that central single torus semicircularis neurons in frogs exhibit season plasticity, the plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity in frog is unknown. In this study the seasonally plasticity of peripheral auditory sensitivity was test in the Emei music frog Babina daunchina, by comparing thresholds and latencies of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs evoked by tone pips and clicks in the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The results show that both ABR thresholds and latency differ significantly between the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. The thresholds of tone pip evoked ABRs in the non-reproductive season increased significantly about 10 dB than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1 KHz to 6 KHz. ABR latencies to waveform valley values for tone pips for the same frequencies using appropriate threshold stimulus levels are longer than those in the reproductive season for frequencies from 1.5 to 6 KHz range, although from 0.2 to 1.5 KHz range it is shorter in the non-reproductive season. These results demonstrated that peripheral auditory frequency sensitivity exhibits seasonal plasticity changes which may be adaptive to seasonal reproductive behavior in frogs.

  1. Is chytridiomycosis driving Darwin's frogs to extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Soto-Azat

    Full Text Available Darwin's frogs (Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum are two species of mouth brooding frogs from Chile and Argentina that have experienced marked population declines. Rhinoderma rufum has not been found in the wild since 1980. We investigated historical and current evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd infection in Rhinoderma spp. to determine whether chytridiomycosis is implicated in the population declines of these species. Archived and live specimens of Rhinoderma spp., sympatric amphibians and amphibians at sites where Rhinoderma sp. had recently gone extinct were examined for Bd infection using quantitative real-time PCR. Six (0.9% of 662 archived anurans tested positive for Bd (4/289 R. darwinii; 1/266 R. rufum and 1/107 other anurans, all of which had been collected between 1970 and 1978. An overall Bd-infection prevalence of 12.5% was obtained from 797 swabs taken from 369 extant individuals of R. darwinii and 428 individuals representing 18 other species of anurans found at sites with current and recent presence of the two Rhinoderma species. In extant R. darwinii, Bd-infection prevalence (1.9% was significantly lower than that found in other anurans (7.3%. The prevalence of infection (30% in other amphibian species was significantly higher in sites where either Rhinoderma spp. had become extinct or was experiencing severe population declines than in sites where there had been no apparent decline (3.0%; x(2 = 106.407, P<0.001. This is the first report of widespread Bd presence in Chile and our results are consistent with Rhinoderma spp. declines being due to Bd infection, although additional field and laboratory investigations are required to investigate this further.

  2. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive neurons in the midbrain of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1989-01-01

    European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution of ...... stimuli probably play a role in communication and detection of predators and the vibration-sensitive midbrain neurons may be involved in the central processing of such behaviorally significant stimuli.......European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution...... of best frequencies (BF's) was bimodal with peaks at 10 and 100 Hz and the thresholds ranged from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2 at the BF. Twenty-three neurons showed phasic-tonic and 11 neurons phasic responses. The dynamic range of seismic intensity for most neurons was 20-30 dB. In contrast to the sharp phase...

  3. The response characteristics of vibration-sensitive saccular fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1988-01-01

    The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2-48 s...... motion of the otolith relative to the macula is complex. No behavioral role of a vibration receptor has been demonstrated in the grassfrog.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2......-48 spikes/s. These fibers were very vibration-sensitive. The synchronization thresholds at 10-20 Hz varied from below 0.005 to 0.02 cm/s2. In contrast to earlier results, all these fibers had low-pass characteristics (with respect to acceleration) and responded maximally at 10 and 20 Hz. 55 fibers had...

  4. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  5. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  6. Female preferences for aposematic signal components in a polymorphic poison frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Cummings, Molly E.

    Aposematic signals may be subject to conflicting selective pressures from predators and conspecifics. We studied female preferences for different components of aposematic coloration in the polymorphic poison frog Oophaga pumilio across several phenotypically distinct populations. This frog shows

  7. Determination of age, longevity and age at reproduction of the frog ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    separately in plastic bags and placed in 5 different aquaria. Each frog was anaesthetized (using anaesthetic ether), the body mass ... bone of each frog, were measured using an ocular .... One of the problems generally associated with skeleto-.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  9. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Belden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in

  10. Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Male frogs call to attract females for mating and to defend territories from rival males. Female frogs of some species prefer lower-pitched calls, which indicate larger, more experienced males. Acoustic interference occurs when background noise reduces the active distance or the distance over which an acoustic signal can be detected. Birds are known to call at a higher pitch or frequency in urban noise, decreasing acoustic interference from low-frequency noise. Using Bayesian linear regression, we investigated the effect of traffic noise on the pitch of advertisement calls in two species of frogs, the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii and the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera. We found evidence that L. ewingii calls at a higher pitch in traffic noise, with an average increase in dominant frequency of 4.1 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 123 Hz. This frequency shift is smaller than that observed in birds, but is still large enough to be detected by conspecific frogs and confer a significant benefit to the caller. Mathematical modelling predicted a 24% increase in the active distance of a L. ewingii call in traffic noise with a frequency shift of this size. Crinia signifera may also call at a higher pitch in traffic noise, but more data are required to be confident of this effect. Because frog calls are innate rather than learned, the frequency shift demonstrated by L. ewingii may represent an evolutionary adaptation to noisy conditions. The phenomenon of frogs calling at a higher pitch in traffic noise could therefore constitute an intriguing trade-off between audibility and attractiveness to potential mates.

  11. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from frog skeletal muscle during shortening against an inertial load and a quick release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Hiroo; Tameyasu, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Sugi, Haruo.

    1980-01-01

    A group of Japanese researchers conducted, for the first time in this field, experiments on time-resolved x-ray diffraction of frog (bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) skeletal muscle in conditions where both the force and the muscle length change with time. During an isotonic twitch under a load of about 0.3 P 0 , the intensity ratio started falling on stimulation and reached a minimum value of 0.5 - 0.6 at the early shortening phase, which was maintained until the beginning of relaxation. Except that the minimum value was not retained until the start of relaxation, the same was observed during a twitch against an inertial load whereby the peak force exerted by the muscle was about 0.4 P 0 . The results may be taken to indicate that the change in the intensity ratio reflects not the time course of shortening but that of force generation. When a quick release (3 - 4% of muscle length) was applied during the rising phase of an isometric twitch, the intensity ratio showed no distinct change. Judging from tentative calculation results, however, the foregoing result is subject to further experiments with a much improved time resolution of the measurements. (Kitajima, A.)

  12. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  13. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko

    1986-11-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis.

  14. [Luring effect of the fermented Laminaria japonica to Oncomelania hupensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, An-ning; Ni, Hong; Wang, Wan-xian; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To study the attraction effect of the food attractants on Oncomelania hupensis. Oncomelania snail food was prepared with the fermented kelp (Laminaria japonica) mixed with corn starch. Snails were fed with the food and kept for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h at 15, 25, 35 degrees C respectively. Meanwhile, snail-killing effect was tested by granules containing jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisama heterophyllum) with or without the fermented kelp under the condition of 25 degrees C, 30% or 60% soil humidity. The snail-attracting rate of the fermented kelp was affected by the temperature, highest under 25 degrees C and lowest under 35 degrees C at any time point, with a rate of 80.3% in 48 h at 25 degrees C which was higher than that of the control (17.0%) (Pjack-in-the-pulpit with fermented kelp (85.3%) was higher than that of the group without fermented kelp (26.8%) (P<0.05). The mortality under 60% of soil humidity was higher than that under 30% humidity (P<0.01). The fermented kelp shows a strong luring effect to the Oncomelania snails.

  15. Emission of floral volatiles from Mahonia japonica (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Joanne M; MacTavish, Hazel S; Clery, Robin A

    2002-07-01

    Flowering Mahonia japonica plants were subjected to controlled environments and the floral volatiles emitted from whole racemes (laterals) were trapped by Porapak Q adsorbent and analysed by GC-FID. An experiment with photoperiods of 6 and 9 h at constant temperature (10+/-1 degrees C) demonstrated that photoperiod was the stimulus for enhanced emission of most volatiles. Small quantitative differences in emitted fragrance composition were observed between light and dark periods and between plants acclimatised to different photoperiods. Maximum rates of emission occurred in the middle of the light period; aromatic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and indole) displayed a more rapid increase and subsequent decline compared with monoterpenes (cis- and trans-ocimene and linalool). When the photoperiod was extended from 6 to 9 h, maximum rates of emission continued throughout the additional 3 h. Total emission (microg/h) of volatiles was 2-fold greater in the day-time (DT) (39.7 microg/h) compared with the night-time (NT) (19.8 microgg/h) under a 6 h photoperiod and was not significantly different from total emission under a 9 h photoperiod.

