WorldWideScience

Sample records for fresh produce markets

  1. Farmers Market Brings Fresh Produce and Products from Local Vendors | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Every summer, you can shop for fresh fruits, veggies, flowers, honey, and plenty of other homemade goodies at the NCI at Frederick Farmers’ Market. Buying at the Farmers’ Market means you’re supporting a local farmer, crafter, or other type of vendor. The products are brought to you, so you don’t have to drive to get freshly picked produce and handmade products.

  2. Farmers Market Brings Fresh Produce and Products from Local Vendors | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Every summer, you can shop for fresh fruits, veggies, flowers, honey, and plenty of other homemade goodies at the NCI at Frederick Farmers’ Market. Buying at the Farmers’ Market means you’re supporting a local farmer, crafter, or other type of vendor. The products are brought to you, so you don’t have to drive to get freshly picked produce and handmade products.

  3. Research on Coordination of Fresh Produce Supply Chain in Big Market Sales Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juning Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose two decision models for decentralized and centralized fresh produce supply chains with stochastic supply and demand and controllable transportation time. The optimal order quantity and the optimal transportation time in these two supply chain systems are derived. To improve profits in a decentralized supply chain, based on analyzing the risk taken by each participant in the supply chain, we design a set of contracts which can coordinate this type of fresh produce supply chain with stochastic supply and stochastic demand, and controllable transportation time as well. We also obtain a value range of contract parameters that can increase profits of all participants in the decentralized supply chain. The expected profits of the decentralized setting and the centralized setting are compared with respect to given numerical examples. Furthermore, the sensitivity analyses of the deterioration rate factor and the freshness factor are performed. The results of numerical examples show that the transportation time is shorter, the order quantity is smaller, the total profit of whole supply chain is less, and the possibility of cooperation between supplier and retailer is higher for the fresh produce which is more perishable and its quality decays more quickly.

  4. Research on coordination of fresh produce supply chain in big market sales environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Juning; Wu, Jiebing; Liu, Chenguang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two decision models for decentralized and centralized fresh produce supply chains with stochastic supply and demand and controllable transportation time. The optimal order quantity and the optimal transportation time in these two supply chain systems are derived. To improve profits in a decentralized supply chain, based on analyzing the risk taken by each participant in the supply chain, we design a set of contracts which can coordinate this type of fresh produce supply chain with stochastic supply and stochastic demand, and controllable transportation time as well. We also obtain a value range of contract parameters that can increase profits of all participants in the decentralized supply chain. The expected profits of the decentralized setting and the centralized setting are compared with respect to given numerical examples. Furthermore, the sensitivity analyses of the deterioration rate factor and the freshness factor are performed. The results of numerical examples show that the transportation time is shorter, the order quantity is smaller, the total profit of whole supply chain is less, and the possibility of cooperation between supplier and retailer is higher for the fresh produce which is more perishable and its quality decays more quickly.

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Fresh Produce Marketed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Shanker P; Wang, Hua; Adams, Jennifer K; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella continues to rank as one of the most costly foodborne pathogens, and more illnesses are now associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Microbiological Data Program (MDP) sampled select commodities of fresh fruit and vegetables and tested them for Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria. The Salmonella strains isolated were further characterized by serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. This article summarizes the Salmonella data collected by the MDP between 2002 and 2012. The results show that the rates of Salmonella prevalence ranged from absent to 0.34% in cilantro. A total of 152 isolates consisting of over 50 different serotypes were isolated from the various produce types, and the top five were Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, S. enterica subspecies arizonae (subsp. IIIa) and diarizonae (subsp. IIIb), and S. enterica serotypes Newport, Javiana, and Infantis. Among these, Salmonella serotypes Newport and Javiana are also listed among the top five Salmonella serotypes that caused most foodborne outbreaks. Other serotypes that are frequent causes of infection, such as S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were also found in fresh produce but were not prevalent. About 25% of the MDP samples were imported produce, including 65% of green onions, 44% of tomatoes, 42% of hot peppers, and 41% of cantaloupes. However, imported produce did not show higher numbers of Salmonella-positive samples, and in some products, like cilantro, all of the Salmonella isolates were from domestic samples. About 6.5% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds tested, but no single commodity or serotype was found to be the most common carrier of resistant strains or of resistance. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the produce isolates showed similarities with Salmonella isolates from meat samples and from outbreaks, but

  6. Microbiological quality of fresh produce from open air markets and supermarkets in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥ 2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥ 3.00 log 10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  7. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Widmer, Kenneth W.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention. PMID:24963502

  8. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  9. The entry of Brazilian fresh fruit small and medium producers into the global market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify some elements which contribute to the entry of small and medium producers into the global market. Specifically, it analyses the case of the greatest Brazilian mango and grape exported region - the Petrolina-Juazeiro (P-J. The conceptual background consists of two approaches. The first conceptual framework is the Global Value Chain (GVC approach which is mainly concerned with the entry of local economies, from developing countries, into the global market. The second approach is the dynamic capability which is mainly concerned with the way the firm could acquire capabilities. The method selected for the empirical part was the multiple-case studies which were made viable by means of semi-structured questionnaires conducted with mango and grape producer agents from P-J Region in Brazil and European buyers. This study indicates that some institutions have been supporting the export activities in terms of irrigation techniques, new techniques of cultivation, financial support and the introduction of some certificates such as EurepGap. Lastly, the mango and grape producers have been undertaking upgrading of product, process and functional.O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os elementos que contribuem para a entrada de pequenos e médios produtores no mercado global. Especificamente foi analisado o caso da maior região brasileira exportadora de manga e uva in natura, a de Petrolina (PE e Juazeiro (BA. Os aportes teóricos utilizados neste artigo foram: cadeia de valor global e capacitações dinâmicas. O método selecionado para a realização da parte empírica foi o estudo de casos múltiplos. Para a coleta de dados, foram elaborados questionários semi-estruturados e realizadas entrevistas presenciais com produtores de manga e uva, associações de produtores, instituições de apoio localizadas em Petrolina e Juazeiro e compradores europeus de manga e uva. O estudo indicou que algumas institui

  10. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  11. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  12. Particular applications of food irradiation fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelf life and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about consumer acceptance particularly for produce that is labeled as irradiated have deterred many companies from using irradiation and retailers to carry irradiated produce. This section highlights the commercial use of irradiation for fresh produce, other than phytosanitary irradiation which is covered in supplementary sections.

  13. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  14. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  15. Fresh market carrot inspection by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Searcy, Stephen W.

    1991-02-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect fresh market carrots. It was designed to grade carrots with an axial and transverse resolution of 0. 5mmper pixel. Hardware consisted of camera digital signal processing (DSP) imaging board host computer and illumination components. Feature extraction methods detect the major defects. A Bayes classification technique was used to construct the decision function which classify carrots as acceptable or cull. The system was able to image and classify in approximately 2. 5carrots/second. 1.

  16. The Network Marketing of Fresh Agricultural Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the connotation of network marketing of fresh agricultural products and analyzed the fundaments of launching the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products in China.The fundaments mainly cover the development of e-commerce,the transformation of consumption concept,the change of life style and the features of Chinese agricultural production.The developmental status of the C2C marketing of Chinese fresh vegetables and fresh fruits is introduced and the plights,including imperfect rural network infrastructure,inadequate talents specialized in network marketing of fresh agricultural products,uneven quality of agricultural products,immature logistics system,uncertainty existed in faced by the C2C marketing of fresh agricultural products and imperfect governmental protection system,are pointed out.In the end,the developmental trend of Chinese network marketing of fresh agricultural products on the basis of C2C mode is described.

  17. Peter Wilcox: A new purple-skin, yellow flesh fresh market potato cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Wilcox is a new, medium-maturing, purple-skin, yellow-flesh potato cultivar for fresh market. Peter Wilcox also produces light-colored chips, although it is being released primarily as a fresh market potato because of its skin and flesh colors. Tubers of Peter Wilcox are attractive, smooth, wi...

  18. Assessment of the Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Fresh-Cut Fruit, and Sprouts from the Swiss Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Zurfluh, Kathrin; Peterhans, Sophie; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) prepacked salads and fruit have been successfully marketed for the last decade in Switzerland and are increasingly important as a component of everyday diets. To determine whether extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are present in RTE salads, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts on the Swiss market, samples of 238 mixed and unmixed RTE produce from a large production plant and 23 sprout samples from two sprout farms were analyzed. Further, four samples from the production plant's recycled wash water, which is used for crop irrigation, were analyzed. Twelve (5%) of the 238 RTE products and one of the recycled wash water samples yielded ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strain identification and PCR analysis of the blaESBL genes revealed Kluyvera ascorbata isolated from a tomato sample harboring a blaCTX-M-2-like gene; multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacter cloacae detected in a chives sample imported from Spain harboring the clinically important bla(CTX-M-15) gene; and 10 Serratia spp. isolated from mixed salads (bla(FONA-2) and bla(FONA-2)-like genes were found in 6 [60%] and bla(FONA-4)-like and bla(FONA-5)-like genes were each found in 2 [20%] of the isolates). The recycled wash water sample tested positive for one extraintestinal pathogenic MDR Escherichia coli B2:ST131 harboring bla(CTX-M-27) and for one MDR E. coli A:ST88 containing bla(CTX-M-3). None of the sprout samples tested positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the majority of the Enterobacteriaceae detected in Swiss RTE produce were environmental strains producing minor ESBLs. The detection of an isolate producing a clinically important ESBL in a single sample and of an international circulating pathogenic strain (B2:ST131) in recycled wash water highlights the importance of surveillance of fresh produce and of recycled wash water that will be reused for irrigation purposes.

  19. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  20. Assessment of the microbiological quality of fresh produce on sale in Sicily, Italy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Di Noto, Anna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Fresh produce occupies an increasingly important place in the human food supply because of its health-promoting nutritional properties. Most fresh produce is eaten raw or after minimal processing and, consequently, pathogen contamination can represent a serious health risk. There has been an increase in foodborne outbreaks and cases associated with fresh produce, but literature data about the prevalence of pathogen contamination are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to assess the hygienic quality and the prevalence of the most common bacterial pathogens in fresh produce sold in retail markets in Sicily. A total of 125 samples of different types of vegetables were examined by standardized microbiological methods. The aerobic mesophilic count ranged between 2 log and 7 log cfu g(-1) and the Enterobacteriaceae counts between increase microbial safety of fresh produce.

  1. Fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IJAAAR

    the costs, revenues and margins of the traders and as well assessing the ... problems associated with fresh fish marketing. Data Analysis .... 11-16. >16. Source of Business. Capital. Bank loan. Relatives. Co-operatives. Personal saving. 6. 34.

  2. Antimicrobial coatings for ensuring safety of fresh produces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety of fresh produce has been a perennial issue for the industry in the US despite tightening up regulations and implementing good manufacturing practice. The diversity of crops and labor-intense operations in the fresh produce production created a unique set of contamination routes that are not...

  3. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. PMID:28282938

  5. Ecological characteristics and new competitiveness strategies in fresh vegetables market

    OpenAIRE

    Cembalo, Luigi; Cicia, Gianni; Del Giudice, Teresa; Scarpa, Riccardo; Tagliafierro, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    The intense process of internationalisation of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. The growth of market shares by new export countries, along with other consumer and retailer's issues impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, a wider awareness of consumers for environmental and health issues is modifying the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a convenient quality/price ratio were the main str...

  6. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing Channels by Small-Scale Farmers in Tanzania: The Case of Meru District. ... Abstract. The study was carried out in two divisions of Meru District in Arusha region in Tanzania to ...

  7. Option contracts in fresh produce supply chain with circulation loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate management decisions via option contracts in a two-stage supply chain in which a fresh produce supplier sells to a retailer, considering the circulation loss of the fresh produce. Design/methodology/approach: Authors propose a Stackelberg model to analyze the supply chain members’ decisions in the decentralized supply chain compared with the integrated one under the newsvendor framework. Findings: The results illustrate that there exists a unique optimal option order quantity for the retailer and a unique optimal option order price for the supplier giving certain conditions; furthermore, option contracts cannot coordinate the fresh produce supply chain when the retailer only orders options. Originality/value: Agricultural products especially fresh produce’s characteristics such as circulation loss and high risk are considered. Option contracts and game theory are combined to manage the fresh produce supply chain’s risk. The proposed tool and models are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of supply chain risk management.

  8. 基于网络零售的生鲜产品标准化问题探讨%Discussion on Problem of Fresh Produce Standardization Based on Online Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖碧云

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the current status of fresh produce standardization in online sales in China and its influence upon the consumers, studied the main factors affecting the online retail of standardized fresh produce, and pointed out that by changing the method of online sales and establishing the pricing mechanism based on quality and packaging unit, the standardization of online sales of fresh produce could be realized.%论述了我国网络零售中生鲜产品的标准化现状及生鲜产品标准化对网络消费者的影响,探讨了影响生鲜产品网络零售标准化的主要因素,并指出通过改变网络销售方式,建立按质论价的以包装为单位的销售有助于实现生鲜产品销售的标准化.

  9. Whole sales market for fresh potatoes in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. JALONOJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates a conditional mean and conditional variance model for producer prices of fresh potatoes. The results suggest that potato price movements are volatile exhibiting a symmetric and non-stationary process. Prices respond symmetrically to exogenous shocks and the shocks are, thereafter, predicted to prevail in prices to the end of the marketing year. The persistency of the price shocks makes potato price movements unpredictable and, therefore, increases price risks of holding potato inventories. The estimates indicate elastic price response with respect to annual potato yield shocks. A ten percent yield increase is predicted to decrease prices by 20%. The information on inventory levels is included in prices and this information is not increased by surveying the inventory levels. Because of the elastic price response, the largest risk for a farmer is an exceptionally large total yield of potatoes. Information on the aggregate potato yield, which arrives during the growing season, will be quickly incorporated in prices. Therefore, pre-harvest hedging strategies are more efficient than after-harvest hedging strategies in managing potato price risks.

  10. Emerging perspectives on the natural microbiome of fresh produce vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants harbor a diverse microbiome existing as bacterial populations on the leaf surface (the phyllosphere) and within plant tissues (endophytes). The composition of this microbiome has been largely unexplored in fresh produce vegetables, where studies have tended to focus on pathogen detection and...

