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Sample records for frogs anura megophryidae

  1. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses provide insights into unrecognized diversity and historical biogeography of Asian leaf-litter frogs, genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae).

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    Chen, Jin-Min; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Lathrop, Amy; Wu, Yun-He; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Chen, Hong-Man; Liu, He-Qun; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Duong, Tang Van; Eto, Koshiro; Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Orlov, Nikolai L; Stuart, Bryan L; Brown, Rafe M; Rowley, Jodi J L; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Ying-Yong; Che, Jing

    2018-07-01

    Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 48 of the 53 described species from throughout the distribution of Leptolalax. Molecular analyses reveal many undescribed species, mostly in southern China and Indochina. Our well-resolved phylogeny based on multiple nuclear DNA markers shows that Leptolalax is not monophyletic with respect to Leptobrachella and, thus, we assign the former to being a junior synonym of the latter. Similarly, analyses reject monophyly of the two subgenera of Leptolalax. The diversification pattern of the group is complex, involving a high degree of sympatry and prevalence of microendemic species. Northern Sundaland (Borneo) and eastern Indochina (Vietnam) appear to have played pivotal roles as geographical centers of diversification, and paleoclimatic changes and tectonic movements seem to have driven the major divergence of clades. Analyses fail to reject an "upstream" colonization hypothesis, and, thus, the genus appears to have originated in Sundaland and then colonized mainland Asia. Our results reveal that both vicariance and dispersal are responsible for current distribution patterns in the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

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    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  3. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

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    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  4. Frog tongue surface microstructures: functional and evolutionary patterns

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    Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) use adhesive tongues to capture fast moving, elusive prey. For this, the tongues are moved quickly and adhere instantaneously to various prey surfaces. Recently, the functional morphology of frog tongues was discussed in context of their adhesive performance. It was suggested that the interaction between the tongue surface and the mucus coating is important for generating strong pull-off forces. However, despite the general notions about its importance for a successful contact with the prey, little is known about the surface structure of frog tongues. Previous studies focused almost exclusively on species within the Ranidae and Bufonidae, neglecting the wide diversity of frogs. Here we examined the tongue surface in nine different frog species, comprising eight different taxa, i.e., the Alytidae, Bombinatoridae, Megophryidae, Hylidae, Ceratophryidae, Ranidae, Bufonidae, and Dendrobatidae. In all species examined herein, we found fungiform and filiform papillae on the tongue surface. Further, we observed a high degree of variation among tongues in different frogs. These differences can be seen in the size and shape of the papillae, in the fine-structures on the papillae, as well as in the three-dimensional organization of subsurface tissues. Notably, the fine-structures on the filiform papillae in frogs comprise hair-like protrusions (Megophryidae and Ranidae), microridges (Bufonidae and Dendrobatidae), or can be irregularly shaped or absent as observed in the remaining taxa examined herein. Some of this variation might be related to different degrees of adhesive performance and may point to differences in the spectra of prey items between frog taxa. PMID:27547606

  5. Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Dong, L.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Sun, Ch.; Tan, J.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2011), s. 499-518 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Neogene * Bufo * Macropelobates * Rana * Tadpole * East Asia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  6. Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, M.; Bongers, F.; Poelman, E.H.; Sterck, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Delldrobates tillCtOrillS (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Seasonal rainfall affects tropical forest dynamics and behavior of species that are part of these ecosystems. TIle positive correlation between amphibian ac tivity pattems and rainfall has

  7. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States

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    Irby, William S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. PMID:29117370

  8. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States.

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    Camp, Jeremy V; Irby, William S

    2017-09-01

    Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

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    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

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    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  11. Phylogeography of the fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), in Taiwan.

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    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2011-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), was conducted to examine its genetic diversification using sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. We collected genetic data from 200 individuals at 23 localities in Taiwan and three localities in China. A neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed two clades in Taiwan and a clade in China, each showing restricted geographical distribution. The pattern of geographical divergence suggests a single invasion into Taiwan. Divergence times between clades were inferred using molecular clock tests. The population relationship of L. fujianensis between Taiwan and mainland China, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners, e.g., L. bannaensis, L. fragilis and L. kuhlii, were obtained and discussed.

  12. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

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    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  13. The Vietnamese population of Megophrys kuatunensis (Amphibia: Megophryidae) represents a new species of Asian horned frog from Vietnam and southern China.

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    Tapley, Benjamin; Cutajar, Timothy; Mahony, Stephen; Nguyen, Chung Thanh; Dau, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tao Thien; Luong, Hao VAN; Rowley, Jodi J L

    2017-11-08

    The Asian frog genus Megophrys is a diverse group of morphologically conserved, forest-dwelling frogs. The genus harbours highly localised species diversification and new species continue to be described on a regular basis. We examined the taxonomic status of a population of Megophrys frogs from the Hoang Lien Range in northern Vietnam and southern China previously identified as M. kuatunensis (subgenus Panophrys). Preliminary phylogenetic analyses using a fragment of 16S rDNA places the species in question within the Megophrys (subgenus Panophrys) species group, a primarily Chinese radiation within the genus. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, we conclude that this population does not represent M. kuatunensis, or any known species in the genus. We herein describe this species of Megophrys as new. Known only from Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province in Vietnam and Jinping County, Yunnan Province in China, the new species is likely to be threatened by ongoing deforestation in the region. We provide an updated species description of M. kuatunensis based on type specimens, and suggest that M. kuatunensis is likely to be restricted to eastern China.

  14. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, C.; Havelková, P.; Herrel, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 1 (2009), s. 100-139 ISSN 0021-8782 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 1-06-05 (2006-2007) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * anuran jumping * Caudata * comparative myology * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2009

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Ye's spiny-vented frog Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

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    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is the only one species in the genus Yerana and the taxonomy of the Y. yei remains unresolved and controversial. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was sequenced in the present study, and it is a circular molecule of 17,072 bp in length and contains the 38 genes typically found in other anurans: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 23 transfer RNA genes (including an extra copy of tRNA(Met)). The order and orientation of the genes is the same as that found in other Paini species. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 58% (T, 29.4%; C, 27.3%; A, 28.6%; G, 14.7%) and the length of control region is 1580 bp with 67% A + T content.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

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    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  17. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  18. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  19. The island rule in the Brazilian frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura: Hylidae: incipient gigantism?

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    Marcio Mageski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The island rule suggests that, when mainland animals are isolated on islands, large animals tend to become smaller, while small animals tend to become larger. A small frog in eastern Brazil, Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, is widely distributed in association with bromeliads. At the end of the last glaciation, parts of the mainland became islands due to rising sea levels, thereby isolating frog populations on these islands. If the island rule holds, we predicted that frogs on islands would tend to be larger than frogs on the mainland. We compared sizes (weight and length of 30 randomly selected male frogs from the mainland with 30 from an island in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We also sampled population density on the island and mainland because concurrent with changing sizes, depending on the causal relationship, density may also change. As predicted, island frogs tended to be larger (both in snout-vent length and weight and were much more abundant. While not specifically addressed in this study, the absence of predators and interspecific competitors may explain both of these trends.

  20. Three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

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    Rainer Günther

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne from the mountains and foothills of southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea. All three species lack elongated snouts and all are arboreal calling from elevated perch sites between ~1 and 10 m above the forest floor. Advertisement calls and habitat preferences are described for each species. Descriptions of these three frogs brings the total number of Choerophryne recognized to 34 but numerous additional species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in poorly-surveyed mountainous regions of New Guinea.

  1. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

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    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from s...

  2. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

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    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  3. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  4. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

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    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-11-03

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts. 

  5. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

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    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

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    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  7. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Heather M. Gray; Kyle Summers; Roberto Ibáñez D.

    2009-01-01

    Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a serie...

  8. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

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    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

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    de S?, Rafael O; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Sekonyela, Relebohile; Forlani, Mauricio C; Loader, Simon P; Greenbaum, Eli; Richards, Stephen; Haddad, C?lio F B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relations...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    OpenAIRE

    de Sá R. O Streicher J. W. Sekonyela R. Forlani M. C. Loader S. P. Greenbaum E. Richards

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically we placed an emphasis on assessing relationshi...

  11. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations on testes of levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.

  13. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  14. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  15. Additional record of Resplendent Bush Frog Raorchestes resplendent (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats, India

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    J. Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes resplendens, a Critically Endangered rhacophorid frog until now is known only from the type locality, the Anamudi summit in Eravikulam National Park, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. This species has been sighted from a hitherto unknown location, but within the Eravikulam National Park. The current sighting location of the species is about 20km north-east to the type locality. This report increased the range of R. resplendens and also emphasis the cryptic behavior and microclimate requirement of this species. This sighting once again signifies the importance for the conservation of the high-altitude grasslands of Western Ghats.

  16. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

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    Mohammad Sajid Ali Howlader

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  17. Molecular and Morphological Study of Leaping Frogs (Anura, Ranixalidae) with Description of Two New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sonali; Biju, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixalids have been subjected to DNA barcoding and systematic studies. Nearly half of the presently recognized species in this family have been described over the last three years, along with recognition of a new genus to accommodate three previously known members. Our surveys in the Western Ghats further suggest the presence of undescribed diversity in this group, thereby increasing former diversity estimates. Based on rapid genetic identification using a mitochondrial gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses with an additional nuclear gene and detailed morphological studies including examination of museum specimens, new collections, and available literature, here we describe two new species belonging to the genus Indirana from the Western Ghats states of Karnataka and Kerala. We also provide new genetic and morphological data along with confirmed distribution records for all the species known prior to this study. This updated systematic revision of family Ranixalidae will facilitate future studies and provide vital information for conservation assessment of these relic frogs. PMID:27851823

  18. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  19. Age, Size, and Growth of the Turkish Endemic Frog Pelophylax Caralitanus (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz

    2017-12-20

    Pelophylax caralitanus is a medium-sized frog that is endemic to the upland Lake District of south-central Turkey and currently identified as a threatened species as a result of overharvesting and habitat modification. In this report, demographic data are provided for four major lakeside populations of this species based on a skeletochronological analysis of bone growth in large samples of frogs that were captured and released during 2011 and 2013. Adult males (aged 2-9 years) and females (aged 2-10 years) ranged in size from 66 to 105 mm snout-vent length (SVL) and 65 to 110 mm SVL, respectively, and typically attained sexual maturity in their second (low-elevation sites) or third (high-elevation sites) summer of growth following metamorphosis. The four populations exhibited differences in growth rate and age at sexual maturity, which appeared to reflect differences in the average monthly temperature and length of the growth season rather than elevation per se, that is, warmer temperatures and longer growth seasons resulted in smaller adults. All populations had a similar overall age structure, with approximately equal frequencies of individuals in the five age and size classes following maturity. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Visual and acoustic signaling in three species of Brazilian nocturnal tree frogs (Anura, Hylidae

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    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.

  1. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis from the southeast of Madagascar (Anura: Mantellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Jovanovic, Olga; Safarek, Goran; Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn

    2015-12-23

    We describe a new species of arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis, subgenus Guibemantis, from low altitude rainforest in Manombo Special Reserve, south-eastern Madagascar. Previously published phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have placed Guibemantis diphonus sp. nov. sister to G. timidus. The new species is distinguished from G. timidus and all other species in the subgenus by a substantial genetic differentiation (≥ 4.4% uncorrected p-distance in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene), strongly divergent advertisement call, and some limited morphological differences. It is the smallest known species in the subgenus, with 34-36 mm snout-vent length in adult males. Its advertisement call is unique among other species in the subgenus in being composed of two distinctly different note types (only one note type in the other species).

  3. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  4. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmy, V; Preeji, V; Parvin, A; Santhoshkumar, K; George, S

    2011-05-01

    Amphibian skin secretion is considered as a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present work describes the successful identification of three novel peptides named brevinin-1TEa, brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb present in the skin secretion of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. The deduced open reading frame encoding the biosynthetic precursor of brevinin-1TEa consisted of 70 amino acid residues and brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb consisted of 71 and 72 amino acids, respectively. All the three peptides showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative than against Gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of the antibacterial and haemolytic activity, brevinin-2TEb is the most potent peptide reported in the present study. Further research on these peptides may provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various microbial diseases. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Structure of the mating calls and relationships of the European tree frogs (Hylidae, anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hans

    1974-03-01

    As an extension of earlier investigations, the mating calls ofHyla arborea kretensis, Hyla a. molleri, andHyla a. sarda were studied, and variations in the calls with air temperature were determined. The mating calls of these species exhibit the typical structure, made up of short pulses of varying amplitude. The call duration and the inter-call interval decrease linearly with increasing temperature (over the range in which calls can occur), whereas the number of pulses per call does not change. Comparisons of the structure of the mating calls make it possible to assess the relationships among the European tree frogs, which so far have been regarded as subspecies of just one species.Hyla meridionalis represents a valid species; this is certainly also true ofHyla a. savignyi of the Middle East.Hyla arborea arborea andHyla a. sarda can be considered as subspecies, whereasHyla a. kretensis andHyla a. molleri cannot.

  6. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  7. Nine new species of microhylid frogs from the Muller Range in western Papua New Guinea (Anura, Microhylidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Günther, R.; Richards, S. J.; Dahl, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-97 ISSN 1864-5755 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Microhylidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2014 http://www.whose-tadpole.de/SNSD/VZ/VZ_64_1/06_vertebrate_zoology_64-1_Guenther_59-94.pdf

  8. Oviposition and development in the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae

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    Mohsen Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition and external embryonic developmental features are described in the Tobago glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium orientale. Egg clutches are nearly always laid on the undersides of leaves (one exception; usually leaves of Heliconia sp. are used, but Philodendron and palms may be used in the absence of Heliconia. Clutches contain 28.0 ± 5.3 eggs (mean ± SD and eggs are 1.86 ± 0.11 mm in diameter. The behavior of one amplectant pair was followed for more than five hours; the pair rotated several times around a small area of the leaf depositing eggs in a tight spiral formation. External embryonic features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface ciliation is extensive up to the time of hatching when it is lost; external gills are short and a cement gland is absent. Hatching gland cells were detectable on the anterodorsal surface of the head from Day 4 after deposition and persisted until at least Day 10, and hatching occurred between Days 9 and 16. During this period, progressive development in tail length, surface pigmentation, intestinal coiling, and oral disc features was observed. Post-hatching larvae reared for six weeks grew 37% in length and tripled in weight, but remained at Gosner Stage 25.

  9. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  10. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae

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    Heather M. Gray

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a series of kin-discrimination trials. The behavior of large tadpoles was observed when presented with two small, tethered tadpoles, one a clutchmate and one an unrelated tadpole. In these simultaneous presentation tests, tadpoles displayed a significant preference for attacking kin. In a series of timed trials, pairs of unequally sized tadpoles were placed together in containers. The majority (70% of large tadpoles took less than24 hr to consume the small tadpole. Kinship did not affect the survival time of the small tadpole. Our results are consistent with observations that D. auratus is an indiscriminate predator. As conspecifics may be serious competitors, their swift elimination would be an advantage, particularly in the small, nutrient-poor poolsused by this species.

  11. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paula Camargo; Aguiar, Odair; Serpieri, Flávia; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Uetanebaro, Masao; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2011-04-01

    Dendrobatid frogs have undergone an extensive systematic reorganization based on recent molecular findings. The present work describes karyotypes of the Brazilian species Adelphobates castaneoticus, A. quinquevittatus, Ameerega picta, A. galactonotus and Dendrobates tinctorius which were compared to each other and with previously described related species. All karyotypes consisted of 2n = 18 chromosomes, except for A. picta which had 2n = 24. The karyotypes of the Adelphobates and D. tinctorius species were highly similar to each other and to the other 2n = 18 previously studied species, revealing conserved karyotypic characteristics in both genera. In recent phylogenetic studies, all Adelphobates species were grouped in a clade separated from the Dendrobates species. Thus, we hypothesized that their common karyotypic traits may have a distinct origin by chromosome rearrangements and mutations. In A. picta, with 2n = 24, chromosome features of pairs from 1 to 8 are shared with other previously karyotyped species within this genus. Hence, the A. picta data reinforced that the C-banding pattern and the NOR location are species-specific traits in the genus Ameerega. Moreover, the Ameerega monophyletism proposed by previous phylogenetic studies indicates that the karyotypic differences among species in this genus result from a long divergence time.

  12. Diversity and biogeography of frogs in the genus Amnirana (Anura: Ranidae) across sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Gregory F M; Barej, Michael F; Barratt, Christopher D; Burger, Marius; Conradie, Werner; Ernst, Raffael; Greenbaum, Eli; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Leaché, Adam D; Penner, Johannes; Portik, Daniel M; Zassi-Boulou, Ange-Ghislain; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Blackburn, David C

    2018-03-01

    Frogs in the genus Amnirana (family Ranidae) are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa and present a model system for exploring the relationship between diversification and geography across the continent. Using multiple loci from the mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear genomes (DISP2, FICD, KIAA2013, REV3L), we generated a strongly supported species-level phylogeny that provides insights into the continental biogeography of African species of Amnirana, which form a monophyletic group within the genus. Species delimitation analyses suggest that there may be as many as seven additional species of Amnirana in Africa. The biogeographic history of Amnirana is marked by several dispersal and vicariance events, including dispersal from the Lower Guinean Forest into the Congo Basin. In addition, phylogeographic patterns within two widespread species, A. albolabris and A. galamensis, reveal undescribed cryptic diversity. Populations assigned to A. albolabris in western Africa are more closely related to A. fonensis and require recognition as a distinct species. Our analyses reveal that the Lower and Upper Guinean Forest regions served as important centers of interspecific and intraspecific diversifications for Amnirana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the diversified frogs of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Manabu; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Djong, Tjong Hon; Sumida, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Consensus on the taxonomic system and phylogenetic relationships for the anuran genus Fejervarya has yet to be established. Morphological characters in this genus are generally unsuitable for species identification. To carry out molecular species identification and solve phylogenetic problems, we collected 67 Fejervarya specimens from 12 Asian countries and sequenced part of the mitochondrial (mt) Cytb gene. We also sequenced the mt 12S and 16S rRNA genes and seven nuclear genes (BDNF, CXCR4, NCX1, RAG-1, RAG-2, Rhod, and Tyr) for 25 Fejervarya taxa. These molecular markers appear to be adequate for the identification of species. We subjected the molecular data molecular to phylogenetic analyses. In the resulting trees, topotypic F. limnocharis and "F. multistriata" (from China) formed a clade. On the other hand, neither "F. limnocharis" from the Japan mainland nor "F. limnocharis" from eastern Taiwan formed a clade with the real F. limnocharis, and the genetic divergences were larger than the species threshold for frog taxa proposed in previous studies (> 3% for 16S). These results may suggest that "F. multistriata" is a junior synonym of F. limnocharis, or that only some of the populations now recognized as "F. multistriata" correspond to F. limnocharis. Our results also suggest that several cryptic species may be included among the widely distributed Fejervarya species. Finally, our datasets support paraphyly for the genus Fejervarya, although alternative phylogenetic topologies, including Fejervarya monophyly, were not rejected by KH and SH tests.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan digging frog Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Shuai, Xiaoling; Ren, Zhilin; Shen, Han; Liu, Fuchun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 074 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 29.7% A, 30.3% T, 25.8% C, and 14.2% G. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xizang Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Xizang Plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which distributes in southern and eastern Xizang, southern-most Qinghai in China, high elevations of north-central Nepal, Himalayan Bhutan, northeastern Kashmir and India. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. parkeri was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,837 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR). As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the N. parkeri is A: 27.7 % A, T: 30.1 % T, C: 26.6% and G: 15.6%. The alignment of the Nanorana species CRs exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. In comparison with the mtDNA sequences typical of vertebrates, a tandem duplication of the tRNA(Met) gene and a rearrangement of the tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) (CUN) genes were found. The complete mitogenome of N. parkeri can provided an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  16. Comparative cytogenetic analysis on four tree frog species (Anura, Hylidae, Hylinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S; Zampieri Silva, A P; Gruber, S L; Haddad, C F B

    2003-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out on four Hylinae tree frogs from Brazil ((Aparasphenodon brunoi, Corythomantis greeningi, Osteocephalus langsdorffii, and Scinax fuscovarius) using Giemsa staining, BrdU replication banding, Ag-NOR staining, C-banding, DAPI and CMA(3) fluorochrome staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe. All the species share closely similar 2n = 24 karyotypes, almost indistinguishable by standard staining. The technique of BrdU incorporation allowed the identification of each pair of homologs and the establishment of extensive homeology for the great majority of the chromosomes, mainly of A. brunoi, C. greeningi, and O. langsdorffii. Despite highly conserved replication banding patterns, the use of the other banding techniques disclosed some minor differences, which reinforces the importance of extensive cytogenetic analyses for the karyotypic characterization of Anuran species. The present cytogenetic data confirm the closer proximity of A. brunoi, C. greeningi, and O. langsdorffii, whereas S. fuscovarius is phylogenetically more distant. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

  19. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sá Rafael O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis. Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to

  20. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafael O; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Sekonyela, Relebohile; Forlani, Mauricio C; Loader, Simon P; Greenbaum, Eli; Richards, Stephen; Haddad, Célio F B

    2012-12-10

    Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene.

  1. Nest structure, incubation and and hatching in the trinidadian leaf-frog Phyllomedusa trinitatis (Anura: Hylidae

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    J. Roger Downie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New findings on nesting and hatching are reported for the leaf-nesting tree frog Phyllomedusa trinitatis. Nest height and leaf cover(one or many leaves, well or poorly covered were very variable. Contrary to a previous report, egless jelly capsules we scattered amongst the eggs, with substancial jelly plugs located above and below the egg clutch. Plugs were composed of capsules embedded in a matrix of somewhat different composition. The upper plug acted as a barrier to water entry. Contrary to previous reports, isolated eggs could develop in aquatic media, the later stage on entry the better: Aeration and salt composition of the water influences this ability. Egg clutches developes equally well whether the covering leaves were alive or dead. Single eggs incubated in water hatched prematurely; when placed in water, eggs near hatching stage hatched within a short time; such eggs on a dry or damp substrate did not hatch till much later. The hatching of any embryo in a group appeared to act as a stimulus to neighbours to hatch. Observations ons nests with the covering leaves replaced by clingfilm showed that emergence is preceded by a lenghty period of hatching behavior, with individuals hatchins, wriggling and stimulating larger and larger groups to hatch, and releasing a frothy fluid wich leads to the dissolution of the lower jelly plug and emergence of the hatchlings. Contrary to a previous report, hatching gland cells were observable on the laterodorsal surface of the head. When hatchings emerged from the nest, they were mostly at Gosner stage 25 with gills fully resorbed. When earlier embryos were induced to hatch, they rapidly shortened their external gills. These findings are discussed in comparison with observations on the related genus Agalychnis.

  2. Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae

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    Marga Born

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall affects tropical forest dynamics and behaviorof species that are part of these ecosystems. The positive correlation between amphibian activity patterns and rainfall has been demonstrated repeatedly. Members of Dendrobatidae, a clade of Neotropical dart-poison frogs, are well known for their habitat use and behavior during the rainy season, but their behavior during the dry season has received little attention. We studied habitat use and diet of the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates tinctorius in French Guiana during the rainy and dry seasons. Unlike many other dendrobatid frogs, D. tinctorius does not maintain territories for the entire rainy season. Both sexes colonize recently formed canopy-gaps and stay in these forest patches for only a few weeks. The frogs inthese patches consume a great diversity of prey, consisting of ants, beetles, wasps, insect larvae, and mites. During the dry season, frogs move to retreat sites in mature forest, such as palm bracts and tree holes. The frogs are less active and consume fewer prey items in the dry season, and they consume fewer wasps and insect larvae, but more termites. Ants are the most common prey items during both the wet and dry seasons. We discuss the effects of shifts in seasonal habitat use on the territorial behavior of dendrobatid frogs.

  3. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-07-30

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley.

  4. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V

    2015-06-01

    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) parasitizing the frog Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Marcili, Arlei; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2015-05-13

    Most argasid ticks from the Neotropical region are parasites of mammals and birds, with a few records from reptiles. Many species of the genus Ornithodoros are known only through larval descriptions, and their chaetotaxy and morphological characteristics have been used to separate the taxa. In the present study, we describe the larva and the nymph of first instar of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros that was collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris. Larvae of Ornithodoros were collected from frogs of the species T. miliaris at waterfalls in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The larval and nymphal description was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular analysis using the argasid 16S rRNA sequences available in GenBank was also conducted. Ornithodoros faccinii sp. n. is closely related to Ornithodoros clarki Jones & Clifford, Ornithodoros marinkellei Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and Ornithodoros sawaii Kitaoka & Susuki. However, the larval morphology of the new species is unique. The mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequence of O. faccinii generated in the present study was deposited in GenBank under the number KP861242. The larvae collected from Thoropa miliaris are a new species, Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. This is the first report of argasid ticks on frogs in Brazil, the second on frogs and the third on Amphibia in the Neotropical region.

  6. Is the red spotted green frog Hypsiboas punctatus (Anura: Hylidae) selecting its preys? The importance of prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier A; Scarabotti, Pablo A; Medrano, María C; Ghirardi, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The study of the feeding ecology of amphibians is an old issue in herpetology. Notwithstanding, the lack of food resources data in many studies of amphibians feeding has lead to partial understanding of frog feeding strategies. In this study we evaluate the trophic selectivity of a red spotted green frog (Hypsiboas punctatus) population from a Middle Paraná River floodplain pond in Argentina, and discuss the importance of prey availability data when interpreting results from diet analysis. We analyzed the gut contents of 47 H. punctatus adults and compared frog's diet with the environmental food resources. Prey availability was estimated by systematically seep-netting the microhabitat where anurans were localized foraging. We identified 33 taxonomic categories from gastrointestinal contents. Numerically, the most important prey categories were dipterans, followed by hemipterans, homopterans and coleopterans. The diet similarity between males and females was high and no statistical differences in diet composition were found. The most abundant food resources in the environment were dipterans, coleopterans, homopterans and collembolans. In order to assess whether frogs were selecting their preys, we calculated Pianka's niche overlap index and Jacobs' electivity index comparing gut contents to prey availability data. Trophic niche overlap was medium but significantly higher than expected by chance. The electivity index indicated that H. punctatus foraged dipterans slightly above their environmental abundance. Among the secondary preys, hemipterans were foraged selectively, homopterans were consumed in the same proportion to their occurrence in the environment, coleopterans were foraged quite under their availability and collembolans were practically ignored by frogs. Without food resources data, H. punctatus could be classified as a specialist feeder, but dipterans also were quite abundant in the environment. Our results show that H. punctatus fit better as a

  7. Phylogeography of the rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata (Anura: Ranidae), from China based on mtDNA D-loop sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liu, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2008-08-01

    The rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata, is an amphibian widely distributed in China. In this study, we sampled the species across its distributional area in China and sequenced the mtDNA D-loop to investigate the genetic diversity and geographical pattern of the frog population. The results revealed 38 haplotypes in the population, with K2P values varying from 0.19% to 4.22%. Both a phylogenetic analysis and a nested clade analysis (NCA) detected two geographically isolated lineages respectively distributed around the Yangtze drainage (Yangtze lineage) and the south of China (southern lineage). NCA inferred a contiguous range expansion within the Yangtze lineage and allopatric fragmentation within the southern lineage, which might be partly due to the limited samples from this lineage. Accordingly, Fu's Fs test also indicated a population expansion after glacial movement. Therefore, we assumed that the species history responding to glacial events shaped the present population pattern of F. multistriata on the Chinese mainland.

  8. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa D Patrick; Mahmood Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. ...

  9. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  10. Preparation and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from green poison frogs, Dendrobates auratus, following hormonal induced spermiation (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Christian; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Meyer, Wilfried; Meinecke, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    Few ultrastructural studies have been performed on members of the Dendrobatidae, although such investigations can be useful for the understanding of reproductive patterns, as a diagnostic method for males in breeding programs for endangered amphibians and for phylogenetic analysis. The sperm ultrastructure of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus, from Panama is described following induced spermiation in living animals. To date only testicular spermatozoa in other dendrobatid frogs have been analysed. Moreover, an electron microscopic preparation method (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) for dendrobatid sperm cells in low concentration is presented. Sperm cells from stimulated frogs (100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, twice at an interval of 1h) were recovered via cloaca lavage using 600 microl isotonic phosphate-free amphibian saline (IPS). Centrifuged flushings (5 min, 173 x g) were deposited on microscopic slides. Adherent spermatozoa were treated with Karnovsky fixative (overnight, 4 degrees C). After postfixation (2h, 1% osmium tetroxide), samples were dehydrated in series of ascending acetones (30-100%). For transmission electron microscopy sperm cells were encapsulated using Epon and 1.5% 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (DMP 30). Ultrathin sections (70 nm) were cut and stained with uranyl acetate (30 min) and lead citrate (5 min). Sperm cells are filiform with a 21.1+/-2.7 microm long and arcuated head and a single tail (35.0+/-4.2 microm length). Their acrosomal complex is located at the anterior portion of the head and consists of the acrosomal vesicle which has low electron density, and the subjacent electron-dense subacrosomal cone. In transverse section, the nucleus is circular (1.9+/-0.2 microm diameter) and conical in longitudinal section. It is surrounded by several groups of mitochondria. The chromatin is highly condensed and electron-dense but shows numerous electron-lucent inclusions. A short midpiece has a

  11. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial genomes of Japanese Babina frogs (Ranidae, Anura): unique gene arrangements and the phylogenetic position of genus Babina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Hoso, Masaki; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Genus Babina is a member of Ranidae, a large family of frogs, currently comprising 10 species. Three of them are listed as endangered species. To identify mitochondrial (mt) genes suitable for future population genetic analyses for endangered species, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mt genomes of 3 endangered Japanese Babina frogs, B. holsti, B. okinavana, and B. subaspera and 1 ranid frog Lithobates catesbeianus. The genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and the control region (CR) were found to have high sequence divergences and to be usable for population genetics studies. At present, no consensus on the phylogenetic position of genus Babina has been reached. To resolve this problem, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses with the largest dataset used to date (11,345 bp from 2 ribosomal RNA- and 13 protein-encoding genes) in studies dealing with Babina phylogeny. These analyses revealed monophyly of Babina and Odorrana. It is well known that mt gene rearrangements of animals can provide usable phylogenetic information. Thus, we also compared the mt gene arrangements among Babina species and other related genera. Of the surveyed species, only L. catesbeianus manifested typical neobatrachian-type mt gene organization. In the B. okinavana, an additional pseudogene of tRNA-His (trnH) was observed in the CR downstream region. Furthermore, in the B. holsti and B. subaspera, the trnH/nad5 block was translocated from its typical position to the CR downstream region, and the translocated trnH became a pseudogene. The position of the trnH pseudogene is consistent with the translocated trnH position reported in Odorrana. Consequently, the trnH rearrangement seems to be a common ancestry characteristic (synapomorphy) of Babina and Odorrana. Based on the "duplication and deletion" gene rearrangement model, a single genomic duplication event can explain the order of derived mt genes found in Babina and Odorrana.