  16. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  17. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts.

  18. Radionuclide study on hepatic blood flow in Schistosomiasis Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Hayashi, Sanshin; Araki, Tsutomu; Arai, Takao; Iuchi, Masahiko.

    1986-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Japonica is a regional disease found in elderly people who were living in once-endemic areas in Japan. Yamanashi was one of these areas until 1970, since when no newly infected patients were reported. The disease is characteristic of developing irreversible interstitial fibrosis of the liver, where parasites migrate and lay eggs. Portal hypertension, esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinomas are the common features of the results. In order to estimate patient's hepatic blood flow, radionuclide angiography of the liver with the use of 10 - 15 millicuries of Tc-99m phytate were performed prior to the conventional multiview imaging. Twenty-two patients with schistosomiasis and twelve adults without evidence of liver disease were studied. A time-activity curve of the right lobe of the liver was generated by a computer, and the ratio of arterial blood flow to portal blood flow was calculated. As a result, a good correlation was found between the arterial to portal blood flow ratio and the grade of hepatic fibrosis verified by laparoscopic biopsy. The development of esophageal varices were likely to correlate well with the blood flow ratio rather than scores on the conventional static liver and spleen scintigram. The study was useful for evaluating patient's clinical stages and prognosis. (author)

  19. Growth modeling of Cryptomeria japonica by partial trunk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Morais Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth pattern of Cryptomeria japonica increment (L. F. D. Don. and to describe the probability distribution in stands stablished at the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State. Twenty trees were sampled in a 34 years-old stand, with 3 m x 2 m spacing. Wood disks were taken from each tree at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH to perform partial stem analysis. Diameter growth series without bark were used to generate the average cumulative growth curves for DBH (cm, mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI. From the increment data, the frequency distribution was evaluated by means of probability density functions (pdfs. The mean annual increment for DBH was 0.78 cm year-1 and the age of intersection of CAI and MAI curves was between the 7th and 8th years. It was found that near 43% of the species increments are concentrated bellow 0.5 cm. The results are useful to define appropriate management strategies for the species for sites similar to the studying regions, defining for example ages of silvicultural intervention, such as thinning.

  20. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Sophora japonica Transcriptome Using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophora japonica Linn (Chinese Scholar Tree is a shrub species belonging to the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. In this study, RNA sequencing of S. japonica transcriptome was performed to produce large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. Approximate 86.1 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 143010 unique transcripts and 57614 unigenes. The average length of unigenes was 901 bps with an N50 of 545 bps. Four public databases, including the NCBI nonredundant protein (NR, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG, were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST procedure. A total of 27541 of 57614 unigenes (47.8% were annotated for gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology. Moreover, an interaction network of unigenes in S. japonica was predicted based on known protein-protein interactions of putative orthologs of well-studied plant genomes. The transcriptome data of S. japonica reported here represents first genome-scale investigation of gene expressions in Faboideae plants. We expect that our study will provide a useful resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics, functional genomics, and protein-protein interaction in S. japonica.

  1. Microcosm investigation of growth and phytoremediation potential of Azolla japonica along nitrogen gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Song, Uhram

    2017-10-03

    Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica Thunb. [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica Thunb. 名詞 一般 *... * * * ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica Thunb .

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ...ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica

  4. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Wasabia japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Wasabia japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ワサ...ビ ワサビ ワサビ Thesaurus2015 200906097830728309 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Wasabia japonica

  6. 'Man and biosphere' - studies of the Sikkim Himalayas. Pt. 5. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B S; Sehgal, A; Bhasin, M K

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of different heavy metals as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc was tested on tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. The rank order of the toxicity was determined. The results are briefly discussed.

  7. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  8. Tourism and the Conservation of Critically Endangered Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf C.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5–100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8–99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts. PMID:22984440

  9. Frog sound identification using extended k-nearest neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukahar, Nordiana; Affendi Rosdi, Bakhtiar; Athiar Ramli, Dzati; Jaafar, Haryati

    2017-09-01

    Frog sound identification based on the vocalization becomes important for biological research and environmental monitoring. As a result, different types of feature extractions and classifiers have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of frog sound identification. This paper presents a frog sound identification with Extended k-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN) classifier. The EKNN classifier integrates the nearest neighbors and mutual sharing of neighborhood concepts, with the aims of improving the classification performance. It makes a prediction based on who are the nearest neighbors of the testing sample and who consider the testing sample as their nearest neighbors. In order to evaluate the classification performance in frog sound identification, the EKNN classifier is compared with competing classifier, k -Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Fuzzy k -Nearest Neighbor (FKNN) k - General Nearest Neighbor (KGNN)and Mutual k -Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) on the recorded sounds of 15 frog species obtained in Malaysia forest. The recorded sounds have been segmented using Short Time Energy and Short Time Average Zero Crossing Rate (STE+STAZCR), sinusoidal modeling (SM), manual and the combination of Energy (E) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) (E+ZCR) while the features are extracted by Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). The experimental results have shown that the EKNCN classifier exhibits the best performance in terms of accuracy compared to the competing classifiers, KNN, FKNN, GKNN and MKNN for all cases.

  10. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P de Sá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids, we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  11. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  12. Genetic structure of the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) populations in urban landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, Peter; Pišút, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2012), s. 833-845 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Genetic differentiation * Habitat fragmentation * Microsatellites * Rana ridibunda * Ranidae * Urbanization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2012

  13. A natriferic principle other than arginine-vasotocin in the frog neuro hypophysis (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Maetz, J.

    1961-01-01

    In the neurohypophysis of Rana esculenta there exists, in addition to vasotocin, an unknown active principle which accounts for approximately half of the total natriferic activity of the gland. This principle is not found in chickens. (authors) [fr

  14. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  15. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alejandra Campana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L. The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per 1,000 cells. R. catesbeiana tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin showed an increase in the micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood. Tadpoles exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP also showed a significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes which peaked after 15 days. These results suggest that R. catesbeiana tadpoles may provide a useful model for monitoring water pollution.

  16. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  17. Shore and off-shore monitoring of Rana Pratap Sagar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) is a man made fresh water reservoir on the river Chambal and is located about 65 km away from Kota city in the state of Rajasthan. It is a balancing reservoir between Gandhi Sagar, upstream and Jawahar Sagar, downstream. On the eastern bank of RPS there exist Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) Site, comprising of four operating pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe each. The low level radioactive effluents from RAPS, are released in controlled manner to RPS. On release the effluents undergo dispersion in the aquatic environment of RPS and may reach man through, various pathways. Being fresh water reservoir, considerable emphasis is laid on the aquatic monitoring aspects relating to RPS and downstream reservoirs. This paper presents the monitored levels of radioactivity prevailing in the aquatic samples collected from near shore and off shore locations of RPS. (author)

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  19. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  20. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Abdallah

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1, sophoricoside (2, sophorabioside (3, sophoraflavonoloside (4, genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2β-D-glucopyranoside (6 and rutin (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  1. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  2. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrino, F.; Mathis, A.; Veronesi, E.; Lang, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16–24- h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a True- Beam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. (author)

  3. [Mechanisms of subspecies differentiation in a filial generation of rice indica-japonica hybridization under different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Tong; Jin, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Qing-Shan; Xu, Hai; Chen, Wen-Fu; Xu, Zheng-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Indica-japonica hybridization is one of the most important breeding methods in China, whereas identifying subspecies differentiation mechanisms is the key in indica-japonica hybridization breeding. By using InDels (Insert/Deletion) and ILPs (Intron Length Polymorphism), an analysis was made on the F6 populations derived from the hybridization of indica-japonica (Qishanzhan/Akihikari) planted in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces and generated by bulk harvesting (BM), single-seed descent methods (SSD), and pedigree method (PM). No segregation distortion was observed for the BM and SSD populations. The frequency distribution of japonica kinship percentage (Dj) was concentrated in 40%-60%. The PM populations in the two provinces presented indica-deviated distribution (30%-55%), with significant difference between Guangdong (38%) and Liaoning (42%). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the Dj and the kinship of functional gene regions in the BM and SSD populations. However, part of the positive correlation was broken in the PM populations that showed a regular distribution in the genotype patterns of indica and japonica loci. The above results demonstrated that artificial selection could be the main factor affecting the population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization, and, with the synergistic effect of natural selection, induced the phenomenon of segregation distortion. There existed a close relationship between the differentiation of subspecies and the important agronomic traits, which could be the main reason why indica-japonica hybridiation breeding could not achieve the expected effect of combining the two subspecies advantages.