  11. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  12. Emerging Perspectives on the Natural Microbiome of Fresh Produce Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Jackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants harbor a diverse microbiome existing as bacterial populations on the leaf surface (the phyllosphere and within plant tissues (endophytes. The composition of this microbiome has been largely unexplored in fresh produce vegetables, where studies have tended to focus on pathogen detection and survival. However, the application of next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches is beginning to reveal the diversity of this produce-associated bacterial community. In this article we review what is known about the composition of the microbiome of fresh produce vegetables, placing it in the context of general phyllosphere research. We also demonstrate how next-generation sequencing can be used to assess the bacterial assemblages present on fresh produce, using fresh herbs as an example. That data shows how the use of such culture-independent approaches can detect groups of taxa (anaerobes, psychrophiles that may be missed by traditional culture-based techniques. Other issues discussed include questions as to whether to determine the microbiome during plant growth or at point of purchase or consumption, and the potential role of the natural bacterial community in mitigating pathogen survival.

  13. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Maffei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production.

  14. Salmonella surveillance on fresh produce in retail in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Elif; Polat Kilic, Gozde; Bulut, Ece; Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Alpas, Hami; Soyer, Yeşim

    2015-04-16

    Although Turkey is one of the major producers of fruits and vegetables in the world, there has been no information available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce. To fill this gap, we collected 503 fresh produce samples including tomato, parsley, iceberg lettuce, green-leaf lettuce and five different fresh pepper varieties (i.e., green, kapya, bell, mazamort and Charleston) from 3 major districts within 9 supermarkets and 3 bazaars in Ankara, Turkey to investigate the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 0.8% (4/503) of samples by conventional culturing method with molecular confirmation conducted through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For further characterization of isolates, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST; aroC, thrA, purE, sucA, hisD, hemD and dnaN) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Anatum, Charity, Enteritidis and Mikawasima were isolated from two parsley, one pepper and one lettuce samples, respectively. MLST resulted in 4 sequence types (STs) for each serotype, including one novel ST for serotype Mikawasima. Similarly, PFGE revealed four different XbaI PFGE patterns. The results of this survey, obtained by the most common subtyping methods (i.e. serotyping, MLST and PFGE) worldwide, contributes to the development of a national database in Turkey, which is essential for investigating the evolutionary pathways, geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Salmonella strains.

  15. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Daniele F; Batalha, Erika Y; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2016-12-01

    Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. MARKETING PRACTICES AND MARKET CHANNEL UTILIZATION BY MISSISSIPPI SOYBEAN PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren; JONES, Tom

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines current marketing practices by Mississippi soybean producers as well as willingness to participate in a marketing cooperative and willingness to plant Identity Preserved soybeans. In general, most Mississippi soybean producers utilize cash sales at harvest or forward contracting as primary marketing tools. Use of futures and options is found to increase with farm size. Willingness to participate in a marketing cooperative (pool) is found to be effected by use of cash sales...

  17. Dynamics of the Ecological Agroalimentary Produce Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The market of ecological agroalimentary produce in Romania tends to have a positive evolution, identical with the world market, according to the specialists in the field. The market of ecological produce in Romania is being developed: from the point of view of its life cycle, it is steadily going to the growth period. Since the appearance period passed away, now there is the unsatisfied need of green produce: the first producers able to meet this need have appeared and they have started to meet the needs related to these produce.

  18. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331 and sodium phosphate (E-450, using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E with indirect vapor injection and equipped with rasping and cutting blades. The resulting cheese (A was compared with a commercial cheese (B for compositional, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. The cheeses were similar except for the fat in dry matter (FDM, with values of 54.50% and 47.21%, respectively. Sensorially, there were significant differences (P0.05. Cheese A provided, in mg per 100 g of product, 935.823 for phenylalanine, 1003.070 for isoleucine, 2041.420 for leucine, 475.337 for methionine, 119.300 for tryptophan, and 758.347 for valine. Producing processed cheeses with only fresh cheese is possible, resulting in a product that is similar to others that are currently on the market with typical characteristics that are accepted by consumers.

  20. The market value of freshness: observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimura, G.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    One important component in determining the market value of fish is freshness, essentially the time period from capture to consumer. By shortening the time from harvest to landing, freshness can be improved and thus the market value may increase. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture fisheri

  1. The market value of freshness: observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimura, G.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    One important component in determining the market value of fish is freshness, essentially the time period from capture to consumer. By shortening the time from harvest to landing, freshness can be improved and thus the market value may increase. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture fisheri

  2. Inhibition of pathogens on fresh produce by ultraviolet energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaun, Brian R; Sumner, Susan S; Eifert, Joseph D; Marcy, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet energy at a wavelength of 253.7 nm (UVC) was investigated for its bactericidal effects on the surface of Red Delicious apples, leaf lettuce and tomatoes inoculated with cultures of Salmonella spp. or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Inoculated samples were subjected to different doses ranging from 1.5 to 24 mW/cm(2) of UVC and enumerated on tryptic soy agar plus 0.05 g/l nalidixic acid to determine effective log reductions of microbial populations. UVC applied to apples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 resulted in the highest log reduction of approximately 3.3 logs at 24 mW/cm(2). Lower log reductions were seen on tomatoes inoculated with Salmonella spp. (2.19 logs) and green leaf lettuce inoculated with both Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 (2.65 and 2.79, respectively). No significant statistical difference (p>0.05) was seen in the ability of UVC to inactivate a higher population of either Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of green leaf lettuce. No significant difference was seen among the use of different doses applied to the surface of fresh produce for reduction of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp. (p>0.05). The use of UVC may prove to be beneficial in protecting the safety of fruits and vegetables in conjunction with Good Agricultural Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices.

  3. Social actors and latticesin fresh food marketing in the regional market of La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Palacios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the wholesale markets of fresh food marketing as social spaces that link scenarios related to production and consumption scenarios. We study the interactions and behaviors of reciprocity that interweave among wholesalers who own stalls in the Regional Market of La Plata (MRLP and the relationships established with growers of oranges and peaches of the jurisdiction of San Pedro, Province of Buenos Aires that remit part of their production. Methodologically, we rely on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews conducted in related literature and statistical material. The density of the personal links constitutes a key aspect that affects the decision making processof the actors. It is common that between them there take place situations of uncertainty, of bids of interests but also of negotiation and understanding

  4. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  5. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d–Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.; Feng, Peter C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named “activation.” Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice. PMID:26555533

  6. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D; Feng, Peter C H

    2015-11-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named "activation." Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice.

  7. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  8. PERCEPTIONS OF MARKETING STRATEGIES: PRODUCERS VERSUS EXTENSION ECONOMISTS

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Kastens, Terry L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    1998-01-01

    Extension marketing economists commit substantial resources to outlook and market analysis. Producers demand this information and use it to make production and marketing decisions. This study analyzes responses to a marketing survey of producers and extension marketing economists to discern similarities and differences in their perceptions regarding market timing, futures market efficiency, and risk management. Producer and extension perceptions are consistent with regard to several marketing...

  9. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  10. Breeding highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to machine harvest for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...

  11. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... market enterprises. This supports the formation of FFV farmers and traders association and the provision of soft ... Key words: Fruit and Vegetable, Export Market channels, Small-Scale Farmers ..... through Belgium and Tanzania Technical.

  12. Towards strategies to adapt to pressures on safety of fresh produce due to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Jacxsens, L.; Boekel, van T.; Luning, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a Delphi study aimed to generate insights from a systems perspective about responding to climate change in terms of food safety of fresh produce. The study identified pressures to food safety of fresh produce at primary production, related to contamination of

  13. Opinions on fresh produce food safety and quality standards by fresh produce supply chain experts from the global South and North.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Nanyunja, J.; Jordaan, D.; Luning, P.A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types

  14. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    .... * * * * * Direct marketing. The sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an... Internet and other information technologies to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to... meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the...

  15. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    ENVER BAJRAMI; KAPLLAN SULAJ

    2014-01-01

    Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butte...

  16. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  17. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  18. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  19. Photons and electrons: advances in using cold plasma, irradiation, UV and other energy-based treatments for fresh and fresh-cut produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional antimicrobial treatments for fresh produce rely on chemical compounds and physical contact to inactivate and remove bacterial contamination. Recent research has identified a number of energy-based alternative technologies to improve the safety of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetable...

  20. The Quality of Fresh Tomato Fruit Produced by Hydroponic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Dobričević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. planted in rockwool in hydroponic system is defined by their internal parameters: contents of dry matter and soluble dry matter (°Bx, total acidity (% citric acid, pH, % NaCl and L-ascorbic acid. Research was carried out during 2003 and included 21 cultivars. Tomato plants were planted into rockwool slabs 100 cm x 15 cm x 7.5 cm. Three plants were planted 33 cm apart in 11.25 L of substrate. The trial was laid out according to the randomized complete block design with four replications, and sampling was carried out during three harvests in: June, July and August. The dry matter content was 4.29% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 6.21% (cultivar ΄Delfine΄, and content of soluble dry matter was 3.0% (cultivar ΄Brooklyn΄ to 4.5% (΄Lustro΄ and ΄72-503΄. Total acidity amounted from 0.19% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 0.45% (cultivar ΄Lustro΄, and pH values ranged from 4.20 (cultivar ΄20377΄ to 4.68 (cultivar ΄Syta΄. Salt content ranged from 0.08% (΄Campeon΄ and ΄F 18402΄ to 0.13% (΄Brooklyn΄ and ΄E 27.31299΄, and L-ascorbic acid content ranged from 260.40 (cultivar ΄Antinea΄ to 458.30 mg/dry matter (cultivar ΄F 18402΄. By studying the basic chemical composition of selected cultivars, significant differences in their soluble dry matter and pH were revealed but only at the first sampling.

  1. Bacteriological survey of ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts collected from the Swiss market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Hofer, E; Corti, S; Julmi, A; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    The consumption of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables has increased significantly in the recent decades. So far, no data are available on the bacteriological burden and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts on the Swiss market. This study was based on investigations carried out during 2 months of the summer season in 2011. Samples of 142 salads, 64 fresh-cut fruit, and 27 sprouts were included in this study. Escherichia coli, an indicator microorganism for fecal contamination, was only found in 5 lettuce samples, with amounts ranging between 2 and 3 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. were detected from any of the 233 samples analyzed in this study, and a low occurrence was found for contamination with L. monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Cronobacter. From the results of the present study, we conclude that even in a country where the use of chlorine solutions to sanitize fruits and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry is not allowed, it is possible to produce ready-to-eat lettuce, fresh-cut fruit, and sprouts with high microbiological standards. Strict maintenance of good practices of hygiene at preharvest, harvest, and postharvest levels is of central importance to ensure both public health protection and product quality.

  2. Most Common Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins on Fresh Produce: A Review of Recent Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni, F; Yavaş, S; Alpas, H; Soyer, Y

    2016-07-03

    Every year millions of people are affected and thousands of them die due to infections and intoxication as a result of foodborne outbreaks, which also cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, public health problems, and agricultural product loss. A considerable portion of these outbreaks is related to fresh produce and caused by foodborne pathogens on fresh produce and mycotoxins. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, occurred in Germany in 2011, has attracted a great attention on foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, and especially the vulnerability and gaps in the early warning and notification networks in the surveillance systems in all around the world. In the frame of this paper, we reviewed the most common foodborne pathogens on fresh produce, traceback investigations of the outbreaks caused by these pathogens, and lastly international early warning and notification systems, including PulseNet International and Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, aiming to detect foodborne outbreaks.

  3. Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria on Fresh Vegetables Collected from Farmers' Markets in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumathil, Deepti Prasad; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2016-08-01

    This study determined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii on fresh vegetables collected from farmers' markets in Connecticut. One hundred samples each of fresh carrots, potatoes, and lettuce were sampled and streaked on selective media, namely Leeds Acinetobacter and MDR Acinetobacter agars. All morphologically different colonies from MDR Acinetobacter agar were identified by using Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR. In addition, susceptibility of the isolates to 10 antibiotics commonly used in humans, namely imipenem, ceftriaxone, cefepime, minocycline, erythromycin, colistin-sulfate, streptomycin, neomycin, doxycycline, and rifampin was determined by using an antibiotic disk diffusion assay. The results revealed that only two samples of potato and one sample of lettuce yielded A. baumannii. In addition, all carrot samples were found to be negative for the organism. However, several other opportunistic, MDR human pathogens, such as Burkholderia cepacia (1% potatoes, 5% carrots, and none in lettuce), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6% potatoes, 2% lettuce, and none in carrots), and Pseudomonas luteola (9% potatoes, 3% carrots, and none in lettuce) were recovered from the vegetables. Antibiotic susceptibility screening of the isolates revealed high resistance rates for the following: ceftriaxone (6 of 6), colistin-sulfate (5 of 6), erythromycin (5 of 6), and streptomycin (4 of 6) in B. cepacia; colistin-sulfate (11 of 11) and imipenem (10 of 11) in P. luteola; colistin-sulfate (8 of 8), ceftriaxone (8 of 8), cefepime (7 of 8), erythromycin (5 of 8), and imipenem (4 of 8) in S. maltophilia; and imipenem (3 of 3), ceftriaxone (3 of 3), erythromycin (3 of 3), and streptomycin (3 of 3) in A. baumannii. The results revealed the presence of MDR bacteria, including human pathogens on fresh produce, thereby highlighting the potential health risk in consumers, especially those with a compromised immune system.

  4. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  5. Design and Realization of E-Marketing System for Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmao; TAN; Haishan; WANG; Xiudong; SUN; Yannan; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced the PHP + Oracle database development technology. Based on B / S structure,using MVC( Model View Controller) framework development mode,and in line with actual demands of fresh agricultural products for e-marketing in Shanghai,it designed and expected to realize e-marketing system for fresh agricultural products in B2B2 C mode. It made an in-depth analysis from system demands,design of functional modules,design of database,and relevant technologies for system realization.

  6. Fresh Market Tomato Pruning Trial for Northern Indiana, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pruning tomatoes is known to increase average fruit size and decrease total yield. Effects on marketable yield and early yield vary among cultivars and with the degree of pruning. This trial was conducted to evaluate a range of pruning treatments on two cultivars grown in the Midwest: Mountain Spring and Florida 91. Florida 91 has a larger vine and is later-maturing than Mountain Spring. The trial was conducted at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.