  13. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Sumontha, Montri; Tunprasert, Jitthep; Ruangsuwan, Thiti; Pawangkhanant, Parinya; Korost, Dmitriy V; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-01-01

    We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides , the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the "out of Indo-Eurasia" biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  14. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  15. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

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    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  16. The novel antimicrobial peptides from skin of Chinese broad-folded frog, Hylarana latouchii (Anura:Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiuqing; Hu, Yuhong; Yu, Haining; Liu, Jingze; Sun, Junshe

    2009-02-01

    Broad-folded frogs (Hylarana latouchii), one member of 12 species of the genus Hylarana in the Chinese frog fauna, are widely distributed in the South of China. In this study, we purified and characterized three antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of H. latouchii. Five different cDNA fragments encoding the precursors of these antimicrobial peptides were cloned, and five mature antimicrobial peptides belonging to two different families were deduced from the five cDNAs. Structural characterization of the mature peptides had identified them as members of the brevinin-1 and temporin families. They were named brevinin-1LTa (FFGTALKIAANVLPTAICKILKKC), brevinin-1LTb (FFGTALKIAANILPTAICKILKKC), temporin-LTa (FFPLVLGALGSILPKIF-NH(2)), temporin-LTb (FIITGLVRGLTKLF-NH(2)) and temorin-LTc (SLSRFLSFLKIVYPPAF-NH(2)). Brevinin-1LTa, temporin-LTa, temporin-LTb and temporin-LTc with different antimicrobial activities induced significant morphological alterations of the tested microbial surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy, which indicated strong membrane disruption.

  17. Larval morphology and complex vocal repertoire of Rhacophorus helenae (Anura: Rhacophoridae), a rare flying frog from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Anna B; Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Poyarkov, Nikolay A Jr

    2016-06-24

    We present new data on the distribution, reproduction, larval morphology and vocalization of Rhacophorus helenae (Rhacophoridae), a narrowly distributed frog from southern Vietnam. Two new populations of R. helenae were discovered during field surveys in the lowland monsoon forests in Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces in 2010-2013. Spawning was observed in May 2013. Egg clutches containing small (2.3±0.1 mm) unpigmented eggs were embedded in a foam nest and suspended high on trees above temporary ponds. The tadpoles of R. helenae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling Rhacophorus larvae with a moderate tail length and a labial tooth row formula of 5(2-5)/3. Postmetamorphic juveniles differed from adult frogs in the features of their coloration and less developed webbing. The complex vocal repertoire of R. helenae included five types of tonal, wideband and pulsed calls and several transitional signal types differentiated by frequency and amplitude parameters. Calls were uttered as singular signals (pulsed calls) or within non-stereotyped series of variable duration (other call types). The complex structure of the advertisement call markedly distinguishes R. helenae from other members of the Rhacophorus reinwardtii species complex.

  18. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  19. Falcaustra lowei n. sp. and other helminths from the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae (Anura: Ranidae), from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, C R; Goldberg, S R

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-four specimens of Falcaustra lowei n. sp. were recovered from the intestines of 9 of 42 (21%) Tarahumara frogs. Rana tarahumarae, from Sonora, Mexico. F. lowei is the 14th Nearctic species to be described and belongs to that group of species possessing a pseudosucker, namely F. catesbeianae, F. chabaudi, F. chelydrae, F. mexicana, and F. wardi. The new species can be readily differentiated from these by the arrangement of caudal papillae and length of spicules. Priority description of F. affinis is established and F. concinnae is removed from synonymy with F. affinis. In addition to F. lowei, 3 species of Digenea, Glypthelmins quieta, Haematoloechus breviplexus, Langeronia macrocirra; 1 species of Eucestoda, Ophiotaenia magna; 7 species of Nematoda, F. inglisi, Foleyellides striatus, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Rhabdias ranae, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, Physaloptera sp. (larvae): and 1 species of Acanthocephala, an unidentified oligacanthorhynchid cystacanth, were found.

  20. The taxonomic status of two Telmatobius frog species (Anura: Telmatobiidae) from the western Andean slopes of northernmost Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Pablo; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo; Araya, Carolina; Sallaberry, Michel; Méndez, Marco A

    2017-04-06

    On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, we evaluated the taxonomic identity of two species of Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius: Telmatobius pefauri and T. zapahuirensis, present in the western Andean slopes at the northern extreme of Chile. We also investigated the taxonomic assignment of five populations of Telmatobius recently discovered around the type localities of these two species. The results indicate that T. pefauri inhabits, not only Murmuntani its type locality, but also the montane localities of Belén, Copaquilla, Lupica, Saxamar and Socoroma. Our study also shows that T. pefauri and T. zapahuirensis are the same taxon. Therefore, Telmatobius zapahuirensis Veloso, Sallaberry, Navarro, Iturra, Valencia, Penna & Díaz, 1982 would be a subjective junior synonym of Telmatobius pefauri Veloso & Trueb, 1976.

  1. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  2. A new species of small tree frog, genus Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from the eastern Amazon lowlands of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Ron, Santiago R

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of the hylid frog genus Dendropsophus from Amazonian Ecuador. The new species, Dendropsophus shiwiarum sp. nov., appears to be part of the D. microcephalus species group. Dendropsophus shiwiarum differs from its congeners by a combination of: (1) tympanic membrane non-differentiated and annulus evident only ventrally, (2) disc of Finger III and Toe IV with pointed tip, (3) dorsal surfaces of digital discs with a conical tubercle as result of projection of distal phalanx, and (4) small size (SVL < 19 mm). The new species is morphologically most similar to Dendropsophus riveroi. Examination of the type material of the latter suggests that some Ecuadorian populations reported as D. riveroi were misidentified and in fact belong to D. shiwiarum sp. nov.

  3. A new species of Osteocephalus (Anura: Hylidae) from Amazonian Bolivia: first evidence of tree frog breeding in fruit capsules of the Brazil nut tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, J.; Aparicio, J.; Guerrero-Reinhard, M.; Calderón, G.; Jungfer, K. H.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2215, - (2009), s. 37-54 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  4. Contribution to the Head Anatomy of the Basal Frog .i.Barbourula busuangensis./i. and the Evolution of the Anura

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Baleeva, N.; Vazeille, A.; Bravin, A.; van Dijk, E.; Nemoz, Ch.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Smirina, E. M.; Boistel, R.; Claessens, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), s. 163-194 ISSN 1026-2296 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Barbourula * Liaobatrachus * head anatomy * evolutionary trends * relationships * cranium * palatoquadrate * cranial nerves * jaw adductors * extrinsic eye muscles Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2016 http://rjh.folium.ru/index.php/rjh/article/view/1132

  5. Ecological aspects of the casque-headed frog Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae in a Restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe some aspects of the ecology of Aparasphenodon brunoi, a species associated with bromeliads. We comment on the relationships of this species with bromeliad size, microhabitat use, diet and sexual dimorphism. This study was conducted on a Restinga habitat near Presidente Kennedy, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern coast of Brazil. When the animals were found inside the bromeliads, we measure bromeliad and head size of frogs. We analyzed stomach contents and determined the sex and reproductive condition. We found 17 individuals (58.6% in bromeliad leafs, six (20.7% in Cactaceae, three (10.3% in liana and three (10.3% on trunks. The correlation between head measurements and bromeliad size were high, indicating that animals apparently use bromeliads based on their size, which could be related to the minimization of water loss. The most common prey items were beetles, ants, and insect larvae, suggesting that the species is relatively generalist in prey consumption. Aparasphenodon brunoi showed significant sexual size and shape dimorphism with females having larger bodies than males (size and females having tibia, eye diameter and SVL larger than males (shape, but larger sample size and more detailed ecological and life history data are needed to elucidate the factors that have led to sexual size dimorphism.

  6. Ultrastructure variation in the spermatozoa of Pseudopaludicola frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with brief comments on its phylogenetic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic history of the small frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola from South America has been controversial. Phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data have identified four Pseudopaludicola clades, correlating with the known variation in karyotypes (2n = 22, 20, 18, and 16). In this study, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa was analyzed in 12 species of the Pseudopaludicola, with the aim of describing their morphology and identifying characters that may contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships. The spermatozoa presented marked differences in tail structures. The tails of the spermatozoa of the species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Pseudopaludicola sp. 1 [P. pusilla group], Pseudopaludicola falcipes, P. mineira, and Pseudopaludicola saltica), as well as Pseudopaludicola ameghini and Pseudopaludicola ternetzi (2n=20), have juxta-axonemal fibers, undulating membranes and axial fibers. In contrast, in the species with 2n = 18 (P. facureae, P. giarettai, Pseudopaludicola canga, P. atragula, and Pseudopaludicola sp. 2) and 2n = 16 (Pseudopaludicola mystacalis), there are no evident axial or juxta-axonemal fibers, but a paraxonemal rod with a thick undulating membrane, which is shorter than that found among Pseudopaludicola species. The ultrastructural morphological differences observed in the spermatozoa of these species may be phylogenetically informative, given that they coincide with the consensus phylogeny of the group and appear to represent a progressive simplification of the spermatozoon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Raorchestes ghatei, a new species of shrub frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India

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    A.D. Padhye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Raorchestes ghatei is described from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The species differs from its congeners based on a combination of characters including small to medium-sized adult males, snout mucronate in dorsal view, canthus rostralis angular and sharp, snout slightly projecting beyond mouth ventrally, tympanum indistinct and one third of the eye diameter, tongue without papilla but with a lingual pit, nuptial pad rudimentary to absent, a bony tubercle on humerus at the end of deltoid ridge present in males and absent in females, skin finely granulated or smooth dorsally, lateral side marbled with white blotches on brown to black background. Molecular phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the new species is genetically distinct and forms a monophyletic clade within Raorchestes. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism with males having single sub-gular vocal sac and a tubercle on the humerus while females lack them. The species shows direct development. The species is widely distributed in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.

  8. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

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    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  9. Unrevealing the leaf frogs Cerrado diversity: A new species of Pithecopus (Anura, Arboranae, Phyllomedusidae) from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Daniel Pacheco; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropical frog genus Pithecopus comprises currently 10 species. A recent molecular phylogeny suggested the existence of two subclades within it, one of them including P. palliatus, P. azureus, P. hypochondrialis, and P. nordestinus (lowland species). Herein we describe a new species of this subclade from Pontal do Araguaia, in the Brazilian Cerrado in the Mato Grosso state. Recognition of the new species is supported by adult morphology, advertisement call and molecular data. The new species differs from Pithecopus highland species by its smaller head width and lack of the reticulate pattern on flanks. From lowland species, the new form differs by being significantly smaller in snout vent-length, advertisement call with the greatest number of pulses, and high genetic distance. Interestingly, we also report on occurrence of P. hypochondrialis (its sister species) at an adjacent site (about 3km). Also, we report on the occurrence of the new species in the Chapada dos Guimarães and Santa Terezinha, both also in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:28953911

  10. Microsatellites mapping for non-model species with chromosomal rearrangement: a case study in the frog Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuyun; Yuan, Siqi; Liu, Ya; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2017-08-01

    Gene mapping is an important resource for understanding the evolution of genes and cytogenetics. Model species with a known genetic map or genome sequence allow for the selection of genetic markers on a desired chromosome, while it is hard to locate these markers on chromosomes of non-model species without such references. A frog species, Quasipaa boulengeri, shows chromosomal rearrangement polymorphisms, making itself a fascinating model for chromosomal speciation mediated by suppressed recombination. However, no markers have been located on its rearranged chromosomes. We present a complete protocol to map microsatellites based on mechanical microdissection and chromosome amplification techniques. Following this protocol, we mapped 71 microsatellites of Q. boulengeri at the chromosome level. In total, eight loci were assigned to rearranged chromosomes, and the other 63 loci might attach to other chromosomes. These microsatellites could be used to compare the gene flow and verify the chromosomal suppressed recombination hypothesis in Q. boulengeri. This integrated protocol could be effectively used to map genes to chromosomes for non-model species.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan Digging Frog, Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhu, Lilan; Zhang, Min; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-30

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,074bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 30.32% A, 25.76% C, 29.72% T, and 14.20% G, which is consistent with the lowest frequency for G content in typical amphibian animals' mitochondrial genomes. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A+T content. Besides, 3 types of tandem repeat units were also identified in the control region. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new small frog species of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern paramos of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Durán, Gustavo A

    2016-01-18

    I describe a new species of a small-sized frog of the genus Pristimantis found in the paramo ecosystem (3700 masl) on the northern slope of Los Nevados National Park, Cordillera Central, department of Caldas, Colombia. This new species is assigned to the Pristimantis leptolophus species-group, given that Toe V is much longer than Toe III and extends to the distal edge of the distal subarticular tubercle on Toe IV. The new species differs from other taxa by its dorsal golden or yellowish color patterns, the absence of nuptial pads, lateral fringes on its fingers and toes, and the absence of vomerine odontophores. Discriminant analyses of morphometric characters of females of P. leptolophus, P. uranobates, and the new species separate the new species by snout-vent length, tibia length, eye diameter, eye-to-nostril distance, tympanum diameter, and length of toe III. Vomer terms frequently used to describe species are reviewed, such as the oblique keels of the vomer and the different forms of the dentigerous process. Species belonging to the high Andean Pristimantis leptolophus species-group are allopatric, suggesting vicariant speciation in different areas of the paramos.

  13. Evaporative water loss and oxygen uptake in two casque-headed tree frogs, Aparasphenodon brunoi and Corythomantis greeningi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, D V; Abe, A S

    1997-11-01

    Evaporative water loss (EWL) and oxygen uptake (Vo2) was measured in two species of tree frogs with cranial co-ossification, Aparasphenodon brunoi and Corythomantis greeningi. Both species use their head to seal the entrance of bromeliads, tree holes or rocky crevices used as shelters. EWL was significantly reduced in sheltered individuals of both species as compared with those exposed nude to desiccation. EWL per unit area through the head surface was significantly lower than the body skin for A. brunoi but not for C. greeningi, EWL per unit surface area through C. greeningi body skin was about 50% that of A. brunoi, indicating a less permeable skin in the former species. The relationship between cranial coossification and EWL is discussed. Vo2 in A. brunoi was comparable with other anurans of similar size, whereas in C. greeningi, it was lower than predicted from body mass. Moreover, Vo2 in C. greeningi showed less sensitivity to temperature increase than in A. brunoi. C. greeningi occurs in a drier environment than A. brunoi, and this appears to be reflected in their EWL and Vo2 characteristics.

  14. Effect of mercuric chloride on fertilization and larval development in the River Frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright) (Anura: Ranidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzo, F. (Univ. of Tampa, FL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead and mercury can act as systemic toxicants in many species of wildlife. Although numerous studies have emphasized the effects of metals and pesticides on metabolism, growth, survivorship, neural processes and reproduction in a number of taxa, little information is available on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the reproductive physiology of amphibians. Industrial processes and mining activities can release substantial concentrations of heavy metals such as mercury into aquatic habitats. Since most amphibians have obligate aquatic larval stages, they are exposed to pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment. Amphibians can act as accumulators of heavy metals and their larval stages are useful indicators of pollution levels in the field. What little data are available, indicate that metals can significantly reduce viability in amphibians through their actions on metabolism, development and gametogenesis. The recent concerns over worldwide declines in amphibian populations and the susceptibility of amphibian populations to environmental toxicants, led me to assess the effect of mercuric chloride, one of the most common and persistent toxicants in aquatic environments, on fertilization and larval development in the river frog, Rana heckscheri (Wright). Although there is some information on fish, very little data are available on the effects of mercury on fertilization in amphibians generally, and no published data exist for R. heckscheri. This species is a conspicuous component of the aquatic fauna of parts of the southeastern United States where mercury levels have increased significantly over the last two decades. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Valencia, Jorge H.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J.; Ron, Santiago R.; Cannatella, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species—Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.—originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83–100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75–98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central–southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  16. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  17. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Amphibia; anura; bronze frog; foraging strategy; frog; ideal free distribution; Rana temporalis; tadpoles ... less competition. Then on, both patches will be occupied. The expected mean gain will thus be the same across the food patches. Evidence supporting the IFD ... tat A or B. However the next forager would benefit by.

  18. ANURA: RANIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Amphibia of southern Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 17: 1-334. SCHl0TZ, A. 1967. The treefrogs (Rhacophoridae) of West Africa. Spolia zool. Mus. haun. 25: 1-346. SCIDSTZ, A. 1971. The superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus (Anura). Vidensk. Meddr. dansk naturh. Foren. 134:21-76. SCIDSTZ, A. 1975. The treefrogs of eastern ...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and cryptic species diversity in the Brazilian egg-brooding tree frog, genus Fritziana Mello-Leitão 1937 (Anura: Hemiphractidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marina; Lyra, Mariana L; Haddad, Célio F B

    2018-06-01

    The genus Fritziana (Anura: Hemiphractidae) comprises six described species (F. goeldii, F. ohausi, F. fissilis, F. ulei, F. tonimi, and F. izecksohni) that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although the genus has been the subject of studies dealing with its taxonomy, phylogeny, and systematics, there is considerable evidence for cryptic diversity hidden among the species. The present study aims to understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Fritziana, as well as the relationships among populations within species. We analyzed 107 individuals throughout the distribution of the genus using three mitochondrial gene fragments (12S, 16S, and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 and SLC8A3). Our data indicated that the species diversity in the genus Fritziana is underestimated by the existence of at least three candidate species hidden amongst the group of species with a closed dorsal pouch (i.e. F. fissilis and F. ulei). We also found four species presenting geographical population structures and high genetic diversity, and thus require further investigations. In addition, we found that two candidate species show a new arrangement for the tRNA-Phe gene, unique in Anura so far. Based on our results, we suggest that the conservation status of the species, as well as the species diversity in the genus Fritziana, needs to be reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The first taxonomic revaluation of the Iranian water frogs of the genus Pelophylax (Anura: Ranidae) using sequences of the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarakloo, Alireza; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrollah; Kami, Hajigholi; Najibzadeh, Masoumeh; Khosravani, Azar; Oraie, Hamzeh

    2017-05-01

    The Eurasian water frog species and their geographic ranges have undergone considerable changes in the last four decades, but the Iranian populations have largely remained unknown. All the Iranian populations of water frogs, despite their vast distribution range have attributed to a single species: Rana ridibunda. In order to understand the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of water frogs of Iran, we collected samples from many populations across the country and used the mitochondrial DNA sequence variation. A data set with a final sequence length of 616 nucleotides was generated for Cyt b from 70 individuals of Pelophylax in which there are 422 invariable sites, 174 variable sites of which 123 were parsimony informative. In total, 43 haplotypes were found (Hd: 0.9752). The result demonstrated that, two major clades with strong support can be identified within the Iranian water frogs. One of these clades that include north western and southwestern populations forms a monophyletic group along with P. bedriagae samples from Turkey. The second clade consists of water frog populations of north and northeastern parts of Iran which in turn is subdivided into two subclades. Inclusion of water frog samples from adjacent areas showed that the second clade of our study is, most likely, a distinct taxonomic entity at species rank with its two subclades indicating two diagnosable subspecies for the clade. In conclusion, we suggest that two distinct species, P. bedriagae and Pelophylax sp., with its two subspecies, should be identified as water frogs of Iran. In Addition, another traditionally reported water frog of Iran, P.ridibundus, most likely should be excluded from the Iranian water frog's checklist.

  1. [Analysis of helminthofauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 (Amphibia: Anura) at their joint habitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchin, A B; Chikhliaev, I V; Lukiianov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The helminths fauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 has been studied at their joint habitation. The stuff was collected in 1998-2002, 2004-2006 years in several regions (republic Mordovia, Samara and Saratov areas). The processing of a stuff is conducted by a method of full helmintologic dissecting. The fauna of helminths considerably differs. For common spaedfoot only 13 species of helminths was detected which also parasitized moor frog (for moor frog 23 species) are detected. The index Jaccar demonstrated mean resemblance structure of helminths and varied from 0.25 till 0.69, and the index Morisite--from 44.58 of % till 74.51 of %. The communities of parasites of common spaedfoot was characterized by low values of an index of Shannon, but the high indexes of an index Simpson, whereas for moor frog tracked the return tendence.

  2. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    RESTREPO, ADRIANA; VELASCO, JULIAN A.; DAZA, JUAN M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the exte...

  3. A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis from Tingo María National Park, Huánuco Department, central Peru (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Craugastoridae frog encountered from 1000-1700 m in elevation in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes is described. The new species is similar in appearance to many other species of Pristimantis, but is easily distinguishable from these species by having bright red coloration on the groin, posterior surface of thighs, and shanks. The new species is only known for two localities 27 km apart in the Huánuco Region.

  4. Molecular and morphological data support recognition of a new genus of New World direct-developing frog (Anura: Terrarana) from an under-sampled region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Barrio-Amorós, César L; Hedges, S Blair

    2015-07-16

    We describe a new genus of New World direct-developing frog (Terrarana) from the northern Andes of Venezuela and adjacent Colombia. Tachiramantis gen. nov. includes three species formerly placed in the large genus Pristimantis. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of data from five nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that Tachiramantis is not part of Pristimantis or any other named genus in its family (Craugastoridae or Strabomantidae). Morphological evidence further supports the distinctiveness of Tachiramantis, which has several aspects of skull morphology that are rare or absent in Pristimantis and synapomorphic for Tachiramantis, including frontoparietal-prootic fusion and degree of vomer development. The terminal phalanges, which narrow greatly before expanding at the tips, may represent an additional morphological synapomorphy. One species, T. prolixodiscus, also displays a fenestra between the posterior portions of the frontoparietals, a character state otherwise present in only 1 of 98 other sampled terraranan species. We use mapped ranges of most New World direct-developing frogs to show that Tachiramantis occurs in a geographic region that had been under-sampled in previous molecular studies of New World direct-developing frogs. Other under-sampled regions are identified in western Peru, Colombia, and northern Central America; these regions should provide fruitful target taxa for future phylogenetic studies.

  5. A New Species ofEimeria(Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog,Lithobates clamitans(Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs ( Lithobates clamitans ) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  6. The genotoxic effects of the imidacloprid-based insecticide formulation Glacoxan Imida on Montevideo tree frog Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Iglesias, J M; Ruiz de Arcaute, C; Nikoloff, N; Dury, L; Soloneski, S; Natale, G S; Larramendy, M L

    2014-06-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) affects the insect central nervous system and is successfully applied to control pests for a variety of agricultural crops. In the current study, acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the IMI-containing commercial formulation insecticide Glacoxan Imida (35 percent IMI) was evaluated on Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. A lethal effect was evaluated as the end point for lethality, whereas micronucleus (MN) frequency and DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Sublethal end points were assayed within the 12.5-37.5mg/L IMI concentration range. Experiments were performed on tadpoles at stage 36 (range, 35-37) according to the classification proposed by Gosner. Lethality studies revealed an LC50 96h value of 52.622mg/L IMI. Increased frequency of MNs was only observed when 25.0mg/L was assayed for 96h, whereas no other nuclear abnormalities were induced. Increase of the genetic damage index was observed at 48h of treatment within the 12.5-37.5mg/L concentration range, whereas an increased frequency of DNA damage was observed only in tadpoles treated with 37.5mg/L IMI for 96h. This study represents the first evidence of the acute lethal and genotoxic effects exerted by IMI on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Li, Pi-Peng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed.

  8. [Relative abundance and microhabitat use by the frog Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae) in two habitats of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Baños, Vera; Pacheco Florez, Vanesa; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha P

    2011-06-01

    Geobatrachus walkeri belongs to a monotypic frog genus endemic to the San Lorenzo area, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. This species has been categorized as endangered because of its small distribution area and the decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It inhabits two forest types with different composition and structure, the native secondary forest and a pine plantation (dominated by Pinus patula). To compare the relative abundance and microhabitat use of this species in these habitat types, 30 quadrants/environment were distributed randomly. The individual number, microhabitat use and other aspects of its natural history were registered using visual encounter surveys in both sites, including non-sampled areas in the quadrants. The relative abundance of frogs was significantly different between habitats and among seasons. The highest abundance of G. walkeri relative to the total area was found in the pine plantation, being 2.3 times higher than in the natural forest. More frogs were significantly found during the rainy season; nevertheless, active individuals were also found during the dry season. Significant differences were found in the microhabitat use with respect to the forest type and season. The most frequently microhabitat used in the two forest types was the pine leaf-litter; besides, in the native forest, the microhabitat occupied more frequently presented medium and large size stones. Geobatrachus walkeri is a successful species in pine plantations, associated permanently to its leaf-litter environment where it seems to develop its entire life cycle. The clear modifications in the soils and water, derived from the introduction of the pine plantation in this area, seem not to have negatively affected the conservation and successful maintenance of this species.

  9. Mud-packing frog: a novel breeding behaviour and parental care in a stream dwelling new species of Nyctibatrachus (Amphibia, Anura, Nyctibatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva; Dinesh, K P; Priti, H; Ravikanth, G

    2014-05-16

    Reproductive modes are diverse and unique in anurans. Selective pressures of evolution, ecology and environment are attributed to such diverse reproductive modes. Globally forty different reproductive modes in anurans have been described to date. The genus Nyctibatrachus has been recently revised and belongs to an ancient lineage of frog families in the Western Ghats of India. Species of this genus are known to exhibit mountain associated clade endemism and novel breeding behaviours. The purpose of this study is to present unique reproductive behaviour, oviposition and parental care in a new species Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. which is described in the paper. Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. is a medium sized stream dwelling frog. It is distinct from the congeners based on a suite of morphological characters and substantially divergent in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Males exhibit parental care by mud packing the egg clutch. Such parental care has so far not been described from any other frog species worldwide. Besides this, we emphasize that three co-occurring congeneric species of Nyctibatrachus, namely N. jog, N. kempholeyensis and Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. from the study site differ in breeding behaviour, which could represent a case of reproductive character displacement. These three species are distinct in their size, call pattern, reproductive behaviour, maximum number of eggs in a clutch, oviposition and parental care, which was evident from the statistical analysis. The study throws light on the reproductive behaviour of Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. and associated species to understand the evolution and adaptation of reproductive modes of anurans in general, and Nyctibatrachus in particular from the Western Ghats.

  10. Paracosmocercella rosettae n. gen. et n. sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Cosmocercidae) collected from the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica (Anura: Hylidae), in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Yatsukaho

    2007-08-01

    A new genus, Paracosmocercella (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Cosmocercidae), is proposed with monotypic Paracosmocercella rosettae n. sp. from the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica Günther, 1859, in Oita, Kyushu Island, Japan. Paracosmocercella resembles Cosmocercella and Cosmocercoides by having 2 rows of rosette papillae without plectanes ventrally in preanal region of male, but it is readily distinguished from Cosmocercella by lacking clear vesicle supporting rosette papillae and from Cosmocercoides by lacking rosette papillae in perianal region and having large-sized eggs, which hatch in uterus.

  11. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia, Anura, Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment : III. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism and osmoregulation in the reed frog, Hyperolius viridiflavus taeniatus, with special reference to the role of iridophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, R; Linsenmair, K E

    1988-04-01

    Reed frogs of the superspecies Hyperolius viridiflavus occur throughout the seasonally very dry and hot African savannas. Despite their small size (300-700 mg), estivating reed frogs do not avoid stressful conditions above ground by burrowing into the soil, but endure the inhospitable climate relatively unprotected, clinging to mostly dry grass stems. They must have efficient mechanisms to enable them to survive e.g. very high temperatures, low relative humidities, and high solar radiation loads. Mechanisms must also have developed to prevent poisoning by the nitrogenous wastes that inevitably result from protein and nucleotide turnover. In contrast to fossorial amphibians, estivating reed frogs do not become torpid. Reduction in metabolism is therefore rather limited so that nitrogenous wastes accumulate faster in these frogs than in fossorial amphibians. This severely aggravates the osmotic problems caused by dehydration. During dry periods total plasma osmolarity greatly increases, mainly due to urea accumulation. Of the total urea accumulated over 42 days of experimental water deprivation, 30% was produced during the first 7 days. In the next 7 days rise in plasma urea content was negligible. This strong initial increase of urea is seen as a byproduct of elevated amino acid catabolism following the onset of dry conditions. The rise in total plasma osmolarity due to urea accumulation, however, is not totally disadvantageous, but enables fast rehydration when water is available for very short periods only. Voiding of urine and feces ceases once evaporative water loss exceeds 10% of body weight. Therefore, during continuous water deprivation, nitrogenous end products are not excreted. After 42 days of water deprivation, bladder fluid was substantially depleted, and urea concentration in the remaining urine (up to 447 mM) was never greater than in plasma fluid. Feces voided at the end of the dry period after water uptake contained only small amounts of nitrogenous

  12. Feeding habits of the frog Pleurodema diplolistris (Anura, Leptodactylidae in Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wellington Alves dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the feeding habits of Pleurodema diplolistris, the most abundant anuran species of the São Francisco sand dunes, during a period of slightly over one year. The fieldwork was undertaken during four excursions to a sand dune in the semiarid Caatinga, Brazil, and the analyses were based on stomach contents. Pleurodema diplolistris were not active during the dry season. The important food categories in diet were Isoptera (winged forms, Coleoptera, and Formicidae. Small and large animals had different food comsumption patterns: small frogs showed positive electivity for termites and large frogs, for ants. The pattern was strongly influenced by large male food electivity. High levels of termite comsumption ocurred during the days of greater capture success. The pattern of high comsumption of termites detected here is different from that described in another study on lizards from the same locality and sampled in the same periods. We discuss alternative hypotheses that could explain the observed patterns.

  13. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  14. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  15. A new and possibly critically endangered species of casque-headed tree frog Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Santana, Diego José; Da Silva, Fabiano Aguiar; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Feio, Renato Neves

    2013-01-01

    A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21°20'S, 42°45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris.

  16. Psychrophrynella glauca sp. n., a new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae from the montane forests of the Amazonian Andes of Puno, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of small strabomantid frog (genus Psychrophrynella from a humid montane forest in the Peruvian Department of Puno. Specimens were collected at 2,225 m a.s.l. in the leaf litter of primary montane forest near Thiuni, along the Macusani–San Gabán road, in the province of Carabaya. The new species is assigned to Psychrophrynella on the basis of morphological similarity, including presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and call composed of multiple notes. We also include genetic distances for 16S rRNA partial sequences between the new species and other strabomantid frogs. The species with lowest genetic distances are Psychrophrynella chirihampatu and Psychrophrynella usurpator. Psychrophrynella glauca sp. n. is readily distinguished from the three other species of Psychrophrynella (Psychrophrynella bagrecito, P. chirihampatu, and P. usurpator by its small size, and by having belly and ventral surfaces of legs reddish-brown or red, and chest and throat brown to dark brown with a profusion of bluish-gray flecks. The new species is only known from its type locality. With the discovery of P. glauca, the geographic distribution of Psychrophrynella is extended to the Department of Puno, where it was no longer represented after the description of the genus Microkayla. Furthermore, the Cordillera de Carabaya is the only mountain range known to be home to four of the seven genera of Holoadeninae (Bryophryne, Microkayla, Noblella, and Psychrophrynella, suggesting an intriguing evolutionary history for this group in southern Peru.

  17. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  18. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE

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    ADRIANA RESTREPO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the extent of the genetic variation across its distribution in Colombia. We present the first records of P. penelopus for the Cordillera Oriental, the western versant of Cordillera Occidental and the northern portion of the Cauca river basin. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, Pristimantis penelopus belongs to the P. ridens series sensu (Padial et al., 2014. The mean of intraspecific genetic variation is 2.1% and the variation among population ranges between 2.3 and 3.5%. The genetic distance between the western populations and the Magdalena Valley populations suggests a potential phylogeographic break in northwestern Antioquia. We expand the realized distribution by 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest. Based on our results and according to the IUCN criteria we propose a new category for the species and highlight the need to increase the surveys in poorly known regions to better understand the geographic distribution and conservation status of listed species.