  4. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  5. Vasotocin has the potential to inhibit basolateral Na(+)/K (+)-pump current across isolated skin of tree frog in vitro, via its V(2)-type receptor/cAMP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Makoto; Fujimaki, Kayo; Hokari, Shigeru

    2008-11-01

    Adult frog skin transports Na(+) from the apical to the basolateral side across the skin. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is involved in the regulation of Na(+) transport in both mammals and amphibians. We investigated the effect of arginine vasotocin (AVT), the ADH of amphibians, on the short-circuit current (SCC) across intact skin and on the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-pump current across apically nystatin-permeabilized skin of the tree frog, Hyla japonica, in which the V(2)-type ADH receptor is expressed in vitro. In intact skin, 1 pM AVT had no effect on the SCC, but 10 nM AVT was sufficient to stimulate the SCC since 10 nM and 1 microM of AVT increased the SCC 3.2- and 3.4-fold, respectively (P > 0.9). However, in permeabilized skin, AVT (1 microM) decreased the Na(+)/K(+)-pump current to 0.79 times vehicle control. Similarly, 500 microM of 8Br-cAMP increased the SCC 3.2-fold, yet 1 mM of 8Br-cAMP decreased the Na(+)/K(+)-pump current to 0.76 times vehicle control. Arachidonic acid (10(-5) M) tended to decrease the Na(+)/K(+)-pump current. To judge from these in vitro experiments, AVT has the potential to inhibit the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-pump current via the V(2)-type receptor/cAMP pathway in the skin of the tree frog.

  6. Ontogenetic polychromatism in marsupial frogs (Anura: Hylidae Ontogenetic polychromatism in marsupial frogs (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duellman William E.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Color polymorphism is common in many species of marsupial frogs.  Extreme cases of pattern polymorphism are documented in four species. In Amphignathodon guentheri, Castrotheca aureomaculata, G. qriswoldi, and G. helenae juveniles are known to have only one color morph, where as two or more patterns exist in adults. In these species, polymorphism apparently develops ontogenetically. El polimorfismo cromático es común a algunas especies de sapos marsupiales. Casos extremos del modelo de polimorfismo son evidentes en cuatro especies Amphignathodon guentheri, Gastrotheca aureomaculata, G. griswoldi, y G. helenae. En estas especies, se sabe que los juveniles tienen sólo un morfo de color; el polimorfismo, al parecer, se desarrolla ontogenéticamente.

  7. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  8. Innate olfactory responses of Asobara japonica toward fruits infested by the invasive spotted wing Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect parasitoids are often manipulated to improve biological control programs for various arthropod pests. Volatile compounds can be a relevant cue used by most parasitoid hymenoptera for host or host microhabitat location. We studied olfactory responses of the braconid Asobara japonica Belokobyls...

  9. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  10. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  11. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  12. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as these two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''.

  13. Two cases of schistosomiasis japonica diagnosed on computed tomography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Tatsuo; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hagiri, Masumi; Itoh, Haruhisa; Haku, Eijitsu

    1982-01-01

    We reported two cases of schistosomiasis japonica which showed pathognomonic pattern on liver C.T. and ultrasonography. Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic disease in areas of Japan, but only chronic case of the disease is found now since Schistosoma Japonicum is thought to be died out in Japan. The adult worms are most commonly in branches of portal system, such as superior mesenteric vein, and many eggs are carried to the liver, where they cause inflammatory pseudotubercle formation, periportal fibrosis, and calcifications in interlobular connective tissue. According to Nakayama et al, pathognomonic pattern of schistosomiasis japonica on U.S. for the liver consists of the amounts of the eggs' calcifications, that is, the more eggs' calcifications, the more pathognomonic U.S. finding. Typical sonographic finding in the liver is network or fishscale pattern, which consists of streaky high level echo and internal low level echo. C.T. similarly demonstrates mosaic high density streak resulting from eggs' calcifications in peripheral portal branches. In addition, if patient's past history shows the life in the endemic area such as ours two cases, we can easily make a diagnosis of ''schistosomiasis japonica''

  14. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  16. Speculations on colonizing success of the African clawed frog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-12-12

    Dec 12, 1991 ... Robinson. Ann. Durban Mus. 1: 167-170. SMITH, J.L.B. 1961. Fishes of the family Apogonidae of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.lchlhyol. .... J. Herp. 12: 391-396. BAIRD, T. 1983. Influence of social and predatory stimulus on the air-breathing behavior of the African clawed frog,. Xenopus laevis.

  17. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  18. Archaeobatrachian paraphyly and pangaean diversification of crown-group frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Bossuyt, Franky

    2005-02-01

    Current models for the early diversification of living frogs inferred from morphological, ontogenetic, or DNA sequence data invoke very different scenarios of character evolution and biogeography. To explore central controversies on the phylogeny of Anura, we analyzed nearly 4000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA for the major frog lineages. Likelihood-based analyses of this data set are congruent with morphological evidence in supporting a paraphyletic arrangement of archaeobatrachian frogs, with an (Ascaphus + Leiopelma) clade as the sister-group of all other living anurans. The stability of this outcome is reinforced by screening for phylogenetic bias resulting from site-specific rate variation, homoplasy, or the obligatory use of distantly related outgroups. Twenty-one alternative branching and rooting hypotheses were evaluated using a nonparametric multicomparison test and parametric bootstrapping. Relaxed molecular clock estimates situate the emergence of crown-group anurans in the Triassic, approximately 55 million years prior to their first appearance in the fossil record. The existence of at least four extant frog lineages on the supercontinent Pangaea before its breakup gains support from the estimation that three early splits between Laurasia- and Gondwana-associated families coincide with the initial rifting of these landmasses. This observation outlines the potential significance of this breakup event in the formation of separate Mesozoic faunal assemblages in both hemispheres.

  19. Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Vos, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Orientation is a key component to successful movements between habitats. We hypothesized that barren agricultural landscapes hinder the ability of frogs to orient and move between habitats. Specifically, we predicted that when presented with a choice between a short route through a hostile

  20. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  1. Taxonomic variation in oviposition by tailed frogs (Aschaphus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...

  2. A new grass frog from Namibia | Channing | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...

  3. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  4. Vectorcardiogram of the 'Man-Frog' | Skowron | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest electrodes from a man and from a frog are connected simultaneously to an oscilloscope - the one to the vertical and the other to the horizontal plates - and the resulting display observed. It consists of a loop, the interpretation of which is discussed, and the conclusion is reached that the presently held vector theory ...

  5. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Kielgast, Jos; Svart, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    interviewed by phone and 10 cases were examined on suspicion of diseaseinduced mortality. All samples were negative for Bd. Ranavirus was isolated from 2 samples of recently dead frogs collected during a mass mortality event in an artificial pond near Slagelse, Denmark. The identity of the virus was confirmed...

  6. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Edible Frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Imnoi, Kamonchai

    2017-01-01

    Ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in Denmark and Italy. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), common midwife toad r...

  7. Elastic modulus of tree frog adhesive toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W Jon P; Goodwyn, Pablo J Perez; Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-10-01

    Previous work using an atomic force microscope in nanoindenter mode indicated that the outer, 10- to 15-μm thick, keratinised layer of tree frog toe pads has a modulus of elasticity equivalent to silicone rubber (5-15 MPa) (Scholz et al. 2009), but gave no information on the physical properties of deeper structures. In this study, micro-indentation is used to measure the stiffness of whole toe pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea. We show here that tree frog toe pads are amongst the softest of biological structures (effective elastic modulus 4-25 kPa), and that they exhibit a gradient of stiffness, being stiffest on the outside. This stiffness gradient results from the presence of a dense network of capillaries lying beneath the pad epidermis, which probably has a shock absorbing function. Additionally, we compare the physical properties (elastic modulus, work of adhesion, pull-off force) of the toe pads of immature and adult frogs.