  7. Marketing moxie for librarians fresh ideas, proven techniques, and innovative approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Watson-Lakamp, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Robust, resilient, and flexible marketing is an absolute necessity for today's libraries. Fortunately, marketing can be fun. Through this savvy guide, you'll discover a wealth of fresh, actionable ideas and approaches that can be combined with tried-and-true marketing techniques to serve any library. Focusing on building platforms rather than chasing trends, the book offers low- and no-budget ideas for those in small libraries as well as information that can be used by libraries that have a staff of professionals. The guide opens with an overview of the basics of marketing and continues throug

  8. Influences of packaging attributes on consumer purchase decisions for fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsimanis, Georgios; Getter, Kristin; Behe, Bridget; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Packaging attributes are considered to have an influence on consumer purchase decisions for food and, as a consequence, also on its consumption. To improve the current minimal understanding of these influences for fresh produce, a survey instrument in the form of an online questionnaire has been developed and launched in the US. The first part of the questionnaire covers consumers' preferences for packaging convenience features, characteristics, materials, disposal method, and others for fresh produces in general, and the second focuses on attributes like price, container size, produce shelf life for a specific fresh produce, sweet cherries, to allow us to supply specific values for these factors to the participants. Cluster and conjoint analyses of responses from 292 participants reveal that specific packaging and produce attributes affect consumer purchase decisions of fresh produce in general and of sweet cherries in particular (P ≤ 0.05) and that some are population segment dependent (P ≤ 0.05). For produce packaging in general, 'extend the "best by" date' was ranked as the top convenience feature, the type of packaging material was considered to affect the food product quality (92.7%) and containers made from bio-based materials were highly appealing (3.52 out of 5.00). The most important attributes that affect the purchasing decisions of consumers regarding a specific fresh produce like sweet cherries are price (25%), shelf life (19%) and container size (17.2%).

  9. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  10. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

  11. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a... Special Provisions. The price election you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship...: (A) Grown fresh market tomatoes for commercial sales; or (B) Participated in the management of...

  12. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... collection of administrative fees from limited resource farmers. FCIC believes this waiver helps to ensure... have a significant economic impact on the quality of the human environment, health, or safety... tomatoes and the U.S. Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes, and the AMS Federal Marketing Order (FMO 966...

  13. Price and Volatility Transmission and Market Power in the German Fresh Pork Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion Taye; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Gardebroek, Koos; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the transmission of price volatility and market power in the German fresh pork supply chain. We use a theoretical model underpinning this relationship followed by an empirical application that uses monthly farm, slaughterhouse and retail pork price data for

  14. Energy characterization of fresh and torrified pellets produced from Pinus waste wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this research was to evaluate torrified and fresh pellets produced from Pinus waste wood, used for direct generation of thermal energy. The compaction of Pinus sp. waste wood from lumbermill was performed in a pelletizer with a planar array of 8 mm. Roastings were performed in an electric furnace, type muffle, stabilized at final temperatures of 220 °C and 250 °C for 30 min. The following pellets properties were determined: apparent and unit energy density, bulk density, energy bulk density, immediate chemical composition (volatile materials, ash and fixed carbon, high heating value and moisture. It was observed an increase in high heating value and reduction of moisture content of torrified pellets. However, the gain in calorific value was less than the mass loss of the pellets after roasting, reducing the energy densities of the pellets. The pellets raw have marketing potential in European countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden. The methodology used for roasting is not suitable for pellets heat treatment. However, further research on pellet roasting in a wider temperature and residence time range is recommended, in order to define parameters that optimize their energetic properties.

  15. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  16. 76 FR 66602 - Nectarines and Fresh Peaches Grown in California; Termination of Marketing Order 916 and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... authorize production research and marketing research and development projects, as well as the necessary... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines and Fresh Peaches Grown in California; Termination of Marketing Order 916 and the Peach Provisions of Marketing Order 917 AGENCY:...

  17. Connecting fresh cut chain actors, from seed to produce - a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    structured interviews in the supply chain and the emphasis and choice of seed source in these productions are highlighted. Changes in consumer behavior towards more and more convenience food might further increase consumption of these product formats, however, consumer demand for local and/or organic produce...... raises the need to enhance the supply availability. At present only a very limited assortment of organic fresh-cut products is available for Danish consumers. Without import through commercialized chains, the selection of organic fresh-cut produce would be close to zero....... countries this segment is advanced and the supply chain compartmentalized. Parallels in respect to chain structures are therefore at present mainly drawn from other leafy fresh produce productions. Present approaches for securing year round supply of quality leafy vegetables were identified through...

  18. Are Thai consumers willing to pay for food safety labels? Choice experiment on fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Wongprawmas, Rungsaran; Canavari, Maurizio; Waisarayutt, Chutima

    2014-01-01

    Thai government introduced a food safety label (Q mark) to help consumers recognizing produce with higher level of safety assurance. Producers and retailers are sceptical on whether Thai consumers place value on it, thus they are reluctant to apply to obtain certification and label. This study aims to estimate the value Thai consumers place on food safety labels for fresh produce using a discrete choice experiment approach and a mixed logit (RPL) model. A sample of 350 Thai consumers was surv...

  19. Use of Pressure for Improving Storage Quality of Fresh-Cut Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    The microflora of fresh-cut produce is comprised primarily of phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms, but the product could be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Populations of bacteria, molds, and yeasts associated with fresh-cut produce decreased to non-detectable levels following a high pressure (HP) treatment of 400 MPa for 10 min at room temperature, except for spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. which were inactivated when subjected to 600 MPa at 60 °C for 10 min. The HP treatment of 400 MPa for 5-10 min at room temperature for fresh-cut lotus root and pineapple may be commercially feasible as an alternative to chemical sterilization and thermal blanching, respectively. The HP treatment reduced the epiphytic microorganisms of the products to non-detectable levels, and the microbial counts remained at the initial levels during storage at 1 °C with minimal changes in physicochemical and visual quality of the products. However, the HP treatment induced cellular disruption in plant tissue that contributed to the changes in appearance of several fresh-cut vegetables. To improve storage quality, combining lower pressures with complementary technologies should be useful for successful application of HP for other fresh-cut produce.

  20. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enete, AA.; Igbokwe, EM.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of p...

  1. Development of chlorine dioxide releasing film and its application in decontaminating fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feasibility study was conducted to develop chlorine dioxide releasing packaging films for decontaminating fresh produce. Sodium chlorite and citric acid powder were incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA) polymer. Films made with different amount of PLA (100 & 300 mg), percentage of reactant (5-60...

  2. Impact of context on food safety management systems in fresh produce chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and aim This research was a part of a project of the European Commission called VEG-i-TRADE, aimed at identifying possible impacts of climate change and globalisation on safety of fresh produce. VEG-i-TRADE formed a multidisciplinary team of scien

  3. Impact of context on food safety management systems in fresh produce chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and aim This research was a part of a project of the European Commission called VEG-i-TRADE, aimed at identifying possible impacts of climate change and globalisation on safety of fresh produce. VEG-i-TRADE formed a multidisciplinary team of scien

  4. CFD modeling to improve safe and efficient distribution of chlorine dioxide gas for packaging fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of the packaging system in inactivating food borne pathogens and prolonging the shelf life of fresh-cut produce is influenced by the design of the package apart from material and atmospheric conditions. Three different designs were considered to determine a specific package design ens...

  5. New packaging design for fresh produce with effective distribution of antimicrobial gaseous chlorine dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade, the potential use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as an antimicrobial agent for vapor-phase decontamination to extend the shelf-life of fresh produce has been widely studied. Most of the works focused on the dose of gaseous ClO2 for particular food product and/or specific microorganis...

  6. Context factors affecting design and operation of Food Safety Management Systems in the fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Nanyunja, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent food-borne outbreaks and cases of non-compliances to maximum residue limits of pesticides, indicated that food safety management systems (FSMS) in fresh produce chain are not yet performing in a satisfactory manner. However, the system output is not only dependent on the system design and ope

  7. Status of food safety management activities in fresh produce companies in the European Union and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2015-01-01

    An increase in food safety incidences linked to fresh produce has been reported in recent years. Imports from the transitional economies have often been blamed for these incidences. However, limited information is available about the status of food safety management activities in companies in

  8. Impact of context on food safety management systems in fresh produce chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and aim This research was a part of a project of the European Commission called VEG-i-TRADE, aimed at identifying possible impacts of climate change and globalisation on safety of fresh produce. VEG-i-TRADE formed a multidisciplinary team of

  9. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  10. Investigating a large outbreak of salmonellosis in the US involving fresh produce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M. A.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet. However, produce is susceptible to contamination with pathogens. Identifying the food vehicle responsible for an outbreak is critical to minimizing the public health and economic impacts of an outbreak. Identifying the food vehicle and its sou...... source may also help prevent future outbreaks. The case study describes an especially challenging investigation of an outbreak of salmonellosis that occurred in the US in 2008....

  11. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to educate adult…

  12. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to…

  13. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min, where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB and Brucellosis. Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration, with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more

  14. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  15. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh

  16. Marketing System of Fresh Friut and Vegetable: The Role of Modern and Wholesale Market in Jakarta and the Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar A. Napitupulu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetable in the context of the rapidly growing dynamic markets in Jakarta and the vicinity was studied. Unstructured interviews and observations of key persons, and panels were conducted, primarily in three main wholesale markets in Jakarta and the vicinity and some supermarkets. It was found that the availability of management services and associated facilities are not yet fully compatible with modern markets. Their role, therefore, in catering to the supermarkets is limited, in particular for vegetables due to requirements on quality and delivery schedules. In general, supermarkets procure their supply directly from production centers through special/dedicated suppliers, which currently amounts to about 1% to 5% of total production from production centers. If policy and conducive economic incentive are available, wholesale markets are not only domain of public investment anymore, but also private investments alike. The newly established wholesale markets show that they now have a higher rate of utilization than in the years before. It is therefore for the local government and the central government to furthers devise conducive policy and regulatory measures, and for the private to take this opportunity in terms of investment in developing the economy of the region. 

  17. Producing videotapes as professional marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L J; Harlan, N; Dyer, E; Lubker, B

    1992-05-01

    Professional quality videotapes are an effective way to reach audiences. Developing such tapes takes careful planning, time, and money, but they are well worth the effort involved. Our new role as "marketing agent" must be played with professionalism, expertise, persistence, and a sense of humor.

  18. Commercial Interactions in the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of superma

  19. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing 30 group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons (hot and cold) and two production focuses (lean and quality) were ...

  20. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  1. Review: norovirus prevalence in Belgian, Canadian and French fresh produce: a threat to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, L; Mattison, K; Loisy-Hamon, F; Harlow, J; Martyres, A; Lebeau, B; Stals, A; Van Coillie, E; Herman, L; Uyttendaele, M

    2011-12-15

    Foodborne viruses, especially noroviruses (NoV), are increasingly reported as the cause of foodborne outbreaks. NoV outbreaks have been reported linked to fresh soft red fruits and leafy greens. Belgium, Canada and France were the first countries to provide data about the prevalence of NoV on fresh produce. In total, 867 samples of leafy greens, 180 samples of fresh soft red fruits and 57 samples of other types of fresh produce (tomatoes, cucumber and fruit salads) were analyzed. Firstly, the NoV detection methodology, including virus and RNA extraction, real-time RT-PCR and quality controls were compared among the three countries. In addition, confirmation and genotyping of the NoV strains was attempted for a subset of NoV positive samples using conventional RT-PCR targeting an alternative region followed by sequencing. Analysis of the process control showed that 653, 179 and 18 samples of the leafy greens, soft red fruits and other fresh produce types were valid for analysis based on the recovery of the process control. NoV was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 28.2% (N=641), 33.3% (N=6) and 50% (N=6) of leafy greens tested in Canada, Belgium and France, respectively. Soft red fruits were found positive by real-time RT-PCR in 34.5% (N=29) and 6.7% (N=150) of the samples tested in Belgium and France, respectively. 55.5% (N=18) of the other fresh produce types, analyzed in Belgium, were found NoV positive by real-time RT-PCR. Conventional RT-PCR resulted in an amplicon of the expected size in 19.5% (52/266) of the NoV positive samples where this assay was attempted. Subsequent sequencing was only successful in 34.6% (18/52) of the suspected amplicons obtained by conventional RT-PCR. From this study, using the described methodology, NoV genomes were frequently detected in fresh produce however sequence confirmation was not successful for the majority of the samples tested. Infection or outbreaks were rarely or not known to be related to the NoV positive samples. With

  2. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENVER BAJRAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butter samples were randomly collected from different localities of Kosovo for the isolation of E. coli a notorious contaminant. All the samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and a number of biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed that out of 62 fresh samples 22, 5% (16/62 showed growth of E. coli. The highest number of butter samples contaminated with E. coli is recorded from butter samples obtained from vending shops and houses. Among the 16 butter samples showed growth of E. coli the highest rate of contamination was found in butter samples collected in Ferizaj region. 5 butter samples collected in Ferizaj or 8% showed the values of E. coli from 10cfu/g to 100cfu/g

  3. Identification of innovative potential quality markers in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Bulgari, Roberta; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ready-to-eat fresh cut produce are exposed to pre- and postharvest abiotic stresses during the production chain. Our work aimed to identify stress responsive genes as new molecular markers of quality that can be widely applied to leaves and fruits and easily determined at any stage of the production chain. Stress responsive genes associated with quality losses were isolated in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce and their expression levels analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time points after harvest at 20 °C and 4 °C. qRT-PCR results were supported by correlation analysis with physiological and biochemical determinations evaluated at the same conditions such as chlorophyll a fluorescence indices, total, reducing sugars, sucrose, ethylene, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species. In both species the putative molecular markers increased their expression soon after harvest suggesting a possible use as novel and objective quality markers of fresh-cut produces.

  4. Developing and optimizing bacteriophage treatment to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2016-11-07

    Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green

  5. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  6. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  7. ESR detection of free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits and dried foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos G, E. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, V.; Garcia, F. [IQUNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to measure the stability of free radicals produced by the irradiation treatment in mangoes and in four spices: black pepper, oregano, 'guajillo' chili and 'morron' chili. The ESR spectra for mangoes were scanned in three different parts from the seeds and were recorded in fresh and dried tissues. The ESR spectra in fresh tissue of no irradiated mangoes, were a sextet line signal produced by Mn{sup 2+} ion and a singlet centered at g = 2.00 produced by the endogenous radical. New resonances were observed in the irradiated samples at 1.5 mT and 3 mT respects to the center line for right and left side. These new resonance signals were-observed for eight days in mangoes treated at 1.00 kGy, and for three days at 0.15 kGy. The resonance due to the irradiation was observed in Iyophilized mangoes only one day after the treatment, in the vacuum dried samples, no new resonances were observed. The triplet signal, as well as the central single line appeared after irradiation in black pepper, morron chili and guajillo chili. These signals were also observed in the irradiated spices at any radiation dose higher than 1.0 kGy. The signals decrease promptly, in ten days after the 'irradiation. It was not possible to observe the triplet signal in oregano, even when the samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation treatment. The only signal observed in irradiated spice was the endogenous radical. This signal increased as the radiation dose increased and decreased during storage time at room temperature. Results showed that free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits or dried foods have a quick recombination. It was observed that in the spices the signal remains for several weeks meanwhile only eight days in mangoes. (Author)

  8. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

  9. Market-Based Price-Risk Management for Coffee Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Coffee is characterised by high levels of price fluctuation, which exposes coffee producers to price risk. Coffee is widely traded in international commodity futures markets. This offers scope for producers to mange their price risk by hedging on these markets. The hedging mechanism proposed is based on the use of put options. The paper uses historical data of actual coffee put options contracts to estimate the costs of the mechanism; the benefits are inferred from field evidence. It emerges ...