  19. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, TG; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, DG; Nunes, MEM; Rodrigues, NR

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies. PMID:26056614

  20. Two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from Llanganates National Park in Ecuador with comments on the regional diversity of Ecuadorian Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, María J.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, at Parque Nacional Llanganates. The new species are characterized by the spiny appearance typical of several species inhabiting montane forests. Pristimantis yanezi sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis colonensis and Pristimantis incanus but differs from both in groin coloration and by having smaller tubercles on the upper eyelids, heels, and tarsus. Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. is most similar to Pristimantis eriphus and Pristimantis chloronotus. It can be distinguished from Pristimantis eriphus by the color pattern on the scapular region and by having smaller conical tubercles on the dorsum. Pristimantis chloronotus differs from Pristimantis llanganati sp. n. in having a pair of sinuous paravertebral folds. Both new species occur in a region with few amphibian collections and nothing is known about their abundance and ecology. Therefore, it is recommended to assign them to the Data Deficient Red List category. Updated figures of species richness of Pristimantis among biogeographic regions in Ecuador are also presented. Pristimantis reach their highest diversity in Montane Forests of the eastern versant of the Andes. Its species richness across regions cannot be explained by regional area, elevation, temperature, or precipitation. Political endemism in Pristimantis is higher than that of other terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:27408555

  1. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  2. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  3. Four new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs of the genus Phrynopus (Anura: Terrarana: Craugastoridae) from Río Abiseo National Park, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lily O; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-06

    We describe four new species of terrestrial-breeding frogs belonging to the genus Phrynopus from specimens collected on the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental (2800-3850 m) near and within Río Abiseo National Park, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Departments of San Martín and La Libertad, northeastern Peru. All four species lack a visible tympanum and inhabit the upper ridges and slopes within or adjacent to the Park. Phrynopus anancites sp. nov. and P. capitalis sp. nov. inhabit the wet montane grasslands on the upper ridges and valleys from 3600 to 3850 m. Phrynopus anancites (SVL = 25.3 mm) has coarsely aerolated skin and olive green coloration and has small vomerine teeth, while P. capitalis (female SVL = 35.6 mm) is characterized by a large head, short limbs, and distinctive dorsal pattern. Phrynopus dumicola sp. nov. (female SVL = 25.3 mm) has a short head and dark colored body with granular skin on the flanks, and is known only from forest patches along the treeline from 3225 to 3550 m, whereas P. personatus sp. nov. (female SVL = 28.2 mm) has a dark facemask and bright yellow groin spots (possibly aposematic), and inhabits a narrow band of continuous tropical montane rain forest from 2890 to 3110 m. We report infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from one specimen of P. dumicola collected in July of 1988. With the addition of these four new species, Phrynopus now includes 32 nominal species.

  4. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  5. High genetic diversity but low population structure in the frog Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867) (Amphibia, Anura) from the Pampas of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, José A; Camargo, Arley; de Sá, Rafael O

    2016-02-01

    Relative to South America's ecoregions, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas have been poorly studied from a phylogeographic perspective. Based on an intermediate biogeographic setting between subtropical forest (Atlantic Forest) and arid ecosystems (Chaco and Patagonia), Pampean species are expected to show unstable demographic histories due to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Herein, we investigate the phylogenetic relatedness and phylogeographic history of Pseudopaludicola falcipes, a small and common frog that is widely distributed across the Pampean grasslands. First, we use molecular data to assess if P. falcipes represents a single or multiple, separately evolving cryptic lineages. Because P. falcipes is a small-size species (<20mm) with extensive coloration and morphological variation, we suspected that it might represent a complex of cryptic species. In addition, we expected strong genetic and geographic structuring within Pseudopaludicola falcipes due to its large geographic distribution, potentially short dispersal distances, and multiple riverine barriers. We found that P. falcipes is a single evolutionary lineage with poor geographic structuring. Furthermore, current populations of P. falcipes have a large effective population size, maintain ancestral polymorphisms, and have a complex network of gene flow. We conclude that the demographic history of P. falcipes, combined with its ecological attributes and the landscape features of the Pampas, favored a unique combination among anurans of small body size, large population size, high genetic variability, but high cohesiveness of populations over a wide geographic distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serous cutaneous glands of the Pacific tree-frog Hyla regilla (Anura, Hylidae): patterns of secretory release induced by nor-epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, G; Drewes, R C; Magherini, S; Malentacchi, C; Nosi, D; Terreni, A

    2006-02-01

    The serous (poison) cutaneous glands of the Pacific tree-frog Hyla regilla were induced to release their product by 10(-3)M nor-epinephrine stimulation. After discharge structural and ultrastructural features of the cutaneous glands involved in release were observed. Furthermore, the discharged product, consisting of discrete, secretory granules, was collected and processed for transmission electron microscope analysis. As indicated by patterns found in the myoepithelium encircling the syncytial secretory unit, gland discharge is caused by contraction of the peripheral myocytes. Muscle cell compression dramatically affects the syncytium and results in degenerative changes, including expulsion of the secretory unit nuclei. Therefore, the structural collapse in depleted glands has been ascribed to the mechanical activity performed by the myoepithelium during discharge, rather than cytoplasm involution described in conventional, holocrine glands. TEM investigation revealed that the secretory granules collected after discharge maintain their peculiar traits: they consist of recurrent patterns of thin subunits, acquired during serous maturation and provided with remarkable structural stability.

  7. The reanalysis of biogeography of the Asian tree frog, Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae: geographic shifts and climatic change influenced the dispersal process and diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau and climate change in Asia are thought to have profoundly modulated the diversification of most of the species distributed throughout Asia. The ranoid tree frog genus Rhacophorus, the largest genus in the Rhacophoridae, is widely distributed in Asia and especially speciose in the areas south and east of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we infer phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate divergence times, asking whether the spatiotemporal characteristics of diversification within Rhacophorus were related to rapid uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau and concomitant climate change. Phylogenetic analysis recovered distinct lineage structures in Rhacophorus, which indicated a clear distribution pattern from Southeast Asia toward East Asia and India. Molecular dating suggests that the first split within the genus date back to the Middle Oligocene (approx. 30 Ma. The Rhacophorus lineage through time (LTT showed that there were periods of increased speciation rate: 14–12 Ma and 10–4 Ma. In addition, ancestral area reconstructions supported Southeast Asia as the ancestral area of Rhacophorus. According to the results of molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions and LTT we think the geographic shifts, the staged rapid rises of the Tibetan Plateau with parallel climatic changes and reinforcement of the Asian monsoons (15 Ma, 8 Ma and 4–3 Ma, possibly prompted a burst of diversification in Rhacophorus.

  8. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular phylogeny and genetic identification of populations of two species of Feirana frogs (Amphibia: Anura, Ranidae, Dicroglossinae, Paini) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Chen, Xiaohong; Dubois, Alain; Liang, Gang; Wagner, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Using mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and ND2 sequences, we investigated phylogenetic relationships among populations of two frog species endemic to China, both referred to the genus Feirana. A sister-group relationship between the two species was supported moderately in a maximum likelihood analysis and significantly in a Bayesian analysis, but not in a maximum parsimony analysis, of combined data for the three genes. Pending resolution of this incongruence, we provisionally maintain these species in the genus Feirana. Two major clades with a deep divergence are concordant with the species F. quadranus and "F." taihangnica. In the present work, some populations from the Qinling Mountains and all those from the Funiu and the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang Mountains are referred to "F." taihangnica rather than F. quadranus, whereas others are referred to F. quadranus. Consequently, the main body of the Qinling Mountains was identified as a large contact zone between these two species. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships and the distribution pattern of populations, we propose a hypothesis for the divergence of "F." taihangnica: the ancestral species might have inhabited the westernmost Qinling Mountains and dispersed to the main Qinling Mountains, and then to the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang and Funiu Mountains. In contrast, two alternative hypotheses are suggested for F. quadranus: if the two species are confirmed as sister groups, F. quadranus might have dispersed from the westernmost Qinling to the Longmen, Qinling, Daba, and northern Wuling Mountains; alternatively, F. quadranus might have come from the northern Wuling Mountains and then dispersed to the Daba, Qinling, and Longmen mountains.

  10. European common frog Rana temporaria (Anura: Ranidae) larvae show subcellular responses under field-relevant Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Stefanie; Frombold, Bianca; Mingo, Valentin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is presumed to be an environmental friendly agent for the use in either health-related mosquito control or the reduction of nuisance associated with mosquitoes from seasonal wetlands. Amphibians inhabiting these valuable wetlands may be exposed to Bti products several times during their breeding season. Up until now, information regarding effects on the non-targeted group of amphibians has to be considered rather inconsistent. On this account, we evaluated how three repeated exposures to frequently used Bti formulations (VectoBac ® 12AS, VectoBac ® WG) in field-relevant rates affect European common frog (Rana temporaria) larvae. In a laboratory approach, we assessed potential effects with regard to enzymatic biomarkers (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholine esterase (AChE)), development, body condition and survival until the end of metamorphosis. Although survival and time to metamorphosis were not significantly affected, larval development tended to be shortened in the Bti treated water phase. Furthermore, exposure to Bti induced significant increases of GST (37-550%), GR (5-140%) and AChE (38-137%) irrespectively of the applied formulation, indicating detoxification, antioxidant responses as well as an alteration of neuronal activity. GST activity increased twice as much after two repeatedly executed Bti applications within a time period of 6 days. The examination of several biochemical markers is needed to fully evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of Bti for amphibian populations, especially in the context of worldwide amphibian declines. Nevertheless, following the precautionary principle, it may be advisable to implement certain thresholds for application numbers and intervals in order to ensure environmentally friendly mosquito control programs, especially in areas designated for nature conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A potent, non-toxic insulin-releasing peptide isolated from an extract of the skin of the Asian frog, Hylarana guntheri (Anura:Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Power, Gavin J; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; Jiansheng, Hu; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert

    2008-11-29

    Peptides in extract of the skin of the Asian frog Hylarana guntheri Boulenger,1882 were purified by reversed-phase HPLC and individual components analysed for their ability to release insulin from the rat BRIN-BD11 clonal beta cell line. The most potent peptide identified in the extract belonged to the brevinin-2 family (brevinin-2GUb; GVIIDTLKGAAKTVAAELLRKAHCKLTNSC). Other peptides with weaker insulin-releasing activity belonged to the brevinin-1 (2 peptides), brevinin-2 (2 peptides) and temporin (3 peptides) families. Only the brevinin-1 peptides showed cytolytic activity against the BRIN-BD11 cells, as demonstrated by an increased rate of release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase. A synthetic replicate of brevinin-2GUb produced a significant stimulation of insulin release (139% of basal rate; P<0.05) at a concentration of 100 nM with a maximum response of 373% of basal rate at a concentration of 3 microM) by a mechanism that did not involve mobilization of intracellular calcium. Brevinin-2GUb also inhibited the growth of microorganisms (MIC against Escherichia coli=32 microM, Staphylococcus aureus=64 microM, and Candida albicans=64 microM) but had only weak hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50)=700 microM). Administration of brevinin-2GUb (75 nmol/kg body weight) into mice significantly (P<0.05) improved glucose tolerance following a intraperitoneal injection of glucose, thereby demonstrating that the peptide shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

  12. Evolutionary history and population genetic structure of the endemic tree frog Hyla tsinlingensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) inferred from mitochondrial gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Yu; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Xiao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of topography and Pleistocenic climatic fluctuations on the population genetic structure of amphibians in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains of China is poorly investigated. Hyla tsinlingensis is a tree frog endemic to the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains, with a restricted and patchy distribution that is currently shrinking. We speculated on the evolutionary history of amphibians in this region by studying the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis. Using a total of 212 samples, 32 haplotypes and four haplogroups were found in the present study. Population genetic structure showed significant differentiation (F(ST)) between most populations of H. tsinlingensis in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that most of the observed genetic variation occurs between the two regions (the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains). Mantel tests indicated that the genetic divergence was induced through isolation by distance. Using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm to predict the genetic barrier, two putative barriers in gene flow that separate lineages of H. tsinlingensis were identified. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests found a sudden population expansion in all haplogroups except the Tsinling population and total population. This population expansion was identified between 0.5 Myr to 0.1 Myr (Quaternary) by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP). Divergence dating indicated the divergence time between the Tsinling population and Dabieshan population to be 3.26 MYA (Pliocene). In conclusion, the topography of the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains exerts a significant impact on the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary affected the distribution of H. tsinlingensis.

  13. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  14. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  15. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Hyla ussuriensis (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinglin; Xie, Yuhui; Zhao, Wenge; Liu, Peng

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Hyla ussuriensis (Anura: Hylidae) is first determined using long PCR. It is a circular molecule of 18 023 bp in length (GenBank accession no. KT964710). Similar to the typical mtDNA of amphibians, the complete mtDNA sequence of Hyla ussuriensis contained two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide composition was 29.9% A, 25.4% C, 14.5% G, and 30.2% T. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on NJ method yield phylogenetic trees, indicating 13 reported Anura frogs belonging to five families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Microhylidae, Ranidae, and Rhacophoridae). These molecular data presented here provide a useful tool for systematic analyses of genus Hyla and family Hylidae.

  16. Body wiping behaviors associated with cutaneous lipids in hylid tree frogs of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Tamatha R; Lillywhite, Harvey B

    2005-06-01

    Body wiping behavior, integumentary secretions and rates of evaporative water loss (EWL) were examined in six species of Florida tree frogs (Anura: Hylidae). Additionally, morphology of the integument and dermal glands were compared among these and one other Florida tree frog (Hyla andersonii), an arid-adapted tree frog (Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis), and a highly aquatic frog (Rana utricularia). An extra-epidermal layer of lipid and mucus, presumably secreted from dermal granular glands, was detected on the skin of all Florida hylid frogs examined. Distinct body wiping behaviors were observed in the hylid frogs, but these were less complex than those described previously in phyllomedusine frogs, which occupy arid habitats, secrete lipids onto their skin, and are regarded as relatively 'waterproof'. Florida hylids occupy seasonally arid habitats and appear to have reduced rates of EWL. The suite of traits we observed in these frogs have been previously documented in a rhacophorid tree frog from seasonally arid regions of India and likely represent an evolutionary convergent response to periodic dehydration stress. The presence of lipids that are spread by simple wiping behaviors to form an extra-epidermal water barrier may represent an early stage of the more advanced adaptations described in more waterproof arboreal frogs.

  17. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  18. Generic diversity and distributional dynamics of the Palaeobatrachidae (Amphibia: Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wuttke, M.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Ratnikov, V. Y.; Dvořák, Z.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2012), s. 367-395 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Anura (Europe) * evolution * osteology * Palaeobatrachidae * palaeogeography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Ontogeny in Tertiary Frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 3 (2004), s. 322-323 ISSN 0362-2525. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /7./. 27.07.2004-01.08.2004, Boca Raton] Keywords : Anura * Tertiary * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  20. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most

  1. Mesozoic and Tertiary Anura of Laurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2013), s. 397-439 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Laurasia * taxonomic diagnoses * systematic review * stratigraphy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. FROGS report

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROGS Reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller, Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235; tel. 615-322-2986 about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  3. Histochemistry of skin glands of Trachycephalus aff. venulosus Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolo, J R; Almeida, J A; Ananias, F

    2008-01-01

    The skin of the adult tree frog, Trachycephalus aff. venulosus, was investigated by light microscopy. Histochemistry was carried out using various stain techniques and showed the basic integument morphology of the skin with squamous epithelium in the epidermis and connective tissue in the dermis, subdivided into spongy and compact layers. The integument observed contains two types of gland; the mucous glands and granular glands. The mucous glands are small and located in the upper layer of the stratum spongiosum of the connective tissue and contain neutral and acid sulfated glycoproteins. The granular glands are large and form a syncytial secretory compartment within the acinus, which is surrounded by smooth muscle cells. Histochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of collagen proteins in both types of gland. An unusual finding was the different densities of the granules in the granular glands. The morphological characteristics of the integument in Trachycephalus aff. venulosus was also compared with others species of Anura.

  4. Molecular, morphological and acoustic assessment of the genus Ophryophryne (Anura, Megophryidae) from Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam, with description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr., Nikolay A. Poyarkov; Duong, Tang Van; Orlov, Nikolai L.; Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Vassilieva, Anna B.; Nguyen, Luan Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Che, Jing; Mahony, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asian Mountain Toads (Ophryophryne) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O. gerti, O. synoria and an undescribed species. To help resolve outstanding taxonomic confusion evident in literature (reviewed herein), an expanded redescription of O. gerti is provided based on the examination of type material, and the distributions of both O. gerti and O. synoria are considerably revised based on new locality records. We provide the first descriptions of male mating calls for all three species, permitting a detailed bioacoustics comparison of the species. We describe the new species from highlands of the northern and eastern Langbian Plateau, and distinguish it from its congeners by a combination of morphological, molecular and acoustic characters. The new species represents one of the smallest known members of the genus Ophryophryne. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between 700–2200 m a.s.l. We suggest the species should be considered Data Deficient following IUCN’s Red List categories. PMID:28769667

  5. Scheloribatid mites as the source of pumiliotoxins in dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Wataru; Sakata, Tomoyo; Shimano, Satoshi; Enami, Yoshinari; Mori, Naoki; Nishida, Ritsuo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

    2005-10-01

    The strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio (Anura: Dendrobatidae) and related poison frogs contain a variety of dendrobatid alkaloids that are considered to be sequestered through the consumption of alkaloid-containing arthropods microsympatrically distributed in the habitat. In addition to ants, beetles, and millipedes, we found that adults of two species of oribatid mites belonging to the cohort Brachypylina, trophically a lower level of animal than ants and beetles, contain dendrobatid alkaloids. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of hexane extracts of adult Scheloribates azumaensis (Oribatida: Acari) revealed the presence of not only pumiliotoxin 251D (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-(2'-methylhexylidene)-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane), but also precoccinelline 193C and another coccinelline-type alkaloid. From the corresponding extracts of an unidentified Scheloribates sp., pumiliotoxin 237A (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-(2'-methylpentylidene)-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane) was detected as a minor component, and identified by synthesis. The presence of related alkaloids, namely deoxypumiliotoxin 193H, a 6,8-diethyl-5-propenylindolizidine, and tentatively, a 1-ethyl-4-pentenynylquinolizidine, were indicated by the GC/MS fragmentation patterns, along with at least another six unidentified alkaloid components. Thus, one possible origin of pumiliotoxins, coccinellid alkaloids, and certain izidines found in poison frogs may be mites of the genus Scheloribates and perhaps related genera in the suborder Oribatida.

  6. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 3. The sperm of Hylodinae species (Anura, Leptodactylidae): Ultrastructural characteristics and their relevance to interspecific taxonomic relationships. O Aguiar-Jr A A Giaretta S M Recco-Pimentel. Articles Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 379-388 ...

  7. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. John Measey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested.Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis.Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet.Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species.

  8. Ultrastructural analysis of spermiogenesis in Rhacophorus arboreus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Kohei; Kubota, Hiroshi Y

    2011-12-01

    The spermatozoa of the Japanese green tree frog, Rhacophorus arboreus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae), have a characteristic corkscrew-shaped head and a thick tail that extends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the head. We examined the process of spermatogenesis in Rh. arboreus, particularly spermiogenesis, using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis was categorized into the early, mid, and late stages based on the spermatid morphology and their location within the cyst. Early spermatids had a round nucleus and two independent flagella that elongated from a pair of parallel centrioles. The centrioles became embedded in centriolar adjunct material and attached to the nucleus. Then, the flagella were covered with a mantle-like cytoplasm that contained many microtubules. An acrosome appeared on the pointed side of the slightly elongated nucleus. Mid spermatids had an elongated rod-like head. As the nucleus elongated, the chromatin fibers became thicker and were arranged parallel to the elongation axis. An elongated acrosome was attached helically along the lateral side of the elongated nucleus. The biflagellate spermatids transformed into monoflagellate spermatids with two axonemes through a process in which the plasma membrane of each flagellum expanded. Late spermatids had a coiled or corkscrew-shaped head. An acrosome was located on the inside of the coiled cone composed of a nucleus. Parallel microtubules were connected in rows, and then became crystallized in the tail. The present report contains the first morphological description of spermatogenesis in Rhacophorus and suggests that spermiogenesis evolved to adapt to the fertilization environment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. On a new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) from Microhyla rubra (Anura: Microhylidae) from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2015-06-01

    Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of a red narrow-mouthed frog, Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854) (Anura: Microhylidae), collected from Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and figured. This species is similar to C. acanthurum, C. banyulensis, C. cruzi, C. japonica, C. kalesari, C. novaeguineae, C. ornata, C. paraguayensis, C. parva, C. podicipinus and C. travassosi in having 5 pairs of plectanes supporting preanal papillae but differs from these species by smaller size, absence of somatic papillae in females and having only one pair of adanal papillae in males and one pair postanal papillae in females. Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov. represents 27th species assigned to the genus, and 4th species from India.

  11. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Jie; Liang, Dan; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C.; Zhang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Frogs (Anura) are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates and comprise nearly 90% of living amphibian species. Their worldwide distribution and diverse biology make them well-suited for assessing fundamental questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation. However, despite their scientific importance, the evolutionary history and tempo of frog diversification remain poorly understood. By using a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 88-kb characters from 95 nuclear genes of 156 frog species, in conjunction with 20 fossil-based calibrations, our analyses result in the most strongly supported phylogeny of all major frog lineages and provide a timescale of frog evolution that suggests much younger divergence times than suggested by earlier studies. Unexpectedly, our divergence-time analyses show that three species-rich clades (Hyloidea, Microhylidae, and Natatanura), which together comprise ∼88% of extant anuran species, simultaneously underwent rapid diversification at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary (KPB). Moreover, anuran families and subfamilies containing arboreal species originated near or after the KPB. These results suggest that the K–Pg mass extinction may have triggered explosive radiations of frogs by creating new ecological opportunities. This phylogeny also reveals relationships such as Microhylidae being sister to all other ranoid frogs and African continental lineages of Natatanura forming a clade that is sister to a clade of Eurasian, Indian, Melanesian, and Malagasy lineages. Biogeographical analyses suggest that the ancestral area of modern frogs was Africa, and their current distribution is largely associated with the breakup of Pangaea and subsequent Gondwanan fragmentation. PMID:28673970

  12. Yet More Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  13. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertebrate vocalization came into existence for the first time in frogs. Acoustic signals produced by the frogs have well-defined physical characteristics and a clear biological meaning. The signals are meant to attract and assess the sex, species identity and genetic quality of potential mates. Acoustic communication plays a ...

  14. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae) are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii) Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  15. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence and gene rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, M; Kanamori, Y; Kaneda, H; Kato, Y; Nishioka, M; Hasegawa, M; Yonekawa, H

    2001-10-01

    In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata. The length of the sequence of the frog was 17,804 bp, though this was not absolute due to length variation caused by differing numbers of repetitive units in the control regions of individual frogs. The gene content, base composition, and codon usage of the Japanese pond frog conformed to those of typical vertebrate patterns. However, the comparison of gene organization between three amphibian species (Rana, Xenopus and caecilian) provided evidence that the gene arrangement of Rana differs by four tRNA gene positions from that of Xenopus or caecilian, a common gene arrangement in vertebrates. These gene rearrangements are presumed to have occurred by the tandem duplication of a gene region followed by multiple deletions of redundant genes. It is probable that the rearrangements start and end at tRNA genes involved in the initial production of a tandemly duplicated gene region. Putative secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs and the origin of the L-strand replication (OL) are described. Evolutionary relationships were estimated from the concatenated sequences of the 12 proteins encoded in the H-strand of mtDNA among 37 vertebrate species. A quartet-puzzling tree showed that three amphibian species form a monophyletic clade and that the caecilian is a sister group of the monophyletic Anura.

  17. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Courtship in Frogs Role of Acoustic Communication in Amphibian Courtship Behaviour. Debjani Roy. General Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 39-48 ...

  18. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  19. Liver Melanomacrophages and Gluthation S-Transferase Activity in Leptodactylus chaquensis (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Due to Chlorpyrifos Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Huespe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We quantified and compared the hepatic melanomacrophage (MM and glutathione S-transferase (GST enzyme activity (two oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver of Leptodatylus chaquensis adults (Anura, Leptodactylidae collected in a rice field (CA in San Javier department, Santa Fe (Argentina, seven days after the application of chlorpyrifos and in a reference site (SR. The histological analysis revealed a significant amount (p = 0.028 and area occupied by MM (p = 0.017 in livers of CA compared to SR. Furthermore, a significant inhibition of GST activity was recorded in the CA frogs compared to the SR (p = 0.030. The histopathological and enzymatic effects provide evidences of ecotoxicological risk for anurans in rice field with CPF application.

  20. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS KATAK DAN KODOK (ORDO ANURA DI SEPANJANG SUNGAI OPAK PROPINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donan Satria Yudha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anura sering disebut sebagai katak dan kodok (Iskandar, 1998. Penelitian mengenai keanekaragaman anggota Anura di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY telah banyak dilakukan. Penelitian tersebut sebagian besar difokuskan di lereng selatan Gunung Merapi, tetapi beberapa penelitian juga telah dilakukan di sekitar kampus UGM dan di Sungai Code (Eprilurahman, 2007; Eprilurahman & Kusuma, 2011; Yudha, dkk, 2013. Wilayah DIY dialiri oleh banyak sungai, beberapa diantaranya yang banyak dikenal, diurutkan dari barat ke timur adalah Sungai Progo,Sungai Winongo, Sungai Code, Sungai Gajah Wong dan Sungai Opak (Anonim, 2010; Brontowiyono, 2010; Siradz et al., 2008. Sungai Opak merupakan salah satu sungai besar di DIY yang berhulu di Gunung Merapi. Jalur utama Sungai Opak menjadi pertemuan beberapa sungai, hal tersebut dapat diasumsikan bahwa pada beberapa titik pertemuan merupakan area yang subur dan rimbun. Daerah yang rimbun tersebut merupakan habitat yang baik bagi herpetofauna, terutama anggota Anura. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman spesiesAnura. Pengambilan sampel disepanjang Sungai Opak dari hulu hingga hilir menggunakan gabungan beberapa metode, yaitu VES (Visual Encounter Survey, River bank cruising dantransek. Sampling secara umum dibagi tiga bagian, bagian hulu, tengah dan hilir. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah 9 spesies anggota Ordo Anura dengan 2 spesies Anura arboreal, 3 spesies Anura terrestrial dan 4 spesies Anura akuatik dan semi-akuatik. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa Sungai Opak merupakan habitat bagi banyak spesies Anura.

  1. Early Pliocene anuran fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the first fossil record for the African burrowing frog Hemisus (Neobatrachia: Hemisotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Massimo

    2017-07-13

    Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet. because of poor preservation or non congruence with the relatively few African extant taxa whose osteology is known in detail. The Hemisus material represents the first fossil record for Hemisotidae, an endemic African family of peculiar, head-first burrowing frogs, whose sister taxon relationships indicate a divergence from brevicipitids in the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. The ecological requirements of extant H. marmoratus suggest that the Kanapoi area surrounding the fluvial and deltaic settings, from where the fossil remains of vertebrates were buried, was likely a grassland or relatively dry, open low tree-shrub savanna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome Profile of the Green Odorous Frog (Odorrana margaretae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong; Song, Zhaobin

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles provide a practical and inexpensive alternative to explore genomic data in non-model organisms, particularly in amphibians where the genomes are very large and complex. The odorous frog Odorranamargaretae (Anura: Ranidae) is a dominant species in the mountain stream ecosystem of western China. Limited knowledge of its genetic background has hindered research on this species, despite its importance in the ecosystem and as biological resources. Here we report the transcriptome of O. margaretae in order to establish the foundation for genetic research. Using an Illumina sequencing platform, 62,321,166 raw reads were acquired. After a de novo assembly, 37,906 transcripts were obtained, and 18,933 transcripts were annotated to 14,628 genes. We functionally classified these transcripts by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). A total of 11,457 unique transcripts were assigned to 52 GO terms, and 1,438 transcripts were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we identified 27 potential antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), 50,351 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites, and 2,574 microsatellite DNA loci. The transcriptome profile of this species will shed more light on its genetic background and provide useful tools for future studies of this species, as well as other species in the genus Odorrana. It will also contribute to the accumulation of amphibian genomic data. PMID:24073255

  3. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robovská-Havelková, P.; Aerts, P.; Roček, Zbyněk; Přikryl, Tomáš; Fabre, A.-C.; Herrel, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 20 (2014), s. 3637-3644 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * kinematics * locomotion * swimming Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2014

  4. It's a Frog's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  5. The relative roles of vicariance versus elevational gradients in the genetic differentiation of the high Andean tree frog, Dendropsophus labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Amézquita, Adolfo; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-01-01

    There are two main competing hypotheses (vicariance and vertical ecotones) that attempt to explain the tremendous diversity of the tropical Andes. We test these hypotheses at the intraspecific level by analyzing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 24 populations of the high Andean frog, Dendropsophus labialis (Anura: Hylidae). This species displays geographic variation in a number of phenotypic traits. Most of these traits covary with elevation, while few vary along the horizontal (latitudinal) axis. We found that, both, vicariance and elevation had important effects on the genetic differentiation in this species. We detected two highly divergent clades along the south-north axis using independent information from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, suggesting that this differentiation was the result of long-term barriers to gene flow rather than stochastic processes. We hypothesize mechanisms for D. labialis strong differentiation in light of geological and paleoenvironmental models of evolution in the northern Andean highlands.

  6. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Did true frogs 'dispersify'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin Onn; Brown, Rafe M

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification. We show that late Eocene colonization of novel biogeographic regions was not affected by the EOEE and surprisingly, global expansion was not followed by increased net diversification. On the contrary, the diversification rate declined or did not shift following geographical expansion. Thus, the diversification history of true frogs contradicts the prevailing expectation that amphibian net diversification accelerated towards the present or increased following range expansion. Rather, our results demonstrate that despite their dynamic biogeographic history, true frogs diversified at a relatively constantly rate, even as they colonized the major land masses of Earth. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXI. Inversion polymorphism and multiple nucleolus organizer regions in Agalychnis callidryas (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Feichtinger, W; Weimer, R; Mais, C; Bolaños, F; León, P

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on several populations of the Central American tree frog Agalychnis callidryas, using conventional methods and banding techniques. The karyotype of this species is distinguished by an inversion polymorphism in chromosome 9, which is either submetacentric or telocentric. The populations examined are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the two alternative morphs of chromosome 9. This is the first report of the occurrence of an intrapopulational chromosomal inversion polymorphism in the order Anura. In male meiosis, the two chromosomes 9 form a bivalent exhibiting a ring-like pairing configuration with terminal chiasmata in both arms, regardless of whether the paired homologs are heteromorphic or homomorphic. Furthermore, individual specimens of A. callidryas exhibit one or two unexpected 18S + 28S ribosomal RNA gene clusters, in addition to the standard nucleolus organizers. The chromosomal localization of these extra nucleolus organizers is identical in all metaphases from the same specimen and shows a specific intraindividual pattern. The karyotype evolution in the phyllomedusine hylids, the structure of the various classes of heterochromatin, and the occurrence and possible origin of the rare inversion polymorphisms and multiple nucleolus organizers in A. callidryas and a few other amphibian species are discussed.