  8. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  9. Measurement and Evaluation of Wear Frogs Switches ŽSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urda Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the measurement and evaluation of wear frogs switches ZSR. One of the main problems is the oversize wear. The possibilities analysis of this problem is offered through a set of switches and monitoring of selected parameters. One of these parameters is also monitoring the vertical wear

  10. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Soil-Root Strength Performance of Alternanthera Ficoidea and Zoysia Japonica as Green Roof Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Muhamad Firdaurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of awareness on environmentalism has demanded that all parties involved in built environment to implement green technology in their construction projects. Great care must be taken when designing a green roof system including the selection of plants and appropriate substrates. This study was performed to investigate the soil-root composite strength of two types of green roof vegetation (A. Ficoidea and Z. Japonica at different growth periods for up to 6 months. Both plants were planted in six plastic plots (45 cm × 29 cm × 13 cm containing a mixture of perlite, vermiculite and organic soil. Every two months, a series of direct shear tests were conducted on a sample from each species to determine the root-soil shear strength. The tests continued until the 6th month. The average results showed that Z. Japonica had higher soil-root shear strength (49.1 kPa compared to A. Ficoidea after two months of growth. In the 4th month however, A. Ficoidea managed to surpass Z. Japonica (28.7 kPa versus 18.5 kPa in terms of shear strength. However, their average peak shear strength decreased sharply compared to the previous month. Lastly, in six months, A. Ficoidea sustained a higher average peak soil shear strength (56.5 kPa compared to Z. Japonica (14.3 kPa. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. Ficoidea may offer a better soil reinforcement than Z. japonica and thus it could potentially be a good choice of green roof vegetation.

  12. Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Ikeda, Hajime; Yi, Ting-shuang; Takabe-Ito, Eriko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-06-01

    The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estufas climatizadas para experimentos ambientais com rãs, em gaiolas Acclimatized incubators for environmental experiments with frogs, in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram construídas seis estufas climatizadas, instaladas inicialmente no Ranário Experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa e, posteriormente, no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, com o objetivo de realizar experimentos para avaliar os efeitos do ambiente sobre o desempenho de rãs em gaiolas de fibra de vidro. Ambientes com temperaturas de 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12/12 horas de luz/horas de escuridão (h L/E serviram para adaptação das rãs por 15 dias antes de cada experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram em simular ambientes com temperaturas variando de 20 a 35ºC e fotoperíodos de 8/16, 12/12 e 16/8 h L/E. Foram realizados experimentos com rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 e rã-manteiga (Leptodactylus ocellatus Linnaeus, 1758. Nessas estufas foi possível estimar que: a os maiores ganhos de peso de rã-touro foram obtidos entre 27,6 e 29,7ºC, com melhor crescimento entre 28,2 e 30,1ºC; para rã-manteiga os melhores ganhos e conversão alimentar foram observados a 28,6 e 28ºC, respectivamente; b a temperatura interage com fotoperíodo sobre o desempenho das rãs e seu desenvolvimento gonadal; c a 27,7ºC (temperatura de conforto térmico haverá menos rãs dentro d'água; d a maior temperatura cloacal de rã-touro, 32,1ºC no seco e 33,8ºC dentro d'água, a 35ºC, evidenciou que as rãs se termorregulam; e os níveis de tetraiodotironina (T4 no plasma decrescem na temperatura de conforto térmico; f rã-manteiga condiciona-se ao manejo de rotina, reunindo-se ao redor do cocho na hora da alimentação.Six acclimatized incubators were initially installed in the Experimental Frog Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa and later in Experimental Frog Farm of the Federal University of Rio Grande, with the objective of accomplishing experiments to evaluate the effects of the environment on frogs performance in cages of fiber glass. Environments with temperatures of 25ºC and photoperiod of

  14. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-03-01

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  15. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Coppo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pCon el propósito de obtener valores normales sanguíneos y urinarios, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50-350 g de peso vivo, 50% de cada sexo, fueron analizados por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p<0.05 para hematocrito (28.6-31.6%, eritrocitos (0.40-0.44 T/L, VCM (686-732 fL, hemoglobina (6.41-7.20 g/dL, HCM (151-164 pg, CHCM (22.6-24.0%, leucocitos (18.7-22.3 G/L, neutrófilos (58.4-63.4%, linfocitos (23.9-29.8%, monocitos (2.1-3.8%, eosinófilos (4.6-7.0%, basófilos (2.9-4.1%, tiempo de sangría (289-393s, tiempo de coagulación (452- 696s, tiempo de protrombina (76-128s, densidad urinaria (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL, pH urinario (6.38-6.96, fibrinógeno (0.59-0.99 g/dL, proteínas totales (4.19-4.49 g/dL, albúmina (1.49-1.67 g/dL, alfa-1 globulina (0.20-0.24 g/dL, alfa-2 globulina (0.48-0.54 g/dL, beta globulina (0.68-0.77 g/dL, gamma globulina (1.28-1.42 g/dL, relación albúmina/globulinas (0.50-0.58, creatinina (4.09-5.56 mg/L, urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L, ácido úrico (11.5-15.4 mg/L, triglicéridos (0.34-0.52 g/L, colesterol total (0.56-0.67 g/L, C-HDL (0.03-0.05 g/L, C-LDL (0.34-0.44 g/L, alfa lipoproteína (6.01-8.67%, beta lipoproteína (91.3-93.9%, glucosa (0.45-0.54 g/L, Na (116-121 meq/L, K (3.42- 3.81 meq/L, Cl (100-116 meq/L, Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL, P (8.31-9.36 mg/dL, Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL, Fe (105-178 ug/dL, ALP (144-170 IU/L, ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L, AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L, GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L, LDH (99-135 IU/L, CHE (151-185 IU/L y CPK (365-500 IU/L. Algunos

  16. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Sharma, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it

  17. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  18. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  19. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Mauleon, Ramil; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Bruskiewich, Richard; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-01-01

    -plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress

  20. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-07-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  1. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  2. Toxic effects of NH4+-N on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongzhang; Chai, Lihong; Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Nover, Daniel; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-09-01

    Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH 4 + -N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH 4 + -N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH 4 + -N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC 50 , B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos had significantly different responses to NH 4 + -N, and the latter was more sensitive to NH 4 + -N than the former. In the chronic toxicity test, exposure to 10 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher significantly decreased the hatching rate of embryos in both species. Significant increases in the abnormality rate of embryos at 50 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher were observed and morphological abnormalities were characterized by axial flexures, yolk sac edema, and hyperplasia in both species. Additionally, the total length of embryos decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NH 4 + -N. The results indicate that NH 4 + -N exposure can increase abnormality and inhibit the hatching and development of embryos in B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling; Zhao, Peng; Di, Sheng; He, Bingsheng; Jin, Hai

    2018-01-01

    GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and

  4. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting t?ngara frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Ximena E.; Pinto, C. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypa...

  5. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey and directly (via pollen exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica.

  6. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb , and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50 μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. - Highlights: • Anti-oxidative feedback of Zostera japonica to the heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined. • The endangered intertidal seagrass Z. japonica had a high metal accumulation potential. • Z. japonica might be a potential indicator in monitoring programs using SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  7. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  8. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  10. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  11. The rediscovered Hula painted frog is a living fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Rebecca; Geffen, Eli; Vences, Miguel; Cohen, Orly; Bailon, Salvador; Rabinovich, Rivka; Malka, Yoram; Oron, Talya; Boistel, Renaud; Brumfeld, Vlad; Gafny, Sarig

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian declines are seen as an indicator of the onset of a sixth mass extinction of life on earth. Because of a combination of factors such as habitat destruction, emerging pathogens and pollutants, over 156 amphibian species have not been seen for several decades, and 34 of these were listed as extinct by 2004. Here we report the rediscovery of the Hula painted frog, the first amphibian to have been declared extinct. We provide evidence that not only has this species survived undetected in its type locality for almost 60 years but also that it is a surviving member of an otherwise extinct genus of alytid frogs, Latonia, known only as fossils from Oligocene to Pleistocene in Europe. The survival of this living fossil is a striking example of resilience to severe habitat degradation during the past century by an amphibian.

  12. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  13. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  14. Antimicrobial evaluation of the crude extract of symbiotic fungi from marine sponge Reniera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge-derived microbes are one of the rich sources of bioactive natural products with a broad spectrum of bioactivities. The present work focuses on the isolation and antimicrobial screening of the marine sponge-associated fungi from Reniera japonica MNP-2016. The results indicated that five fungi (L1-2, L2-1, L4, L8-1 and L14 were successfully isolated. Bioassay tests showed that only strain L14 had strong inhibitory effect on the pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. 18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain L14 was ascribed to Aspergillus genus. To the best of our knowledge, this work was the first report on the isolation and antimicrobial evaluation of fungi from R. japonica.