  10. Microbiology of Fresh Produce: Route of Contamination, Detection Methods, and Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Asmita; Srivastava, Pragati; Sahgal, Manvika

    2016-10-25

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthful diet. They provide vitamins, minerals and fiber to help keep our body healthy. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. The major family of pathogen associated with food are members of Enterobacteriaceae which commonly form a part of microbiological criteria and their presence is traditionally related to hygiene and safety of foods. Organic fertilizers, irrigation water quality and soil are major source of contamination. For removal of pathogens, various decontamination procedures are also followed to reduce microbial load on the fruits. These are chemical preservatives and irradiation. Microbiological study of fresh produce can be done by various phenotypic, biochemical and molecular techniques so that pathogen can properly be identified. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed global risk communication message and training materials to assist countries in strengthening their food educating programs. There is a need for improved surveillance systems on food-borne pathogens, on food products and on outbreaks so that comparable data are available from a wider range of countries.

  11. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included.

  12. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Fresh Agricultural Produce as a Phytosanitary Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides procedures for the radiation processing of fresh agricultural produce, for example, fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers, as a phytosanitary treatment. This guide is directed primarily toward the treatment needed to control regulated pests commonly associated with fresh agricultural produce. 1.2 The typical absorbed dose range used for phytosanitary treatments is between 150 gray (Gy) and 600 gray (Gy). The practical minimum or maximum dose of a treatment may be higher or lower than this range, depending on the type of pest to be controlled and the radiation tolerance of a particular type of fruit. If the minimum effective dose necessary to achieve the desired phytosanitary effect is greater than the radiation tolerance of the produce, then irradiation is not an appropriate treatment (see ). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and hea...

  13. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce.

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 in fresh produce using atmospheric pressure cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Wemlinger, Erik; Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne outbreaks are associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in food products such as fresh produce. One of the target microorganisms is Escherichia coli which exhibits resistance to being inactivated with conventional disinfection methods for vegetables. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) was tested to disinfect three vegetables with challenge surfaces, lettuce, carrots and tomatoes. The produce was inoculated with the bacteria to reach an initial microbial concentration of 107 cfu/g. Vegetables were initially exposed to the APCP discharges from a needle array at 5.7 kV RMS in argon, processing times of 0.5, 3 and 5 min. Initial results indicate that microbial decontamination is effective on the lettuce (1.2 log reduction) when compared with other vegetables. To claim disinfection, a 3 log reduction or more is needed, which makes APCP treatment very promising technology for decontamination of produce. We propose that with method refinements full disinfection can be achieved using APCP.

  15. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Kroscher, K A; Peterson, B C; Stites, C R; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn. A total of 7,684 carcasses were used for data collection at the abattoir. Every tenth carcass was noted as a select carcass for in-depth ham quality analyses. Leg primal weight and instrumental color were measured on 100% of the population. On the select 10% of the population, hams were fabricated into sub-primal pieces, and 3-piece hams were manufactured to evaluate cured ham quality and processing yield. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS with production focus as the whole-plot factor, and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Pearson correlation coefficients between fresh and cured ham traits were computed. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.15) in instrumental color or ultimate pH ( ≥ 0.14) among fresh ham muscles from any marketing group. The only exception was the semimembranosus of marketing group 2 was lighter than marketing group 1 ( = 0.03) and the dark portion of the semitendinosus muscle from group 1 was lighter than from group 3 ( = 0.01). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.33) in ultimate pH of fresh ham muscles between production focuses, but several muscles from quality focus pigs were lighter in color than ham muscles from lean focus pigs. The lack of differences in fresh ham quality lead to few differences in cured ham quality. Cured hams from the quality focus pigs had greater lipid content ( marketing group 1 and 2 were 1.52 units lighter than hams from marketing group 3 ( 0.01). Overall, marketing group did not impact ham quality. Fresh ham quality was not strongly related to cured ham quality. Some correlations were present between fresh and cured ham traits, but

  16. Fresh Produce-Associated Listeriosis Outbreaks, Sources of Concern, Teachable Moments, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Danisha; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes was first demonstrated through the investigation of the 1981 Maritime Provinces outbreak involving coleslaw. In the following two decades, most listeriosis outbreaks involved foods of animal origin, e.g., deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, especially epidemic clones I, II, and Ia, were frequently implicated in these outbreaks. However, since 2008 several outbreaks have been linked to diverse types of fresh produce: sprouts, celery, cantaloupe, stone fruit, and apples. The 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak was one of the deadliest foodborne outbreaks in recent U.S. history. This review discusses produce-related outbreaks of listeriosis with a focus on special trends, unusual findings, and potential paradigm shifts. With the exception of sprouts, implicated produce types were novel, and outbreaks were one-time events. Several involved serotype 1/2a, and in the 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak, serotype 1/2b was for the first time conclusively linked to a common-source outbreak of invasive listeriosis. Also in this outbreak, for the first time multiple strains were implicated in a common-source outbreak. In 2014, deployment of whole genome sequencing as part of outbreak investigation validated this technique as a pivotal tool for outbreak detection and speedy resolution. In spite of the unusual attributes of produce-related outbreaks, in all but one of the investigated cases (the possible exception being the coleslaw outbreak) contamination was traced to the same sources as those for outbreaks associated with other vehicles (e.g., deli meats), i.e., the processing environment and equipment. The public health impact of farm-level contamination remains uncharacterized. This review highlights knowledge gaps regarding virulence and other potentially unique attributes of produce outbreak strains, the potential for novel fresh produce items to become unexpectedly implicated in outbreaks

  17. Efficacy of detergents in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surface of fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiden, Renee M; Sumner, Susan S; Eifert, Joseph D; Pierson, Merle D

    2003-12-01

    Fresh produce has been implicated in several foodborne disease outbreaks. Produce surfaces can be primary sites of contamination during production and handling. One approach to reduce contamination is to treat fresh produce with rinsing agents. In this study, different detergent agents were used at 22 and 40 degrees C to determine their efficacy in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surfaces of strawberries, tomatoes, and green-leaf lettuce. Produce was inoculated at 22 degrees C with a cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant organisms (6 to 6.5 log CFU/ml). After air drying for 1 h, samples were rinsed with either 0.1% Tween 80, 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or water (control) at 22 or 40 degrees C. Rinse solutions were spiral plated onto tryptic soy agar supplemented with 50 mg of nalidixic acid per liter. In trials involving strawberries and lettuce, Salmonella and Shigella were removed at levels of 4 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively, except from Salmonella-inoculated strawberries rinsed with SLS, for which minimal removal rates were 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 degrees C and strawberries were analyzed after rinsing with SLS, few organisms were recovered. This result suggests that SLS may have a lethal or sublethal effect on Salmonella, especially when a 40 degrees C solution is used. Salmonella and Shigella removal rates for tomatoes were 1 and 1.5 log CFU/ml lower, respectively, than those for strawberries or lettuce. Overall, detergents were no more effective in removing organisms from produce than water was. The detergents examined would not constitute effective overall produce rinse treatments.

  18. Do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? An overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Tardelli, Francesca; Remorini, Damiano; Massai, Rossano; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-05-14

    Fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. For that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. However, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. This study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded differently perform upon storage as whole fruit and as minimally processed produce. Flesh firmness (FF), total solids soluble (SSC), ascorbate (AAT), flavonoids (TFO), and phenols (TF) contents were evaluated in sliced and whole fruit upon 3 days of storage at 4 °C after 75 days of cold chamber storage at 0 °C. The activities of two enzymes related to the softening process, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), were evaluated as well. FF and SSC were constitutively higher in sun-exposed fruit, and those characteristics remained higher during the storage as whole fruit. Greater constitutive content of AAT, TFO, and TP was found in sun-exposed whole fruit, although after cutting the reduction in their content was significantly lower in shaded fruits. PME and PG activities were higher only in whole shaded fruits, whereas no relevant differences occurred after cutting. In summary, sun-exposed fruits were more suitable for the fresh-fruit market, whereas the shaded counterpart displayed a good predisposition for use as fresh-cut produce, maintaining similar fruit maturity properties but higher nutraceutical values when sliced than fruit grown under full sun.

  19. Marketing mix strategies of bread producers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Ejup Fejza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a fundamental or core function of the business which more than any other business function deals with customers and their satisfaction. Creation and implementation of a successful marketing strategy in business is very crucial, especially when we deal with a business such is bread manufacturing. Thus, the purpose of the research was to analyze the development of marketing as an organizational function of bread manufacturers companies in Kosovo, to analyze their marketing strategies and to provide clear recommendations for companies that do not use marketing strategies. During the research I have find that bread producers do not even have established a marketing department and/or do not have employed a marketing or sales person. Only few companies, three out of fifteen, intend to establish marketing department in the future, which is a sign that bread producers still do not see marketing as core function in their activities. They do think more on production than on sales and marketing. None of the companies have promotional activities regularly and only two of them exhibits regularly on the trade fairs in Kosovo and only one company exhibited abroad. There should be continuous insistence of manufacturing companies to advance marketing department, creating a special unit of market research and behavior with consumer. The data for research were collected through questionnaire in fifteen bread manufacturing companies. Methods used for research have been descriptive, comparative, analysis, and synthesis. The research instrument was a questionnaire, the technique has been direct communication and research was conducted between months June up to September 2009.

  20. Screening for the presence of patulin in molded fresh produce and evaluation of its stability in the production of tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Perre, Evelien; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Der Hauwaert, Wendy; Haesaert, Ine; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-01-08

    A screening for the presence of patulin in molded fresh produce was conducted. Patulin was present in 11% of the sweet bell peppers and in 8% of the soft red fruits, but not in onions. Patulin was also found in tomatoes, but could not be detected in derived tomato products. When the production process of tomato concentrates was simulated, none of the evaluated hypotheses could however explain a complete degradation of patulin. It was thus concluded that the tomato varieties used for further processing are probably less susceptible to infestation by patulin-producing molds compared to tomatoes used for the fresh market. This was confirmed by screening for patulin throughout the production process of tomato concentrate, gazpacho, and salmorejo in three different countries; all 191 samples were negative for patulin. Therefore, it can be concluded that no health risk can be associated with derived tomato products considering this particular mycotoxin.

  1. Identification of ochratoxin A producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Juan Chen

    Full Text Available The presence of fungi on liquorice could contaminate the crop and result in elevated levels of mycotoxin. In this study, the mycobiota associated with fresh and dry liquorice was investigated in 3 producing regions of China. Potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene phylogeny, a total of 9 genera consisting of 22 fungal species were identified, including two new Penicillium species (Penicillium glycyrrhizacola sp. nov. and Penicillium xingjiangense sp. nov.. The similarity of fungal communities associated with fresh and dry liquorice was low. Nineteen species belonging to 8 genera were detected from fresh liquorice with populations affiliated with P. glycyrrhizacola, P. chrysogenum and Aspergillus insuetus comprising the majority (78.74%, 33.33% and 47.06% of total of the community from Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang samples, respectively. In contrast, ten species belonging to 4 genera were detected from dry liquorice with populations affiliated with P. chrysogenum, P. crustosum and Aspergillus terreus comprising the majority (64.00%, 52.38% and 90.91% of total of the community from Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang samples, respectively. Subsequent LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that 5 fungal species were able to synthesize OTA in vitro including P. chrysogenum, P. glycyrrhizacola, P. polonicum, Aspergillus ochraceus and A. westerdijkiae, the OTA concentration varied from 12.99 to 39.03 µg/kg. AFB1 was absent in all tested strains. These results demonstrate the presence of OTA producing fungi on fresh liquorice and suggest that these fungi could survive on dry liquorice after traditional sun drying. Penicillium chrysogenum derived from surrounding environments is likely to be a stable contributor to high OTA level in

  2. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables.

  3. Analysis of marketing instruments used by domestic organic food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of previous research results points out to the fact that the majority of the sources related to the organic food marketing belong to the literature based on the research of consumers, with the lack of extensive research of organic food producers. Thus, the results obtained by the quantitative research of organic food producers on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, are presented in this paper. The main marketing mix instruments (4P are in the focus of analysis, as the most beneficial way of determining the success of marketing activities of the organic food producers in Serbia. In order to get a comprehensive idea of the success of the market activity of the producers, the obtained results are explained in regard to the theoretical knowledge of consumer behavior, acquired by an extensive overview of the relevant literature. The research results are significant, both for the producers of organic food, as well as for traders, because they indicate the key elements to improve the placement of organic food products originating in Serbia. As an important contribution of the paper to the topic, recommendations for the development of an appropriate marketing strategy are given in the conclusion.

  4. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-the, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.nguyen-the@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Bardin, Marc, E-mail: marc.bardin@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [EMMAH, INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Berge, Odile, E-mail: odile.berge@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UR0407 Plant Pathology, F-84143 Montfavet (France); Brillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.brillard@univ-montp2.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); Broussolle, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.broussolle@avignon.inra.fr [UMR408 SQPOV «Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale», INRA, Avignon Université, 84000 Avignon (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. - Highlights: • Measures taken to improve safety were assessed for their impact on sustainability. • Fresh produce safety improvements may come at the expense of sustainability. • Environment, food security and human health constituted the

  5. Development of chlorine dioxide releasing film and its application in decontaminating fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Soumi; Jin, Tony; Fan, Xuetong; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2013-02-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to develop chlorine dioxide (ClO(2) )-releasing packaging films for decontaminating fresh produce. Sodium chlorite and citric acid powder were incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA) polymer. Films made with different amounts of PLA (100 and 300 mg), percentages of reactant (5% to 60%), and ratios of sodium chlorite to citric acid (1:2 or 2:1) were prepared using a solvent casting method. The release of ClO(2) from the resultant films was activated by moisture. Increase of reactants in the films produced more ClO(2) while higher PLA content in the films resulted in less release of ClO(2) . The ratio of sodium chlorite to citric acid and activation temperature (22 °C compared with 10 °C) did not affect the ClO(2) release from the films. Antimicrobial efficacy of ClO(2) released from the films was evaluated using grape tomato as a model food. The results indicate that the films were activated by moisture from tomatoes in the package and the released ClO(2) reduced Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on the tomatoes to undetectable levels (tomato), achieving more than 3 log reduction. The film-treated tomatoes did not show significant changes in color and texture as compared to controls during storage at 10 °C for 21 d. This study demonstrated the technical feasibility for development of gaseous ClO(2) -releasing packaging system to enhance microbial safety and extend shelf life of fresh produce.