  9. The morphology and attachment of Protopolystoma xenopodis (Monogenea: Polystomatidae infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae is host to more than 25 parasite genera encompassing most of the parasitic invertebrate groups. Protopolystoma xenopodis Price, 1943 (Monogenea: Polystomatidae is one of two monogeneans infecting X. laevis. This study focussed on the external morphology of different developmental stages using scanning electron microscopy, histology and light microscopy. Eggs are released continuously and are washed out when the frog urinates. After successful development, an active swimming oncomiracidium leaves the egg capsule and locates a potential post-metamorphic clawed frog. The oncomiracidium migrates to the kidney where it attaches and starts to feed on blood. The parasite then migrates to the urinary bladder where it reaches maturity. Eggs are fusiform, about 300 μm long, with a smooth surface and are operculated. Oncomiracidia are elongated and cylindrical in shape, with an oval posterior cup-shaped haptor that bears a total of 20 sclerites; 16 marginal hooklets used for attachment to the kidney of the host and two pairs of hamulus primordia. Cilia from the 64 ciliated cells enable the oncomiracidium to swim for up to 24 h when the cilia subsequently curl up, become non-functional and are shed from the body. The tegument between the ciliated cells bears a series of sensory papillae. The body of the mature parasite is elongated and pyriform and possesses an opisthaptor armed with three pairs of suckers and two pairs of falciform hooks to ensure a firm grip on the flexible internal surface of the urinary bladder.

  10. Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-12-18

    Dec 18, 1996 ... of the South African frog genus Hemisus and derive their infonnation from what was written by the late Vincent Wager,. An analysis is given of what exactly is known and what has been written, either from original observations or derived from other publications,. Since 1929 discussions of anuran biology, ...

  11. Polystomatidae (Monogenea) of southern African Anura: Polystoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sp. parasitic in two closely related Cacosternum species. ... The prevalence of infection with P. channingi n.sp. was 25% for C. nanum and 40% for C. boettgeri, while the mean intensity of infections in adult frogs was 1.5 for C. boettgeri and 1.0 ...

  12. Lithobates sylvaticus (wood frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam

    2016-01-01

    A single specimen found southwest of Hattiesburg in Timberton (31.270391oN, 89.327675oW; WGS 84). 23 July 2015. Gary, Kat, and Ron Lukens. Verifi ed by Kenneth Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History (UF-Herpetology 176455). This species has never been recorded from the state of Mississippi before (Dodd 2013. Frogs of the United States and Canada – Volume 2. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982 pp.). According to Dodd (2013), the closest population is located in east central Alabama, approximately 400 km to the northeast, as documented by Davis and Folkerts (1986. Brimleyana 12:29-50).

  13. Larval development in Oligocene palaeobatrachid frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2003), s. 595-607 ISSN 0567-7920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Development * Anura * Oligocene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2003 http://app.pan.pl/archive/published/app48/app48-595.pdf

  14. .i.Palaeobatrachus eurydices./i., sp. nov. (Amphibia, Anura), the last Western European palaeobatrachid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villa, A.; Roček, Zbyněk; Tschopp, E.; van den Hoek Ostende, L. W.; Delfino, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2016), č. článku e1211664. ISSN 0272-4634 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Palaeobatrachus * Palaeobatrachus eurydices * Anura Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.114, year: 2016

  15. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, R.; Lenoir, N.; Mazurier, A.; Pierce, S. E.; Rage, J. C.; Smirnov, S. V.; Schwermann, A. H.; Valentin, X.; Venczel, M.; Wuttke, M.; Zikmund, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 11 (2015), s. 1848-1863 ISSN 1932-8486 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Anura * Albionbatrachus * Palaeobatrachus * Xenopus * Palaeobatrachidae * frontoparietale * development * variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.507, year: 2015

  16. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  17. Terrestrialization, miniaturization and rates of diversification in African frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, have been identified as a key features in the evolution of modern amphibians. This study examines anuran terrestrialization and miniaturization in a phylogenetic context to deter...

  18. Hematology of Wild Caught Dubois’s Tree Frog Polypedates teraiensis, Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood was analyzed from eighty (forty males and forty females adult individuals of Polypedates teraiensis to establish reference ranges for its hematological and serum biochemical parameters. The peripheral blood cells were differentiated as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and thrombocytes, with similar morphology to other anurans. Morphology of blood cells did not vary according to sex. The hematological investigations included morphology and morphometry of erythrocytes, morphometry of leucocytes, packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin content (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC count, leukocyte or white blood cell (WBC count, differential leukocyte count, and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio. Besides, protein, cholesterol, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine content of blood serum were assayed. Hematological parameters that differed significantly between sexes were RBC count, length and breadth of RBC, neutrophil %, N/L ratio, area occupied by basophils, and diameter of large lymphocyte and eosinophils. The level of glucose, urea, and creatinine in blood serum also significantly differed between sexes.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Karyotypes of Two Cryptic Species of Pelobatid Frogs (Amphibia, Anura of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadnaya N. N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Впервые детально описан ка- риотип Pelobates vespertinus (Pallas, 1771 в сравнении с кариотипом Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768. Сравнительный морфологический анализ хромосом показал, что эти два криптические вида имеют симметричный кариотип, состоящий из двуплечих хромосом. Установлено, что их хромосомные наборы состоят из 7 пар крупных и 6 пар мелких хромосом. Отличаются виды по положению центромеры в хромосомах 10-й и 11-й пар. У P. fuscus 10-я пара метацентрик, 11-я - субметацентрик; у P. vespertinus 10-я - субметацентрик, 11-я - метацентрик. На коротких плечах 7-й пары хромосом расположены вторичные перетяжки. Хромосомная формула для обо- их видов - 4 мета-(m + 7 субмета-(sm + 2 субтелоцентрика (st, 2n = 26, N.F. = 52. Абсолютная длина всех хромосом в кариотипе несколько больше у P. fuscus, чем у P. vespertinus. Параметры относительной длины хромосом в среднем равнозначные, но отличаются по отдельным парам хромосом. На фоне установленных хромосомных отличий между криптическими видами на- дёжных диагностических признаков не выявлено.

  20. Field Observation of Egglaying Behavior of a Puddle Frog Occidozyga sumatrana from Bali, Indonesia (Anura: Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Occidozyga sumatrana is not uncommon in some parts of Southeast Asia but its reproduction in nature is poorly known. We observed egg-laying behavior of this species in Bali, Indonesia. The amplectic position was inguinal and the oviposition site was out of the water in O. sumatrana, both of which are unique given its phylogenetic position and the mainly aquatic habits of adults.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of a brown frog, Rana kunyuensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Yin, Wei; Xia, Rong; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Rana sensu stricto (sensu Frost, 2013) was determined using Rana kunyuensis as a representative species. The mitogenome was 22,255 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and duplicated control regions. The mitogenome of R. kunyuensis showed novel gene order arrangement with a translocation of tRNA(Leu)((CUN)) and ND5 in comparison with published anuran mitogenomes to date. This mitogenome should contribute to understand the evolution of anuran mitochondrial gene order arrangements.

  2. THE TADPOLE OF THE MEXICAN TREE FROG CHARADRAHYLA TAENIOPUS (ANURA: HYLIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    MOISES KAPLAN; PETER HEIMES

    2015-01-01

    The tadpole of Charadrahyla taeniopus is described. This tadpole is a typical stream-dweller with a long depressed body, oral disc completely surrounded by marginal papillae with numerous small submarginal papillae lateral to the mouth, and several rows of teeth on the posterior labium (6-7).

  3. THE TADPOLE OF THE MEXICAN TREE FROG CHARADRAHYLA TAENIOPUS (ANURA: HYLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES KAPLAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole of Charadrahyla taeniopus is described. This tadpole is a typical stream-dweller with a long depressed body, oral disc completely surrounded by marginal papillae with numerous small submarginal papillae lateral to the mouth, and several rows of teeth on the posterior labium (6-7.

  4. Cytogenetic comparison of tree frogs of the genus Aplastodiscus and the Hypsiboas faber group (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, K A; Garcia, P C A; Recco-Pimentel, S M

    2009-12-18

    Four species of Aplastodiscus and two species of Hypsiboas were cytogenetically compared. Aplastodiscus perviridis, A. cochranae, H. albomarginaus, and H. faber had 2n = 24 chromosomes, while A. albosignatus and A. leucopygius had 2n = 20 and 2n = 18 chromosomes, respectively. Aplastodiscus perviridis and A. cochranae had identical karyotypes, as indicated by their chromosomal morphology, the location of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on chromosome pair 12, and the heterochromatin pattern. The NOR-bearing chromosomes of A. albosignatus and A. leucopygius (pair 9) were very similar in size and morphology (metacentric) when compared to A. perviridis and A. cochranae (pair 12) and to H. faber (pair 11); the NOR of these chromosomes also occurred in the same region, suggesting that these chromosomes are homologous. Although H. albomarginatus differs from the other species with regard to the location of its NOR on pair 2, this species had the same diploid number and a chromosomal morphology similar to that of A. perviridis and A. cochranae. Chromosomal differentiation among the species appears to have occurred by reduction in chromosome number.

  5. Light shines through the spindrift – Phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Rödel, M.-O.; Loader, S. P.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Penner, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, R.; Bell, R. C.; Nagel, B.; Schmitz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2014), s. 261-273 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Africa * Amphibians * Taxonomy * Arthroleptides * Petropedetes * Odontobatrachus gen. nov Sub ject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  6. A Comparison of V-Frog[C] to Physical Frog Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley, James P.; Piotrowski, Phillip S.; Battaglia, Barbara; Brophy, Keith; Chugh, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of virtual frog dissection using V-Frog[C] and physical frog dissection on learning, retention, and affect. Subjects were secondary students enrolled in year-long life science classes in a suburban high school (N=102). Virtual dissections were done with V-Frog[C], a…

  7. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danna; Zhang, Jiayong; Zheng, Rongquan; Shao, Chen

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is a circular molecule of 20,309 bp in length, containing 39 genes (including the extra copy of ND5 and tRNA(Met) genes). The following four distinctive features are observed: the cluster of rearranged tRNA genes (TPF tRNA gene cluster), the translocation of tRNA(Leu(CUN)) and ND5 genes, the tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) genes (Met1 and Met2), and the duplicated d-loop-ND5 regions.

  9. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  10. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African frogs of the genus. Hyperolius in the Museum of Comparative Zoology,. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 283 - 291. PARKER, H.W. 1930. A collection of frogs from Portuguese East. Africa. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1930: 897 - 905. PASSMORE, N.I. & CARRUTHERS, V.C. 1979. South African.

  11. Evidence for Directional Selection at a Novel Major Histocompatibility Class I Marker in Wild Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) Exposed to a Viral Pathogen (Ranavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teacher, Amber G. F.; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Nichols, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is well characterized in the anuran Xenopus, this region has not previously been studied in another popular model species, the common frog (Rana temporaria). Nor, to date, have there been any studies of MHC in wild amphibian host-pathogen systems. We characterise an MHC class I locus in the common frog, and present primers to amplify both the whole region, and specifically the antigen binding region. As no more than two expressed haplotypes were found in over 400 clones from 66 individuals, it is likely that there is a single class I locus in this species. This finding is consistent with the single class I locus in Xenopus, but contrasts with the multiple loci identified in axolotls, providing evidence that the diversification of MHC class I into multiple loci likely occurred after the Caudata/Anura divergence (approximately 350 million years ago) but before the Ranidae/Pipidae divergence (approximately 230 mya). We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (Ranavirus) with those that have no history of infection. We demonstrate that certain MHC supertypes are associated with infection status (even after accounting for shared ancestry), and that the diseased populations have more similar supertype frequencies (lower FST) than the uninfected. These patterns were not seen in a suite of putatively neutral microsatellite loci. We interpret this pattern at the MHC locus to indicate that the disease has imposed selection for particular haplotypes, and hence that common frogs may be adapting to the presence of Ranavirus, which currently kills tens of thousands of amphibians in the UK each year. PMID:19240796

  12. Consideraciones ecológicas sobre la dieta, la reproducción y el parasitismo de Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo I. Kehr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of diet, reproduction, and parasitism of Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Corrientes, Argentina.The main objectives of this paper were to update the distribution range of Pseudopaludicola boliviana in Argentina, to determine its diet composition and the feeding patterns, to analyze some reproductive variables as mature ova count and diameter in relation to female snoutvent length, to describe the advertisement call for Argentinean populations, and to identify and to localize its helminth parasites. Eleven prey types were identified; dipterans were more important both in number (23.53% and in volume (41.30%;other important preys were collembolans, arachnids and coleopterans. The trophic niche width was 7.15 and the standardized trophic niche value was 0.61. Ovarian complement (number of mature ova for female ranged from 50 to 319 (mean 175.3 ± 86.12, while ovum diameter ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mm (mean 0.27 ± 0.062. The nuptial call is composed by five notes. The dominant frequency ranged from 3.488 to5.927 kHz; emphasized frequency fluctuated between 4.942 and 5.224 kHz. A total of 10 helminth species (larvae and adults were found in 54 (96% infected frogs. Helminths were represented by Trematoda (7 species, Cestoda (1, Nematoda (1, and Acanthocephala (1.

  13. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  14. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  15. FROGS (Friends of Granites) report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calvin

    This VGP News, which is devoted to petrology, is a good one for noting the existence of FROGS. FROGS is, as the name suggests, an informal organization of people whose research relates in one way or another to granitic rocks. Its purpose has been to promote communication among geoscientists with different perspectives and concerns about felsic plutonism. Initially, a major focus was experimental petrology and integration of field-oriented and lab-oriented viewpoints; now that there is the opportunity to communicate with the Eos readership, an obvious additional goal will be to bring together volcanic and plutonic views of felsic magmatism.FROGS first gathered in late 1982 under the guidance of E-an Zen and Pete Toulmin (both at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.), who saw a need for greater interaction among those interested in granites and for renewed, focused experimental investigations. They produced two newsletters (which were sent out by direct mail) and organized an informal meeting at the Geological Society of America meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., and then turned over the FROG reins to Sue Kieffer (USGS, Flagstaff, Ariz.) and John Clemens (Arizona State University, Tempe). They generated another newsletter, which was directly mailed to a readership that had grown beyond 200.

  16. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the

  17. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Bleriot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period {approx}4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t{sub delay}, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t{sub delay} exceeds the frog libration period P{sub lib}, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t{sub delay} << Pl{sub ib}, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Bleriot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P{sub lib} {approx_equal} 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Bleriot's t{sub delay} {approx} 0.01P{sub lib}, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  18. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Blériot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ∼4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t delay , the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t delay exceeds the frog libration period P lib , and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t delay ib , then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Blériot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P lib ≅ 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Blériot's t delay ∼ 0.01P lib , which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  19. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, I.S.; Roubos, E.; Mangoni, M.L.; Yoshizato, K.; Vaudry, H.; Kloepper, J.E.; Pattwell, D.M.; Maderson, P.F.A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a

  20. Naturally occurring fluorescence in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Carlos; Brunetti, Andrés E; Pedron, Federico N; Carnevale Neto, Fausto; Estrin, Darío A; Bari, Sara E; Chemes, Lucía B; Peporine Lopes, Norberto; Lagorio, María G; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-04-04

    Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins. We show that fluorescence contributes 18-29% of the total emerging light under twilight and nocturnal scenarios, largely enhancing brightness of the individuals and matching the sensitivity of night vision in amphibians. These results introduce an unprecedented source of pigmentation in amphibians and highlight the potential relevance of fluorescence in visual perception in terrestrial environments.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Feirana taihangnica (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Feirana taihangnica (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was determined. It is a circular molecule of 17,412 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The tRNA(Thr) gene located in the LTPF tRNA gene cluster typically found in other anurans is absent from the F. taihangnica mtDNA and a tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) gene is observed. The A+T content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 57.2% and the length of control region is 1972 bp with 61.8% A+T content.

  2. Snoring puddle frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this paper is to hold a biological mirror in front of ourselves, the nuclear energy community, and to suggest that the reflection we will see there will help us both professionally and as members of a broader society. Let us start with sex. For sex to function as a means of reproduction, a male and a female of a particular species have to recognise each other and mate. The important terms here are 'particular species' and 'recognise'. Within most species, extraordinarily precise mate recognition systems have evolved. The precise frequency of the croak of a particular species of frog; the precise seasonal coloration of a particular species of salmon; the precise length of the tail of a particular species of bird; each is recognisable instantly to a prospective mate, though not to untrained human ears or eyes. 'The Recognition Concept of Species' (1985) is a monograph that has become something of a 'classic' in annals of evolutionary biology. Its author, HEH Paterson, suggests that a species can be defined as a group of organisms that share a common mate recognition system. Mating is an exchange of genes, and creatures that do not recognise each other do not exchange genes. A mate recognition system closes off the gene pool and may increasingly isolate its participants from even their nearest relatives. Biological evolution has numerous links and parallels with the evolution of human cultures. Some of our recognition systems seem to have a knack for drawing everyone in - American popular culture, for example, is now inescapable. Other recognition systems repel all but a few - take, or rather don't take, the Hell's Angels or the Ku Klux Klan. We, as members of the nuclear energy culture, are members of a closed and even repellent gene pool. We share a recognition system by which we perpetuate ourselves from generation to generation, from Hiroshima to Chernobyl. Outsiders do not understand our language: terms like 'credit for fission products

  3. Development of the Ethmoidal Structures of the Endocranium in Discoglossus pictus (Anura: Discoglossidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Královec, K.; Roček, Zbyněk; Žáková, P.; Mužáková, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 9 (2010), s. 1078-1093 ISSN 0362-2525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Discoglossidae * Discoglossus * development * cranium Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  4. Development of the pelvis and posterior part of the vertebral column in the Anura

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ročková, H.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 1 (2005), s. 35-35 ISSN 0021-8782 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Anura * development * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.010, year: 2005

  5. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  6. The Ups and Downs of Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Tamme, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science activity in which students simulate increases and decreases in frog populations to get a better understanding of different environmental issues affecting animal populations. Includes simulations for both natural frog populations as well as populations affected by human activities. (YDS)

  7. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  8. The frog inner ear : picture perfect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Matthew J.; Segenhout, Johannes M.; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiones, Patricia M.; van Dijk, Pim

    Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever's (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional

  9. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  10. Postglacial colonization of the Qinling Mountains: phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling-Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM) in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia). We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang-Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling-Micang-Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang-Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. The Qinling-Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling Mountains after the LGM. Recent sharp expansion of the Micang-Western Qinling and Main

  11. Spiny frogs (Paini) illuminate the history of the Himalayan region and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Hu, Jian-Sheng; Yan, Fang; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, David B; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-08-03

    Asian frogs of the tribe Paini (Anura: Dicroglossidae) range across several first-order tectono-morphological domains of the Cenozoic Indo-Asian collision that include the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalayas, and Indochina. We show how the tectonic events induced by the Indo-Asian collision affected the regional biota and, in turn, how the geological history of the earth can be viewed from a biological perspective. Our analysis of a concatenated dataset comprising four nuclear gene sequences of Paini revealed two main radiations, corresponding to the genera Nanorana (I) and Quasipaa (II). Five distinct clades are recognized: Tibetan plateau clade (I-1), Himalaya clade (I-2), environs of Himalaya-Tibetan plateau clade (I-3), South China clade (II-1), and Indochina clade (II-2). This pattern of relationships highlights the significance of geography in shaping evolutionary history. Building on our molecular dating, ancestral region reconstruction, and distributional patterns, we hypothesize a distinct geographic and climatic transition in Asia beginning in the Oligocene and intensifying in the Miocene; this stimulated rapid diversification of Paini. Vicariance explains species formation among major lineages within Nanorana. Dispersal, in contrast, plays an important role among Quasipaa, with the southern Chinese taxa originating from Indochina. Our results support the tectonic hypothesis that an uplift in the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region resulting from crustal thickening and lateral extrusion of Indochina occurred synchronously during the transition between Oligocene and Miocene in reaction to the Indo-Asian collision. The phylogenetic history of Paini illuminates critical aspects of the timing of geological events responsible for the current geography of Southeast Asia.

  12. Postglacial colonization of the Qinling Mountains: phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling-Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang-Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling-Micang-Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang-Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Qinling-Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling

  13. Patterns of larval development in Cretaceous pipid frogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; van Dijk, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 111-126 ISSN 0567-7920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Pipidae * Cretaceous Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2006 http://app.pan.pl/archive/published/app51/app51-111.pdf

  14. Gigantism in tadpoles of the Neogene frog Palaeobatrachus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Böttcher, R.; Wassersug, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2006), s. 666-675 ISSN 0094-8373 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Neogene * Germany * development Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2006

  15. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... The high diversity of amphibian skin peptides renders anurans an important potential source for the discovery of novel .... and antimicrobial functions of the amphibian skin, it is likely that some of the molecules found in ..... A phylogenetic analysis of species in the. Bufo crucifer group (Anura: Bufonidae), ...

  16. Chromosome analysis of five Brazilian species of poison frogs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dendrobatidae). Acta Zool. (Stockholm) 85, 21–28. Aguiar O., Carvalho K. A., Giaretta A. A. and Recco-Pimentel. S. M. 2004b Cytogenetics of Hylodes and Crossodactylus species. (Anura, Leptodactyliade), with comments on Hylodinae/ Den- drobatidae relationships. Genetica 121, 43–53. Bogart J. P. 1991 The influence of ...

  17. On the Uniqueness of FROG Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendory, Tamir; Sidorenko, Pavel; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2017-05-01

    The problem of recovering a signal from its power spectrum, called phase retrieval, arises in many scientific fields. One of many examples is ultra-short laser pulse characterization in which the electromagnetic field is oscillating with ~10^15 Hz and phase information cannot be measured directly due to limitations of the electronic sensors. Phase retrieval is ill-posed in most cases as there are many different signals with the same Fourier transform magnitude. To overcome this fundamental ill-posedness, several measurement techniques are used in practice. One of the most popular methods for complete characterization of ultra-short laser pulses is the Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG). In FROG, the acquired data is the power spectrum of the product of the unknown pulse with its delayed replica. Therefore the measured signal is a quartic function of the unknown pulse. A generalized version of FROG, where the delayed replica is replaced by a second unknown pulse, is called blind FROG. In this case, the measured signal is quadratic with respect to both pulses. In this letter we introduce and formulate FROG-type techniques. We then show that almost all band-limited signals are determined uniquely, up to trivial ambiguities, by blind FROG measurements (and thus also by FROG), if in addition we have access to the signals power spectrum.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Nanorana taihangnica and N. yunnanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) with novel gene arrangements and phylogenetic relationship of Dicroglossidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yong; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-02-27

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been used extensively to test hypotheses about microevolution and to study population structure, phylogeography, and phylogenetic relationships of Anura at various taxonomic levels. Large-scale mt genomic reorganizations have been observed among many fork-tongued frogs (family Dicroglossidae). The relationships among Dicroglossidae and validation of the genus Feirana are still problematic. Hence, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of Nanorana taihangnica (=F. taihangnica) and N. yunnanensis as well as partial mt genomes of six Quasipaa species (dicroglossid taxa), two Odorrana and two Amolops species (Ranidae), and one Rhacophorus species (Rhacophoridae) in order to identify unknown mt gene rearrangements, to investigate the validity of the genus Feirana, and to test the phylogenetic relationship of Dicroglossidae. In the mt genome of N. taihangnica two trnM genes, two trnP genes and two control regions were found. In addition, the trnA, trnN, trnC, and trnQ genes were translocated from their typical positions. In the mt genome of N. yunnanensis, three control regions were found and eight genes (ND6, trnP, trnQ, trnA, trnN, trnC, trnY and trnS genes) in the L-stand were translocated from their typical position and grouped together. We also found intraspecific rearrangement of the mitochondrial genomes in N. taihangnica and Quasipaa boulengeri. In phylogenetic trees, the genus Feirana nested deeply within the clade of genus Nanorana, indicating that the genus Feirana may be a synonym to Nanorana. Ranidae as a sister clade to Dicroglossidae and the clade of (Ranidae + Dicroglossidae) as a sister clade to (Mantellidae + Rhacophoridae) were well supported in BI analysis but low bootstrap in ML analysis. We found that the gene arrangements of N. taihangnica and N. yunnanensis differed from other published dicroglossid mt genomes. The gene arrangements in N. taihangnica and N. yunnanensis could be explained by the Tandem

  19. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  20. Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp., a new nematode (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) from the Brazilian Pantanal, including a key to the congeners from amphibians of the American continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe B; Campião, Karla M; Luque, José L; Tavares, Luiz E R

    2017-06-01

    A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P. hugoi n. sp. but is distinguished from the new species by the presence of a gubernaculum (vs absence), by the lateral alae in males ending far anterior to cloacal opening (vs near to it) and because in gravid females the ovaries encircle the oesophageal corpus. Additionally, the new species differs from its congeners as well as from species of Thelandros Wedl, 1862, a very closely related genus, by the combination of features such as spicule length, number of caudal papillae, morphology of the anterior cloacal lip, which is echinate, and position of ovaries. The geographical distribution of hosts seems to play an important role in the speciation process of Parapharyngodon spp.; however, due the lack of molecular data this issue along with the validity of both Thelandros and Parapharyngodon are still questions to be solved in the future, after improvement of the genetic database. A key to the species of Parapharyngodon parasitic in amphibians from the American continent is provided.

  1. Description of a tetraploid Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae) from South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tetraploid species of sand frog, genus Tomopterna, is described from the eastern Cape. On the basis of mtDNA sequences, allozymes and advertisement calls, it appears to have arisen as a hybrid between the adjacent diploid populations of T. delalandii and T. cryptotis. The hybridization event is estimated to have ...

  2. Description of a tetraploid Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae) from South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-08-14

    Aug 14, 1995 ... Excluding Xenopus, this is the only allotetraploid member of an advanced frog family that is known. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The genus Tomopterna consists of six African species, six. Asian species and one species known from Madagascar. (Frost 1985). The African species are all ...

  3. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-29

    Mar 29, 1987 ... KENSLEY, B. 1972. Shrimps and prawns of southern. Africa. Trustees of the S.A. Museum, Cape Town. KENSLEY, B. 1981. On the zoogeography of southern. African decapod Crustacea, with a distributional .... capense Hewitt, 1925; and C. JeJeupi Laurent, 1950. The frog here described undoubtedly ...

  4. Preliminary Monitoring of Anura Species in Selected Vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ijebu Oru (forests/abandoned farmlands) and Ibapon Oyewole (savanna) had a mean number of species and .... The tree frogs were identified courtesy of Dr Arne Schiotz. Identification was also carried out using literature by Schiotz (1963, 1967, 1999) and. Rodel (2000). .... risk increased possibility of extinction in any.

  5. Meeting the "Standards" with Vanishing Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Cindy B.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Patrick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Explains methods for introducing high school students to the issue of the declining amphibian population. Plays the game Frogs' Futures following a seminar as an instructional strategy. Describes the game, procedures, and rules. (YDS)

  6. FROGS Report Friends of Granite Summer 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROGS Reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235) concerning your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  7. Development of the pseudothumb in frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Iwai, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Frogs have highly conserved hand and foot morphology, possessing four fingers and five toes. As an exception, two Japanese ranid frog species, the Otton frog Babina subaspera and the dagger frog Babina holsti, possess a unique thumb-like structure (the pseudothumb) in the forelimb, giving an appearance of a total of five fingers on the hand. To obtain insights into the developmental mechanisms that generate this novel character, we investigated the hand morphogenesis of the Otton frog. The unique morphological pattern of the pseudothumb was already established in juveniles. Surprisingly, the bud-like structure, which is similar to the area of inductive activity (e.g. feather buds in birds and the carapacial ridge in turtles), was detected over the site where the future prepollex develops in larvae. By contrast, this bud-like structure was not found in larvae of other ranid species. We discuss possible scenarios that would favour the evolution of this very unusual trait in frogs. PMID:20147308

  8. Skeletal development and adult osteology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio M. Hoyos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteological and skeletal characters have long been proven to be particularly informative in taxonomic and systematic research. Furthermore, ossification sequences are assumed to be a potential tool to investigate developmental states and developmental modes of fossil and extant skeletal specimens. Herein, we provide a detailed account on adult osteology and skeletogenesis in the Montevideo treefrog, Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae based on evaluation of a series of cleared and stained specimens. A consensus sequence of ossification, i.e., the order of appearance of mineralized elements until early metamorphosis could be determined as (parasphenoid, presacral vertebrae I-VII, frontoparietal, exoccipital – transverse processes of presacral vertebrae I-VIII – sacral vertebra – (humerus, radioulna, ilium, femur, tibiofibula, scapula – (cleithrum, clavicle, coracoids, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, hypochord – (prootic, angulosplenial, dentary, maxilla, premaxilla, squamosal. Comparing the state of mineralized elements in individual specimens, a number of skeletal elements, including the exoccipital, frontoparietal, parasphenoid and prootic, as well as elements of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the phalanges, were found to vary intraspecifically regarding the relative time of their ossification within the ossification sequence.

  9. Differential jumping performance in newly metamorphosed Blanchard's cricket frogs, Acris blanchardi (Anura: Hylidae), from fish- and invertebrate-dominated ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor L. Hall; Daniel Saenz; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that adopt phenotypically plastic anti-predator strategies during larval stages may incur fitness costs later in development. These costs are typically difficult to define in many species. The difficulty identifying ecological trade-offs may result from experimental comparisons that do not adequately mirror naturally occurring predator-prey relationships. To...

  10. Descriptions of the tadpoles of two poison frogs, Ameerega parvula and Ameerega bilinguis (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Verkade, J.C.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Félix-Novoa, C.

    2010-01-01

    Tadpoles of two sister species of Ameerega are described. Tadpoles of Ameerega parvula can be distinguished from those of A. bilinguis based on slight differences in their oral disc structure and configuration of the tail fin. Both tadpoles have a tooth row formula 2/3 that is typical for many

  11. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  12. Rediscovery of the Endangered frog Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) in the cloud forest of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Rudolf VON

    2017-10-24

    Phrynopus montium (Shreve, 1938) was described from Cascas, Junín Department, Peru, at an undetermined elevation between 3000 and 4000 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Central. With the exception of the type specimens used in the original description, no additional sightings of P. montium had been reported for 76 years. Additionally, its coloration in life, microhabitat use, and precise elevational distribution remained unknown. During a field expedition conducted in 2014, two individuals of P. montium were found at an upper cloud forest site in central Peru, 8.7 km south from Hacienda Cascas. Here, I describe the coloration in life, microhabitat use, and elevation of these individuals.

  13. Inventory of color polymorphism in populations of Dendrobates galactonotus (Anura: Dendrobatidae, a poison frog endemic to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus S. Hoogmoed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the various color morphs of Dendrobates galactonotus that occur in its range between the Amazon and Tapajós rivers, in the Brazilian states of Pará, Maranhão, northern Mato Grosso, and northern Tocantins. Dorsal coloration ranges from black to light blue and from red via orange to yellow, cream and white, with or without black spots or vermiculations. Most specimens are uniformly black below, but in some populations the color of the back has invaded the ventral surface and the black has been reduced to small areas on the seat patch and under the thighs. We could not locate any completely white populations, a color variant present in captivity and known as “Moonshine.” No regularity in the distribution of color pattern could be distinguished; the majority of localities has orange colored populations, but other color morphs are sprinkled between them. Populations are uniform, only showing onecolor, although the amount of black elements on the back may vary. Threats to this species are deforestation, fragmentation of habitat, hydroelectric projects (already functioning, under construction, or projected, gold mining, and possibly illegal international trade. Although this species is widely distributed in terrariums in Europe, the United States, and Japan, all these specimens stem from illegal exports. Genetic research to try to establish a connection between color pattern and genetic make-up of populations is in progress.