  15. ESR analysis of irradiated frogs' legs and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Agnel, J.-P.; Evans, J.C.; Rowlands, C.C.; Lesgards, G.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral analysis of different parts (bones, scales, jaw, etc.) from ionized (irradiated) frozen frogs' legs and fishes (brown trout and sardine) were recorded. There is always present, after treatment, a signal due to the irradiation. ESR and ENDOR experiments lead us to assign it to h 1 centers from hydroxyapatite, as in the case of other irradiated meat bones. The use of ESR to prove whether one of these foods has been irradiated or not is discussed. (author)

  16. Vocalizations of primary forest frog species in the Central Amazon.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Barbara L.; Bogart, James P.

    1984-01-01

    The calls of 18 species of Amazonian forest frogs were recorded in 3 localities: the Tapajos National Park near Itaituba, the Reserva Ducke near Manaus, and the INPA-WWF reserves near Manaus. Structural and time parameters and sonographs of these calls including previously undescribed vocalization by 10 species are presented. Unlike open habitat species, several forest frong species characteriscally demonstrated one on more of the following temporal parameters: very low call rates, sporadic i...

  17. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    discrimination from background noise and heterospecific calls. However, we present here evidence that two anurans, Brachycephalus ephippium and B. pitanga, are insensitive to the sound of their own calls. Both species produce advertisement calls outside their hearing sensitivity range and their inner ears...... by their high toxicity might help to explain why calling has not yet disappeared, and that visual communication may have replaced auditory in these colourful, diurnal frogs....

  18. Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) producing (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Evi; Albersmeier, Andreas; Spohn, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons: the chro......We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons...

  19. Effects of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration and myoplasmic [Ca2+] in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, R; Claflin, D R; Julian, F J

    1998-01-01

    The effect of rapid shortening on rate of force regeneration (dF/dtR) was examined in single, intact frog (Rana temporaria) skeletal muscle fibres (3·0 °C). Step releases leading to unloaded shortening were applied after 500 ms of stimulation, during the plateau of an isometric tetanus. Initial mean sarcomere length ranged from 2·05 to 2·35 μm; force regeneration after shortening was at 2·00 μm.Values for dF/dtR following a 25 nm half-sarcomere−1 release were 3·17 ± 0·17 (mean ± s.e.m., n= 8) times greater than the initial rate of rise of force before release (dF/dtI). As release size was increased from 25 to 175 nm half-sarcomere−1, the relationship between release size and dF/dtR decreased sharply before attaining a plateau value that was 1·34 ± 0·09 times greater than dF/dtI. Despite wide variations in dF/dtR, the velocity of unloaded shortening remained constant (2·92 ± 0·08 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1; n= 8) for the different release amplitudes used in this study.To investigate its role in the attenuation of dF/dtR with increased shortening, the effects of rapid ramp (constant velocity) shortening on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye furaptra. Compared with an isometric contraction, rapid fibre shortening was associated with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i while force regeneration after shortening was associated with a transient reduction in [Ca2+]i. The greatest reductions in [Ca2+]i were associated with the largest amplitude ramps.Cross-bridge-mediated modifications of the Ca2+ affinity of troponin C (TnC) may explain the fluctuations in [Ca2+]i observed during and after ramps. Associated fluctuations in TnC Ca2+ occupancy could play a role in the reduction of dF/dtR with increasing release size. PMID:9679172

  20. Reflex Marine celebrates 10. anniversary of FROG crew transfer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    Reflex Marine developed the initial 3-person FROG crew transfer device in response to the main risks identified from incidents involving traditional rope baskets for personnel transfer: falling, collisions, hard landings, and immersion. To address these issues, the FROG was developed with 4-point harnesses, a protective shell, shock-absorbing landing feet, and self-righting capability. As a result of industry demand for a higher capacity transfer device, the company introduced 6- and 9-man versions of the FROG. The perceptions and reality of marine transfers have changed greatly over the past decade, from the design of the device to vessel specifications and increased focus on crane operations. Marine transfers offer a low-risk alternative to helicopter transfers. The TORO, a low-cost crew transfer capsule launched in February 2009, fits into a standard shipping container, providing significant logistical advantages. The TORO can carry 4 passengers, offer protection from side impacts and hard landings, and is buoyant and self-righting. Most of the units are being used by major oil and gas companies, but offshore wind turbines are an emerging source of demand for the crew transfer system. 3 figs.

  1. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman : foliar feeding on wine grapes in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, T. Jude

    1986-01-01

    The natural infestation level for 1985 of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia failed to reduce berry quality, yield or shoot growth in a commercial vineyard. Intensive postveraison foliage feeding by Japanese beetle resulted 1n fruit with lower soluble solids and higher total titratable acidity at harvest, but did not affect pH, sugar per berry, berry weight, yield, leaves per vine or shoot length. Intensive previraison feeding a...

  3. Evolution and Expansion of the Prokaryote-Like Lipoxygenase Family in the Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which

  4. Distribution of Tributyltin in Tissues of Mature Japanese Whiting, Sillago japonica and Their Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Hisashi; Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Suguru; Imoto, Hisaya; Kang, Ik Joon; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has continued to pollute the coastal areas therein following global regulation for its use as an anti-fouling agent. The tissue dynamics of TBT in fish have been extensively documented, but few studies on maternal transfer of TBT have been performed. Previously, we reported that TBT was maternally transferred from parent fish to eggs. The present study examined the distribution of TBT in the tissues and spawned eggs of Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica, after dietary exp...

  5. Effect of Slave Raiding of Polyergus samurai on Nest Persistency of Its Host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of slave raiding of Polyergus samurai on nest persistency of its host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica was investigated. Nest persistence rate after the raiding season was not different between raided and unraided nests. Many raided nests stopped aboveground activities for 2-3 weeks after a raiding but surviving workers maintained underground nest structure. These observations suggest that it is required to reconsider the previous interpretation that the raided nests died out from ...

  6. Mapping of incidence and management of invasive species Fallopia japonica at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukova, Z.; Krskova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of one of the most dangerous invasive species Fallopia japonica was conducted at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia: in the cadastral territory of Zazriva, in the village Parnica towards Kralovany, in the village Kralovany and the city of Dolny Kubin - Zaskalie, stretch Timravina in the Lower Orava in late summer and early autumn 2009. We recorded by field survey 24 invading Japanese knotweed in the area of 12.238 m 2 . (authors)

  7. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  8. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  9. Effects of 3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one on Survival, Growth and Metamorphosis in the Northern Leopard Frog, Lithobates pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, David A; Eck, William S; Johnson, Mark S; Packard, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    New explosive formulations are being developed to be less sensitive to impact and inadvertent explosion, increasing safety for the warfighter. Since testing and training make environmental releases imminent, the toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), a component of Insensitive Munitions eXplosive (IMX) formulations, was assessed in a one-generation study to the northern leopard frog (Lithobates ( = Rana) pipiens). Because NTO in water creates acidic conditions, acute studies were conducted with non-pH-adjusted NTO, while a long-term (70-d) study was conducted with neutralized NTO. In the acute study, 48-h and 7-d LC 50 s were ~250 mg NTO/L. In the long-term study, tadpoles were dead by day 2 in 11,350 mg/L NTO, and by day 63 in 8382 mg/L. The 70-d LC 50 was 3670 mg (neutralized) NTO/L. The number of organisms reaching complete metamorphosis was reduced by NTO; the lowest IC 25 was 1999 mg NTO/L for the Number Completing Metamorphosis. The NOECs for Time to Front Limb Eruption or Time to Metamorphosis were the same at 1346 mg/L. Histopathology did not significantly distinguish between NTO-exposed and unexposed animals, although possible effects on the density of spermatogonia in NTO-exposed males was suggested. The test data indicate that acute toxicity to ambient NTO can be attributed primarily to its acidic nature; relatively low chronic toxicity of neutralized NTO is due to delays in metamorphosis. The consequence from this latter observation may be ecologically significant as delays of even a few days could increase mortality through predation and/or loss of the aquatic medium in temporary water bodies.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND AESTHETIC THOUGHT AROUNDTHE IDEA OF AN ETHOS-FROG-CHILD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paola Beltrán Molina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es resultado de un proceso de investigación en pensamiento ambiental en clave estética en torno a las ranas, en configuración simbólica de la tríada ethos/rana/niño, y en alternancia a las maneras como son concebidas biológicamente en su objetivación. Para su realización se contó con la participación de niños de la Institución Educativa Rural Hojas Anchas, del municipio de Circasia, departamento del Quindío, quienes relataron sobre ellas, desde su cercanía y percepción a través de escrituras y expresión pictórica. Así, sus relatos fueron organizados en tendencias por lo que dicen, por lo que anuncian, y son el punto de partida para la construcción de emergencias de Pensamiento Ambiental para su consideración en clave estética. En consecuencia, se construyen cuatro tendencias que se enuncian así: “un abrazo fecundo de los cuerpos que se contorsionan”; “vestiduras de una rana: coqueteo entre amantes o advertencia letal”; “la rana y el agua: la vida en su potencia y su latencia” y “naturaleza hecha rana: reflejos de una fragilidad corpórea”. A partir de estos enunciados, se construyen derivas de pensamiento de un ethos/rana/niño en deseo de su disolución simbólica y en resistencia a su cosificación, que a su vez, aportan para repensar la vida en el ámbito del aula. En este sentido, se acoge la obra pictórica de la artista mexicana Teresa Irene Barrera, entre otros autores del pensamiento ambiental.