  6. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  7. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  8. Risk assessment of cryptosporidium and giardia in water irrigating fresh produce in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Alain; Mena, Kristina D; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Tarwater, Patrick M; Cháidez, Cristóbal

    2009-10-01

    A rise in foodborne outbreaks in the United States associated with fresh produce has resulted in increased concerns with the importation of fruits and vegetables. Mexico is a major exporter of produce to the United States, particularly tomatoes and bell peppers. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted to evaluate the public health impact of protozoan-laden water irrigating produce in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Specifically, a QMRA was conducted to address the human health impact associated with consumption of tomatoes, bell peppers, cucumbers, and lettuce irrigated with water contaminated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Yearly infection risks were estimated and assumed a 120-day exposure in a given year. Annual risks range from 9 x 10(-6) for Cryptosporidium at the lowest concentration associated with bell peppers to almost 2 x 10(-1) for exposure to Giardia on lettuce at the highest detected concentration. With the relatively high number of illnesses resulting from produce-related outbreaks, addressing pre- and postharvest points of contamination for fruits and vegetables consumed raw should be a food industry priority. This research shows how QMRA can be used to interpret microbial contamination data for public health significance and subsequently provide the foundation for guideline development.

  9. The Impact of Marketing Advisory Service Recommendations on Producers' Marketing Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Good, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract To date, there is only fragmented and anecdotal information about the impact of the recommendations of market advisory services (MAS) on producers¿ decision-making. A conceptual framework is developed in which, among others, producers¿ risk attitudes and risk perceptions; producers¿

  10. New Vertical Marketing of Producers and Small Traders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In relations of producers and small traders, diferent forms of vertical marketing develop a long time. However, under the contemporary conditions of retail global companies, the question is frst about conception of products categories called category management – CM. Namely, the prerequisites of business success of contemporary retail economic subjects in new highly competitive environment hide in the implementation of new managing conceptions and new technologies. This paper first gives a short analysis of some former theoretical cooperation viewpoints of producers and traders in marketing channels; later, it analyzes the basic assumptions of new vertical marketing on which rests the conception of category management. Besides, the paper states the application possibilities of the stated conception from the trader’s point of view. The basic hypothesis from which the authors start is the indispensability of vertical marketing application in the relations of contemporary retail economic subjects and producers in all market economies and the implementation of category management in its structure.

  11. Predominance of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage AII in Fresh Leafy Vegetables from a Market in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Arruda Piovesani, Ana Flávia; Tiyo, Bruna Tiaki; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Gomes, Monica Lucia; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and its genotypes in raw leafy vegetables sold in a Brazilian market. These products are different from those sold in most street markets because the producers themselves display and sell their products and rely on specialized technical and sanitary assistance. Vegetable and water samples were collected from 14 (80%) producers who cultivated vegetables that are typically consumed raw for sale at the market, obtained at the market and farms, respectively. A total of 128 samples of leafy greens (chives, parsley, cabbage, arugula, watercress, and chicory) and 14 water samples were analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR techniques. The positive samples were genotyped (GHD gene) using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The analyses indicated that 16 (12.5%) of 128 samples were positive by PCR, while 1 (0.8%) of 128 samples were positive by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were not detected in the water samples obtained at the farms. The molecular technique revealed a genotype with zoonotic potential, which underscores the challenge in the control of giardiasis dissemination via the consumption of raw vegetables.

  12. Challenges of Reducing Fresh Produce Waste in Europe—From Farm to Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blanke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper summarizes key “hotspots” for waste generation along the food supply chain and identifies a range of existing solutions/measures that can help producers, retailers and consumers reduce the amount of food that is wasted. The majority of food waste of 71–92 kg/head/year in Western Europe was found to originate from private households (61%, followed by restaurants and canteens (17% and then supermarkets (5%; 59%–65% (of this food waste (71–92 kg can be avoided and 54% thereof are fruit and vegetables. Since ethylene accelerates fruit ripening and its accumulation can lead to fruit decay and waste and new portable instruments now enable continuous in-situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, there is a possible key to reducing food waste of perishable, fresh produce. Hence, suggested countermeasures at the field level are use of ethylene inhibitors (AVG as “Retain” or MCP as “Harvista”, the former prevents pre-mature fruit drop in pome fruit, incentives for processing fruit of industrial grade and whole crop purchase (“WCP”. Along the supply chain, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g., 1-MCP as “SmartFresh” absorber strips (e.g., “It’s Fresh”, Sensitech, bags (e.g., “Peakfresh” as well as simply cooling and venting, and shading to avoid sun exposure. Countermeasures also include superstores no longer promoting multi-packs, e.g., “two strawberry punnets for the price of one”, abandon the “Display until” or “Sell by” date, conservative consumer shopping behavior, and sale of class II produce (“Wunderlinge” in Billa or “Kleine Äpfel” in REWE, “Ünique” in Coop, collection (rather than wasting of perishable food by volunteers (“Die Tafel”, or “Food Sharing” of private household left-over perishable on social media, or any combination of the above to aid reducing fresh produce waste.

  13. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-The, Christophe; Bardin, Marc; Berard, Annette; Berge, Odile; Brillard, Julien; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric; Renault, Pierre; Tchamitchian, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed.

  14. Associations between weather and microbial load on fresh produce prior to harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michelle; Dhingra, Radhika; Remais, Justin V; Chang, Howard H; Johnston, Lynette M; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated produce causes approximately 1 million cases of foodborne illness and 1 billion dollars in damages to the U.S. economy annually. The environmental conditions, especially weather, that influence the inoculation, proliferation, and dispersal of microbial load on produce are not well understood. Using a mixed models approach, we examined the relationship of temperature and precipitation to microbial indicators of contamination on fresh produce on the farm over a week-long period prior to harvest. Between 2000 and 2002, we assayed for four microbial indicators of contamination (aerobic plate count, Enterococcus, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli) on 10 produce types in 15 fields in the southern United States. The sample collection times varied, with most occurring between January and May. We collected hourly weather data for the corresponding time period and location. Our results indicated that there was a significant association between the average daily temperature (20°C) and both log aerobic plate count (e.g., an increase of 0.074 log CFU/g [standard error {SE}, 0.023] per °C increase in weekly average temperature) and log Enterococcus (e.g., an increase of 0.15 log CFU/g [SE, 0.031] per °C increase in weekly average temperature) for approximately 5 days prior to sample collection. Daily total precipitation was significantly associated with log coliforms on 2 days (∼0.11 log CFU/g [SE, 0.06] per mm of precipitation) during the week-long lag period prior to harvest. Our results suggest that microbial indicator concentrations may increase as the temperature increases. Precipitation may have a positive but complex relationship with microbial indicators, as precipitation may create moist conditions conducive to bacterial growth, spread contamination onto the field, or wash contamination off of the plant.

  15. Genome sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa type strain ATCC 49129 and strain FC1138, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce-processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 is a strong biofilm producer, isolated from a local fresh-cut produce processing plant. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 which includes two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete ...

  16. Optimal contracts for wind power producers in electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is focused on optimal contracts for an independent wind power producer in conventional electricity markets. Starting with a simple model of the uncertainty in the production of power from a wind turbine farm and a model for the electric energy market, we derive analytical expressions for optimal contract size and corresponding expected optimal profit. We also address problems involving overproduction penalties, cost of reserves, and utility of additional sensor information. We obtain analytical expressions for marginal profits from investing in local generation and energy storage. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Salad Leaf Juices Enhance Salmonella Growth, Colonization of Fresh Produce, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkidis, Giannis; Haigh, Richard; Allcock, Natalie; Jordan, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We show in this report that traces of juices released from salad leaves as they become damaged can significantly enhance colonization of salad leaves by Salmonella enterica. Salad juices in water increased Salmonella growth by 110% over the level seen with the unsupplemented control and in host-like serum-based media by more than 2,400-fold over control levels. In serum-based media, salad juices induced growth of Salmonella via provision of Fe from transferrin, and siderophore production was found to be integral to the growth induction process. Other aspects relevant to salad leaf colonization and retention were enhanced, such as motility and biofilm formation, which were increased over control levels by >220% and 250%, respectively; direct attachment to salad leaves increased by >350% when a salad leaf juice was present. In terms of growth and biofilm formation, the endogenous salad leaf microbiota was largely unresponsive to leaf juice, suggesting that Salmonella gains a marked growth advantage from fluids released by salad leaf damage. Salad leaf juices also enhanced pathogen attachment to the salad bag plastic. Over 5 days of refrigeration (a typical storage time for bagged salad leaves), even traces of juice within the salad bag fluids increased Salmonella growth in water by up to 280-fold over control cultures, as well as enhancing salad bag colonization, which could be an unappreciated factor in retention of pathogens in fresh produce. Collectively, the study data show that exposure to salad leaf juice may contribute to the persistence of Salmonella on salad leaves and strongly emphasize the importance of ensuring the microbiological safety of fresh produce. IMPORTANCE Salad leaves are an important part of a healthy diet but have been associated in recent years with a growing risk of food poisoning from bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. Although this is considered a significant public health problem, very little is known about the

  18. Evaluation of an intervention to reduce musculoskeletal hazards among fresh market vegetable growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Larry J; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Meyer, Robert H; Taveira, Alvaro D; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Ehlers, Janet J; Palermo, Teri

    2004-01-01

    We conducted an intervention to convince small, fresh market vegetable operations to adopt mesh bags and standard containers, two production practices that aid in crop handling and that are known to improve labor efficiency and reduce exposures to musculoskeletal injury hazards. The intervention disseminated information about the practices to growers through trade publications, public events, university Extension, and growers already using the practices. A mail questionnaire was administered to vegetable growers (n=243 and 207) before and after the intervention. Strawberry growers were used as a comparison group and also received questionnaires (n=50 and 35). After the intervention, more vegetable growers reported seeing information about mesh bags in trade publications (37% vs. 59%) and information about standard containers at public events (33% vs. 49%). Levels of self-reported adoption increased for containers (38% vs. 54%) and approached significance for bags (8% vs. 17%). Aware, non-adopting grower perceptions of bag profitability improved (2.6 vs. 3.8). Strawberry grower control results were unchanged. Better information flow to growers may be able to increase the speed with which agricultural practices with better ergonomics are adopted, especially when the practices are more profitable.

  19. FIELD NOTES: PEOPLE, PROGRAMS, & POLICIES* Farmers’ Market Produce Delivery Program for Mitigating Nutritional Risk in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    DOVER, SALLY E.; Buys, David R.; ALLOCCA, SALLY; Locher, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.

  20. Through the integration to the regulated market of fresh vegetables in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Podgoršek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Disconnectedness of Slovenian producers is reflected in a markedly disadvantageous position in purchasing and sales marketing. Therefore, we raised a research question about the possibilities for the creation of an optimal model for the integration of producers. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the readiness of stakeholders in the chain of vegetable production for mutual cooperation. The aim of the research is to find the optimal model of vegetable producers' integration and/with other stakeholders. Method: We have come to the results through different research tools. We have analyzed questionnaires with MS Excel and Statgraphyc plus 4.0, having errected an organization model for the integration of growers through a system analysis, comparative analysis and with multicriterion decision-making method DEXi. We have verified these results by applying a method of participatory research. Results: We found in this research that primarily larger agricultural holdings, which produce vegetables, wish to cooperate more intensively with each other. Using the research tools, we have determined the optimal form of mutual cooperation between producers. It is an economic cluster. However, gradual organizing via an producer organization, in particular due to the financial support of the EU, is reasonable. Organization: Competitive advantages acquired as the result of interconnection of growers will be felt on any agricultural holding. Society: By improving the conditions for the marketing of vegetables, self-sufficiency in vegetables will also grow, which will undoubtedly increase the autonomy of society and its independence from food imports from elsewhere. Originality: The study has made an innovative approach to the organization of the optimal model of the integration of vegetable growers. Limitations/Future Research: The study is limited to the vegetable sector, for the other sectors a new study should be carried out.

  1. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  2. Cassini capturing of freshly-produced water-group ions in the Enceladus torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Miloch, W. J.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2012-09-01

    The water vapor plume on the geological-active south-polar region of the moon Enceladus is recognized as the main source of Saturn's neutral torus centered on the Enceladus orbit. The composition of the torus is dominated by water group species. Recent in situ Cassini plasma spectrometer measurements indicate the existence of freshly produced, slow and non-thermalized water group ions throughout the Enceladus torus including regions far from the moon. We report the results of modeling spacecraft-plasma interactions in the environment relevant for the Enceladus torus to show that new-born non-thermalized ions will inevitably be captured by the electric fields arising around the charged spacecraft. The associated plasma configuration can directly impact the plasma measurements and thus is important for reliable interpretation of data obtained by Cassini instruments in the Enceladus torus. The simulation results appear to be partially supported by Cassini observations and can provide new insights into intricate process of Enceladus-plasma interactions.

  3. Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria from Fresh Produce by Filtration and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Han, Caiqin; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yao-Wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-04-01

    The detection of Salmonella Poona from cantaloupe cubes and E. coli O157:H7 from lettuce has been explored by using a filtration method and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on vancomycin-functionalized silver nanorod array substrates. It is found that with a two-step filtration process, the limit of detection (LOD) of Salmonella Poona from cantaloupe cubes can be as low as 100 CFU/mL in less than 4 h, whereas the chlorophyll in the lettuce causes severe SERS spectral interference. To improve the LOD of lettuce, a three-step filtration method with a hydrophobic filter is proposed. The hydrophobic filter can effectively eliminate the interferences from chlorophyll and achieve a LOD of 1000 CFU/mL detection of E. coli O157:H7 from lettuce samples within 5 h. With the low LODs and rapid detection time, the SERS biosensing platform has demonstrated its potential as a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means for pathogenic bacteria detection from fresh produce.