  14. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C., E-mail: lajmanovich@hotmail.com [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Junges, Celina M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Attademo, Andrés M.; Peltzer, Paola M. [National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Maglianese, Mariana; Márquez, Vanina E.; Beccaria, Alejandro J. [Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences (FBCB-UNL), Ciudad Universitaria Paraje el Pozo s/n, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2015-01-15

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban{sup ®}) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine.

  15. [A new species of frog of the genus Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae) of the Delta of the Orinoco River, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsa Señaris, J; Ayarzagüena, J

    2001-01-01

    A new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification), bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz.

  16. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C.; Junges, Celina M.; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C.; Attademo, Andrés M.; Peltzer, Paola M.; Maglianese, Mariana; Márquez, Vanina E.; Beccaria, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensisvar.israelensis (Bti) on non-target organisms are still a matter of debate; in amphibians, the risks of Bti are little known. To evaluate the toxicity of a commercial liquid (aqueous suspension, AS) formulation of Bti (Introban ® ) on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles, including median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) and no-and lowest–observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC, respectively), as well as the possible effects of Bti on oxidative responses, erythrocytes genotoxicity, and histology of the intestines. In the laboratory, tadpoles were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L of formulated Bti-AS. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as formation of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs), and histological effect were measured in tadpoles displaying survival rates >85%. L. latrans tadpoles were sensitive to exposure to Bti-AS, reaching 100% mortality after 48 h of exposure at the highest concentration. Bti-AS induced GST and CAT enzymes and genotoxicity (erythrocyte's nuclear abnormalities), and caused intestine's histopathology. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of Bti-AS is dose-dependent for L. latrans tadpoles and that sublethal exposure alters enzymes of oxidative stress, induces genotoxicity, and causes intestine damage. Further research is needed to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk of the massive use of Bti formulations on amphibian populations that commonly used suburban wastewater or urban waterbodies to reproduce and where this biopesticide is frequently applied. - Highlights: • An ecotoxicological evaluation of a Bti formulation on amphibian was conducted. • Toxicity of Bti-AS was dose-dependent for Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles. • Sublethal exposure altered the enzymes of oxidative stress (GST and CAT). • Bti-AS was genotoxic because increased MN frequencies (CO: 0.82–2.74‰). • Bti-AS caused the inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of intestine

  17. Blood cell profiles of the tadpoles of the Dubois's tree frog, Polypedates teraiensis Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhusmita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a sequential study of the leukocyte profiles and the changes in morphometry and morphology of erythrocytes in the tadpoles of Polypedates teraiensis during their development and metamorphosis, that is, transfer from an aquatic mode to a terrestrial mode of life. Blood smears of 21 different stages (Gosner stage 26 to 46) of tadpoles were investigated. Population of erythrocytes was heterogeneous in population represented by various forms (oval, elliptical or rounded cells, comma shaped, teardrop shaped, schistocytes, senile erythrocytes, crenulated RBCs). Correlation between various morphometric values of erythrocytes was determined with different developing stages of tadpoles. Amongst the leucocytes, the lymphocytes were the most abundant cells followed by neutrophils. Neutrophils and monocytes showed varied morphologic forms. The percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils showed a negative whereas percentage of eosinophil, basophil, and monocytes showed a positive correlation with the developmental stages of tadpoles. Blood platelets were also observed, which were rounded in shape and found in aggregates.

  18. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973, O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954, O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968, Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909, S. similis (Cochran, 1952, O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954 and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824 - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integuments showed the basic structure of the anuran integument. Moreover, the secretory portions of exocrine glands, such as serous merocrine and apocrine glands, were found to be restricted to the spongious dermis. Lipid content occurred together with the heterogeneous secretory material of the glands with an apocrine secretion mechanism. In addition, clusters of these apocrine glands were present in the ventrolateral integument of some species. Melanophores were also visualized in all examined hylids. However, the occurrence of iridophores, detected through polarized light microscopy, varied according to the species. The Eberth-Katschenko layer occurred in the dorsal integument from both genera, but it was only present in the ventral integument of O. albicans, O. angrensis, O. flavoguttata, O. perpusilla and O. v-signata. Although the integument of all treefrogs showed the same basic structure, some characteristics were genus-specific; however, these features alone may not be used to distinguish both genera.

  20. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva; Thiago Silva-Soares; Lycia de Brito-Gitirana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973), O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954), O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968), Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909), S. similis (Cochran, 1952), O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954) and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824) - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integument...

  1. Effects of Foodstuffs on Intestinal Length in Larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    SHINRI, HORIUCHI; YUTAKA, KOSHIDA; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between foodstuffs and intestinal length was examined in larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae). The larva, being heterophagous, has a tube-like intestine provided with neither epithelial outfoldings nor villi, and intestinal length is found to be a good morphological index of digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The grown larva fed on boiled spinach had an intestine more than 1.5 times as long as that...

  2. Characterization of a hemolytic protein, identified as histone H4, from the skin of the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica (Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Iwamuro, Shawichi; Goto, Yuta; Nielsen, Per F; Conlon, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    An extract of the skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica Günther, 1859 (Anura: Hylidae) did not inhibit the growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, but contained a protein that was strongly hemolytic against human erythrocytes. The protein was purified to near homogeneity by reverse-phase HPLC, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence (SGRGKGGKGL...) identified it as histone H4. The complete primary structure of the 102-amino-acid-residue histone H4 was determined by a combination of molecular cloning of genomic and complementary DNAs encoding the protein. The molecular mass of the purified histone H4 determined by electrospray mass spectrometry was 71+/-2 Daltons greater than that predicted from the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein. The +71 mass units is consistent with the proposal that the protein isolated from the skin was post-translationally modified by addition of one acetyl and two methyl groups. The stem-loop structure at the 3' flanking region of the H. japonica histone H4 gene, which acts as a transcription termination signal, contained a nucleotide sequence (5'-GGCTCTCCTCAGAGCC-3') with unusual structural features not seen in other histone genes.

  3. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The... wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect...

  4. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If repairs...

  5. Prototype next generation frog foundation - preliminary evaluation : research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that a solid or rigid one-piece frog is preferred because it is easy to maintain. However, testing and subsequent modeling demonstrated that a flexible frog (i.e., a two-piece frog split in the flangeway) produced signifi...

  6. Chromosome banding of two Litoria species (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Kakampuy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first cytogenetic studies of green-eyed tree frog (Litoria genimaculata and Nyakala frog(L. nyakalensis. The mitotic chromosomes were prepared directly from bone marrow after in vivo colchicine treatment andanalysed following conventional, silver staining and C-banding techniques. These species showed similar karyotypes with2n=26, the fundamental number (NF are 52 chromosomes and Ag-NOR positions located in the short arm near centromeresof chromosome pair 7 in L. genimaculata and in the long arm near telomeres of chromosome pair 9 in L. nyakalensis. TheC-banded karyotypes showed heterochromatin bands at the centromeres and telomeres of all chromosomes. Both specieswere characterized by the number and position of constitutive heterochromatin in the karyotypes. The mitotic karyotypes ofL. genimaculata exhibited greater amounts of C-band positive heterochromatin than L. nyakalensis.

  7. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ∼4 years, similar to the ∼3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  8. Visual mate choice in poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, K; Symula, R; Clough, M; Cronin, T

    1999-11-07

    We investigated female mate choice on the basis of visual cues in two populations of Dendrobates pumilio, the strawberry poison frog, from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago in Panama, Central America. Mate choice experiments were carried out by presenting subject females of each of two morphs of this species (orange and green) from two different island populations (Nancy Key and Pope Island) with object frogs (one of each morph) under glass at one end of a terrarium. Recorded calls were played simultaneously from behind both object frogs. The experiments were carried out under two light regimes: (i) white light, and (ii) relatively monochromatic filtered blue light. Subject females from each population displayed a significant preference for their own morph under white light, but not under blue light. These results indicate that female D. pumilio use visual cues in mate choice, and suggest that colour may be the visual cue they use.

  9. FROG The Fast and Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  10. FROGS (Friends of Granites) Report, summer 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoreo, J. J.; Wickham, Stephen M.; Miller, Calvin

    This is the second Eos-published FROGS Report. Our purpose is to disseminate information and stimulate thinking concerning felsic magmatism in general and granitoids in particular. We intend to publish semiannually information about events and publications that are relevant to the study of felsic rocks, brief updates on research being done by granitoid researchers, and commentaries on important new and/or controversial themes. FROGS Reports is critically dependent upon response by those with an interest in research on felsic rocks. Please keep me (Calvin Miller, 6028B, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville TN 37235) informed about upcoming or recent conferences, major publications, etc. Also, send me your suggestions for topics for (and/or volunteer to write) pertinent commentaries for FROGS Reports.

  11. Muscles of the pes of hylid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Thomas C

    2004-05-01

    Complete or partial dissection of the foot musculature of 404 hylid frogs representing 247 species and 33 genera, along with representatives of eight other families, revealed a number of apomorphic characters that distinguish the hyloid frogs (Hylidae plus Allophryne and Centrolenidae) from other bufonoid frogs. Additional characters were found to define some of the hylid subfamilies. Addition of characters from the foot musculature to Duellman's phylogenetic tree of the hyloids produced a tree in which Allophryne and Centrolenidae are nested within Hylidae. Support was found for the monophyly of the 30-chromosome group within Hyla, and for a large number of the groups that comprise "Boana," viz., the Hyla albomarginata, H. albopunctata, H. boans (except H. vasta), H. geographica, and H. pulchella groups, but foot muscle characters provide no information relating to relationships of the West Indies hylines. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered.

  13. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gehara

    Full Text Available Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered.

  14. High Levels of Diversity Uncovered in a Widespread Nominal Taxon: Continental Phylogeography of the Neotropical Tree Frog Dendropsophus minutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J.; Orrico, Victor G. D.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S.; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P.; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M.; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J. Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  15. FROGS (Friends of Granites) Report, Fall 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calvin F.; Lawford, J.

    This is the first official FROGS report in Eos. Our purpose is to disseminate information about the status of felsic igneous petrology, providing information and opinions about research, ideas, and problems that relate especially to granitoids but also, clearly, to felsic volcanic rocks. A major goal has been to bridge the gap between field-based and experimental approaches. For several years, FROGS reports have existed as occasional informal newsletters, but we feel that our purposes will be better served by semiannual publication as a section of the VGP News. A briefer companion report will also be published in The Lattice, the newsletter of the Mineralogical Society of America.

  16. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2010-01-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  17. The evolution of amphibian metamorphosis: insights based on the transformation of the aortic arches of Pelobates fuscus (Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesová, H.; Lametschwandtner, A.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2007), s. 379-393 ISSN 0021-8782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * circulatory system * development * evolution * metamorphosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2007

  18. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robovska-Havelkova, Pavla; Aerts, Peter; Rocek, Zbynek; Prikryl, Tomas; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-10-15

    Frog locomotion has attracted wide scientific interest because of the unusual and derived morphology of the frog pelvic girdle and hind limb. Previous authors have suggested that the design of the frog locomotor system evolved towards a specialized jumping morphology early in the radiation of the group. However, data on locomotion in frogs are biased towards a few groups and most of the ecological and functional diversity remains unexplored. Here, we examine the kinematics of swimming in eight species of frog with different ecologies. We use cineradiography to quantify movements of skeletal elements from the entire appendicular skeleton. Our results show that species with different ecologies do differ in the kinematics of swimming, with the speed of limb extension and especially the kinematics of the midfoot being different. Our results moreover suggest that this is not a phylogenetic effect because species from different clades with similar ecologies converge on the same swimming kinematics. We conclude that it is important to analyze frog locomotion in a broader ecological and evolutionary context if one is to understand the evolutionary origins of this behavior. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Trypanosome transmission by Corethrella wirthi (Diptera: Chaoboridae) to the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R N; Young, D G; Butler, J F

    1993-09-01

    Seventy-two percent of 215 male green tree frog, Hyla cinerea (Schneider), captured in Alachua and Levy counties, FL, between April and mid-September 1978 and 1979 were infected with an undescribed Trypanosoma sp. None of the 31 female frogs captured concurrently was infected. Periodic sampling of the peripheral blood from the infected male frogs showed that the trypanosomes were present in high numbers only at night. Conspecific trypanosomes also were found in the mid and hind guts of female Corethrella wirthi Stone flies collected on or near male frogs in the field. Transmission of the parasite to uninfected frogs was demonstrated by exposure of male and female frogs to naturally infected flies and to parasites injected subdermally. This is the first report of parasite transmission by a species of Corethrella.

  20. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-08-05

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed.

  1. Vectorcardiogram of the 'Man-Frog'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. Vectorcardiogram of the 'Man-Frog'. 1095. A. SKOWRON,. SUMMARY. New experimental evidence is adduced to show that the hypothesis of the single instantaneous equivalent or resul- tant cardiac vector-which forms the basic concept of vectorcardiography - no matter whether this is produced by a dipole or a ...

  2. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  3. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  4. A new grass frog from Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of the genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schilJukorum and Ptychadsna mossambica. the new species differs In advenisemen1 call, and erlernal charaders. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates.

  5. Frogs report: Friends of Granite, Winter 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROGS reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, tel. 615-322-2986) about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  6. Return of the Tarahumara frog to Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Rorabaugh; Stephen F. Hale; Michael J. Sredl; Craig Ivanyi

    2005-01-01

    The last wild Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona was found dead in Big Casa Blanca Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, in May 1983. However, the species is still well represented in the majority of its range in the northern Sierra Madre Occidental and adjacent Sky Islands of Sonora and Chihuahua. Plans to re-establish R. tarahumarae...

  7. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  8. Frog experiment onboard space station Mir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Kurotani, A; Mogami, Y; Okuno, M; Yamashita, M

    1997-01-01

    Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) showed unique postures and behavior during an 8-day flight to the Russian space station Mir. When floating in the air, the animals arched their back and extended their four limbs. This posture resembles that observed during jumping or parachuting of the animals on the ground. Frog sitting on a surface bent their neck backward sharply, did not fold their hind limbs completely, and pressed their abdomen against the substrate. They walked backwards in this posture. The typical posture resembles that adopted during the emetic behavior process on the ground, although the posture in space lasts much longer. The possible mechanism of induction of this unique posture in orbit is discussed. Frogs in this posture might be in an emetic state, possibly due to motion sickness. Response behavior to some stimuli was observed in orbit. Body color change in response to the background color appeared to be delayed or slowed down. Response behavior to other stimuli showed little change as long as the animal maintained contact with a substrate. Once it left the surface, the floating frog could not control its movements so as to provide coordinated motility for locomotion and orientation. Adaptation to microgravity was observed in the landing behavior after jumping. Readaptation of the frogs to the Earth environment took place within a few hours after return. Postflight histological and biochemical analysis of organs and tissues showed some changes after the 8-day spaceflight. Weakening and density loss in vertebrae was noted. The beta-adrenoreceptor activity of the gastrocnemius was natriuretic decreased. Skin collagen and liver protein synthesis were lowered. The distribution of the atrial factor-like peptides in the brain was changed.

  9. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  11. An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Secunda, S I; Garraffo, H M; Spande, T F; Wisnieski, A; Cover, J F

    1994-06-01

    The skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) contains a wide variety of alkaloids that presumably serve a defensive role. These alkaloids persist for years in captivity, but are not present in captive-raised frogs. Alkaloids fed to poison frogs (Dendrobates, Phyllobates, Epipedobates) are readily accumulated into skin, where they remain for months. The process can be selective; an ant indolizidine is accumulated, while an ant pyrrolidine is not. Frogs (Colostethus) of the same family, which do not normally contain alkaloids, do not accumulate alkaloids. Such an alkaloid uptake system provides a means of maintaining skin alkaloids and suggests that some if not all such 'dendrobatid alkaloids' may have a dietary origin.

  12. Microhabitat use and spatial distribution in Picado’s Bromeliad Treefrog, Isthmohyla picadoi (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. M. Stuckert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Isthmohyla picadoi is a Neotropical hylid frog found in upper humid montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The species is of particular interest because it continues to persist in an area in which the amphibian community has otherwise been decimated by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Ground search, ladder climbing, and tree climbing techniques were used to locate 32 individuals; including adult males and females, juveniles, andmetamorphosing frogs. The majority of frogs were found in bromeliads, although some individuals were found on plants of the Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, and Heliconiaceae families. Most frogs were found in larger bromeliads (45 cm or wider. There was a positive correlation between SUL and bromeliad width within the population but not within maturity classes (adult males, adult females, all adults, nonmetamorphosingjuveniles, suggesting that juvenile and adult frogs differ in bromeliad usage. Ranges of SUL and body weight in this particular population are much greater than those reported in previous species accounts.

  13. Reducing outage times: a FROG perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Framatome Owners Group (FROG) was set up. It provides a forum for the members, who are all users of Framatome nuclear steam supply systems, to share and benefit from each others experience. Joint activities have been focused on safety and economic performance. Through effective control of outage duration, the average capability factor for the 60 plus nuclear units operated by the members rose from 74% in 1992 to 81.5% in 1993, while the average unplanned capability loss factor reduced from 9% to 3.5%. The specific measures now being taken by three FROG members to improve these results still further are described. The members concerned are Electrabel of Belgium, Electrite de France and the Korea Electric Power Co. (UK)

  14. Origin and identity of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostl, Elijah; Smith, Eric N.; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular data to infer the identity and origin of frogs in the genus Fejervarya that have been introduced to the island of Guam. Mensural and meristic data were collected from 96 specimens from throughout their range on the island and a principal component analysis was used to investigate the distribution of these data in morphological space. We also amplified a fragment of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid mitochondrial gene from 27 of these specimens and compared it to 63 published sequences of Fejervarya and the morphologically similar Zakerana. All examined Fejervarya from Guam are morphologically indistinguishable and share an identical haplotype. The molecular data identify them as Fejervarya cancrivora with a haplotype identical to F. cancrivora from Taiwan.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2014-04-01

    Quasipaa boulengeri, an Asian spiny frog that belongs to Neobatrachia, has been reported as a de novo case of chromosomal rearrangements. In this paper, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Q. boulengeri. The complete mtDNA sequence of Q. boulengeri is 17,741 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 23 tRNAs and one control region. The overall nucleotides base composition of the complete mtDNA is A (28.86%), G (14.43%), C (26.09%), T (30.62%), with a much higher A + T content. Compared to other Neobatrachia species, the mtDNA genome of Q. boulengeri shows a novel gene order at WANCY region.

  16. Cellular mechanisms of nociception in the frog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuffler, D. P.; Lyfenko, Alla; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2002), s. 1843-1850 ISSN 0022-3077 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Grant - others:NATO(XX) Grant 977062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cellular mechanisms of nociception * frog Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2002

  17. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  18. Assessment of frog meat utilisation in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...

  19. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  20. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  1. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  2. Neuroendocrine regulation of frog adrenocortical cells by neurotensin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicard, F.; D, D.E.G.; Gras, M.; Leprince, J.; Conlon, J.M.; Roubos, E.W.; Vaudry, H.; Delarue, C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously characterized the primary structure of neurotensin (NT) from an extract of the intestine of the frog Rana esculenta. In this study, we provide evidence for the involvement of NT in the neurocrine regulation of the secretory activity of frog adrenocortical cells. Immunohistochemical

  3. Foothill yellow-legged frog conservation assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc P. Hayes; Clara A. Wheeler; Amy J. Lind; Gregory A. Green; Diane C. Macfarlane

    2016-01-01

    The foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii) is a stream-breeding amphibian that has experienced significant population declines over a large portion of its historical range. This frog is nearing extirpation in much of the Sierra Nevada region where existing populations are sparse. Water development and diversions are likely to be the primary...

  4. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  5. New species of Prosotocus (Digenea; Pleurogenidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2015-09-01

    Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Punjab, India is described and illustrated. Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. is the 13th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of the vitellaria and cecal terminations. In addition, E. cyanophlyctis was found to harbour three species of Nematoda, Aplectana macintoshii, Cosmocerca kalesari and an unidentified species assigned to Cosmocerca.

  6. Pathogenesis of Frog Virus 3 ( Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) Infection in Wood Frogs ( Rana sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, M J; Jones, K M; Ariel, E; Whittington, R J; Wood, J; Markham, R J Frederick; Daoust, P-Y

    2017-05-01

    Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10 4.43 pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi. Severe lesions occurred 1 to 2 weeks postinfection and consisted of necrosis of medullary and extramedullary hematopoietic tissue, lymphoid tissue in spleen and throughout the body, and epithelium of skin, mucosae, and renal tubules. Viral DNA was first detected (polymerase chain reaction) in liver at 4 dpi; by dpi 9 and 14, all viscera tested (liver, kidney, and spleen), skin, and feces were positive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) first detected viral antigen in small areas devoid of histologic lesions in the oral mucosa, lung, and colon at 4 dpi; by 9 and 14 dpi, IHC labeling of viral antigen associated with necrosis was found in multiple tissues. Based on IHC staining intensity and lesion severity, the skin, oral, and gastrointestinal epithelium and renal tubular epithelium were important sites of viral replication and shedding, suggesting that direct contact (skin) and fecal-oral contamination are effective routes of transmission and that skin tissue, oral, and cloacal swabs may be appropriate antemortem diagnostic samples in late stages of disease (>1 week postinfection) but poor samples to detect infection in clinically healthy frogs.

  7. The response of Rana muscosa, the mountain yellow-legged frog, to short distance translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Matthews

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—To determine the response of Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs to short distance translocations, I placed transmitters on 20 adult frogs and moved them short distances from 144–630 m and monitored their responses for up to 30 days. Of the 20 translocated frogs, seven frogs returned to their original capture site, four frogs moved in the direction of their capture...

  8. The Observation of Frog Species at State University of Malang as a Preliminary Effort on Frog Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratri Wulandari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Frog is an amphibian which is widely spread around the world. Indonesia houses 450 species which represent 11% of frog species in the world. In Java Island alone, there live 42 species of frogs and toads. Frogs can be used as an environment indicator in that the presence of frog in a particular place indicates that the place stays natural and unpolluted. The 1st Campus of State University of Malang, which is located in the heart of Malang District, has been developing rapidly currently. Thus, it requires the construction of new various facilities to support its huge activities. Extensive construction can be destructive even damaging to the habitat of frog, which potentially threats the frog’s life, if it does not take the environmental impact into careful consideration. This study is aimed to identify the species of frog which survives at State University of Malang with, particularly the frog species found in 1995. Species identification was conducted by observing the morphological character. This study found that there were four species with three species remained survived in 1995; those were Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Polypedates leucomystax, and Kaloula baleta; and one new species called Rana chalconota. This study also revealed that there were four species which were extinct; those were Fejervarya cancrivora, Fejervarya limnocharis, Ingerophrynus biporcatus, and Occidoziga lima. This situation shows the decreasing amount of species from 7 to 4 within the last 17 years. This result indicates that there is a serious environmental degradation which causes the losing of frog habitats. Further research is needed to study the ecological condition changing in order to save the frog species.

  9. The Late Cretaceous frog Gobiates from Central Asia: its evolutionary status and possible phylogenetic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2008), s. 577-591 ISSN 0195-6671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Gobiatidae * Cretaceous * Cretaceous (Mongolia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2008

  10. A new squeaker frog (Arthroleptidae: Arthroleptis) from the mountains of Cameroon and Nigeria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, D. C.; Gvoždík, Václav; Leache, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2010), s. 335-348 ISSN 0018-0831 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amplubia * Anura * Biodiveristy hotspot * Federal Republic of Nigeria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2010

  11. Experimental transmission of cutaneous chytridiomycosis in dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D K; Lamirande, E W; Pessier, A P; Longcore, J E

    2001-01-01

    In a series of three experiments during March-October, 1998, two species of captive-bred poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius and D. auratus) were exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a recently-described chytridiomycete fungus (chytrid) that was originally isolated from a blue poison dart frog (D. azureus). All frogs exposed to the chytrids developed a fatal skin disease, whereas none of the control frogs developed skin lesions. The most consistent clinical sign in chytrid-exposed frogs was excessive shedding of skin. Gross lesions were subtle, usually affected the legs and ventrum, and consisted of mild skin thickening and discoloration. Microscopic examination of shed skin pieces and/or skin imprints demonstrated the presence of chytrids and was used for ante mortem and post mortem confirmation of chytrid infection. Histologically, there was epidermal hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy associated with low to moderate numbers of chytrids in the keratinized layers. These experiments demonstrated that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis can be a fatal pathogen in poison dart frogs. The experimentally-induced disease in these frogs resembled cases of cutaneous chytridiomycosis that have recently been described in several other species of captive and wild amphibians.

  12. The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Active control of ultrasonic hearing in frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Feng, Albert S.; Shen, Jun-Xian; Yu, Zu-Lin; Rosowski, John J.; Narins, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrates can modulate the sound levels entering their inner ears in the face of intense external sound or during their own vocalizations. Middle ear muscle contractions restrain the motion of the middle ear ossicles, attenuating the transmission of low-frequency sound and thereby protecting the hair cells in the inner ear. Here we show that the Chinese concave-eared torrent frog, Odorrana tormota, can tune its ears dynamically by closing its normally open Eustachian tubes. Contrary to the belief that the middle ear in frogs permanently communicates with the mouth, O. tormota can close this connection by contraction of the submaxillary and petrohyoid muscles, drastically reducing the air volume behind the eardrums. Mathematical modeling and laser Doppler vibrometry revealed that the reduction of this air volume increases the middle ear impedance, resulting in an up to 20 dB gain in eardrum vibration at high frequencies (10–32 kHz) and 26 dB attenuation at low frequencies (3–10 kHz). Eustachian tube closure was observed in the field during calling and swallowing. Besides a potential role in protecting the inner ear from intense low-frequency sound and high buccal air pressure during calling, this previously unrecognized vertebrate mechanism may unmask the high-frequency calls of this species from the low-frequency stream noise which dominates the environment. This mechanism also protects the thin tympanic membranes from injury during swallowing of live arthropod prey. PMID:18658240

  14. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  15. A new species of Pristimantis from eastern Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elciomar Araújo De; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Pinto, Karll Cavalcante; Hernández-Ruz, Emil José

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) of the P. conspicillatus species group is described. Pristimantis latro sp. n. is known only from the municipalities of Altamira, Anapu, Brasil Novo, Medicilândia, Uruará and Aveiro (Flona Tapajós, right bank of Tapajós river), in Pará state, Brazil. Morphologically, the new species distinguishes from known congeners in the group mainly by the presence of dorsal tubercles and absence of discoidal folds, smooth belly skin, as well as the presence of supernumerary tubercles on hands. The call of the new species consists of seven ascending notes, the first of which has a dominant frequency of 2635 Hz and the last 3272 Hz. Molecular analysis of the 16S mtDNA indicates a genetic distance of 8% to P. chiastonotus , its closet relative, and between 9% and 11% to populations of P. fenestratus .

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Frog virus 3, Isolated from a Strawberry Poison Frog (Oophaga pumilio) Imported from Nicaragua into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saucedo, Bernardo; Hughes, Joseph; van Beurden, Steven J; Suárez, Nicolás M; Haenen, Olga L M; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal A; Gröne, Andrea; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-01-01

    Frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from Nicaragua via Germany to the Netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Frog virus 3 isolate Op/2015/Netherlands/UU3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the

  17. Complete genome sequence of frog virus 3, isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from nicaragua into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saucedo, Bernardo; Hughes, Joseph; Beurden, van Steven J.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Haenen, Olga L.M.; Voorbergen-Laarman, Michal; Gröne, Andrea; Kika, Marja J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) imported from Nicaragua via Germany to the Netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Frog virus 3 isolate Op/2015/Netherlands/UU3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the

  18. Revision of the frog fly genus Caiusa Surcouf, 1920 (Diptera, Calliphoridae), with a note on the identity of Plinthomyia emimelania Rondani, 1875.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognes, Knut

    2015-04-30

    Ohler & Delorme, 2005 and Rhacophorus owstoni (Stejneger, 1907) all belonging in the family Rhacophoridae in Anura. These five Caiusa species all have a specialised ovipositor tip, with small spine-like setae on the ST8 and the hypoproct, probably enabling the flies to oviposit on a foam nest with a hardened outer surface. They form a monophyletic group on account of these features of the ovipositor, unique in the Oestroidea. The sixth species, C. testacea, has been reared from a frog egg mass, the frog species being unknown. Its ovipositor structure is also unknown. The seventh species, C. pooae, has been reared once from the jelly-like egg mass of Feihyla hansenae (Cochran, 1927), also in Rhacophoridae. Caiusa pooae females do not have spine-like setae on the ovipositor, a fact correlated with the soft outer surface of the jelly-like egg mass on which a C. pooae female had oviposited. The extreme rarity of C. pooae oviposition on Feihyla hansenae egg masses may indicate that this fly perhaps has another, unknown, regular oviposition substrate. Caiusa pooae and C. indica make up a second monophyletic group within Caiusa. Caiusa indica, the most common and most widespread species of the genus, has an ovipositor structure similar to C. pooae. Its breeding substrate is unknown and it occurs both within and outside the distributional area of Rhacophoridae. Possibly both C. indica and C. pooae share a regular oviposition substrate that has still to be discovered. The holotype female of Plinthomyia emimelania Rondani, 1875 from Sarawak is established as a member of the genus Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, thus Plinthomyia Rondani, 1875 becomes a junior synonym of Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. nov. It is removed from the synonymy of Phumosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

  19. Frogs host faecal bacteria typically associated with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Karen; Schobben, Xavier; Christian, Keith

    2017-07-01

    Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks; this may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination. Enterococci colonies were isolated from both faecal and skin wash samples, and specific markers (Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) were found in frog faeces, demonstrating that these markers are not human- or mammalian-specific. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was detected in frogs from both natural and urban sites, but E. faecium was only associated with the sewage impacted site.

  20. 10 years of activities for the Framatome Owners Group (FROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oullion, J.; Namy, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    FROG (Framatome owners group) was created in 1991 by 5 electricity producers Electrabel (Belgium), EDF (France), ESKOM (South-Africa), GNPJVC (Daya bay China) and KEPCO (South-Korea), since then 2 other members joined the group Vattenfall (Sweden) and LANPC ( Ling-Ao China). All the members agree to share their experience in operating nuclear reactors designed by Framatome, FROG members represent more than 80 nuclear units. FROG wants to promote the exchange of information between its members in order to improve performances in a broad sense (safety, techniques, costs and management). The FROG committee opened its 20. meeting last year in Lyon (France), among the different topics that were discussed we have: -) a review of the main events that occurred in nuclear power plants, -) actions to reduce the stress on reactor staff, -) the shortening of downtimes, -) the comparison of production costs, and -) the in-line 3-dimensional monitoring of the nuclear core. (A.C.)

  1. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  2. FROG: The Fast And Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL [3] and GLUT [4] libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  3. Heavy point frog performance under passenger vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Federal Railroad Administration contracted with the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, Colorado, to conduct an : investigation of passenger vehicle performance running through heavy point frog (HPF) up to speeds of 110 mph. A NUCARS : ...

  4. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...... by their high toxicity might help to explain why calling has not yet disappeared, and that visual communication may have replaced auditory in these colourful, diurnal frogs....