  11. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  12. Cuervo, rana y tortuga en Gönnersdord : Animales representados raras veces, que han sido dibujados perfectamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Bosinski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En las placas de pizarra del yacimiento magdaleniense de Gönnersdorf (Renania, Alemania encontramos, junto con muchas otras representaciones, un cuervo, una rana y una tortuga. A pesar de que estos animales han sido representados en raras ocasiones, estas figuras son vivas y con muchos detalles anatómicos. Tomando en consideración que los animales no sirvieron de modelo mientras eran dibujados, estas figuras fueron realizadas tras una observación intensiva y dibujadas por artistas con genio eidético.

  13. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  14. Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying Ling

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions. Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins (cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2 from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences (677 and 700 bp, respectively encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. catesbeiana. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.

  15. Cadmium pollution and amphibians--Studies in tadpoles of Rana limnocharis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patar, Arabinda; Giri, Anirudha; Boro, Freeman; Bhuyan, Krishna; Singha, Utsab; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium is released into the environment in increasing amounts from different natural and anthropogenic activities contaminating the aquatic habitats. Amphibian tadpoles develop in water and hence are likely to be adversely affected by cadmium present in the aquatic environment. We have studied the toxic and genotoxic effects of CdCl2 on the tadpoles of Rana limnocharis. CdCl2 in the concentration range between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/L induced significant mortality in R. limnocharis tadpoles in a dose and time dependent manner. The 10-day LC50 which has more ecological relevance was far less than the 24-h LC50. Tadpoles exposed to CdCl2 metamorphosed at an early age possibly as a survival strategy to move out of the stressful environment. The body weight of the CdCl2 exposed animals at metamorphosis was lower compared to the control individuals which may affect survival and reproductive fitness in adult life. Besides, the average body length of the metamorphosed individuals in the CdCl2 exposed group was higher than the control group. CdCl2 was found to be genotoxic in micronucleus test and comet assay. The ambient concentration of Cd could reach up to 60 μg/L or more. Exposure to 18.5 μg/L of CdCl2 (1% of 24-h LC50) induced significant increase in DNA strand breaks as compared to the control. The present findings demonstrate that presence of cadmium in the aquatic environment can significantly alter the life history traits and cause DNA damage in amphibians and hence, could contribute towards their population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H. [Towson University, Towson, MD (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2003-07-01

    We collected bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues. Bullfrogs at four stages of development (from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles) and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se. After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements (Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Decreases in concentrations through metamorphosis ranged from 40% for Cu to 97% for Al. Tissue concentrations of these elements were also similar or higher in spring; Al and Cr concentrations were 34 and 90% higher in the spring, respectively, whereas As, Ni, Cu, and Pb concentrations were {lt} 10% higher. Concentrations of Cd, Se, and Ag varied among seasons but not among stages; Cd and Ag concentrations were 40 and 62% lower, respectively, and Se concentrations were 21% higher in spring. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season. Concentrations of Sr were higher in larval stages during the spring, but because concentrations of Sr increased 122% through metamorphosis in the fall and only 22% in the spring, concentrations were higher in fall metamorphs when compared with spring metamorphs. Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment.

  17. Estimation of the factors determining body size of youngs of the year of Rana temporaria L. before a hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly Petrovich

    2013-10-01

    This equation and statistical analysis showed that the year-to-year morphological variability of juvenile frogs by the autumn depends on air temperature, rainfall, and the time of exposition (from the beginning of metamorphosis up to the end of foraging, rather than intrinsic properties of different groups of newly metamorphosed froglets.

  18. A new gorgoderid species of the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli from Michoacán, Mexico Una nueva especie de gorgodérido de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mata-López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli, from Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, Mexico. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of 4-7 follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. se describe como parásita de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, México. Gorgoderina tarascae difiere del resto de las especies del género por la siguiente combinación de características: posee glándulas vitelógenas arregladas en dos racimos de 4-7 folículos situados dorsalmente al ovario, órganos reproductivos compactos y de bordes lisos, muy separados entre si y con respecto del acetábulo, ventosas cercanas una de la otra y cuerpo delgado, en forma de huso y flexionado debido a la posición del acetábulo.

  19. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs I. A momentum-impulse approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauwelaerts, S; Stamhuis, EJ; Aerts, P

    Frogs are animals that are capable of locomotion in two physically different media, aquatic and terrestrial. A comparison of the kinematics of swimming frogs in a previous study revealed a difference in propulsive impulse between jumping and swimming. To explore this difference further, we

  20. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  1. Bacterial flora on Cascades frogs in the Klamath Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Pope

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines due in part to the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Some symbiotic bacteria residents on frog skin have been shown to inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitis (Bd) but few studies have attempted to fully describe the resident bacterial flora of frog skin. We cultured and sequenced 130...

  2. Ichthyophonus sp. (Ichthyophonae, Ichthyophonida) infection in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borteiro, Claudio; Verdes, José Manuel; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Sabalsagaray, María Jesús; Kolenc, Francisco; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Ubilla, Martín

    2015-04-01

    We report infection by Ichthyophonus sp. in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus in Uruguay. This frog had a large subcutaneous mass over the urostyle and dorsal musculature comprised of parasitic cysts with mild granulomatous inflammation but otherwise appeared healthy.

  3. Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Biju

    Full Text Available Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae, this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecular data, consisting of two nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments for all known rhacophorid genera, to investigate the phylogenetic position of these new frogs. Our analyses identify a previously overlooked, yet distinct evolutionary lineage of frogs that warrants recognition as a new genus and is here described as Frankixalus gen. nov. This genus, which contains the enigmatic 'Polypedates' jerdonii described by Günther in 1876, forms the sister group of a clade containing Kurixalus, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Mercurana and Beddomixalus. The distinctiveness of this evolutionary lineage is also corroborated by the external morphology of adults and tadpoles, adult osteology, breeding ecology, and life history features.

  4. Isolation of Brucella inopinata-Like Bacteria from White's and Denny's Tree Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masanobu; Une, Yumi; Suzuki, Michio; Park, Eun-Sil; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and B. sp. strain BO2 isolated from human patients, respectively, are genetically different from classical Brucella species. We isolated bacteria of the genus Brucella from two species of wild-caught tropical frogs kept in the facilities in Japan: White's tree frog, which inhabits Oceania, and Denny's tree frog, which inhabits Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis showed that two isolates of Brucella spp. showed significant similarity to BO1, BO2, and the isolates from other wild-caught frogs. These results suggest that a variety of frog species are susceptible to a novel clade of Brucella bacteria, including B. inopinata.