  4. Food safety management and risk assessment in the fresh produce supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.; Allende, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is the output of several years of scientific research coordinated by Laboratory of Food Preservation and Food Microbiology at UGent, within the EU FP7 Research project Veg-i-trade (www.vegitrade.org), in collaboration with among other partners, Wageningen University and Cebas-CSIC. Fresh produce and derived products are globally traded and subjected to an inherent sensitive towards enteric pathogens as Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli due to their cultivation practices. As fruits and vegetables are increasingly being consumed raw, a potential health risk towards consumers is present. In the Veg-i-Trade project the extend of presence of pathogens in leafy greens and strawberry fruit and their cultivation environment (as water, soil, manured soil, etc.) was analysed. Insight in the food safety management system enlighted the need for further fostering and guidance towards farmers in good practices in order to reduce the potential pressure of the presence of the pathogens both in EU and non EU countries. Exposure assessment calculations demonstrated the usefulness of mathematic modelling to gain more insight in fragmented microbiological analysis and information of cultivation practices, as such the impact of contamination of irrigation water and the impact of a flooding event. Veg-i-Trade was a challenging project both in scientific and management perspective as 23 partners collaborated.

  5. Development of a proposed standard method for assessing the efficacy of fresh produce sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Harris, L J; Ward, T E; Kajs, T M

    2001-08-01

    A series of studies was done for the purpose of developing a proposed standard method to evaluate point-of-use home sanitizers for fresh produce. Preliminary experiments were done to determine the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes after inoculation onto the surface of ripe tomatoes and drying for up to 24 h at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Within 2 h, the initial population (6.88 log10 CFU/tomato) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by approximately 3 log10, while reductions in similar initial populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were approximately 1 and 0.6 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively, after 40 min and 3 h. A pilot study evaluated treatment with 200 ppm free chlorine and a prototype Fit produce wash (Fit) for their efficacy in killing a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes spot inoculated on tomatoes using the proposed inoculation and recovery procedures. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with chlorinated water, Fit, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Each tomato was then placed in a plastic bag and rinsed with 200 ml of sterile water by vigorously agitating for 30 s to simulate a procedure consumers might use for sanitizing and rinsing produce in a home setting. Each tomato was transferred to a second bag, and 20 ml of sterile 0.1% peptone was added; tomatoes were rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and the 0.1% peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit resulted in > or = 3.07 and > 6.83 log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by > or = 3.33 and > or = 4.96 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively. The proposed standard method for testing the efficacy of point-of-use produce sanitizers needs to be evaluated for reproducibility of results through a larger scale series of experiments.

  6. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño)

    OpenAIRE

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro; José Uriel Sepúlveda Valencia; Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2016-01-01

    Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331) and sodium phosphate (E-450)), using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E) with indirect vapo...

  7. Contamination of Fresh Produce by Microbial Indicators on Farms and in Packing Facilities: Elucidation of Environmental Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Lickness, Jacquelyn Sunshine; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Newman, Kira L; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2017-06-01

    To improve food safety on farms, it is critical to quantify the impact of environmental microbial contamination sources on fresh produce. However, studies are hampered by difficulties achieving study designs with powered sample sizes to elucidate relationships between environmental and produce contamination. Our goal was to quantify, in the agricultural production environment, the relationship between microbial contamination on hands, soil, and water and contamination on fresh produce. In 11 farms and packing facilities in northern Mexico, we applied a matched study design: composite samples (n = 636, equivalent to 11,046 units) of produce rinses were matched to water, soil, and worker hand rinses during two growing seasons. Microbial indicators (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and somatic coliphage) were quantified from composite samples. Statistical measures of association and correlations were calculated through Spearman's correlation, linear regression, and logistic regression models. The concentrations of all microbial indicators were positively correlated between produce and hands (ρ range, 0.41 to 0.75; P contamination of soil and water and contamination of produce. This methodology provides a foundation for future field studies, and results highlight the need for interventions surrounding farmworker hygiene and sanitation to reduce microbial contamination of farmworkers' hands.IMPORTANCE This study of the relationships between microbes on produce and in the farm environment can be used to support the design of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce microbial contamination of fresh produce with associated reductions in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Title: Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas to decontaminate fresh produce used for in-store and vendor juicing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unpasteurized juices are increasingly popular as consumers aim to find convenient, healthy options. Contamination of produce with pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes poses a risk. In-store treatment of small batches of mixed types of fresh...

  9. The role of cooperatives in food safety management of fresh produce chains: Case studies in four strawberry cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Bijman, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks with fresh produce have raised questions regarding management of quality and safety in the complex supply chains, where cooperatives play a central role. The overall objective of this article was to investigate the role of cooperatives in food quality and safety management in the fr

  10. The role of cooperatives in food safety management of fresh produce chains: Case studies in four strawberry cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Bijman, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks with fresh produce have raised questions regarding management of quality and safety in the complex supply chains, where cooperatives play a central role. The overall objective of this article was to investigate the role of cooperatives in food quality and safety management in the

  11. Nonchemical management of soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, D O

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Nonchemical methods including host resistance, organic amendments, crop rotation, soil solarization, and cultural practices have been used to control soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems. Their suitability as alternatives to methyl bromide will depend on the approach to pest management used by the grower. Traditionally, methyl bromide is used in production systems that rely on the single application of a broad-spectrum biocide to disinfest soils prior to planting. Non-chemical methods are not suitable for a single tactic approach to pest management because they do not provide the same broad spectrum of activity or consistency as fumigation with methyl bromide. Nonchemical methods are compatible with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach, where multiple tactics are used to maintain damage from pests below an economic threshold while minimizing the impact to beneficial organisms. However, adoption of IPM is hindered by the paucity of economically feasible sampling programs and thresholds for soilborne pests and by a reluctance of growers to commit additional resources to the collection and management of biological information. A novel approach to the management of soilborne pests is to design the crop production system to avoid pest outbreaks. Using this "proactive" approach, a tomato production system was developed using strip-tillage into existing bahia-grass pasture. By minimizing inputs and disruption to the pasture, growers were able to reap the rotational benefits of bahiagrass without cultivating the rotational crop. While minimizing the need for interventive procedures, a proactive approach is difficult to integrate into existing crop production systems and will require several years of testing and validation.

  12. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Walter J

    2009-12-01

    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.

  13. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  14. Nutritional and functional properties of fishmeal produced from fresh by-products of cod (Gadus morhua L. and saithe (Pollachius virens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ween

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by-products of whitefish such as cod and saithe is processed to fishmeal (FM on-board seagoing Norwegian trawlers. The aim of this study was to document the properties of whitefish FM (WFM protein with respect to, physicochemical and bioactive properties. Analysis of the proximate composition of representative seasonal WFM batches show that the production is robust without much variance. The mean protein (61.9 ± 1.2, fat (8.9 ± 1.1%, moisture (5 ± 1.2% and ash content (22.4 ± 0.8%, reflect the use of lean and bony raw-material. The WFM has a low content of free amino acids (0.7% and biogenic amines (< 1000 mg/kg that confirm the high quality and freshness of the raw material. Amino-acid analysis identified the presence of all nutritionally essential amino acids. The WFM physicochemical properties was comparable to soy-bean meal (SBM by analysis of solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC, the emulsion stability (ES. Proteolytic degradation of the WFM was used to demonstrate the presence of bioactive peptides with inhibiting activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, in vitro. Taken together, WFM produced from fresh by-products is an excellent protein source with attributes of interest beyond the aquafeed-market.

  15. Nutritional and functional properties of fishmeal produced from fresh by-products of cod (Gadus morhua L.) and saithe (Pollachius virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ween, Ola; Stangeland, Janne K; Fylling, Turid S; Aas, Grete Hansen

    2017-07-01

    Fresh by-products of whitefish such as cod and saithe is processed to fishmeal (FM) on-board seagoing Norwegian trawlers. The aim of this study was to document the properties of whitefish FM (WFM) protein with respect to, physicochemical and bioactive properties. Analysis of the proximate composition of representative seasonal WFM batches show that the production is robust without much variance. The mean protein (61.9 ± 1.2), fat (8.9 ± 1.1%), moisture (5 ± 1.2%) and ash content (22.4 ± 0.8%), reflect the use of lean and bony raw-material. The WFM has a low content of free amino acids (0.7%) and biogenic amines (< 1000 mg/kg) that confirm the high quality and freshness of the raw material. Amino-acid analysis identified the presence of all nutritionally essential amino acids. The WFM physicochemical properties was comparable to soy-bean meal (SBM) by analysis of solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), the emulsion stability (ES). Proteolytic degradation of the WFM was used to demonstrate the presence of bioactive peptides with inhibiting activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, in vitro. Taken together, WFM produced from fresh by-products is an excellent protein source with attributes of interest beyond the aquafeed-market.

  16. First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, K; Poirel, L; Nordmann, P; Klumpp, J; Stephan, R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland. Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March 2015 from different retail shops specializing in Asian food. The vegetables included basil leaves, bergamont leaves, coriander, curry leaves, eggplant and okra (marrow). Samples had been imported from Thailand, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and India. After an initial enrichment-step, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from two carbapenem-containing selective media (SUPERCARBA II and Brilliance CRE Agar). Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of bla KPC, bla NDM, bla OXA-48-like and bla VIM. An OXA-181-producing Klebsiella variicola was isolated in a coriander sample with origin Thailand/Vietnam. The bla OXA-181 gene was encoded in a 14'027 bp region flanked by two IS26-like elements on a 51-kb IncX3-type plasmid. The results of this study suggest that the international production and trade of fresh vegetables constitute a possible route for the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of carbapenemase-producing organisms in the food supply is alarming and an important food safety issue.

  17. PRODUCTION AND MARKETABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AND ORGANIC PRODUCED TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean BAN

    2007-07-01

    purchase organic food products. At the same time, producers and distributors believe that consumers are badly and insufficiently informed about the characteristics of organic food. Finnaly it is unlikely that in the near future prices will fall significantly, therefore consumer education and improved marketing are considered as the main action for supporting the development of organic food markets in Croatia.

  18. BRUCELLA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN FRESH CHEESE PRODUCED IN HAMADAN – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R YOUSEFI MASHOUF

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and its Products possess high nutritional value. It could be a desirable source for growing of pathogenic microorganisms. The objectives of this study was to obtain the frequency of pathogenic bacterial agents (i.e. brucella spp. and coliforms in fresh cheese in Hamedan.
    A total of 210 cheese samples were collected randomly from Hamadan and its rural area for a period of six months. 50 to 100 gm of fresh cheese was purchesed in each time and one gram weighted to preparation of diluted concentration in selective media. The data were gathered through a questionnaire and analysed using IEPI6"; system.
    Of 210 samples, only 5 cases (2.4 percent of Brucella spp. Were isolated, however, all samples tested were positive for Coliforms contaminations (100 percent. E.coli type I was 143 (68.1 percent. E.coli type 11 42 (19.8 percent. The other major pathogenic bacteria isolated were as follows: Staph aureus 8.1 percent, Bacillus cereus 4.7 percent, psuedomonas 1.9 percent and Salmonella typhimurium 1.2 percent.
    Because of isolation of the pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella species, Pathogenic Cofiforms and Staph aures, from fresh cheese, and the role of them in transition of infectious disease, it is recommended that high health cares must be performed to preparation and distribution of fresh cheese.

  19. Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.; Lourenco, S.; Padt, van der A.; Luten, J.B.; Boom, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50°C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. Duri

  20. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA BELI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albanian traditional product. Totally 120 samples of white cheese, produced in small big plant at different Albanian district, by raw milk or pasteurized milk, were collected from Tirana market. All samples were tested by phosphatase test to determine whether raw milk or pasteurized milk it was used for cheese production. 53/120 samples (44% resulted produced by pasteurized milk, 67/120 samples (56 % resulted produced by raw milk. The S. aureus was isolated in Baird Parker agar, and submitted to coagulase and API-staph test. Out of 120 cheese samples, 47 showed contamination by S. aureus coagulase-positive corresponding to 39.16%, otherwise 58 out of 120, 48.33 % of cheeses samples being contaminated with coagulase-negative strain of S. aureus. The occurrence S. aureus coagulase-positive in cheeses produced by pasteurized milk and raw milk it was respectively 7/53 (13.2 % and 40/67 (59.7%. 10% of the samples had high levels 105- 106cfu/g of S. aureus coagulase-positive, suggested that white cheese, may represent a health risk for the consumers

  2. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-25

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes.

  3. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) total aerobic count in biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage.

  4. Using Laboratory Experimental Auctions in Marketing Research: A Case Study of New Packaging for Fresh Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hoffman; Menkhaus, Dale J.; Dipankar Chakravarti; Field, Ray A.; Whipple, Glen D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of laboratory experimental auctions in a pretest market research program for new products. We review the experimental auctions literature, discuss the range of auction mechanisms available and present the advantages and disadvantages of using a particular mechanism for a laboratory pretest market. We then present a step-by-step example of how a theoretically incentive compatible auction mechanism (fifth-price, sealed-bid) was used in a laboratory pretest market ...

  5. Efficacy of FIT produce wash and chlorine dioxide on pathogen control in fresh potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E J; Gray, P M; Oh, S W; Kronenberg, J; Kang, D H

    2008-08-01

    A commercial fresh pack potato operation was used as a model to evaluate FIT fruit and vegetable wash effectiveness in reducing levels of microorganisms on potatoes and in flume water. Fresh potatoes were washed in flume water with or without FIT, or treated with a spray bar utilizing either FIT, 9 ppm chlorine dioxide (CIO2), or a water control. Both flume treatments were also evaluated for APC and Gram-negatives. There were no significant differences in reduction of these microorganisms on treated or control potatoes. However, levels of Gram-negative bacteria in FIT-amended flume water were reduced by 5.95 log CFU/g, and the APC was reduced by 1.43 log CFU/g. To validate plant trial findings, this test was repeated using solutions of sterile potato flume water from the fresh pack operation, containing a typical level of dissolved and suspended solids. Treatment solutions prepared with flume water or deionized water containing FIT, 9 ppm CIO2, or a water control were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Pectobacterium carotovorumssp. carotovorum. FIT and ClO2 prepared with deionized water reduced levels of microorganisms by >6.1 to 6.6 log CFU/g to below the detection limit. FIT prepared with flume water reduced levels of all organisms by >6.0 to 6.4 log CFU/g to below the detection limit, whereas ClO2 prepared from flume water reduced bacterial levels of all organisms by only 0.7 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Neither FIT nor ClO2 was particularly efficacious against E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, APC, yeasts, or molds on potato surfaces.