  5. Prespermatogenesis and early spermatogenesis in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haczkiewicz, Katarzyna; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (A s ). Gonocytes constitute sex cords, i.e. the precursors of seminiferous tubules; they are bigger than SSCs and differ in morphology and ultrastructure. The nuclear envelope in gonocytes formed deep finger-like invaginations absent in SSCs. All stages of male germ cells contained lipid droplets, which were surrounded by glycogen in SSCs, but not in gonocytes. Mitochondria in gonocytes had enlarged edges of cristae, and in SSCs also lamellar mitochondria appeared. Minimal duration of prespermatogenesis was 46days after gonadal sex differentiation, but usually it lasted longer. SSCs give rise to secondary spermatogonia (equal to mammalian A, In, and B). Their lowest number inside a cyst was eight and this indicated the minimal number of cell cycles (three) of secondary spermatogonia necessary to enter meiosis. We sorted them according to the number of cell cycles (from 8 to 256 cells). This number is similar to that recorded for mammals as the result of a single A s proliferation. The number of secondary spermatogonia correlates with the volume of a cyst. The general conclusion is that spermatogenesis in amphibians and mammals follows basically the same scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Frog in Ancient Egypt, with Unpublished Frog Statues, Amulets, and other Related Objects in the Agricultural and Mallawy Museums in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Marzouk Al-sayed Aman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frogs belong to the class of 'amphibians'. They are cold-blooded animals, and they hibernate during winter. The life cycle of frogs begins with mating, laying eggs, developing into tadpoles in eggs, and then appearing as young frogs without tails. The frog was known in ancient Egypt as abnx, abxn, and qrr. The frog had a great role in ancient Egyptian mythology. It was connected with the mythology of creation. A number of gods and goddesses were connected with the frog such as Heqet, Ptah, Heh HHw ,Kek kkw , Nun nnw, and Amun Imn. Frog amulets were worn by the living to provide fertility, and were buried with the dead to protect and rejuvenate them. Frogs were often mummified with the dead as magical amulets to ensure rebirth. An image of a frog was depicted on apotropaic wands, as its role was the protector of the house hold and guardian of pregnant women .With the official prevalence of Christianity in Egypt in the fourth century AD., the frog was still used as a Coptic symbol of resurrection and rebirth. In this paper, the author will try to publish some of the unpublished frog statues, amulets, and other related objects in the agricultural and Mallawy museums in Egypt.

  7. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation.

  8. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-11-01

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  10. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  11. Female preferences for aposematic signal components in a polymorphic poison frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Cummings, Molly E.

    Aposematic signals may be subject to conflicting selective pressures from predators and conspecifics. We studied female preferences for different components of aposematic coloration in the polymorphic poison frog Oophaga pumilio across several phenotypically distinct populations. This frog shows

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae and evolutionary characteristics of the amphibian mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying CHEN, Bin WANG, Jiongyu LIU, Feng XIE, Jianping JIANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced. It includes 17,660 base pairs, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs. A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome, and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%, being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far. Based on gene organization, 24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Type 1 was present in 108 species, type 11 in 11 species, types 5, 16, 17, and 20 each in two species, and the others each present in one species. Fifteen types were found in Anura, being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia. Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia, as well as its three orders, the Gymnophiona, Caudata, and Anura, among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata, Anura. Based on the phylogenetic trees, type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians, and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia. Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information. The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly, the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6: 785–805, 2011].

  13. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Belden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in

  14. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog.

  15. An endogenous bile acid and dietary sucrose from skin secretions of alkaloid-sequestering poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Valerie C; Harinantenaina, Liva; Zeller, Martin; Ronto, William; Rocca, James; Dossey, Aaron T; Rakotondravony, Daniel; Kingston, David G I; Shaw, Chris

    2012-03-23

    The skins of Madagascar poison frogs (Mantella) and certain Neotropical poison frogs (Epipedobates, Dendrobates) secrete the new bile acid tauromantellic acid (1), which was found in both wild-caught and captive-born frogs. This is the first molecule of endogenous origin detected in skin secretions from these taxa. Sucrose was also detected in secretions from wild-caught Mantella but not in captive-born frogs, suggesting a dietary origin.

  16. Registro histórico de Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae: evidencias de disminución en selvas nubladas de la Cordillera de la Costa venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valera-Leal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrotheca ovifera es una rana marsupial que habita en el dosel arbóreo de bosques nublados y ribereños del Tramo Occidental y Ramal Litoral de La Cordillera de la Costa venezolana (CCV entre 820-2 000m de altitud. De acuerdo con la Lista Roja de la UCN se encuentra En Peligro (EN y su evaluación fue realizada de acuerdo a apreciaciones anecdóticas, por lo que su situación de amenaza no ha sido comprobada por muestreos sistemáticos. Con el objetivo de estudiar el estado de las poblaciones de la especie en el Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (PNHP en el Ramal Litoral de la CCV, realizamos una revisión histórica en museos nacionales y extranjeros y encontramos que la especie fue registrada en 1996 por última vez en el PNHP. Acumulamos 646 horas/persona de muestreo sistemático en localidades históricas y adicionales de la especie en el parque durante los años 2006 y 2007 y no obtuvimos registro de la especie. Adicionalmente, realizamos asociaciones entre datos promedios de precipitación anual y el registro histórico de la especie durante el periodo 1941-1997 (r s=- 0.054, p=0.820, n=19. Discutimos sobre su estado de conservación con base a la distribución, fluctuación y cambios poblacionales de la especieHistoric record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae: decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests. G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m. This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP. Likewise, we carried out a

  17. New species of Gorgoderina (Digenea; Gorgoderidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2014-10-01

    Gorgoderina spinosa sp. nov. (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) from the bladder of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Gorgoderina spinosa is the 6th Indian species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of vitelline glands and the presence of a spinose integument. Two additional digenean species, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Ganeo tigrinus, and 3 nematode species, Cosmocerca kalesari, Gendria chauhani, and unidentified larvae were found. Diplodiscus amphichrus, Ganeo tigrinus, Cosmocerca kalesari, and Gendria chauhani have previously been reported to infect Indian individuals of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

  18. [FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG)'s focus on management of elderly patients with bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebriou, Djamel; Avenin, Danièle; Caillet, Philippe; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Durdux, Catherine; Massard, Christophe; Culine, Stéphane

    2014-09-01

    Bladder cancer is diagnosed more often in the elderly. The most effective treatment strategies are mostly very aggressive and are not applicable to all patients in a very heterogeneous population. However, effective options exist to treat the most vulnerable subjects. A multidisciplinary approach including a geriatric assessment is essential for optimal adaptation of treatment. The FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG) conducted a comprehensive literature search in order to review the applicable therapeutic options according to oncological and geriatric settings. International recommendations are essential to harmonize the management of elderly patients with bladder cancer.

  19. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted acute (LC50) and chronic acid tolerance bioassays on embryos and tadpoles of four frog species found in the park, i.e., Chiromantis xerampelina (Southern Foam Nest Frog), Pyxicephalus edulis (African Bullfrog), Amietophrynus maculatus (Flat-backed Toad) and Hildebrandtia ornata (Ornate Frog), using ...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin in the edible Frog Rana esculenta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudry, Hubert; Leboulenger, Francois; Dupont, Willy; Vaillant, Rene

    1975-01-01

    In the green Frog (Rana esculenta) the plasma contains a polypeptide immunologically related to human and porcine corticotropins. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 4.10 -12 g hog ACTH has been used for a direct plasma ACTH assay in the Frog. Using this method the ACTH rate was determined both in untreated frogs and in animals under various experimental conditions [fr

  1. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  2. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained so...

  3. Tourism and the Conservation of Critically Endangered Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf C.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5–100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8–99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts. PMID:22984440

  4. Dietary source for skin alkaloids of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Martin Garraffo, H; Spande, T F; Jaramillo, C; Stanley Rand, A

    1994-04-01

    A wide range of alkaloids, many of which are unknown elsewhere in nature, occur in skin of frogs. Major classes of such alkaloids in dendrobatid frogs are the batrachotoxins, pumiliotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and decahydroquinolines. Such alkaloids are absent in skin of frogs (Dendrobates auratus) raised in Panama on wingless fruit flies in indoor terraria. Raised on leaf-litter arthropods that were collected in a mainland site, such terraria-raised frogs contain tricyclic alkaloids including the beetle alkaloid precoccinelline, 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidines, pyrrolizidine oximes, the millipede alkaloid nitropolyzonamine, a decahydroquinoline, a gephyrotoxin, and histrionicotoxins. The profiles of these alkaloids in the captive-raised frogs are closer to the mainland population ofDendrobates auratus at the leaf-litter site than to the parent population ofDendrobates auratus from a nearby island site. Extracts of a seven-month sampling of leaf-litter insects contained precoccinelline, pyrrolizidine oxime236 (major), and nitropolyzonamine (238). The results indicate a dietary origin for at least some "dendrobatid alkaloids," in particular the pyrrolizidine oximes, the tricyclic coccinellines, and perhaps the histrionicotoxins and gephyrotoxins.

  5. Marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, determine migratory direction by magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhparonov, Vladimir V; Ogurtsov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m). The arms of the maze were positioned parallel to the natural migratory route of this population when measured in accordance with magnetic field. The frogs were tested under two-motivational conditions mediated by temperature/light regime: the breeding migratory state and the wintering state. The frogs' choice in a T-maze was evident only when analyzed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field: they moved along the migratory route to the breeding pond and followed the reversion of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. This preference has been detected in both sexes only in the breeding migratory state. This suggests that adult ranid frogs can obtain directional information from the Earth's magnetic field as was shown earlier in urodeles and anuran larvae.

  6. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P.; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity. PMID:26760304

  7. Frog sound identification using extended k-nearest neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukahar, Nordiana; Affendi Rosdi, Bakhtiar; Athiar Ramli, Dzati; Jaafar, Haryati

    2017-09-01

    Frog sound identification based on the vocalization becomes important for biological research and environmental monitoring. As a result, different types of feature extractions and classifiers have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of frog sound identification. This paper presents a frog sound identification with Extended k-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN) classifier. The EKNN classifier integrates the nearest neighbors and mutual sharing of neighborhood concepts, with the aims of improving the classification performance. It makes a prediction based on who are the nearest neighbors of the testing sample and who consider the testing sample as their nearest neighbors. In order to evaluate the classification performance in frog sound identification, the EKNN classifier is compared with competing classifier, k -Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Fuzzy k -Nearest Neighbor (FKNN) k - General Nearest Neighbor (KGNN)and Mutual k -Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) on the recorded sounds of 15 frog species obtained in Malaysia forest. The recorded sounds have been segmented using Short Time Energy and Short Time Average Zero Crossing Rate (STE+STAZCR), sinusoidal modeling (SM), manual and the combination of Energy (E) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) (E+ZCR) while the features are extracted by Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). The experimental results have shown that the EKNCN classifier exhibits the best performance in terms of accuracy compared to the competing classifiers, KNN, FKNN, GKNN and MKNN for all cases.

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of the glass frog Hyalinobatrachium orientale (Anura: Centrolenidae): evidence for Pliocene connections between mainland Venezuela and the island of Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Downie, Roger J; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Murphy, John C

    2015-08-01

    The presence of Hyalinobatrachium orientale in Tobago and in northeastern Venezuela is puzzling as this species is unknown from the island of Trinidad, an island often hypothesized to be a stepping-stone for the mainland fauna to colonize Tobago. A period of extended isolation on Tobago could result in the Hyalinobatrachium population becoming distinct from the mainland H. orientale. Here, we use 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from nine H. orientale specimens from Tobago and the mainland to assess their relationship and taxonomy, as well as the tempo and mode of speciation. The results suggest H. orientale from Venezuela and Tobago are monophyletic and the two populations diverged about 3 million years ago. This estimate corresponds with the drier climate and lower sea levels of the Pliocene glaciation periods. We hypothesize that lower sea levels resulted in land-bridge formations connecting the mainland and Tobago, with a corridor of habitat allowing H. orientale to colonize Tobago to the west of Trinidad.

  9. Adaptations of the reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae) to its arid environment. VI. The iridophores in the skin as radiation reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, F; Linsenmair, K E

    1992-01-01

    Hyperolius viridiflavus possesses one complete layer of iridophores in the stratum spongiosum of its skin at about 8 days after metamorphosis. The high reflectance of this thin layer is almost certainly the result of multilayer interference reflection. In order to reflect a mean of about 35% of the incident radiation across a spectrum of 300-2900 nm only 30 layers of well-arranged crystals are required, resulting in a layer 10.5 microns thick. These theoretical values are in good agreement with the actual mean diameter of single iridophores (15.0 +/- 3.0 microns), the number of stacked platelets (40-100) and the measured reflectance of one complete layer of these cells (32.2 +/- 2.3%). Iridescence colours typical of multilayer interference reflectors were seen after severe dehydration. The skin colour turned from white (0-10% weight loss) through a copper-like iridescence (10-25% weight loss) to green iridescence (25-42%). In dry season state, H. viridiflavus needs a much higher reflectance to cope with the problems of high solar radiation load during long periods with severe dehydration stress. Dry-adapted skin contains about 4-6 layers of iridophores. The measured reflectance (up to 60% across the solar spectrum) of this thick layer (over 60 microns) is not in keeping with the results obtained by applying the multilayer interference theory. Light, scattered independently of wavelength from disordered crystals, superimposes on the multilayer-induced spectral reflectance. The initial parallel shift of the multilayer curves with increasing thickness and the almost constant ("white") reflectance of layers exceeding 60 microns clearly point to a changing physical basis with increasing layer thickness.

  10. A new account for the endangered Cerrado Rocket Frog Allobates goings (Bokermann, 1975 (Anura: Aromobatidae, with comments on taxonomy and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a new distributional record of Allobates goianus in Niquelândia (Goiás State, Central Brazil, and its rediscovery in Minaçu since the creation of the Serra da Mesa dam lake in 1997. Moreover, we describe the species advertisement call from Niquelândia, reporting on a new calling emission pattern for the species, plus we provide the first comprehensive definition, diagnosis, and interspecific comparisons of A. goianus based on our two newly collected additional specimens since its original description in the mid-1970s. Allobates goianus is compared with the 22 Allobates species known to occur in Brazil due to geographic proximity. Morphological, color, and acoustic traits diagnose A. goianus from all analyzed congeners, except A. brunneus and A. olfersioides. Our study draws attention to the importance of rediscovering A. goianus at the type locality (Chapada dos Veadeiros aiming to properly address the species limits of the three Brazilian Allobates species (A. brunneus, A. goianus, and A. olfersioides that are indistinguishable with regard to phenotypic traits. The conservation status of A. goianus, endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil, is discussed as its natural habitats are under increased pressure due to habitat fragmentation in the Cerrado.

  11. Diversity of the strongly rheophilous tadpoles of Malagasy tree frogs, genus Boophis (Anura, Mantellidae), and identification of new candidate species via larval DNA sequence and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Strauß, Axel; Glos, Julian; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study provides detailed morphological descriptions of previously unknown tadpoles of the treefrog genus Boophis Tschudi and analyses of habitat preferences of several of these tadpoles in Ranomafana National Park. A total of twenty-two tadpoles determined via DNA barcoding are characterized morphologically herein, fourteen of them for the first time. Twelve of these tadpoles belong to taxonomically undescribed candidate species which in several cases are so far only known from their larval stages. Our data show that the larvae of some of these candidate species occur syntopically yet maintaining a clearly correlated genetic and morphological identity, suggesting that they indeed are true biological and evolutionary species. Tadpoles considered to belong to the “adherent” ecomorphological guild inhabit fast-running waters and their oral disc is commonly to continuously attached to the rocky substrate, supposedly to keep their position in the water current. Some of these species are characterized by the presence of a dorsal gap of papillae and the absence of an upper jaw sheath. This guild includes the tadpoles of the Boophis albipuncatus group (Boophis ankaratra, Boophis schuboeae, Boophis albipunctatus, Boophis sibilans, Boophis luciae), and of the Boophis mandraka group (Boophis sambirano and six candidate species related to this species and to Boophis mandraka). Tadpoles considered belonging to the “suctorial” guild inhabit fast-running waters where they use frequently their oral disc to attach to the substrate. They have an enlarged oral disc without any dorsal gap, including two nominal species (Boophis marojezensis, Boophis vittatus), and five candidate species related to Boophis marojezensis. An ecological analysis of the tadpoles of Boophis luciae, Boophis schuboeae and Boophis marojezensis [Ca51 JQ518198] from Ranomafana National Park did not provide evidence for a clear preference of these tadpoles to the fast flowing microhabitat sections of the stream, although the tadpoles discussed in this study are typically caught in this habitat. PMID:22539880

  12. Another puzzle piece: new record of the Fringed Leaf Frog, Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Anura: Phyllomedusidae), in the eastern Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Leandro; Pavan, Dante

    2017-01-01

    We report new occurrence of Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) in the eastern Amazon Rainforest. This is only the second record from the state of Pará, Brazil and represents the easternmost known point of this species' range.

  13. Effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulation, Roundup® Ultramax, on liver histology of tadpoles of the neotropical frog, Leptodactylus latrans (amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nadia C; Marino, Damián J G; Natale, Guillermo S; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2018-03-17

    In the last years, the agricultural expansion has led to an increased use of pesticides, with glyphosate as the most widely used worldwide. This is also the situation in Argentina, where glyphosate formulations are the most commercialized herbicides. It is known that glyphosate formulations are much more toxic than the active ingredient, and this difference in toxicity can be attributed to the adjuvants present in the formula. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare sub-lethal histological effects of the glyphosate formulation Roundup Ultramax and glyphosate active ingredient on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles at Gosner-stage 36. Semi-static bioassays were performed using 96 h of exposure with Roundup Ultramax formulation (RU; 0.37-5.25 mg a.e./L), glyphosate (GLY; 3-300 mg/L), and a control group. RU exposure showed an increment in the melanomacrophagic cells (MMc) and melanomacrophagic centers (MMCs) from 0.37 mg a.e./L. GLY exposure showed a significant increment in the number of MMc from 15 mg/L, and of MMCs from 3 mg/L. Also, histopathological lesions were observed in the liver of tadpoles exposed to both, GLY and RU. These lesions included: lipidosis and hepatic congestion, but only RU showed significant differences respect to control, with a LOEC value of 2.22 mg a.e./L for both effects. In sum, this study represents the first evidence of adverse effects of glyphosate and RU formulation on the liver of anuran larvae at concentrations frequently found in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in the Kudremukh Bush Frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae: Raorchestes tuberohumerus of the Western Ghats, India, with a note on its distribution and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes tuberohumerus (Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003 was described based on three male specimens and was diagnosed mainly based on the presence of tubercle on the humerus.  Here we describe the genetically confirmed female of the species and show that tubercle on the humeral bone is a sexually dimorphic character present only in males.  Further, based on current collection and literature review we studied the distribution of the species using niche based modelling. Using the distributional range and our observations on the threats to the habitat we propose that Raorchestes tuberohumerus, currently assessed as Data Deficient, can fall under the ‘Vulnerable’ category of IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  

  15. River islands, refugia and genetic structuring in the endemic brown frog Rana kukunoris (Anura, Ranidae) of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yan, Fang; Fu, Jinzhong; Wu, Shifang; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, Pleistocene climatic cycling has been found to be the diver of genetic structuring in populations, even in areas that did not have continental ice sheets, such as on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Typically, species distributed on the plateau have been hypothesized to re-treat to south-eastern refugia, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We evaluated sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA gene Cytb and the nuclear DNA gene RAG-1 in Rana kukunoris, a species endemic to the QTP. Two major lineages, N and S, were identified, and lineage N was further subdivided into N1 and N2. The geographical distribution and genealogical divergences supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia. However, major lineages and sublineages diverged prior to the LGM. Demographical expansion was detected only in lineage S and sublineage N2. Sublineage N1 might have survived several glacial cycles in situ and did not expand after the LGM because of the absence of suitable habitat; it survived in river islands. Genetic analysis and environment modelling suggested that the north-eastern edge of QTP contained a major refugium for R. kukunoris. From here, lineage S dispersed southwards after the LGM. Two microrefugia in northern Qilian Mountains greatly contributed to current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. These results were found to have important implications for the habitat conservation in Northwest China. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Thaulin-1: The first antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of a Patagonian frog Pleurodema thaul (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) with activity against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Mariela M; Perez, Luis O; de Araujo, Alyne Rodrigues; Plácido, Alexandra; Sousa, Carla F; Quelemes, Patrick Veras; Oliveira, Mayara; Gomes-Alves, Ana G; Pueta, Mariana; Gameiro, Paula; Tomás, Ana M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Eaton, Peter; Camperi, Silvia A; Basso, Néstor G; de Souza de Almeida Leite, Jose Roberto

    2017-03-20

    Patagonia's biodiversity has been explored from many points of view, however, skin secretions of native amphibians have not been evaluated for antimicrobial peptide research until now. In this sense, Pleurodema thaul is the first amphibian specie to be studied from this large region of South America. Analysis of cDNA-encoding peptide in skin samples allowed identification of four new antimicrobial peptides. The predicted mature peptides were synthesized and all of them showed weak or null antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the exception of thaulin-1, a cationic 26-residue linear, amphipathic, Gly- and Leu-rich peptide with moderate antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC of 24.7μM). AFM and SPR studies suggested a preferential interaction between these peptides and bacterial membranes. Cytotoxicity assays showed that thaulin peptides had minimal effects at MIC concentrations towards human and animal cells. These are the first peptides described for amphibians of the Pleurodema genus. These findings highlight the potential of the Patagonian region's unexplored biodiversity as a source for new molecule discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxic and genotoxic effects of the imazethapyr-based herbicide formulation Pivot H® on montevideo tree frog Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Iglesias, J M; Soloneski, S; Nikoloff, N; Natale, G S; Larramendy, M L

    2015-09-01

    Acute lethal and sublethal toxicity of the imidazolinone imazethapyr (IMZT)-based commercial formulation herbicide Pivot H® (10.59% IMZT) was evaluated on Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles. Whereas mortality was used as the end point for lethality, frequency of micronuclei (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities as well as DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay were employed to test genotoxicity. Behavioral, growth, developmental, and morphological abnormalities were also employed as sublethal end points. Mortality studies revealed equivalent LC50 (96h) values of 1.49mg/L (confidence limit, 1.09-1.63) and 1.55mg/L (confidence limit, 1.51-1.60) IMZT for Gosner stage (GS) 25 and GS36, respectively. Behavioral changes, i.e., irregular swimming and immobility, as well as a decreased frequency of keratodonts were observed. The herbicide increased the frequency of MNs in circulating erythrocytes of tadpoles exposed for 48h to the highest concentration assayed (1.17mg/L). However, regardless of the concentration of the herbicide assayed, an enhanced frequency of MNs was observed in tadpoles exposed for 96h. The herbicide was able to induce other nuclear abnormalities, i.e., blebbed and notched nuclei, only when tadpoles were exposed for 96h. In addition, we observed that exposure to IMZT within the 0.39-1.17mg/L range increased the genetic damage index in treatments lasting for both 48 and 96h. This study represents the first evidence of acute lethal and sublethal effects exerted by IMZT on amphibians. Finally, our findings highlight the properties of this herbicide that jeopardize nontarget living species exposed to IMZT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Larval epidermis of the red eye tree frog Agalychnis callidryas (Anura, Hylidae): ultrastructural investigation on the Kugelzellen, specialized forms of the constitutive skein cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachi, Filippo; Tanteri, Gianfranco; Malentacchi, Cecilia; Delfino, Giovanni

    2011-09-01

    An ultrastructural study was carried out on the epidermis of Agalychnis callidryas tadpoles during limb development. Larval epidermis consisted of four cell layers: basal, lower intermediate, upper intermediate, and surface or apical layers. Basal cells represented the stem compartment of intermediate cells: both belong to the skein cell (SC) lineage, described in several anuran species, on account of the conspicuous intracytoplasmic tonofilament bundles. Apical cells were secretory in nature and released mucus on the body surface. Intermediate SCs exhibited a hydrated central cytoplasm and peripheral tonofilament bundles. They closely resembled the epidermal ball-like cells, Kugelzellen (KZn) of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and possibly shared their turgor-stiffness properties. In A. callidryas, the stratification of intermediated SCs on their stem cell layer provided the chance to study their cytodifferentiation in a suitable sequence, until basal cell differentiation shifted toward the keratinocyte lineage in premetamorphic stages. Present data assign A. callidryas to the anuran species with a constitutive SC population in larval epidermis, and demonstrate that KZn express the ultimate specialization of such cell line. SCs were arranged in the fashion of a random-rubble stone groundwork, and possessed long processes. These cytoplasmic outgrowths contained a tonofilament axial rod and held together contiguous cells. Ultrastructural findings suggest that this complex structure may impart compressive as well as sliding strengths to the larval epidermis, representing a possible adaption to the fresh water environment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Evolutionarily significant units of the critically endangered leaf frog Pithecopus ayeaye (Anura, Phyllomedusidae) are not effectively preserved by the Brazilian protected areas network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Rafael Félix; Lemes, Priscila; Camargo, Arley; Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque; Thomassen, Hans; Garcia, Paulo Christiano de Anchietta; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are essential for biodiversity conservation, but their coverage is considered inefficient for the preservation of all species. Many species are subdivided into evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and the effectiveness of PAs in protecting them needs to be investigated. We evaluated the usefulness of the Brazilian PAs network in protecting ESUs of the critically endangered Pithecopus ayeaye through ongoing climate change. This species occurs in a threatened mountaintop ecosystem known as campos rupestres . We used multilocus DNA sequences to delimit geographic clusters, which were further validated as ESUs with a coalescent approach. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate spatial changes in ESUs' potential distributions, and a gap analysis was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian PAs network to protect P. ayeaye in the face of climate changes. We tested the niche overlap between ESUs to gain insights for potential management alternatives for the species. Pithecopus ayeaye contains at least three ESUs isolated in distinct mountain regions, and one of them is not protected by any PA. There are no climatic niche differences between the units, and only 4% of the suitable potential area of the species is protected in present and future projections. The current PAs are not effective in preserving the intraspecific diversity of P. ayeaye in its present and future range distributions. The genetic structure of P. ayeaye could represent a typical pattern in campos rupestres endemics, which should be considered for evaluating its conservation status.

  20. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, M J; Vanderstichel, R; Hogan, N S; Teather, K; Wood, J

    2010-09-02

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in the decline or extinction of approximately 200 frog species worldwide. It has been reported throughout much of North America, but its presence on Prince Edward Island (PEI), on the eastern coast of Canada, was unknown. To determine the presence and prevalence of Bd on PEI, skin swabs were collected from 115 frogs from 18 separate sites across the province during the summer of 2009. The swabs were tested through single round end-point PCR for the presence of Bd DNA. Thirty-one frogs were positive, including 25/93 (27%) green frogs Lithobates (Rana) clamitans, 5/20 (25%) northern leopard frogs L. (R.) pipiens, and 1/2 (50%) wood frogs L. sylvaticus (formerly R. sylvatica); 12 of the 18 (67%) sites had at least 1 positive frog. The overall prevalence of Bd infection was estimated at 26.9% (7.2-46.7%, 95% CI). Prevalence amongst green frogs and leopard frogs was similar, but green frogs had a stronger PCR signal when compared to leopard frogs, regardless of age (p frogs, juveniles were more frequently positive than adults (p = 0.001). Green frogs may be the most reliable species to sample when looking for Bd in eastern North America. The 1 wood frog positive for Bd was found dead from chytridiomycosis; none of the other frogs that were positive for Bd by PCR showed any obvious signs of illness. Further monitoring will be required to determine what effect Bd infection has on amphibian population health on PEI.

  1. Feeding kinematics of phyllomedusine tree frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, L A; Nishikawa, K C

    1995-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the phyllomedusine hylids possess highly protrusible tongues, a derived characteristic within the family Hylidae. In the present study, the kinematics of the feeding behavior of a phyllomedusine species, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, was analyzed using high-speed video (180 frames s-1). Its behavior was compared with that of Hyla cinerea, a species with a weakly protrusible tongue. P. dacnicolor exhibits a faster rate of tongue protraction, a longer gape cycle and more variable feeding kinematics than H. cinerea. In addition, the tongue is used in a unique 'fly-swatter' fashion, to pin the prey to the substratum as the frog completes the lunge. The rapid tongue protraction, extended gape cycle and fly-swatter action may have evolved in response to a diet of large, rapidly moving insects. In addition, several duration variables of the feeding cycle were greater for misses than for captures and drops, which suggests that sensory feedback rather than biomechanics controls gape cycle duration.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  3. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registered in a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographical distribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  4. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966: distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto, Igor; Ribeiro, Samuel; Bezerra, Lucas; Carneiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The casqued-headed tree frog Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966 is recorded for the first time in the municipality of Jati, southern region of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, extending in 72 km east the previous known geographic distribution of this species. An updated geographic distribution map of T. atlas is provided.

  6. Radiation processing for the control of Salmonella in frog legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkar, D.P.; Kumta, U.S.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Large consignments of frogs legs are exported annually from India. Failure to satisfy some of the strict microbiological standards, especially in relating to Salmonellae contamination, has resulted in the rejection of large quantities of the product in recent years. This has emphasised the need for better and more effective methods than those currently in use for the elimination of Salmonellae. With a view to developing an irradiation process for the control of this public health problem, commercial samples of frog legs have been screened to assess the incidence of Salmonella. The various serotypes have been identified and their radiation sensitivities determined. Based on these data, a radiation treatment of frozen frog legs for the elimination of Salmonella has been developed. (author)

  7. Frog: The Fast & Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable for any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3~\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time $\\sim20$ events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[2] and GLUT [3] libraries. Moreover, \\textsc{Frog} does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  8. Voxel-based frog phantom for internal dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae

    2008-01-01

    A voxel-based frog phantom has been developed for radiation protection of the environment. The voxel-based frog phantom was applied to evaluating self-absorbed fractions (self-AFs), which are defined as the fraction of energy emitted by a radiation source that is absorbed within the source organ. The self-AFs were evaluated for both photons and electrons in the spleen, kidneys, and liver using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, self-S values (μGy/MBq·s) for 18 F and 90 Y in the organs were calculated using the results of the self-AFs. Consequently, the voxel-based frog phantom was found to be useful for the organ dose evaluations, which have not been proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It was also confirmed that the self-AFs and self-S values are largely dependent on the mass of the source organ. (author)

  9. Lizard and frog prestin: evolutionary insight into functional changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells contains prestin, a unique motor protein. Prestin is the fifth member of the solute carrier protein 26A family. Orthologs of prestin are also found in the ear of non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish and chicken. However, these orthologs are electrogenic anion exchangers/transporters with no motor function. Amphibian and reptilian lineages represent phylogenic branches in the evolution of tetrapods and subsequent amniotes. Comparison of the peptide sequences and functional properties of these prestin orthologs offer new insights into prestin evolution. With the recent availability of the lizard and frog genome sequences, we examined amino acid sequence and function of lizard and frog prestins to determine how they are functionally and structurally different from prestins of mammals and other non-mammals. Somatic motility, voltage-dependent nonlinear capacitance (NLC, the two hallmarks of prestin function, and transport capability were measured in transfected human embryonic kidney cells using voltage-clamp and radioisotope techniques. We demonstrated that while the transport capability of lizard and frog prestin was compatible to that of chicken prestin, the NLC of lizard prestin was more robust than that of chicken's and was close to that of platypus. However, unlike platypus prestin which has acquired motor capability, lizard or frog prestin did not demonstrate motor capability. Lizard and frog prestins do not possess the same 11-amino-acid motif that is likely the structural adaptation for motor function in mammals. Thus, lizard and frog prestins appear to be functionally more advanced than that of chicken prestin, although motor capability is not yet acquired.