  5. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  6. The formation of pollen in male flowers and yearly atmospheric pollen counts of Cryptomeria japonica in the following year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Taira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of yearly atmospheric pollen counts is a very important component in the prevention of allergenic symptoms. We investigated the relationship between atomspheric pollen counts and the formation of male flowers of Cryptomeriajaponica D. Don (C. japonica. An atmospheric pollen survey of C. japonica was conducted from 1983 to 1996 using a Durham’s sampler. A regression analysis was performed between the total pollen count and July temperature in previous years. The atmospheric pollen counts of C. japonica had a high positive correlation with the mean temperature in July of the previous year. However, the predicted using average mean July temperature records of the previous year were insufficient, especially in years following high pollen count. In experimental conditions, using 60 C. japonica trees in pots, the formation of male flowers was shown to increase with a rise in incubation temperature. In a forest of C. japonica, our results showed that the length and weight of new needle growth from old needles, which produced many flowers in the previous year, were shorter and lighter, respectively. These aerobiological and plant physiological studies provide evidence that a smaller number of pollen counts are a common result in a year following one in which many male flowers are produced, even if the mean July temperature of that year was high.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) using RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue-Ke; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lü, Li-Min; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Lu, Hui; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-12-30

    Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L. japonica were cloned. We evaluated the stability of these genes under various experimental treatments by RT-qPCR using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct) and one comparative (RefFinder) algorithm. We identified genes showing the most stable levels of expression: DIMT, 18S rRNA, and RPL13 during different stages; AK, RPL13, and TBP among sexes; EF1A, PPI, and RPL27 in different tissues, and EF1A, RPL13, and PPI in adults fed on different diets. Moreover, the expression profile of a target gene (odorant receptor 1, OR1) studied during the developmental stages confirms the reliability of the chosen selected reference genes. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in L. japonica and will benefit subsequent genomics and functional genomics research on this natural enemy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  9. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  10. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  11. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  12. Sexual Differences in Chemical Composition and Aroma-active Compounds of Essential Oil from Flower Buds of Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Usami, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takio; Tsuji, Kaoru; Takehara, Manami; Hori, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of essential oil from buds of male and female Eurya japonica flowers and to determine the aroma-active compounds of this plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), sensory evaluation, and odor activity values (OAV). The oils contained eighty-five compounds. We identified for the first time forty-four compounds in E. japonica. Through sensory evaluation, nineteen aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Because the chemical composition can affect the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects, our results suggest that essential oils from male and female flower buds of E. japonica differently affect herbivores. Sexual differences in essential oils deserve further investigations in this plant-insect system.

  13. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Yehia Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR. Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plants (N = 16 for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ (Polygonaceae shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81% compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy.

  14. DIET OF DIRECT-DEVELOPING FROGS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE: Pristimantis FROM THE ANDES OF WESTERN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos GARCIA-R

    2015-01-01

    Estudiamos la dieta de 15 especies de ranas montanas del género Pristimantis (Craugastoridae en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia para determinar su variación, amplitud y traslape de nicho. En los contenidos estomacales e intestinales de 154 especímenes se identificaron 499 presas que fueron organizadas en 74 categorías diferentes. Las 15 categorías de presas más comunes representaron el 65 % de la dieta. Las familias de invertebrados Isotomidae, Chironomidae, Formicidae y Tipulidae fueron las más abundantes, representando el 32 % de la dieta de las ranas. Diez de las 15 especies de ranas presentaron al menos un ítem de Araneae. Coleoptera y Tipulidae fueron otras categorías frecuentemente encontradas en los tractos digestivos de las ranas (nueve especies de ranas presentaron estos ítems,  seguidas de Acari y Carabidae (ocho especies. En general, los escarabajos fueron encontrados en los tractos gastrointestinales de todas las especies, excepto en P. quantus, pero este resultado debe tratarse con precaución porque solo un individuo de esta especie fue capturado. Pristimantis hectus mostró una dieta especializada consumiendo principalmente dípteros de la familia Chironomidae, mientras que las especies restantes mostraron una dieta generalista. Pristimantis palmeri presentó superposiciones de nicho con P. erythropleura (Фjk = 0,69, P. myops (Фjk = 0,64, y P. orpacobates (Фjk = 0,64. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas son generalistas que se alimentan de manera oportunista de dípteros, arácnidos, colémbolos, coleópteros e himenópteros. Aquí, reportamos la dieta de especies montanas de Pristimantis y discutimos los resultados con datos de otros estudios en especies relacionadas de regiones montanas y tierras bajas

  15. Evolutionary and natural history of the turtle frog, Myobatrachus gouldii, a bizarre myobatrachid frog in the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Vertucci

    Full Text Available Southwest Australia (SWA is a global biodiversity hotspot and a centre of diversity and endemism for the Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs. Myobatrachus gouldii (the turtle frog has a highly derived morphology associated with its forward burrowing behaviour, largely subterranean habit, and unusual mode of reproduction. Its sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne have restricted distributions in Western Australia with significant phylogeographic structure, leading to the recent description of a new species in the latter. In contrast, Myobatrachus is distributed widely throughout SWA over multiple climatic zones, but little is known of its population structure, geographic variation in morphology, or reproduction. We generated molecular and morphological data to test for genetic and morphological variation, and to assess whether substrate specialisation in this species may have led to phylogeographic structuring similar to that of other plant and animal taxa in SWA. We assembled sequence data for one mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA loci (3628 base pairs for 42 turtle frogs sampled throughout their range. Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed shallow phylogeographic structure in the mtDNA locus (up to 3.3% genetic distance and little variation in three of the four nDNA loci. The mtDNA haplotype network suggests five geographically allopatric groups, with no shared haplotypes between regions. These geographic patterns are congruent with several other SWA species, with genetic groups restricted to major hydrological divisions, the Swan Coastal Plain, and the Darling Scarp. The geographically structured genetic groups showed no evidence of significant morphological differentiation (242 individuals, and there was little sexual size dimorphism, but subtle differences in reproductive traits suggest more opportunistic breeding in lower rainfall zones. Call data were compared to sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne and found to be highly

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Anhui Agricultural Univ., Hefei; Hu Fanrong; Zhang Linlin; Wang Xueyan; Wu Dianxing; Ma Chuanxi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation were investigated in the current paper, using embryonic calli derived from the mature seeds of Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). The result indicated that the GUS transient expression rates were enhanced with the increasing doses when treated by doses lower than 4 Gy, however it would be decreased when treated by doses higher than 4 Gy. Based on the survival rate and GUS transient expression rate, 2 Gy is the optimal dose for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Further observation found that 36 hours reculture after gamma irradiation is the most appropriate for agrobacterium infection. (authors)

  17. Quantifying quality of life and disability of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Wu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the "EQ-5D plus", ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%, usual activities (87.9%, and anxiety or depression (80.9%. The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30-44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥ 60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patient-preference disability

  18. Induction of mutation with gamma irradiation in camellia (Camellia Japonica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Diying; Shen Shoujiang; Wang Yanjun

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the radiosensitivity and mutagenic effects in Camellia (Camellia Japonica L.) were carried out with the shoot cuttings, one-year seedlings and three or four-year plants irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays. Results obtained showed that the radiosensitivities varied greatly in cultivars and in different parts of the plant. The suitable irradiation doses for shoot cuttings are 1-3 krad. The treatment of low doses (bellow 2 kard) resulted in higher frequency of mutation with plants of high sensitivity to γ-rays. The frequencies of mutation in flower color and type were 2.5-12.0%. The mutant with ornamental value has been obtained

  19. DNA variation in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakirev Evgeniy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS, plastid (rbcLS and mitochondrial (COI DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP and its two common morphological varieties, known as the “longipes” (LON and “shallow-water” (SHA forms seeking to clarify their taxonomical status and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. japonica. Results The data show that the TYP and LON forms are very similar genetically in spite of drastic differences in morphology, life history traits, and ecological preferences. Both, however, are genetically quite different from the SHA form. The two Saccharina lineages are distinguished by 109 fixed single nucleotide differences as well as by seven fixed length polymorphisms (based on a 4,286 bp concatenated dataset that includes three gene regions. The GenBank database reveals a close affinity of the TYP and LON forms to S. japonica and the SHA form to S. cichorioides. The three gene markers used in the present work have different sensitivity for the algal species identification. COI gene was the most discriminant gene marker. However, we have detected instances of interspecific COI recombination reflecting putative historical hybridization events between distantly related algal lineages. The recombinant sequences show highly contrasted level of divergence in the 5’- and 3’- regions of the gene, leading to significantly different tree topologies depending on the gene segment (5’- or 3’- used for tree reconstruction. Consequently, the 5’-COI “barcoding” region (~ 650 bp can be misleading for identification purposes, at least in the case of algal species that might have experienced historical hybridization events. Conclusion Taking into account

  20. Use of gamma-rays sensitivity for discrimination of upland cultivars of groups Indican and Japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luis Roberto Franco