  6. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  7. Fresh produce consumption and the association between frequency of food shopping, car access, and distance to supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian G; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. Distance to a supermarket has been associated with the ability to access fresh produce. A randomly sampled telephone survey was conducted with the main shopper for 3000 households in New Orleans, Louisiana in 2011. Individuals were asked where and how often they shopped for groceries, frequency of consumption of a variety of foods, and whether they had access to a car. Bivariate models assessed the relationship between four outcomes: car access, distance to the store patronized by the respondent, number of monthly shopping trips, and daily servings of produce. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to distinguish direct and indirect effects. In bivariate models, car access was positively associated with number of shopping trips and produce consumption while distance was inversely associated with shopping trips. In SEM models, produce consumption was not associated with car access or distance, but to the number of monthly shopping trips. The frequency of shopping is associated with car access but a further distance deters it. Access to stores closer to the shopper may promote more frequent shopping and consumption of produce.

  8. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  9. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on fresh produce by cold atmospheric gas plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A; Noriega, E; Thompson, A

    2013-02-01

    Cold atmospheric gas plasma treatment (CAP) is an alternative approach for the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed food. In this study, the effects of growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by Nitrogen CAP were examined. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAP treatment for decontaminating lettuce and strawberry surfaces and potato tissue inoculated with S. Typhimurium was evaluated. It was found that the rate of inactivation of S. Typhimurium was independent of the growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime. Under optimal conditions, a 2 min treatment resulted in a 2.71 log-reduction of S. Typhimurium viability on membrane filters whereas a 15 min treatment was necessary to achieve 2.72, 1.76 and 0.94 log-reductions of viability on lettuce, strawberry and potato, respectively. We suggest that the differing efficiency of CAP treatment on the inactivation of S. Typhimurium on these different types of fresh foods is a consequence of their surface features. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface structures of contaminated samples of lettuce, strawberry and potato revealed topographical features whereby S. Typhimurium cells could be protected from the active species generated by plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  12. Classification and coding of commercial fishing injuries by work processes: an experience in the Danish fresh market fishing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Stage, Søren; Noer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes was deve......BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes...... and up to 13 sub-categories of the work processes for each of the five different types of fishing. A total of 620 injury reports were reviewed and coded. Five percent (n = 33) of these were fatal injuries. The working processes were identified and coded according to the developed classification system...... to working with the gear and nets vary greatly in the different fishing methods. Coding of the injuries to the specific working processes allows for targeted prevention efforts....

  13. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (ppasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.

  14. Persistence of human norovirus in reconstituted pesticides--pesticide application as a possible source of viruses in fresh produce chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh produce is frequently associated with outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) disease. To prevent the contamination of fresh produce with hNoV, knowledge of the possible introduction sources of the viruses, such as water, is needed to be able to implement appropriate and efficient preventive measures. Contaminated water used to reconstitute pesticides could be a relevant source of infectious hNoV, determined by the initial level of virus contamination and the persistence of these viruses in reconstituted pesticides. We studied the persistence of hNoV GI.4, hNoV GII.4 and murine norovirus (MNV-1), the only culturable norovirus, in eight different pesticides after 0 and 2h. Virus concentrations were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and infectivity of MNV-1 was determined by endpoint dilutions followed by maximum likelihood estimations. MNV-1 was found to remain infectious in seven of the eight tested pesticides at the highest concentration applied in practice. In the presence of the insecticide Vertimec, MNV-1 infectivity decreased rapidly with a 1.9 log(10)-unit reduction at timepoint T(0). Also, the concentration of NoV GI.4 RNA decreased considerably with a 1.7 log(10)-unit reduction; whereas the detected PCR fragment of hNoV GII.4 remained stable. Assuming a similar persistence of infectious MNV-1 and hNoV we can conclude that water containing hNoV used to dilute pesticides may be an important source of infectious hNoV in fresh produce chains. The application of pesticides may therefore not only be a chemical hazard, but also a microbiological hazard for public health. The inclusion of antiviral substances in reconstituted pesticides may be appropriate to reduce the virological health risk posed by the application of pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G K

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed.

  16. The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Wylie

    Full Text Available As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X, for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3 was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L., a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed.

  17. A rapid and simple DNA extraction procedure to detect Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from fresh produce using real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA isolation procedures significantly influence the outcome of PCR-based detection of human pathogens. Unlike clinical samples, DNA isolation from food samples such as fresh and fresh-cut produce has remained a formidable task and has hampered the sensitivity and accuracy of molecular methods. We...

  18. Microbial Load of Fresh Produce and Paired Equipment Surfaces in Packing Facilities Near the U.S. and Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kira L; Bartz, Faith E; Johnston, Lynette; Moe, Christine L; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan S

    2017-04-01

    Several produce-associated outbreaks have been linked to the packing facility. Equipment surfaces may be an important source of contamination. The goal was to assess whether the microbial load of packing facility surfaces is associated with the microbial load of produce. From November 2000 to December 2003, 487 matched produce (14 types) and equipment surfaces (six production steps) were sampled from eight packing facilities in the United States near the border with Mexico and enumerated for aerobic plate counts (APC), Escherichia coli , Enterococcus, and coliforms. Bivariate correlations were assessed by Spearman's ρ, and adjusted associations were assessed by multilevel mixed linear regression models. In general, the microbial load both increased and decreased on produce (0.2 to 1.0 log CFU/g) and equipment surfaces (0.5 to 3.0 log CFU/cm(2)) across production steps. Equipment surface and produce microbial loads were correlated, but correlations varied from none to high depending on the equipment surface. For example, significant correlations (P location, there were significant positive associations between the log concentration of Enterococcus on produce and the harvest bin (β = 0.259, P facility surfaces and fresh produce confirm the importance of packing facility sanitation to protect produce quality and safety.

  19. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts on Fresh Produce Using DNA Aptamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    Full Text Available There are currently no standard methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., or other protozoan parasites, in foods, and existing methods are often inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Food testing is difficult due to the low concentrations of parasites, the difficulty in eluting parasites from some foods, the lack of enrichment methods, and the presence of PCR inhibitors. The main objectives of the present study were to obtain DNA aptamers binding to the oocyst wall of C. parvum, and to use the aptamers to detect the presence of this parasite in foods. DNA aptamers were selected against C. parvum oocysts using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. Ten rounds of selection led to the discovery of 14 aptamer clones with high affinities for C. parvum oocysts. For detecting parasite-bound aptamers, a simple electrochemical sensor was employed, which used a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. This aptasensor was fabricated by self-assembling a hybrid of a thiolated ssDNA primer and the anti- C. parvum aptamer. Square wave voltammetry was employed to quantitate C. parvum in the range of 150 to 800 oocysts, with a detection limit of approximately 100 oocysts. The high sensitivity and specificity of the developed aptasensor suggests that this novel method is very promising for the detection and identification of C. parvum oocysts on spiked fresh fruits, as compared to conventional methods such as microscopy and PCR.

  20. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  1. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced... Class 3 (Native) Spearmint Oil for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service..., producers during the 2012-2013 marketing year under the Far West spearmint oil marketing order. The...

  2. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, DATCP licensed aquaculture producers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  3. Direct Marketing of Specialty Crops by Producers: A Price-Comparison between Farmers' Markets and Grocery Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jonathan Adam; Gunderson, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Oftentimes, prices at farmers' markets are much cheaper than those at grocery stores. However, little is known about the pricing relationship between farmers' markets and nearby grocery stores. Only by further analyzing this relationship can we gain a better understanding of these pricing trends. Although this trend is seemingly consistent, further research is necessary to test this assumption. Through the collection of prices at both locales, farmers' markets and grocery stores, producers as...

  4. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water dis

  6. Detection of fresh-cut produce processing residues on food contact surface materials using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce the risk of foodborne-illness, produce processors currently clean and sanitize food contact surfaces daily before production starts. Current methods to verify the efficacy of cleaning procedures include visual inspection and direct surface sampling using ATP bioluminescence assays and cul...

  7. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  8. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water dis

  9. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

    2012-07-01

    Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P 2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce.

  10. Presence of Listeria species in fresh meats from retail markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria spp. are Gram positive, short, non-sporing rods, microaerophilic. Of the six species currently recognized, Listeria monocytogenes is the most important as it causes a range of infections in humans and animals. The organism can be found in a wide variety of habitats including the soil, food processing environments and raw foods. The ability of the organism to grow at refrigeration temperatures is of major importance in food production. This study examines the presence of Listeria species in fresh meat. 29 samples (chicken, pork and beef meat. This bacteria was found in 82.7% of analyzed samples; 7 L. innocua, 8 L. monocytogenes and 9 L. welshimeri (of all isolates. L. innocua prevailed in pork meat (40%, L. monocytogenes in chicken and pork meat (30%, and L. welshimeri in beef meat (44.4%.

  11. IPM for fresh-market lettuce production in the desert southwest: the produce paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the ‘Integrated Control Concept’, Stern et al. emphasized that, although insecticides are necessary for agricultural production, they should only be used as a last resort and as a complement to biological control. They argued that selective insecticide use should only be attempted after it has b...

  12. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  13. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  14. Temporal variations in microcystin-producing cells and microcystin concentrations in two fresh water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Rai, Pankaj Kumar; Chau, Rocky; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Neilan, Brett A; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between microcystin production, microcystin-producing cyanobacteria, including Microcystis spp., and various biological and physicochemical parameters in Sankuldhara and Lakshmikund, situated in the same geographical area was studied over a period of 1.5 years. Seasonal variation in cyanobacterial 16S rRNA, Microcystis spp. 16S rRNA, mcyA and mcyB genes were quantitatively determined by real-time PCR. Microcystis was the dominant microcystin producer in both study sites constituting 67% and 97% of the total microcystin-producing cyanobacteria at Sankuldhara and Lakshmikund, respectively. Microcystin concentrations were 2.19-39.60 μg/L and 15.22-128.14 μg/L at Sankuldhara and Lakshmikund, respectively, as determined by LC-MS. Principal component analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between microcystin concentration and the copy number of mcyA and mcyB, chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass at both sites. The higher microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond were attributed to the high copy number of mcy genes present coupled with the pond's eutrophication status, as indicated by high total algal biomass, high chlorophyll a content, high nutrient load and low DO. Therefore, a significant difference in microcystin concentrations, correlating with these various biological and physicochemical parameters, confirms the importance of local environmental variables in the overall regulation of microcystins production.

  15. Adapting to environmental and market change: Insights from Fish Producer Organizations in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadzic, V.; Antunes, P.; Grin, J.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the best market conditions for their fish, vessel owners are incentivized to create Fish Producer Organizations (PO), with obvious market advantages for fishers. However, the management of POs is not an easy task. This paper aims to understand how adaptation to environmental and market

  16. Adapting to environmental and market change: Insights from Fish Producer Organizations in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadzic, V.; Antunes, P.; Grin, J.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the best market conditions for their fish, vessel owners are incentivized to create Fish Producer Organizations (PO), with obvious market advantages for fishers. However, the management of POs is not an easy task. This paper aims to understand how adaptation to environmental and market cha

  17. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  18. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  19. Adapting to environmental and market change: Insights from Fish Producer Organizations in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadzic, V.; Antunes, P.; Grin, J.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the best market conditions for their fish, vessel owners are incentivized to create Fish Producer Organizations (PO), with obvious market advantages for fishers. However, the management of POs is not an easy task. This paper aims to understand how adaptation to environmental and market cha

  20. Biochars with excellent Pb(II) adsorption property produced from fresh and dehydrated banana peels via hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Chen, Honggang; Xi, Junting; Yao, Denghui; Zhou, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Lu, Xiangyang

    2017-05-01

    Fresh and dehydrated banana peels were used as biomass feedstock to produce highly effective sorbent biochars through a facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach with 20%vol phosphoric acid as the reaction medium. The elemental ratio of oxygen content of the two as-prepared biochars were about 20%, and the FT-IR analysis confirmed the existence of abundant surface functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl which greatly enhanced the adsorption performance. The sorbents showed excellent lead clarification capability of 359mg·g(-1) and 193mg·g(-1) for dehydrated and fresh banana peels based biochars, respectively. The change of the CO/OCO and the appearance of PbO/PbOC on the surface after adsorption confirmed that the ion exchange might be the dominant mechanism. The dehydration and pulverization pre-treatment and the addition of phosphoric acid can benefit the formation of those functional groups and hydrothermal carbonization can be a promising method to transfer biomass like fruit peels into biochars with excellent adsorption performance.

  1. DECOMPOSING PRODUCER PRICE RISK: A POLICY ANALYSIS TOOL WITH AN APPLICATION TO NORTHERN KENYAN LIVESTOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of price risk decomposition that determines the extent to which producer price risk is attributable to volatile inter-market margins, intra-day variation, intra-week (day of week) variation, or terminal market price variability. We apply the method to livestock markets in northern Kenya, a setting of dramatic price volatility where price stabilization is a live policy issue. In this particular application, we find that large, variable inter-market basis i...

  2. Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) targets arabinosyl residues in plant cell walls to mediate adhesion to fresh produce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

    2014-12-05

    Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1→5)-α-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells.

  3. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: kairiyam@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples (Malus domestica L.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 deg. C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results)

  4. SANITARY-HYGIENIC QUALITY OF FRESH AND FROZEN TILAPIA (Oreochromis spp. IN PUBLIC MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Xavier Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the sanitary quality of tilapia (Oreochromis spp. sold in public markets in the city of Mossoro-RN. For such we made use of a checklist and an observational study to evaluate good handling practices in 10 establishments that commercialize fish. We obtained 30 samples of tilapia and evaluated them as to their sensory and microbiological aspects (Salmonella spp., coliforms at 45 ºC, Staphylococcus ssp. count, psychrotrophic bacteria and enterobacteria, as well as to their pH and internal and external temperature. We observed that none of the studied establishments were in accordance with the standards recommended by the legislation. Regarding the sensory evaluation, 83.3% of the samples showed compliance with the requirements of the legislation. As for the coliforms at 45 °C essay, the results ranged from 0.477 to 1.509 log10 CFU/g; in the Staphylococcus spp. essay we found results from 4.854 to 5.397 log10 CFU/g; and further, we found values from 3.884 to 4.937 and from 4.707 to 5.463 log10 CFU/g for enterobacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. All the samples were within the requirements for contamination by Salmonella spp. (absence. The pH ranged from 5.99 to 6.18 and temperatures indicated non-compliance with the recommendations. Thus, we can infer that the sanitary quality of tilapia sold in public markets in Mossoro-RN was impaired, presenting a risk to consumer health due to unsatisfactory handling conditions. Keywords: best practices; microbiology; physio-chemistry.