  10. The Maluti Mystery revisited: Taxonomy of African River Frogs (Pyxicephalidae, Amietia) on the Drakensberg Mountains in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channing, Alan

    2015-02-27

    The taxonomy of two similar frogs from the top of the Drakensberg escarpment, the Maluti River Frog and the Phofung River Frog is not settled. I examine the relevant types and type descriptions, and discover a number of errors in the literature. Some of the recent taxonomic changes were found to be unsupported. The Maluti River Frog is assigned to Amietia vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and the Phofung River Frog to Amietia hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920).

  11. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  12. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sullivan, Brian K.; Malone, John H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  13. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  14. Host Defense Peptides from Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineeth T.V.; Holthausen, David; Jacob, Joshy; George, Sanil

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are currently major focal points of medical research as infectious microbes are gaining resistance to existing drugs. They are effective against multi-drug resistant pathogens due to their unique primary target, biological membranes, and their peculiar mode of action. Even though HDPs from 60 Asian frog species belonging to 15 genera have been characterized, research into these peptides is at a very early stage. The purpose of this review is to showcase the status of peptide research in Asia. Here we provide a summary of HDPs from Asian frogs. PMID:27025618

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  16. Behavior of Japanese tree frogs under microgravity on MIR and in parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Kurotani, A.; Yamashita, M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Kurotani, T.; Mogami, Y.; Okuno, M.; Oketa, A.; Shiraishi, A.; Ueda, K.; Wassersug, R. J.; Naitoh, T.

    1994-08-01

    Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) were flown to the space station MIR and spent eight days in orbit during December, 1990/1/. Under microgravity, their postures and behaviors were observed and recorded. On the MIR, floating frogs stretched four legs out, bent their bodies backward and expanded their abdomens. Frogs on a surface often bent their neck backward and walked backwards. This behavior was observed on parabolic flights and resembles the retching behavior of sick frogs on land- a possible indicator of motion sickness. Observations on MIR were carried out twice to investigate the frog's adaptation to space. The frequency of failure in landing after a jump decreased in the second observation period. After the frogs returned to earth, readaptation processes were observed. The frogs behaved normally as early as 2.5 hours after landing.

  17. Reprodução de Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaine Melchiors

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae in southern Brazil.This study was based on individuals of Pseudis minuta captured or observed in the municipality of Candiota, Campanha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sampling occurred along ten non-consecutive months in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The reproductive phases were characterized based on the gonadal development stage of39 males and 50 females, and on the observation, in nature, of the seasonal distribution of calling males, occurrence of amplectant pairs, and presence of larvae, juveniles and adults. Calls were recorded from August to April, amplectant pairs from October to February (except January, tadpoles from October to March (except February, and juveniles in all the sampled months (except January. Reproductive activity was not observed in late fall and early winter, even though females with post-vitellogenic oocytes and males with spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules were recorded in allthe seasons. Mature females were statistically larger and heavier than mature males.The smallest female with post-vitellogenic oocytes had 32.0 mm of snout-vent length,and the smallest male with spermatozoa in its seminiferous tubules had 20.6 mm. The number of post-vitellogenic oocytes was directly proportional to the mass and to the snout-vent length of females, and the length of testis was directly proportional to the snout-vent length and to the mass of males.

  18. Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Odontophrynus cf. barrioi (Anura: Cycloramphidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2013-03-01

    Here, we describe a new kathlaniid nematode, Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov., from the large intestine of Odontophrynus cf. barrioi (Anura: Cycloramphidae), from San Juan Province, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Falcaustra group that possesses a pseudosucker. It resembles F. andrias in the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (six precloacal, four adcloacal, 12 postcloacal, one unpaired median anterior to the cloaca) but differs from F. andrias in the following characters: the longer size of males and females (11.17-13.45 mm and 10.1-15.5 mm, respectively); the longer size and form of the gubernaculum (0.17-0.23 mm, triangular form); the arrangement of postcloacal papillae (three pairs on the ventral side, two pairs on the lateral side, one pair on the subventral side) and unpaired papilla anterior to the cloaca located on the protuberance. The species description is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov. represents the 12th Neotropical species assigned to the genus. Also, we added a key to Neotropical species of Falcaustra.

  19. Burrow systems of mole-rats as refuges for frogs in the Miombo woodlands of south-east Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, J.; Jirků, Miloslav; Šumbera, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, MAR (2016), s. 158-161 ISSN 0266-4674 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aestivation * Anura * Bathyergidae * commensalism * ecosystem engineer * Malawi * subterranean rodent * Zambia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2016

  20. Measurement and Evaluation of Wear Frogs Switches ŽSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urda Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the measurement and evaluation of wear frogs switches ZSR. One of the main problems is the oversize wear. The possibilities analysis of this problem is offered through a set of switches and monitoring of selected parameters. One of these parameters is also monitoring the vertical wear

  1. Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Vos, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Orientation is a key component to successful movements between habitats. We hypothesized that barren agricultural landscapes hinder the ability of frogs to orient and move between habitats. Specifically, we predicted that when presented with a choice between a short route through a hostile

  2. Noxious toads and frogs of South Africa | Pantanowitz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toad (Bufo and Schismademra pecies), the amphibian with which man and his pets most frequently have contact, secrete potent toxins with cardiac glycoside activity. Topical and systemic intoxication, while seen in humans, remains predominantly a veterinary problem. Intoxication by the red-banded rubber frog, which ...

  3. Research on moving object detection based on frog's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongwei; Li, Dongguang; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of object's information processing mechanism with frog's eyes, this paper discussed a bionic detection technology which suitable for object's information processing based on frog's vision. First, the bionics detection theory by imitating frog vision is established, it is an parallel processing mechanism which including pick-up and pretreatment of object's information, parallel separating of digital image, parallel processing, and information synthesis. The computer vision detection system is described to detect moving objects which has special color, special shape, the experiment indicates that it can scheme out the detecting result in the certain interfered background can be detected. A moving objects detection electro-model by imitating biologic vision based on frog's eyes is established, the video simulative signal is digital firstly in this system, then the digital signal is parallel separated by FPGA. IN the parallel processing, the video information can be caught, processed and displayed in the same time, the information fusion is taken by DSP HPI ports, in order to transmit the data which processed by DSP. This system can watch the bigger visual field and get higher image resolution than ordinary monitor systems. In summary, simulative experiments for edge detection of moving object with canny algorithm based on this system indicate that this system can detect the edge of moving objects in real time, the feasibility of bionic model was fully demonstrated in the engineering system, and it laid a solid foundation for the future study of detection technology by imitating biologic vision.

  4. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a 13 C-fatty acid and a 15 N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ 13 C and δ 15 N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. A new grass frog from Namibia | Channing | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...

  6. Biophysics of underwater hearing in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elepfandt, A

    1995-01-01

    Anesthetized clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were stimulated with underwater sound and the tympanic disk vibrations were studied using laser vibrometry. The tympanic disk velocities ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 mm/s (at a sound pressure of 2 Pa) in the frequency range of 0.4-4 kHz and were 20-40 dB higher...

  7. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  8. Vectorcardiogram of the 'Man-Frog' | Skowron | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest electrodes from a man and from a frog are connected simultaneously to an oscilloscope - the one to the vertical and the other to the horizontal plates - and the resulting display observed. It consists of a loop, the interpretation of which is discussed, and the conclusion is reached that the presently held vector theory ...

  9. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  10. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Kielgast, Jos; Svart, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    interviewed by phone and 10 cases were examined on suspicion of diseaseinduced mortality. All samples were negative for Bd. Ranavirus was isolated from 2 samples of recently dead frogs collected during a mass mortality event in an artificial pond near Slagelse, Denmark. The identity of the virus was confirmed...

  11. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  12. Alkaloids from Australian frogs (Myobatrachidae): pseudophrynamines and pumiliotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Garraffo, H M; Pannell, L K; Spande, T F; Severini, C; Erspamer, V

    1990-01-01

    Australian frogs of the genus Pseudophryne contain two distinct classes of alkaloids. The pseudophrynamine class (3a-prenyl pyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles) are unique to this genus of frogs of the family Myobatrachidae, while the pumiliotoxin-A class (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-alkylidene-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes) also occur in dendrobatid frogs of the genera Dendrobates, Epipedobates, and Minyobates, in ranid frogs of the genus Mantella, and in bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus. All seven species of Pseudophryne examined contain both classes of alkaloids. The pseudophrynamines were the predominant class in both species (Pseudophryne guentheri and Pseudophryne occidentalis) from Western Australia, while all of the eastern species (Pseudophryne australis, Pseudophryne bibronii, Pseudophryne coriacea, Pseudophryne corroboree, and Pseudophryne semimarmorata) contained significant amounts of both pseudophrynamines and pumiliotoxins. Pumiliotoxins, in particular pumiliotoxin B, were predominant in two eastern species (P. australis and a southern population of P. corroboree), while pseudophrynamines were dominant in P. bibronii, four of six populations of P. coriacea, one population of P. semimarmorata, and a northern population of P. corroboree. Structures are proposed for several new alkaloids of the pseudophrynamine class.

  13. WEAKLY SYNCHRYRONIZED SUBPOPULATION DYNAMICS IN WISCONSIN FROGS AND TOADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a topic of increasing interest in basic and applied ecology. We used data from 18 years of frog and toad calling surveys conducted throughout Wisconsin to determine the level of intraspecific synchrony among survey sites, and the relat...

  14. How Can We Tell if Frogs Jump Further?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Gordon B.; Tom, Brian D. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective is training frogs to jump? This is perhaps the most frequent question in biology that is subjected to statistical analysis: does a treatment make a difference? One can examine whether there is indeed a training effect, by first assuming the opposite. That is, the authors assume that training has no effect on the mean distance jumped.…

  15. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Veeranagoudar D K, Shanbhag B A and Saidapur S K 2004 Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis: Experimental evidence for the ideal free distribution; J. Biosci. 29 201–207]. 1. Introduction. The ecological success of organisms largely depends on their ability to adjust their foraging tactics to ...

  16. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Edible Frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Imnoi, Kamonchai

    2017-01-01

    Ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in Denmark and Italy. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), common midwife toad...

  17. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  18. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  19. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  20. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  1. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most aquatic genus in feeding and locomotion is Xenopus (Van Dijk 1971b), yet even these frogs are known to migrate overland in response to drying of the water (Hewitt & Power 1913;. Loveridge 1953). This phenomenon has been observed in the case of Xenopus laevis in Rhodesia in recent years. On 10 April 1970 ...

  2. Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Chinese piebald odorous frog ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for Endangered Wildlife, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058,. People's Republic of China. [Wang Y. and Ding P. 2011 Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Chinese piebald odorous frog (Odorrana schmackeri). J. Genet. 90, e44–e46. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e44.pdf]. Introduction.

  3. Colour patterning in the skin of the reed-frog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-12-08

    Dec 8, 1985 ... A collec1ion 01 37 Natal reed·frogs, HyperoJius marmoratus, from a single locality was studied for their dorsal colour pattems. Data were assembled on the spectrophotometry, the structure and distribution of ttie chromato· phores by means of light and electron microscopy, and the features of colour ...

  4. Drying kinetics of pre-osmosed fresh water frog ( Dicroglossus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying kinetics of frog (Dicroglossus occipitalis) was conducted using convective oven dryer. The results were fitted into three thin-layer models; Lewis, Henderson and Page models. The constants and coefficients of the various models used were evaluated using non-linear regression methods, and the results show that ...

  5. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  6. Cryoprotectant Production in Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frogs Is Augmented by Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Don J; Barnes, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Ice nucleation across the skin of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) rapidly induces endogenous production of glucose, a cryoprotectant necessary for freeze tolerance. In laboratory studies of freeze tolerance, wood frogs are cooled slowly, often at -0.05°C h(-1), to facilitate high cryoprotectant production and survival. Under natural conditions in Alaska, however, wood frogs accumulate maximal tissue glucose concentrations while cooling at much faster rates, -0.35° to -1.6°C h(-1), and in addition undergo multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles before remaining frozen for the winter. We examined whether simulating these ecologically relevant cooling rates and repeated freeze-thaw events in captive wood frogs results in the high glucose concentrations found in naturally frozen wood frogs. We found that over successive freezing and thawing events, glucose concentrations increased stepwise in all measured tissues. Short thawing periods did not result in a statistically significant decline of glucose concentrations. Wood frogs that experienced three freeze-thaw events had fresh weight glucose concentrations that approached values found in tissues of wood frogs frozen in natural conditions. Laboratory wood frogs survive frozen for 2 mo, while wood frogs frozen under natural conditions survive frozen for up to 7 mo at temperatures below -18°C. We hypothesize that repeated freeze-thaw cycles with rapid cooling and warming rates allow for greater survival in Alaskan wood frogs through enhanced cryoprotectant production.

  7. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-02-10

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  8. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  9. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920) (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a ...

  10. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated th...

  11. A new caruncle-bearing Limnonectes (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Stuart, Bryan L

    2015-05-08

    A new species of the dicroglossid frog genus Limnonectes is described from Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Limnonectes lauhachindai sp. nov. differs from its congeners by having males with a low-profiled, U-shaped caruncle with free posterior margin that completely occupies, but does not extend beyond, the interobital region. The new species is most closely related to L. gyldenstolpei and L. dabanus. Its description brings the total number of caruncle-bearing species of Limnonectes to five.

  12. A New Species of the Fejervarya limnocharis Complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is di...

  13. Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi & Niemeyer, 2003) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae): New distribution records

    OpenAIRE

    Sugai, José; Souza, Franco; Filho, Paulo; Sczesny-Moraes, Eurico

    2014-01-01

    Rhinella scitula is a small frog belonging to the R. margaritifera group that is found in southwestern and central Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and in the provinces of Amambay and Concepcion in Paraguay. We extend the distribution of the species across the north and the southeast prior distribution limit, and provide an updated map. The distribution of R. scitula encompasses mainly areas with seasonal forests and mountainous landscape in central-western Brazil and northeastern Paraguay.

  14. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  15. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-11-04

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat.

  16. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae) at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elodie A. Courtois; Kevin Pineau; Benoit Villette; Dirk S. Schmeller; Philippe Gaucher

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues) of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence...

  17. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  18. Adaptive response in frogs chronically exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audette-Stuart, M.; Kim, S.B.; McMullin, D.; Festarini, A.; Yankovich, T.L.; Carr, J.; Mulpuru, S.

    2011-01-01

    Using the micronucleus assay, decreased levels of DNA damage were found after high dose ionizing radiation exposure of liver cells taken from frogs inhabiting a natural environment with above-background levels of ionizing radiation, compared to cells taken from frogs inhabiting background areas. The data obtained from a small number of animals suggest that stress present in the above-background environment could induce an adaptive response to ionizing radiation. This study did not reveal harmful effects of exposure to low levels of radioactivity. On the contrary, stress present in the above-background area may serve to enhance cellular defense mechanisms. - Highlights: → Frogs were collected from background and higher tritium level habitats. → The micronucleus assay was conducted on liver cells obtained from the frogs. → No detrimental effects were noted in frogs exposed to elevated tritium. → Adaptive responses were observed in frogs exposed to elevated tritium.

  19. Adaptive response in frogs chronically exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audette-Stuart, M., E-mail: stuartm@aecl.ca [Environmental Technologies Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1P0 (Canada); Kim, S.B.; McMullin, D.; Festarini, A.; Yankovich, T.L.; Carr, J.; Mulpuru, S. [Environmental Technologies Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1P0 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Using the micronucleus assay, decreased levels of DNA damage were found after high dose ionizing radiation exposure of liver cells taken from frogs inhabiting a natural environment with above-background levels of ionizing radiation, compared to cells taken from frogs inhabiting background areas. The data obtained from a small number of animals suggest that stress present in the above-background environment could induce an adaptive response to ionizing radiation. This study did not reveal harmful effects of exposure to low levels of radioactivity. On the contrary, stress present in the above-background area may serve to enhance cellular defense mechanisms. - Highlights: > Frogs were collected from background and higher tritium level habitats. > The micronucleus assay was conducted on liver cells obtained from the frogs. > No detrimental effects were noted in frogs exposed to elevated tritium. > Adaptive responses were observed in frogs exposed to elevated tritium.

  20. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  1. Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E; Canestrelli, D; Vörös, J; Szabó, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J; Kidov, A A; Cogălniceanu, D; Caputo, F P; Nascetti, G; Martínez-Solano, I

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). We obtained a fully-resolved topology, with the recently described Bufo eichwaldi from the Talysh Mountains in south Azerbaijan and Iran as the sister taxon to a clade including: (1) north African, Iberian, and most French populations, referred herein to Bufo spinosus based on the implied inclusion of populations from its type locality and (2) a second clade, sister to B. spinosus, including two sister subclades: one with all samples of Bufo verrucosissimus from the Caucasus and another one with samples of B. bufo from northern France to Russia, including the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas and most of Anatolia. Coalescent-based estimations of time to most recent common ancestors for each species and selected subclades allowed historical reconstruction of the diversification of the species group in the context of Mediterranean paleogeography and indicated a long evolutionary history in this region. Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  3. Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling; Zhao, Peng; Di, Sheng; He, Bingsheng; Jin, Hai

    2018-01-01

    GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and

  4. A siphonotid millipede (Rhinotus) as the source of spiropyrrolizidine oximes of dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, R A; Donnelly, M A; Hoffman, R L; Garraffo, H M; Daly, J W

    2003-12-01

    Poison frogs of the neotropical family Dendrobatidae contain a wide variety of lipophilic alkaloids, which are accumulated from alkaloid-containing arthropods. A small millipede, Rhinotus purpureus (Siphonotidae), occurs microsympatrically with the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates pumilio on Isla Bastimentos, Bocas del Toro Province, Panamá. Methanol extracts of this millipede contain the spiropyrrolizidine O-methyloxime 236, an alkaloid previously known only from skin extracts of poison frogs, including populations of D. pumilio. Thus, R. purpureus represents a likely dietary source of such alkaloids in dendrobatid frogs.

  5. Eugenol Anesthesia in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) of Different Body Weights

    OpenAIRE

    Goulet, Félix; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis frogs of different body weights relative to exposure time in a eugenol (350 µL/L) bath. Two groups of 5 female frogs each weighing 7.5 ± 2.1 g (small frogs) or 29.2 ± 7.4 g (medium frogs) were used. The acetic acid test (AAT), withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation were used to evaluate CNS depression after eugenol bath administration. No responses to the ...

  6. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  7. Helmintos parásitos de Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Lima, Perú Helminth parasites of Telmatobius jelskii (Peters (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.

  8. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  9. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailov, M.C.; Prechter, I.; Greimel, H.; Welscher, U.E.

    1983-01-01

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  10. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  11. The rediscovered Hula painted frog is a living fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Rebecca; Geffen, Eli; Vences, Miguel; Cohen, Orly; Bailon, Salvador; Rabinovich, Rivka; Malka, Yoram; Oron, Talya; Boistel, Renaud; Brumfeld, Vlad; Gafny, Sarig

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian declines are seen as an indicator of the onset of a sixth mass extinction of life on earth. Because of a combination of factors such as habitat destruction, emerging pathogens and pollutants, over 156 amphibian species have not been seen for several decades, and 34 of these were listed as extinct by 2004. Here we report the rediscovery of the Hula painted frog, the first amphibian to have been declared extinct. We provide evidence that not only has this species survived undetected in its type locality for almost 60 years but also that it is a surviving member of an otherwise extinct genus of alytid frogs, Latonia, known only as fossils from Oligocene to Pleistocene in Europe. The survival of this living fossil is a striking example of resilience to severe habitat degradation during the past century by an amphibian.

  12. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  13. The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M; Gilchrist, Michael J; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M; Mead, Paul E; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D; Warren, Wesley C; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Zorn, Aaron M; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K; Richardson, Paul M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-04-30

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  15. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  16. The role of predator selection on polymorphic aposematic poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Brice P; Comeault, Aaron A

    2009-02-23

    Demonstrations of interactions between diverse selective forces on bright coloration in defended species are rare. Recent work has suggested that not only do the bright colours of Neotropical poison frogs serve to deter predators, but they also play a role in sexual selection, with females preferring males similar to themselves. These studies report an interaction between the selective forces of mate choice and predation. However, evidence demonstrating phenotypic discrimination by potential predators on these polymorphic species is lacking. The possibility remains that visual (avian) predators possess an inherent avoidance of brightly coloured diurnal anurans and purifying selection against novel phenotypes within populations is due solely to non-random mating. Here, we examine the influence of predation on phenotypic variation in a polymorphic species of poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius. Using clay models, we demonstrate a purifying role for predator selection, as brightly coloured novel forms are more likely to suffer an attack than both local aposematic and cryptic forms. Additionally, local aposematic forms are attacked, though infrequently, indicating ongoing testing/learning and a lack of innate avoidance. These results demonstrate predator-driven phenotypic purification within populations and suggest colour patterns of poison frogs may truly represent a 'magic trait'.

  17. Radioimmunoassay for plasma corticotropin in frogs (Rana esculenta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudry, H.; Vague, P.; Dupont, W.; Leboulenger, F.; Vaillant, R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed for measuring frog plasma corticotropin (ACTH) without prior extraction. Using synthetic porcine ACTH as a reference standard, 131 I-labeled synthetic human ACTH (sp act greater than 500 mCi/mg) as tracer and rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum, the lower measurable value was estimated at about 4 pg ACTH. Only human and porcine ACTH, ACTH, and frog pituitary ACTH reacted with the rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum. No cross-reactivity has been found with synthetic ACTH, αMSH, and bovine βMSH. Appearance of damaged 131 I-h ACTH components after storage in plasma solutions was followed for 7 days. The conditions making it possible to reduce ACTH damage have been ascertained. The average plasma corticotropin level (+- CI) was found to be 38.8 +- 7.8 pg/ml without any significant difference between males and females. These results suggest that frog ACTH secretion has much in common with mammalian secretions

  18. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  19. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Miera, Verma; Conlon, J Michael

    2002-09-20

    Populations of the Tarahumara frog Rana tarahumarae have decreased markedly in recent years in the northern part of their range. Infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines. To determine whether antimicrobial peptides in the skin provide protection against this pathogen, norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of B. dendrobatidis in vitro. After concentration, crude mixtures of skin peptides inhibited the growth of the chytrid in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis led to the identification and characterization of three peptides belonging to the brevinin-1 family of antimicrobial peptides and three belonging to the ranatuerin-2 family. The two most abundant peptides, ranatuerin-2TRa (GIMDSIKGAAKEIAGHLLDNLKCKITGC) and brevinin-1TRa (FLPVIAGIAANVLPKLFCKLTKRC), were active against B. dendrobatidis (MIC of 50 microM for ranatuerin-2TRa and 12.5 microM for brevinin-1TRa against zoospores). These data clearly show that antimicrobial peptides in the skin secretions of the Tarahumara frog are active against B. dendrobatidis and should provide some protection against infection. Therefore, the observed susceptibility of these frogs to this pathogen in the wild may be due to the effects of additional environmental factors that impair this innate defense mechanism, leading to the observed population declines.

  1. Polyandry, Predation, and the Evolution of Frog Reproductive Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Kelly R; Bell, Rayna C; Nali, Renato C; Haddad, Célio F B; Prado, Cynthia P A

    2016-09-01

    Frog reproductive modes are complex phenotypes that include egg/clutch characteristics, oviposition site, larval development, and sometimes, parental care. Two evident patterns in the evolution of these traits are the higher diversity of reproductive modes in the tropics and the apparent progression from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction, often attributed to higher fitness resulting from decreased predation on terrestrial eggs and tadpoles. Here, we propose that sexual selection-and not only natural selection due to predation-favors terrestrial breeding by reducing the loss of fitness due to polyandry. To examine this novel selective mechanism, we reconstructed the evolution of reproductive diversity in two frog families (Hylidae and Leptodactylidae) and tested for concerted evolution of egg and tadpole development sites with specific mating behaviors. We found that oviposition and tadpole development sites are evolving independently, do not show the same diversity and/or directionality in terms of terrestriality, and thus may be diversifying due to different selective mechanisms. In both families, terrestrial egg deposition is correlated with amplexus that is hidden from competing males, and in hylids, testes mass was significantly larger and more variable in males with exposed amplexus that are vulnerable to polyandry. Our results indicate that intrasexual selection has been an underappreciated mechanism promoting diversification of frog reproductive modes.

  2. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  3. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia) commercialized in France

    OpenAIRE

    Ohler, Annemarie; Nicolas, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya ca...

  4. ANURA: RANIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response to auditory rather than visual cues. In situations where closely spaced calling males were separated by a dense grass tussock and thereby effectively screened from one another, the call was believed to be aurally elicited. Outright aggression has not been observed in this species. The can type here designated as ...

  5. Anura: Bufonidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distal element appears to be a normal terminal phalanx, but the derivation of the proximal element is in ... no evidence whatever of discrete bony elements in any of the three digits, each possessing merely a single ... Localized osteoporosis is an interesting feature of two of the cases described here. The condition was not ...

  6. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species Act... California red-legged frog on the property subject to the Agreement (Enrolled Property), which is owned and...

  7. Protamine-like sperm nuclear basic proteins in the primitive frog Ascaphus truei and histone reversions among more advanced frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinsky, H E; Gutovich, L; Kulak, D; Mackay, M; Green, D M; Hunt, J; Ausio, J

    1999-12-01

    Sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs) that condense chromatin are very diverse. In animals, evolution of SNBPs has proceeded from lysine-rich histone H type in sponges to more arginine-rich protamine-like PL and protamine P types. Yet sporadic PL/P to H reversions are known to occur in both protostomes and deuterostomes. To determine why this is the case, we have examined SNBPs in eleven anuran species. We find that sperm of the primitive, internally fertilizing archeobatrachian frog A. truei (family Ascaphidae) has PL/P type (42 mol % arginine), with an electrophoretic profile similar to SNBPs in another archeobatrachian, externally fertilizing Leiopelma hochstetteri (family Leiopelmatidae). Cytochemistry of sperm nuclei in the advanced, externally fertilizing neobatrachian frogs Crinia signifera and C. deserticola (family Myobatrachidae) indicates that they have reverted to H type SNBPs. This is also known to be the case in externally fertilizing Rana (family Ranidae) and Silurana, a subgenus of Xenopus (family Pipidae). Such a trend, from PL/P type SNBPs in two archeobatrachians to sporadic reversions to H type in more advanced frogs, parallels the ultrastructural simplification from complex A. truei introsperm to neobatrachian aquasperm that Jamieson et al. (1993. Herpetologica 49:52-65) attribute as a secondary reversion to external fertilization.

  8. Frog ANP increases the amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel activity in urinary bladder cells of Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels (ENaC) activated by fANP in epithelial cells of frog urinary bladder by using a cell-attached patch-clamp technique. ENaC activities in the epithelial cells were significantly increased following administration of both 10(-9)M fANP and 10(-5)M 8-Br-cGMP. Both fANP and 8-Br-cGMP, however, failed to activate the ENaC in the presence of 10(-6)M amiloride. In addition, 8-Br-cGMP failed to activate the ENaC in the presence of a PKA inhibitor, KT-5720. In the next experiment, we measured both cGMP and cAMP production levels after treatment of fANP on the frog urinary bladder cells. Frog ANP significantly increased cGMP production, but not the cAMP production. Taken together, these results suggest that fANP activates ENaC through increases in cGMP production and activation of PKA.

  9. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  10. A new species of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is differentiated by relatively smaller forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths. Taxonomic problems of Fejervarya populations occurring in Central Ryukyus, continental China, and Taiwan are discussed.

  11. Antipredator Behaviour of Limnonectes blythii (Boulenger, 1920 (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriza Shahrudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Limnonectes blythii was collected at different locations in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, three from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, two from Bukit Hijau Recreational Forest, and two from Ulu Paip Recreational Forest. Nine antipredator mechanisms were displayed by this species, including fleeing, hiding among leaf litter, diving into water, bladder discharge, defensive call, feigning death, crouching, inflating the body, and body-raising. The two latter actions were accompanied by a defensive call. These observations document for the first time antipredator behaviour in L. blythii.

  12. Complex and transitive synchronization in a frustrated system of calling frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Takeda, Ryu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Takahashi, Toru; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    This letter reports synchronization phenomena and mathematical modeling on a frustrated system of living beings, or Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). While an isolated male Japanese tree frog calls nearly periodically, he can hear sounds including calls of other males. Therefore, the spontaneous calling behavior of interacting males can be understood as a system of coupled oscillators. We construct a simple but biologically reasonable model based on the experimental results of two frogs, extend the model to a system of three frogs, and theoretically predict the occurrence of rich synchronization phenomena, such as triphase synchronization and 1:2 antiphase synchronization. In addition, we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction by ethological experiments on the calling behavior of three frogs and time series analysis on recorded sound data. Note that the calling behavior of three male Japanese tree frogs is frustrated because almost perfect antiphase synchronization is robustly observed in a system of two male frogs. Thus, nonlinear dynamics of the three-frogs system should be far from trivial.

  13. Determination of age, longevity and age at reproduction of the frog ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    separately in plastic bags and placed in 5 different aquaria. Each frog was anaesthetized (using anaesthetic ether), the body mass and SVL were recorded; the 4th toe of each of the hind limbs was clipped, fixed in 10% formalin and numbered serially. Six large sized frogs were used for skeletochronology of the long bones ...

  14. Bacterial flora on Cascades frogs in the Klamath Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Pope

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines due in part to the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Some symbiotic bacteria residents on frog skin have been shown to inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitis (Bd) but few studies have attempted to fully describe the resident bacterial flora of frog skin. We cultured and sequenced 130...

  15. Alkaloids in the mite Scheloribates laevigatus: further alkaloids common to oribatid mites and poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Garraffo, Hugo Martin; Spande, Thomas F

    2011-02-01

    Poison frogs are chemically defended from predators by diverse alkaloids, almost all of which are sequestered unchanged from alkaloid-containing arthropods in the frog diet. Oribatid mites recently have been proposed as a major dietary source of poison frog alkaloids. Here, we report on alkaloids common to an oribatid mite and poison frogs. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of methanol extracts of adult Scheloribates laevigatus (Oribatida: Scheloribatidae) revealed nine alkaloids. Five of these have been detected previously in the skin glands of poison frogs: two isomers of the pumiliotoxin 291G, two isomers of the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 209C, and the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 195G. The other four alkaloids, a pumiliotoxin, a tricyclic (coccinelline-like), and two isomers of an izidine, were not previously known, but are similar in structure to alkaloids found in poison frogs. Alkaloids were not detected in immature S. laevigatus, suggesting that they are adult-specific and possibly the result of mite biosynthesis. Although most of the alkaloids detected in S. laevigatus are common to poison frogs, the geographic distributions of these organisms are not sympatric. The findings of this study indicate that oribatid mites, and in particular, members of the genus Scheloribates, represent a relatively unexplored arthropod repository for alkaloids and a significant dietary source of alkaloids in poison frogs.

  16. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  17. Breeding chorus indices are weakly related to estimated abundance of boreal chorus frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Stephen Corn; Erin Muths; Amanda M. Kissel; Rick D. Scherer

    2011-01-01

    Call surveys used to monitor breeding choruses of anuran amphibians generate index values that are frequently used to represent the number of male frogs present, but few studies have quantified this relationship. We compared abundance of male Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata), estimated using capture-recapture methods in two populations in Colorado, to call...