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-five upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were evaluated in relation to gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds were subjected to seven doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes in randomised complete block design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse during the year of 1992. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M 1 generation, were evaluated. The results showed that the sensitivity to the radiation at doses 300 and 360 Gy was useful for distinguishing Indican and Japonica groups. (author)

  1. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  2. DNA damage in gill cells of Corbicula japonica exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vladimirovna Slobodskova

    2015-06-01

    The results are presented as the percentage distribution of nuclei in the various damage classes and summarized in an index of DNA integrity or genetic damage index GDI (Cavas, Kohen, 2008: The results from our study showed significant level of DNA damage from the C. japonica which were collected from polluted sites. Unpolluted sites were described as with no or minimal DNA strand breaks. Mollusks collected at polluted areas (estuary Razdolnaya river, lagoon Tihaya showed high levels of DNA damage, GDI is equal to 3.22±0.2 and 3.11±0.7 in gills respectively. C. japonica obtained from a ‘clean’ areas (estuary Artemovka river, estuary Partizanskaya river demonstrate less high level of DNA damage destruction, GDI is equal to 0,6±0,08 and 0,71±0,12 in gills respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydro peroxides were determined by the TBA reaction. The absorbance was read at 532 nm after removal of substances (TBARS formed was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of 1.56*105 M-1 cm -1 formed per g dry weight. C. japonica sampled at Artemovka estuary, Partizanskaya estuary, Razdolnaya estuary, Tihaya lagoon showed LPX level (3.46±0.59, 5.62±0.82, 12.85±0.52, 15.32±1.13 nmol TBARS/g dry wt in gills respectively. In conclusion, it can be noted that in the course of the experiment we found a clear relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of peroxidation products (MDA in the gills of bivalve C. japonica, collected from sites with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. It should be emphasized that the shellfish that live in polluted areas are likely to be in a state of oxidative stress, which is one of the causes the degradation of DNA.

  3. Microtropiosides A-F: ent-Labdane diterpenoid glucosides from the leaves of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yuka; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio

    2010-04-01

    From a 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica, collected in the Okinawa islands, six ent-labdane glucosides, named microtropiosides A-F, were isolated together with one known acyclic sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations determined by application of the beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift-trend rule in (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The breeding of Japonica Yanjing 10 rice mutant induced by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian; Jiao Juan; He Zhentian; Wang Lin

    2011-01-01

    The dry seed of mid-maturing Japonica rice Yanjing 10 was used for space mutation breeding which was carried by a satellite for 15 days in 2006. Through three generations of breeding, a group of mutants were obtained. In the article, we reported in detail the breeding procedures, proposed the breeding technical method for space mutation for rice improvement. Planting multiple seedlings per hill to prohibit tillering at SP 1 generation, and bulked selection in combination with directional selection at the SP 2 ∼ SP 3 generation were the two key points of the breeding methods. (authors)

  5. Aspects of the Genotype-Environment Interaction at the Japanese Quail (Coturnix-Coturnix Japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofil Oroian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the problems of genotype-environment interaction at three Coturnix Coturnix Japonica varieties. The environment where the experiment took place is perfect identically for all the activities, to ensure that the observed differences at the followed traits to be strictly attributed to the genotype differences. We analyzed the body weight, eggs weight, eggs large and small diameter, yolk and egg white weight, egg-shell weight. The data were statistically interpreted using the average and dispersal indices estimation, and the significance testing using Student test.

  6. A Method for Mechanism Analysis of Frog Swimming Based on Motion Observation Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For understanding the mechanism of frog swimming under water and designing a frog-inspired swimming robot, kinematics of the frog body and trajectories of joints should be obtained. In this paper, an aquatic frog, Xenopus laevis, was chosen for analysis of swimming motions which were recorded by a high speed camera, and kinematic data were processed in a swimming data extraction platform. According to the shape features of the frog, we propose a method that the frog eyes are set as the natural data extraction markers for body motion, and kinematic data of joint trajectories are calculated by the contour points on the limbs. For the data processing, a pinhole camera model was built to transform the pixel coordinate system to world coordinate system, and the errors caused by the water refraction were analyzed and corrected. Finally, from the developed data extraction platform, the kinematic data for the analysis of swimming mechanism and design of frog-inspired robot were obtained.

  7. Poison frog colors are honest signals of toxicity, particularly for bird predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Antipredator defenses and warning signals typically evolve in concert. However, the extensive variation across taxa in both these components of predator deterrence and the relationship between them are poorly understood. Here we test whether there is a predictive relationship between visual conspicuousness and toxicity levels across 10 populations of the color-polymorphic strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. Using a mouse-based toxicity assay, we find extreme variation in toxicity between frog populations. This variation is significantly positively correlated with frog coloration brightness, a viewer-independent measure of visual conspicuousness (i.e., total reflectance flux). We also examine conspicuousness from the view of three potential predator taxa, as well as conspecific frogs, using taxon-specific visual detection models and three natural background substrates. We find very strong positive relationships between frog toxicity and conspicuousness for bird-specific perceptual models. Weaker but still positive correlations are found for crab and D. pumilio conspecific visual perception, while frog coloration as viewed by snakes is not related to toxicity. These results suggest that poison frog colors can be honest signals of prey unpalatability to predators and that birds in particular may exert selection on aposematic signal design. © 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  8. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achariya Sailasuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834, were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140 were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions. Hepatozoon sp. a and Hepatozoon sp. b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver, demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp. meronts at the centre. Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions. Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres (MMCs surrounding the meronts and merozoites. It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs, and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia.

  9. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  10. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasuta, Achariya; Satetasit, Jetjun; Chutmongkonkul, Malinee

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834), were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions. Hepatozoon sp. a and Hepatozoon sp. b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver, demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp. meronts at the centre. Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions. Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) surrounding the meronts and merozoites. It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs, and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia. PMID:21918731

  11. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  12. Network thermodynamic approach compartmental analysis. Na+ transients in frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, D C; Huf, E G; Thomas, S R

    1979-01-01

    We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc.

  13. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  14. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in sponta...

  15. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  16. Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): testing the dual-process theory of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, M A

    2001-09-01

    The aggressive response of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.

  17. Effect of X-ray irradiation on morphophysiological reactions of epidermal melanophor cells in the larvae of Rana temporaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Kalistratova, E.N.; Kaluzhina, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of physiological reactions of epidermal melanophors of larvae Rana temporaria L.. adapted to white and black backgrounds and irradiated with a dose of 700 R has been investigated. Ouring the first day after irradiation no day changes of melanophor index characteristic of intact tadpoles were discovered in whitebackground animals; melanophors preserve the aggregation state. Comparison of black background irradiated and control larvae didn't show confident differences in changes of their melanophor indices. Irradiation affects differently epidermal melanophors in the state of pigment dispersion and aggregation. It is suggested that pigment dispersion and aggregation in melanophor is realized at the expense of different cellular structures. It is shown that by the end of the experiment (21-st day) the amount of epidermal melanophor per surface unit is two times larger in black-ground larvae. General biological signaficance of revealed facts from the point of view of ontogenesis evolution is discussed

  18. Effect of sublethal doses of radiation and cystamine on the dynamics of Rana temporaria L. larvae development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The longevity of Rana temporaria L. larvae in the 45th stage of development is studied after irradiation in sublethal doses (10.000-20.000 R) and irradiation with preliminary cystamine protection. It has been shown that the protective effect of cystamine is revealed in partial normalization of the larvae development rate but does not eliminate the typical anomalies of extremity development and does not prolong the time of animal survival. It has been found that LD 50/30 dose for R. temporaria tadpoles in the 45th stage of development is slightly higher than 10.000 R. The selective effect of X-radiation on the formative bonds at cornea induction in Anura larvae is concluded

  19. A New Locality for Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 (Anura: Ranidae in the Central Anatolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orta Anadolu’da Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 için yeni bir lokalite. Bu çalışmada, Bor (Niğde’dan toplanan 18 (10 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀ ergin ova kurbağası örneği, başta renk-desen olmak üzere yapılan morfolojik analiz sonucunda incelenmiştir. İncelenen örneklerin caralitana formuna ait olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Böylece caralitana’nın dağılış areali genişletilmiştir

  20. The extraordinary biology and development of marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae) in comparison with fish, mammals, birds, amphibians and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2018-01-03

    The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis, Dendrobates auratus, Epipedobates anthonyi, Epipedobates machalilla, Epipedobates tricolor, and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae); Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.