  18. Prevalence of endo-parasites of common tree frog Rana saharica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was conducted to detect the prevalence of parasitic infection among (62) common tree frogs (Rana Saharica), of different ages, with weights ranged between 1 and 25g. Results: The results revealed that 61 (98%) out of 62 examined common frogs were infected with endo-parasites. The prevalence of ...

  19. How the environment shapes animal signals: a test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, S; Dubois, A; Howard, S D; Márquez, R; Rowley, J J L; Dehling, J M; Grandcolas, P; Xiong, R C; Legendre, F

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance acoustic signals are widely used in animal communication systems and, in many cases, are essential for reproduction. The acoustic adaptation hypothesis (AAH) implies that acoustic signals should be selected for further transmission and better content integrity under the acoustic constraints of the habitat in which they are produced. In this study, we test predictions derived from the AAH in frogs. Specifically, we focus on the difference between torrent frogs and frogs calling in less noisy habitats. Torrents produce sounds that can mask frog vocalizations and constitute a major acoustic constraint on call evolution. We combine data collected in the field, material from scientific collections and the literature for a total of 79 primarily Asian species, of the families Ranidae, Rhacophoridae, Dicroglossidae and Microhylidae. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and including morphological and environmental potential confounding factors, we investigate putatively adaptive call features in torrent frogs. We use broad habitat categories as well as fine-scale habitat measurements and test their correlation with six call characteristics. We find mixed support for the AAH. Spectral features of torrent frog calls are different from those of frogs calling in other habitats and are related to ambient noise levels, as predicted by the AAH. However, temporal call features do not seem to be shaped by the frogs' calling habitats. Our results underline both the complexity of call evolution and the need to consider multiple factors when investigating this issue. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs I. A momentum-impulse approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauwelaerts, S; Stamhuis, EJ; Aerts, P

    Frogs are animals that are capable of locomotion in two physically different media, aquatic and terrestrial. A comparison of the kinematics of swimming frogs in a previous study revealed a difference in propulsive impulse between jumping and swimming. To explore this difference further, we

  1. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs II. Application of a vortex ring model to DPIV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, E.J.; Nauwelaerts, S.

    Frogs propel themselves by kicking water backwards using a synchronised extension of their hind limbs and webbed feet. To understand this propulsion process, we quantified the water movements and displacements resulting from swimming in the green frog Rana esculenta, applying digital particle image

  2. The toxicity of Poison Dart Frog alkaloids against the Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These alkaloids are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, and are generally are believed to deter vertebrate predators. We developed a method to put ind...

  3. Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Mellison, Chad; Galvan, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    The Toiyabe population of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris, hereafter "Toiyabe frogs") is a geographically isolated population located in central Nevada (fig. 1). The Toiyabe population is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment of Columbia spotted frogs, and is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The cluster of breeding sites in central Nevada represents the southernmost extremity of the Columbia spotted frogs' known range (Funk and others, 2008). Toiyabe frogs are known to occur in seven drainages in Nye County, Nevada: Reese River, Cow Canyon Creek, Ledbetter Canyon Creek, Cloverdale Creek, Stewart Creek, Illinois Creek, and Indian Valley Creek. Most of the Toiyabe frog population resides in the Reese River, Indian Valley Creek, and Cloverdale Creek drainages (fig. 1; Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). Approximately 90 percent of the Toiyabe frogs' habitat is on public land. Most of the public land habitat (95 percent) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), while the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages the remainder. Additional Toiyabe frog habitat is under Yomba Shoshone Tribal management and in private ownership (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). The BLM, USFS, Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Natural Heritage Program (NNHP), Nye County, and U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have monitored the Toiyabe population since 2004 using mark and recapture surveys (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2004). The USFWS contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce population estimates using these data.

  4. Helminth Community of Tree frogs at the Okomu National Park, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tree frogs of the Okomu National Park were investigated for their helminth parasitic infections. The 24 species of tree frogs encountered belonged to the families Arthroleptidae, Hyperoliidae, Ranidae and Rhacophoridae. The helminth parasites encountered in the study included: Cestoda: Baerietta sp. (7.4%); ...

  5. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  6. Radioautographic and histologic investigation of skin in young and old frogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kook Bon; You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    Age differences in the skin structure have been studied in young (one year-old) and aged (five and a half year- old) frogs, Xenopus laevis. The epidermis in young frogs is made up of an average of 6.3 and 4.7 layers of epithelial cells at abdominal and dorsal surfaces, respectively. In aged frogs, the number of respective cell layers at abdominal and dorsal surfaces increases to 8.8 and 5.6. The thickness of the dermis (spongiosum) in aged frogs is decrease d 25% on the abdominal side (from 267 μm to 207 μm) but is increased by 11% on the dorsal side (from 275 μm to 305 μm). The nucleolar index and 3H-uridine incorporation, as judged by radioautography, by epithelial cells are drastically reduced in aged frogs.

  7. Isolation of Brucella inopinata-Like Bacteria from White's and Denny's Tree Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masanobu; Une, Yumi; Suzuki, Michio; Park, Eun-Sil; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and B. sp. strain BO2 isolated from human patients, respectively, are genetically different from classical Brucella species. We isolated bacteria of the genus Brucella from two species of wild-caught tropical frogs kept in the facilities in Japan: White's tree frog, which inhabits Oceania, and Denny's tree frog, which inhabits Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis showed that two isolates of Brucella spp. showed significant similarity to BO1, BO2, and the isolates from other wild-caught frogs. These results suggest that a variety of frog species are susceptible to a novel clade of Brucella bacteria, including B. inopinata.

  8. Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Biju

    Full Text Available Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae, this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecular data, consisting of two nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments for all known rhacophorid genera, to investigate the phylogenetic position of these new frogs. Our analyses identify a previously overlooked, yet distinct evolutionary lineage of frogs that warrants recognition as a new genus and is here described as Frankixalus gen. nov. This genus, which contains the enigmatic 'Polypedates' jerdonii described by Günther in 1876, forms the sister group of a clade containing Kurixalus, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Mercurana and Beddomixalus. The distinctiveness of this evolutionary lineage is also corroborated by the external morphology of adults and tadpoles, adult osteology, breeding ecology, and life history features.

  9. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  10. Another Chloromyxid Lineage: Molecular Phylogeny and Redescription of Chloromyxum careni from the Asian Horned frog Megophrys nasuta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Mutschmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2011), s. 50-59 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Chloromyxum careni * LSU rDNA * Megophrys nasuta * molecular phylogeny * Myxozoa * redescription * SSU rDNA * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2011

  11. Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger (Anura, Hylidae: variación, distribución y sinonimia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger, 1913 es el nombre válido más reciente para una especie hylida de rana Phyllomedusina que habita los bosques tropicales de tierras bajas y premontanos del Pacífico, desde el sur de Costa Rica hasta el centro-occidente de Ecuador. Presento datos que apoyan la ubicación de Agalychnis litodryas Duellman & Trueb, 1967 como un sinónimo junior de A. spurrelli. Agalychnis spurrelli es una rana medianamente grande con extensas membranas interdigitales que se distingue de otras especies del género Agalychnis por tener los flancos y extremidades uniformemente amarillo, anaranjado, rosado pálido o morado pálido, sin barras oscuras. Su dorso es verde, comúnmente con verrugas pustulares bordeadas de negro.Agalychnis spurrelli Boulenger, 1913 is the earliest available name for a hylid species of Phyllomedusin frogs that inhabit the lowland and pre-montane tropical forests on the Pacific coast, from southern Costa Rica to central-western Ecuador. I present data that support the placement of Agalychnis litodryas Duellman & Trueb, 1967 as a junior synonym of A. spurrelli. Agalychnis spurrelli is a medium-large sized frog with extensive interdigital membrane that is distinguished from other species of the genus Agalychnis by having the flanks and limbs uniformly yellow, orange, pale rose or pale purple, without dark stripes. The dorsum is green, usually with black-bordered pustular white warts.

  12. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: Interspecific differences in take-off and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephen M; Montuelle, Stephane J; Schmidt, André; Krause, Cornelia; Naylor, Emily; Essner, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing. Frogs with forelimb landing radiated into many forms, locomotor modes, habitats, and niches with controlled landing thought to improve escape behavior. While the biology of take-off behavior has seen considerable study, interspecific comparisons of take-off and landing behavior are limited. In order to understand the evolution of jumping and controlled landing in frogs, data are needed on the movements of the limbs and body across an array of taxa. Here, we present the first description and comparison of kinematics of the hindlimbs, forelimbs and body during take-off and landing in relation to ground reaction forces in four frog species spanning the frog phylogeny. The goal of this study is to understand what interspecific differences reveal about the evolution of take-off and controlled landing in frogs. We provide the first comparative description of the entire process of jumping in frogs. Statistical comparisons identify both homologous behaviors and significant differences among species that are used to map patterns of trait evolution and generate hypotheses regarding the functional evolution of take-off and landing in frogs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  15. Isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria from Japanese tree frog (Hlya japonica) with the special reference to anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benno, Y; Izumi-Kurotani, A; Yamashita, M

    1992-08-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of eight Japanese tree frogs (Hlya japonica) were enumerated by using an anaerobic culture system. The microorganisms at approximately 3.1 x 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents were present in the intestine of all the frogs tested. No difference of the total bacteria in the frog intestine was observed between two different incubation-temperatures (room temperature and 37 degrees C). Eleven genera and 16 species were isolated from the frog intestine. In most frogs, Bacteroides (B.) caccae and B. vulgatus were detected as the predominant organisms. Escherichia coli was also present in greater numbers in the intestine. Other bacteria isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including Fusobacterium and Clostridium. Enterococcus faecalis was frequently isolated from the frog intestine. However, four genera of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Lactobacillus were not isolated from the frog intestine.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  17. Alkaloid 223A: the first trisubstituted indolizidine from dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, H M; Jain, P; Spande, T F; Daly, J W

    1997-01-01

    The structure of alkaloid 223A (1), the first member of a new class of amphibian alkaloids, purified by HPLC from a skin extract of a Panamanian population of the frog Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt (Dendrobatidae) has been established as (5R,6S,8R,9S)- or (5S,6R,8S,9R)-6,8-diethyl-5-propylindolizidine, based on GC-MS, GC-FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectral studies. Three higher homologs of 223A, namely alkaloids 237L (2), 251M (3), and 267J (4), have been detected in other extracts, and tentative structures are proposed.

  18. Tactical reproductive parasitism via larval cannibalism in Peruvian poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Morales, Victor; Summers, Kyle

    2009-04-23

    We report an unusual example of reproductive parasitism in amphibians. Dendrobates variabilis, an Amazonian poison frog, oviposits at the surface of the water in small pools in plants and deposits tadpoles within the pools. Tadpoles are highly cannibalistic and consume young tadpoles if they are accessible. Deposition of embryos and tadpoles in the same pool is common. Genetic analyses indicate that tadpoles are frequently unrelated to embryos in the same pool. A pool choice experiment in the field demonstrated that males carrying tadpoles prefer to place them in pools with embryos, facilitating reproductive parasitism via cannibalism.

  19. Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from frog (Rana nigromaculata) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As the first vertebrates connecting water and land, frogs must have evolved certain specialisations. To find the difference among the collagens from amphibian, fish and mammal animals, acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from frog skin were isolated and characterised. The yield of PSC (19.59%, dry weight) was higher than that of ASC (1.83%, dry weight). The hydroxyproline-to-protein ratio of frog skin was 8.37%, which was higher than that of carp skin ASC (7.83%) but significantly lower than that of calf skin collagen (10.16%), which was in accordance with the living environment of frog. The denaturation temperature of frog skin collagens was approximately 31.5°C. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed that ASC and PSC were type I collagens. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASC and PSC retained their helical structures. The results indicated the properties of frog skin collagen were close to those of skin collagen from freshwater fish. The frog skin collagens can potentially be used in biomaterial and other fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Brandon J; Lesbarrères, David; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2018-01-01

    Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  1. Poison frog colors are honest signals of toxicity, particularly for bird predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Antipredator defenses and warning signals typically evolve in concert. However, the extensive variation across taxa in both these components of predator deterrence and the relationship between them are poorly understood. Here we test whether there is a predictive relationship between visual conspicuousness and toxicity levels across 10 populations of the color-polymorphic strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. Using a mouse-based toxicity assay, we find extreme variation in toxicity between frog populations. This variation is significantly positively correlated with frog coloration brightness, a viewer-independent measure of visual conspicuousness (i.e., total reflectance flux). We also examine conspicuousness from the view of three potential predator taxa, as well as conspecific frogs, using taxon-specific visual detection models and three natural background substrates. We find very strong positive relationships between frog toxicity and conspicuousness for bird-specific perceptual models. Weaker but still positive correlations are found for crab and D. pumilio conspecific visual perception, while frog coloration as viewed by snakes is not related to toxicity. These results suggest that poison frog colors can be honest signals of prey unpalatability to predators and that birds in particular may exert selection on aposematic signal design. © 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  2. Chasing maximal performance: a cautionary tale from the celebrated jumping frogs of Calaveras County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, H C; Abbott, E M; Azizi, E; Marsh, R L; Roberts, T J

    2013-11-01

    Maximal performance is an essential metric for understanding many aspects of an organism's biology, but it can be difficult to determine because a measured maximum may reflect only a peak level of effort, not a physiological limit. We used a unique opportunity provided by a frog jumping contest to evaluate the validity of existing laboratory estimates of maximum jumping performance in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). We recorded video of 3124 bullfrog jumps over the course of the 4-day contest at the Calaveras County Jumping Frog Jubilee, and determined jump distance from these images and a calibration of the jump arena. Frogs were divided into two groups: 'rental' frogs collected by fair organizers and jumped by the general public, and frogs collected and jumped by experienced, 'professional' teams. A total of 58% of recorded jumps surpassed the maximum jump distance in the literature (1.295 m), and the longest jump was 2.2 m. Compared with rental frogs, professionally jumped frogs jumped farther, and the distribution of jump distances for this group was skewed towards long jumps. Calculated muscular work, historical records and the skewed distribution of jump distances all suggest that the longest jumps represent the true performance limit for this species. Using resampling, we estimated the probability of observing a given jump distance for various sample sizes, showing that large sample sizes are required to detect rare maximal jumps. These results show the importance of sample size, animal motivation and physiological conditions for accurate maximal performance estimates.

  3. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  4. Mycobacterium marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, M; Tachikawa, Y; Yoshida, S; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tomita, M; Maeda, S; Wada, T; Ibi, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-01-01

    Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary radiation of earless frogs in the Andes: molecular phylogenetics and habitat shifts in high-elevation terrestrial breeding frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf von May

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The loss of hearing structures and loss of advertisement calls in many terrestrial breeding frogs (Strabomantidae living at high elevations in South America are common and intriguing phenomena. The Andean frog genus Phrynopus Peters, 1873 has undergone an evolutionary radiation in which most species lack the tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus, yet the phylogenetic relationships among species in this group remain largely unknown. Here, we present an expanded molecular phylogeny of Phrynopus that includes 24 nominal species. Our phylogeny includes Phrynopus peruanus, the type species of the genus, and 10 other species for which genetic data were previously unavailable. We found strong support for monophyly of Phrynopus, and that two nominal species—Phrynopus curator and Phrynopus nicoleae—are junior synonyms of Phrynopus tribulosus. Using X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging, we demonstrate that the absence of external hearing structures is associated with complete loss of the auditory skeletal elements (columella in at least one member of the genus. We mapped the tympanum condition on to a species tree to infer whether the loss of hearing structures took place once or multiple times. We also assessed whether tympanum condition, body size, and body shape are associated with the elevational distribution and habitat use. We identified a single evolutionary transition that involved the loss of both the tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus, which in turn is correlated with the absence of advertisement calls. We also identified several species pairs where one species inhabits the Andean grassland and the other montane forest. When accounting for phylogenetic relatedness among species, we detected a significant pattern of increasing body size with increasing elevation. Additionally, species at higher elevations tend to develop shorter limbs, shorter head, and shorter snout than species living at lower elevations. Our findings strongly suggest

  6. Evolutionary and natural history of the turtle frog, Myobatrachus gouldii, a bizarre myobatrachid frog in the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Vertucci

    Full Text Available Southwest Australia (SWA is a global biodiversity hotspot and a centre of diversity and endemism for the Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs. Myobatrachus gouldii (the turtle frog has a highly derived morphology associated with its forward burrowing behaviour, largely subterranean habit, and unusual mode of reproduction. Its sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne have restricted distributions in Western Australia with significant phylogeographic structure, leading to the recent description of a new species in the latter. In contrast, Myobatrachus is distributed widely throughout SWA over multiple climatic zones, but little is known of its population structure, geographic variation in morphology, or reproduction. We generated molecular and morphological data to test for genetic and morphological variation, and to assess whether substrate specialisation in this species may have led to phylogeographic structuring similar to that of other plant and animal taxa in SWA. We assembled sequence data for one mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA loci (3628 base pairs for 42 turtle frogs sampled throughout their range. Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed shallow phylogeographic structure in the mtDNA locus (up to 3.3% genetic distance and little variation in three of the four nDNA loci. The mtDNA haplotype network suggests five geographically allopatric groups, with no shared haplotypes between regions. These geographic patterns are congruent with several other SWA species, with genetic groups restricted to major hydrological divisions, the Swan Coastal Plain, and the Darling Scarp. The geographically structured genetic groups showed no evidence of significant morphological differentiation (242 individuals, and there was little sexual size dimorphism, but subtle differences in reproductive traits suggest more opportunistic breeding in lower rainfall zones. Call data were compared to sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne and found to be highly

  7. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aardt, W.J; Weber, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    -dormant frogs and cocoon-less dormant frogs. Treadmill (0.054 ms-1) exercising frogs consumed nearly seven times more oxygen than resting individuals (8.45 and 1.25 mmol O2 kg-1h-1, respectively). During a six-month dormancy period Pyxicephalus lost an average of 13.7% of its body mass, while plasma osmotic...... pressure increased from 231 to 320 mOsm l-1 coupled with concomitant increases in plasma sodium level, haematocrit, as well as in total Hb and metHb concentrations. Whole blood oxygen affinity was markedly higher in dormant frogs than in non-dormant resting frogs [half-saturation oxygen tensions, P50...

  8. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  9. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots. PMID:29118625

  10. Visual communication, reproductive behavior, and home range of Hylodes dactylocinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Narvaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the signaling, reproductive and courtship behaviors of the diurnal stream-dwelling frog Hylodes dactylocinus. The repertoire of visual signals of H. dactylocinus includes foot-flagging, leg-stretching, body movements, and toe-wiggling. The visual signals are performed only by males and are used to defend territories against intruders and to attract females. Home rangesize varied from 0.12 to 13.12 m2 for males (N = 44, and from 0.45 to 7.98 m2 for females (N = 24; residency time varied from one to 12 months for males, and from two to 10 months for females. During the courtship of H. dactylocinus the male gives an encounter call towards an approaching female, touches her snout, and guides her to a previously dug nest. After oviposition, the female leaves the nest and returns to her own home range; the male remains calling after concealing the nest entrance.

  11. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Moravec, Jiří; de Fraga, Rafael; de Almeida, Alexandre Pinheiro; Kaefer, Igor Luis; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16-18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572-1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  12. Toxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides on embryos and larvae of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnan, Natani; Rutkoski, Camila F; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Macagnan, Luan P; Sturza, Paola F; Hartmann, Paulo A; Hartmann, Marilia T

    2017-09-01

    It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides. The acute toxicity test (96 h) was carried out with embryos of stage 17:18 and larvae of stages 24:25. Embryos were more resistant to both pesticides than larvae. In embryo mobility assays, we found that both pesticides caused spasmodic contractions, suggestive of neurological effects. In acute toxicity assays, we found that P. gracilis is more resistant to these insecticides than other studied species.

  13. A new Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos allied to P. abditus Inger, Orlov & Darevsky, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bryan L; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Seateun, Sengvilay; Sheridan, Jennifer A

    2013-12-03

    The small rhacophorid frog Philautus abditus is geographically restricted to central Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Our fieldwork in northern Laos resulted in the discovery of a Philautus species that very closely resembles P. abditus, but is at least 330 km from the nearest known locality of that species. The Laos population differs from P. abditus in mitochondrial DNA and coloration, and is described here as a new species. Philautus nianeae sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having the combination of a hidden tympanum; no nuptial pads; smooth skin; large black spots on the hidden surfaces of the hind limbs; light venter with dark spotting; and a bronze iris. A second species of Philautus from northern Laos, P. petilus, is transferred on the basis of morphology to the genus Theloderma. 

  14. Abundance, Disposal Hypsiboas Espaciale lanciformis Natural History (Anura: Hylidae) southwest of the Venezuelan Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar Rodriguez, William; Chacon Ortiz, Andres; Duran, Rosa de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Hypsiboas lanciformis is a tree frog belonging to the albopunctatus group. Its distribution ranges from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru to Colombia and Venezuela. We studied the status of a population inhabiting the realms property of Complejo Uribante-Caparo, CORPOELEC, in Tachira state (southwestern Andean Venezuela), by monitoring their call and visual detection across transects, gathering information on their abundance; available space, and other natural history accounts. The abundance decreases as the dry season progresses, while individuals show an aggregate spatial arrangement. Individuals were vocalizing at the edges of secondary forest adjacent to disturbed areas. This species is sympatric with the hylids Hypsiboas pugnax and Scinax manriquei. Some individuals revealed the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites that might be affecting the species survivalship.

  15. A new species of genusFejervarya(Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; A Poyarkov, Nikolay; Yan, Fang; Kamtaeja, Somboon; W Murphy, Robert; Che, Jing

    2016-11-18

    We describe a new species of frog in the dicroglossid genus Fejervarya from Ban Monjong, Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial gene 16S, advertisement calls, and morphological distinctiveness support recognition of the new species. Matrilineal genealogy suggests that the new population from Chiang Mai is a sister taxon to the South Asian clade that includes F. syhadrensis , F. granosa , and F. pierrei . The new species, Fejervarya chiangmaiensis sp. nov ., differs morphologically from its congeners by its relatively small body size and proportions and the presence of dorsal warts and dermal ridges. Discovery of this new species indicates that the biodiversity of amphibians in this region remains underestimated.

  16. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  17. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  18. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  19. The genetic structure of a relict population of wood frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick; Muths, Erin; Noon, Barry; Oyler-McCance, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and the associated reduction in connectivity between habitat patches are commonly cited causes of genetic differentiation and reduced genetic variation in animal populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in a relict population of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvatica) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, where recent disturbances have altered hydrologic processes and fragmented amphibian habitat. We also estimated migration rates among subpopulations, tested for a pattern of isolation-by-distance, and looked for evidence of a recent population bottleneck. The results from the clustering algorithm in Program STRUCTURE indicated the population is partitioned into two genetic clusters (subpopulations), and this result was further supported by factorial component analysis. In addition, an estimate of FST (FST = 0.0675, P value \\0.0001) supported the genetic differentiation of the two clusters. Estimates of migration rates among the two subpopulations were low, as were estimates of genetic variability. Conservation of the population of wood frogs may be improved by increasing the spatial distribution of the population and improving gene flow between the subpopulations. Construction or restoration of wetlands in the landscape between the clusters has the potential to address each of these objectives.

  20. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  1. Superficial and deep blood vessel distribution in the frog telencephalon. Reference to morphological brain asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemali, M; Sada, E; Fiorino, L

    1990-01-01

    Nine frogs of the species "Rana esculenta" were heart perfused with Microfile Silicone Rubber. The frogs were examined both after dissection (cut with a razor blade) to study the superficial blood vessel pattern, and histologically (the Nissl staining method) to study the distribution of the deep blood capillaries. While the superficial blood vary in pattern, the deep capillaries are distributed symmetrically. This finding does not support a correlation between blood vessel pattern and morphological brain asymmetry, at least in the frog, and thus other explanations must be sought to explain brain asymmetry.

  2. Integrative taxonomy helps to reveal the mask of the genus Gynandropaa (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Junhua; Wang, Bin; Song, Zhaobin; Zhou, Caiquan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Gynandropaa within the family Dicroglossidae are typical spiny frogs whose taxonomic status has long been in doubt. We used integrative methods, involving morphological and molecular analyses, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships, and to determine identities and the geographic distribution of each valid species. We obtained DNA sequence data of 5 species of Gynandropaa (complete sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [ND2] gene, and 890 bp of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA partial sequences) from 37 localities (including the topotypes of 5 described species) and constructed Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees to examine the patterns of phylogeography. A total of 28 morphological variables were taken on 624 specimens. Three clades with clear geographic patterns were recognized: clade C (from south-western Sichuan Province and central Yunnan Province), clade E (western Guizhou Province and eastern to central Yunnan Province) and clade W (western to southern Yunnan Province). Integrating morphological characteristics and distribution information, the clades W, E and C represent Gynandropaa yunnanensis, G. phrynoides and G. sichuanensis, respectively. We draw the following conclusions: (i) the taxon G. phrynoides, formerly evaluated as a junior synonym of G. yunnanensis, is revalidated herein at the rank of species; (ii) G. liui is a junior synonym of G. sichuanensis; and (iii) G. yunnanensis is a valid species while G. bourreti is probably a subspecies of G. yunnanensis, with the distribution range from Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province. This study clears up the taxonomic status of Gynandropaa and provides important information for understanding the evolution and conservation of these spiny frogs. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Hyla inermis (Peters), a species hitherto erroneously referred to the Leptodactylid genus Cyclorana (Anura, Hylidae/Leptodactylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straughan, I.R.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extensive collections of frogs from Queensland (reported in detail, Straughan, 1966) failed to include the species Cyclorana inermis (Peters), although Slevin (1955) recorded it as abundant in central Queensland. However a widely ranging species of ground Hyla (undescribed in that

  4. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946: Distribution extension, state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    At the present work, the poorly known cycloramphid frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 is registeredin a large Atlantic forest fragment at the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The new record extends the geographicaldistribution of M. alipioi in approximately 100 km to the northeast.

  5. New records of Aparasphenodon bokermanni (Pombal, 1993) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and extension of genus range (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanette-Silva, Larissa; Farias, Douglas; Ghizoni-Jr, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Aparasphenodon bokermanni is a poorly known casque-headed tree frog found in São Paulo and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Here we provide two new records, one from Joinville, northeastern Santa Catarina, and the first record from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil, which extends to the south the range of the genus by approximately 150 km.

  6. The extraordinary biology and development of marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae) in comparison with fish, mammals, birds, amphibians and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2018-01-03

    The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis, because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis, Dendrobates auratus, Epipedobates anthonyi, Epipedobates machalilla, Epipedobates tricolor, and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae); Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Dry Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gabriela Medina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae, which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas.

  10. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  11. Further Development and Validation of the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay - Xenopus (FETAX). Phase III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bantle, John

    1996-01-01

    This interlaboratory study of the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay (FETAX) was undertaken in order to assess the repeatability and reliability of data collected under the guide published by the American Society for Testing and Materials...

  12. EVIDENCE FOR PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTINCT LEOPARD FROGS (RANA ONCA) FROM THE BORDER REGION OF NEVADA, UTAH, ARIZONA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant populations of leopard frogs exist within the Virgin River drainage and adjacent portions of the Colorado River (Black Canyon) in northwestern Arizona and southern Nevada. These populations either represent the reportedly extinct taxa Rana onca or northern, disjunct R...

  13. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies ( 3 H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound ( 3 H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the ( 3 H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand

  14. Levels of batrachotoxin and lack of sensitivity to its action in poison-dart frogs (Phyllobates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Myers, C W; Warnick, J E; Albuquerque, E X

    1980-06-20

    Batrachotoxin is present in remarkably high amounts in the skin of Phyllobates terribilis. Levels of batrachotoxin tend to be reduced when P. terribilis is maintained in captivity, but even after being confined for up to 6 years, these frogs were still at least five times more toxic than other Phyllobates species used by natives for poisoning blowgun darts. Batrachotoxin was not detectable in F1 progeny reared to maturity in captivity. Nerve and muscle preparations from wild-caught frogs and from the nontoxic F1 frogs were both insensitive to batrachotoxin. The regulatory site controlling sodium-channel activation and permeability appears to have been minimally altered to prevent interaction with batrachotoxin, but is still sensitive to other sodium conductance activators (veratridine, grayanotoxin) to which the frogs arenot exposed naturally.

  15. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  16. Angiotensin II suppresses water absorption through the ventral skin of Japanese tree-frogs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, C; Kimura, K; Kamishima, Y

    1995-04-01

    We previously described two different water absorption systems in the ventral skin of the Japanese tree-frog, Hyla arborea japonica: i.e., a rapid enhanced flow, which is observed in dehydrated tree-frogs or those stimulated by adrenaline beta-agonists or vasotocin, and a slow basal flow, which is observed in normally hydrated frogs during the non-breeding season. The rapid flow is completely blocked by ouabain, which has no effects on the slow basal flow. In the present experiment, we show that the vaso-constrictive hormone angiotensin II completely inhibits basal water absorption, but has no effect on rapid water absorption. These results confirm our previous finding that the two water absorption systems in the ventral skin of the Japanese tree-frog are independent of each other.

  17. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  18. Stormwater wetlands can function as ecological traps for urban frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Parris, Kirsten M; Swearer, Stephen E; Hale, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Around cities, natural wetlands are rapidly being destroyed and replaced with wetlands constructed to treat stormwater. Although the intended purpose of these wetlands is to manage urban stormwater, they are inhabited by wildlife that might be exposed to contaminants. These effects will be exacerbated if animals are unable to differentiate between stormwater treatment wetlands of varying quality and some function as 'ecological traps' (i.e. habitats that animals prefer despite fitness being lower than in other habitats). To examine if urban stormwater wetlands can be ecological traps for frogs, we tested if survival, metamorphosis-related measures and predator avoidance behaviours of frogs differed within mesocosms that simulated stormwater wetlands with different contaminant levels, and paired this with a natural oviposition experiment to assess breeding-site preferences. We provide the first empirical evidence that these wetlands can function as ecological traps for frogs. Tadpoles had lower survival and were less responsive to predator olfactory cues when raised in more polluted stormwater wetlands, but also reached metamorphosis earlier and at a larger size. A greater size at metamorphosis was likely a result of increased per capita food availability due to higher mortality combined with eutrophication, although other compensatory effects such as selective-mortality removing smaller individuals from low-quality mesocosms may also explain these results. Breeding adults laid comparable numbers of eggs across wetlands with high and low contaminant levels, indicating no avoidance of the former. Since stormwater treatment wetlands are often the only available aquatic habitat in urban landscapes we need to better understand how they perform as habitats to guide management decisions that mitigate their potential ecological costs. This may include improving wetland quality so that fitness is no longer compromised, preventing colonisation by animals, altering the cues

  19. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  20. Nuclear Abnormalities in Erythrocytes of Frogs From Wetlands and Croplands of Western Ghats Indicate Environmental Contaminations

    OpenAIRE

    Raghunath, Shreyas; Veerabhadrappa, Chethankumar Masaruru; Krishnamurthy, Sannanegunda Venkatarama Bhatta

    2017-01-01

    Anuran amphibians are the biological models to assess the influence of environmental contamination. We conducted nuclear abnormality assessment and micronuclei test in erythrocytes of frogs to identify an early influence of environmental contaminations. In Western Ghats of India, farmers use different agrochemicals and obviously, the amphibian habitat is contaminated with combinations of many residues. Many frog species use these agro-ecosystem for breeding and to complete early life stage. I...