  5. DECOMPOSING PRODUCER PRICE RISK: AN ANALYSIS OF LIVESTOCK MARKETS IN NORTHERN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of price risk decomposition that determines the extent to which producer price risk is attributable to volatile inter-market margins, intra-day variation, intra-week (day of week) variation, or seasonality. We apply the method to livestock markets in northern Kenya, a setting of dramatic price volatility where price stabilization is a live policy issue. Large, variable inter-market basis is the single most important factor in explaining producer price ris...

  6. Evaluation of the retail market potential for locally produced paper birch lumber in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the retail market potential for random-width paper birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber in Alaska was conducted. Information from lumber manufacturers and retail managers was used to identify current barriers to customer acceptance of locally produced paper birch lumber. Major retail markets and paper birch producing regions throughout Alaska were...

  7. Genes ycfR, sirA and yigG contribute to the surface attachment of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Saintpaul to fresh produce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K Salazar

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a frequent contaminant of minimally-processed fresh produce linked to major foodborne disease outbreaks. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association of this enteric pathogen with fresh produce remain largely unexplored. In our recent study, we showed that the expression of a putative stress regulatory gene, ycfR, was significantly induced in S. enterica upon exposure to chlorine treatment, a common industrial practice for washing and decontaminating fresh produce during minimal processing. Two additional genes, sirA involved in S. enterica biofilm formation and yigG of unknown function, were also found to be differentially regulated under chlorine stress. To further characterize the roles of ycfR, sirA, and yigG in S. enterica attachment and survival on fresh produce, we constructed in-frame deletions of all three genes in two different S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium and Saintpaul, which have been implicated in previous disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene microtiter plates, cell aggregation and hydrophobicity, chlorine resistance, and surface attachment to intact spinach leaf and grape tomato were compared among wild-type strains, single-gene deletion mutants, and their respective complementation mutants. The results showed that deletions of ycfR, sirA, and yigG reduced bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene as well as fresh produce surface with or without chlorine treatment in both Typhimurium and Saintpaul. Deletion of ycfR in Typhimurium significantly reduced bacterial chlorine resistance and the attachment to the plant surfaces after chlorinated water washes. Deletions of ycfR in Typhimurium and yigG in Saintpaul resulted in significant increase in cell aggregation. Our findings suggest that ycfR, sirA, and yigG collectively contribute to S. enterica surface attachment and survival during post-harvest minimal processing of fresh produce.

  8. Genes ycfR, sirA and yigG contribute to the surface attachment of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Saintpaul to fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Joelle K; Deng, Kaiping; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Brandl, Maria T; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a frequent contaminant of minimally-processed fresh produce linked to major foodborne disease outbreaks. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association of this enteric pathogen with fresh produce remain largely unexplored. In our recent study, we showed that the expression of a putative stress regulatory gene, ycfR, was significantly induced in S. enterica upon exposure to chlorine treatment, a common industrial practice for washing and decontaminating fresh produce during minimal processing. Two additional genes, sirA involved in S. enterica biofilm formation and yigG of unknown function, were also found to be differentially regulated under chlorine stress. To further characterize the roles of ycfR, sirA, and yigG in S. enterica attachment and survival on fresh produce, we constructed in-frame deletions of all three genes in two different S. enterica serovars, Typhimurium and Saintpaul, which have been implicated in previous disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene microtiter plates, cell aggregation and hydrophobicity, chlorine resistance, and surface attachment to intact spinach leaf and grape tomato were compared among wild-type strains, single-gene deletion mutants, and their respective complementation mutants. The results showed that deletions of ycfR, sirA, and yigG reduced bacterial attachment to glass and polystyrene as well as fresh produce surface with or without chlorine treatment in both Typhimurium and Saintpaul. Deletion of ycfR in Typhimurium significantly reduced bacterial chlorine resistance and the attachment to the plant surfaces after chlorinated water washes. Deletions of ycfR in Typhimurium and yigG in Saintpaul resulted in significant increase in cell aggregation. Our findings suggest that ycfR, sirA, and yigG collectively contribute to S. enterica surface attachment and survival during post-harvest minimal processing of fresh produce.

  9. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corn must be planted to be considered fall, winter, or spring-planted sweet corn. Potential production... per acre if you have not produced the minimum amount of production of sweet corn contained in the... only able to harvest 5,627 containers of sweet corn. The net value of all sweet corn production...

  10. Kanagawa-negative, tdh- and trh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh oysters marketed in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S F; Costa, Renata A; Menezes, Francisca G R; Silva, Giselle C; Theophilo, Grace N D; Rodrigues, Dália P; Maggioni, Rodrigo

    2011-08-01

    Between October 2008 and June 2009, 15 samples of 10 live oysters each (Crassostrea rhizophorae) measuring 8.31-10.71 cm were purchased from a restaurant on the seashore of Fortaleza, Brazil. The Vibrio count ranged from 75 (estimated) to 43,500 CFU/g. Fourteen species were identified among the 56 isolated Vibrio strains, with V. parahaemolyticus as the most prevalent. Two of the 17 V. parahaemolyticus strains were urease-positive and tdh- and trh-positive on multiplex PCR, but neither produced β-hemolysis halos in Wagatsuma agar. Thus, fresh oysters served in natura in Fortaleza, Brazil, were found to contain Vibrio strains known to cause gastroenteritis in humans.

  11. Validation of a novel rinse and filtration method for efficient processing of fresh produce samples for microbiological indicator enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Solís-Soto, Luisa; Venegas, Fabiola; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan S; García, Santos

    2015-03-01

    Several methods have been described to prepare fresh produce samples for microbiological analysis, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel combined rinse and membrane filtration method to two alternative sample preparation methods for the quantification of indicator microorganisms from fresh produce. Decontaminated cantaloupe melons and jalapeño peppers were surface inoculated with a cocktail containing 10(6) CFU/ml Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Samples were processed using a rinse and filtration method, homogenization by stomacher, or a sponge-rubbing method, followed by quantification of bacterial load using culture methods. Recovery efficiencies of the three methods were compared. On inoculated cantaloupes, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery of coliforms (0.95 log CFU/ml higher recovery, P = 0.0193) than the sponge-rubbing method. Similarly, on inoculated jalapeños, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery for coliforms (0.84 log CFU/ml higher, P = 0.0130) and E. coli (1.46 log CFU/ml higher, P filtration method outperformed the homogenization method for all three indicators (0.79 to 1.71 log CFU/ml higher, P values ranging from 0.0075 to 0.0002). The precision of the three methods was also compared. The precision of the rinse and filtration method was similar to that of the other methods for recovery of two of three indicators from cantaloupe (E. coli P = 0.7685, E. faecalis P = 0.1545) and was more precise for recovery of two of three indicators from jalapeño (coliforms P = 0.0026, E. coli P = 0.0243). Overall, the rinse and filtration method performed equivalent to, and sometimes better than, either of the compared methods. The rinse and filtration method may have logistical advantages when processing large numbers of samples, improving sampling efficiency and facilitating microbial detection.

  12. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  13. Microbial Indicator Profiling of Fresh Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms and Packing Facilities in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Caballero, Cindy; Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; García, Rafael; Solís, Luisa; Burrowes, Vanessa; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan

    2016-07-01

    To compare microbiological indicator and pathogen contamination among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples along the production chain, 636 samples of produce (rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, and tomatoes) and environmental samples (rinsates from hands of workers, soil, and water) were collected at four successive steps in the production process (from the field before harvest through the packing facility) on 11 farms in northern Mexico during 2011 and 2012. Samples were assayed for enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, other Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) and microbial indicators (coliforms, other E. coli strains, and Enterococcus spp.). Salmonella was the only pathogen detected; it was found in one preharvest jalapeño sample (detection limits: 0.0033 CFU/ml in produce and hand samples, 0.0013 CFU/ml in water, and 0.04 CFU/g in soil). Microbial indicator profiles for produce, worker hands, and soil from jalapeño and tomato farms were similar, but cantaloupe farm samples had higher indicator levels (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) on fruit (6.5, 2.8, and 7.2 log CFU per fruit) and hands (6.6, 3.1, and 7.1 log CFU per hand) for coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively, and lower E. coli levels in soil (<1 CFU/g). In water from tomato farms, E. coli indicators were significantly more prevalent (70 to 89% of samples were positive; P = 0.01 to 0.02), and geometric mean levels were higher (0.3 to 0.6 log CFU/100 ml) than those in cantaloupe farm water (32 to 38% of samples were positive, geometric mean <1 CFU/100 ml). Microbial indicators were present during all production steps, but prevalence and levels were generally highest at the final on-farm production step (the packing facility) (P < 0.03 for significant comparisons). The finding that microbial contamination on produce farms is influenced by produce type and production step can inform the design of effective approaches to

  14. Rapid Identification of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O Serogroups from Fresh Produce and Raw Milk Enrichment Cultures by Luminex Bead-Based Suspension Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Lin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a describes a Luminex microbead-based suspension array used to screen colonies for 11 clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145, and O157. We evaluated the usefulness of this method to identify STEC-positive enrichment samples before agar plating. Twelve E. coli strains were added to three types of fresh produce (bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, and cilantro) at levels near the detection limit of the test. A subset of these strains (six O serogroups) was similarly evaluated in raw milk. For comparison, portions of each of the 168 enrichment cultures were analyzed for serogroup by a real-time PCR assay and a Bio-Plex 200 assay with the bead-based suspensions. No false-positive results were obtained. Of the 112 samples with a reported cycle threshold (CT) value, 101 undiluted, diluted, or extracted enrichment cultures also produced ratios above 5.0 in the Bio-Plex assay. When PCR CT values approached or were greater than 35, Bio-Plex detection became less reliable. Using undiluted or extracted enrichment cultures resulted in a significantly larger number of positive results. With the same enrichment material prepared for real-time PCR analysis as described in the BAM Chapter 4a, the STEC microbead-based suspension array can accurately screen food enrichment cultures.

  15. Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice, fresh oranges, and wiping cloths collected from public markets and street booths in Guadalajara, Mexico: incidence and comparison of analytical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Villarruel-López, A; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Martínez-González, N E; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2006-11-01

    A survey of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice and related samples was conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico. One hundred samples of freshly squeezed orange juice were collected from 49 street booths and 51 small food service establishments. In addition, 75 fresh orange samples, each consisting of five orange units, and 75 wiping cloths were collected from the same establishments from which juice had been collected. Salmonella was isolated from 14, 20, and 23% of samples of orange juice, orange surfaces, and wiping cloths collected from street vendors, while Shigella was isolated from 6, 17, and 5% of these samples. In general, the frequency of isolation of these pathogens in samples from juice serving establishments at public markets was significantly lower than that found among street vendors (P or = 5.0 log CFU/ml and Escherichia coli counts of > 3.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. These high counts may indicate poor sanitation and potential exposure to fecal contamination either in the raw materials or during the orange-crushing and juice-serving process. These data may be useful for a further risk assessment of Salmonella or Shigella in unpasteurized, freshly squeezed juice.

  16. Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng eZhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the so-called plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward, with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves, leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  17. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  18. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  19. 76 FR 34618 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... changes in the production and marketing environment in a timely manner. As production and market... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  20. 78 FR 22202 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the... 2013-2014 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY..., that handlers may purchase from, or handle on behalf of, producers during the 2013-2014 marketing...

  1. HOLISTIC MARKETING IN THE FUNCTION OF COMPETITIVENESS OF THE APPLE PRODUCERS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalibor Doncic; Nenad Peric; Radivoj Prodanovic

    2015-01-01

      The aim of the work is the analysis of the current business situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina in which the apple producers are positioned with the development and use of holistic marketing concept...

  2. International Capital Markets, Oil Producers and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meijden, Gerard C.; van der Ploeg, Rick; Cees A. Withagen

    2014-01-01

    In partial equilibrium a rapidly rising carbon tax encourages oil producers to extract fossil fuels more quickly, giving rise to the Green Paradox. General equilibrium analysis for a closed economy shows that a rapidly rising carbon tax negatively affects the interest rate, which tends to weaken the Green Paradox. However, in a two-country world with an oil-importing and an oil-exporting region the Green Paradox may be amplified in general equilibrium if exporters are relatively patient. On t...

  3. 77 FR 37762 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Order Amending Marketing Order 987

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... its programs, including marketing and promotion, which are intended to benefit all producers and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Order Amending Marketing Order 987 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  4. Effects of marketing group on the variability of fresh loin, belly, and fresh and processed ham quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...

  5. Antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh shrimps in Shanghai fish markets, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Jin, Lanlan; Sun, Fengjiao; Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of human serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis disease and even death. Shrimps, often eaten raw or undercooked, are an important reservoir of the bacterium. In this study, we isolated and characterized a total of 400 V. parahaemolyticus strains from commonly consumed fresh shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, and Exopalaemon carinicauda) in Shanghai fish markets, China in 2013-2014. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying two major toxic genes (tdh and trh, 0.0 and 0.5 %). However, high incidences of antibiotic resistance were observed among the strains against ampicillin (99 %), streptomycin (45.25 %), rifampicin (38.25 %), and spectinomycin (25.50 %). Approximately 24 % of the strains derived from the P. monodon sample displayed multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, followed by 19, 12, and 6 % from the E. carinicauda, L. vannamei, and M. rosenbergii samples, respectively. Moreover, tolerance to heavy metals of Cr(3+) and Zn(2+) was observed in 90 antibiotic resistant strains, the majority of which also displayed resistance to Cu(2+) (93.3 %), Pb(2+) (87.8 %), and Cd(2+)(73.3 %). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-based genotyping of these strains revealed a total of 71 distinct pulsotypes, demonstrating a large degree of genomic variation among the isolates. The wide distribution of MDR and heavy-metal resistance isolates in the PFGE clusters suggested the co-existence of a number of resistant determinants in V. parahaemolyticus population in the detected samples. This study provided data in support of aquatic animal health management and food safety risk assessment in aquaculture industry.

  6. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in Fresh Cheeses Expended at Markets in the Veracruz-Boca Del Río Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Flores-Castro; Francisco Morales-Alvarez; Dora Romero-Salas; Juan V. Ornelas-Cruz; Mayra Villanueva-Valencia; José A. Villagómez-Cortés; Aurora Parissi-Crivelli; Violeta T. Pardio-Sedas; David I. Martínez-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium bovis presence in fresh cheese sold at markets in the Veracruz-Boca del Rio metropolitan area, Mexico and to determine the associated risk factors, using a cross-sectional study. A sample size of 30 was calculated with the program Win Episcope Ver 2.0. Samples were collected in two occasions, during the dry and rainy seasons of 2010. Sampling was conducted in six cheese markets officially registered by the health authorities. Samples were pr...

  7. Roles of a novel Crp/Fnr family transcription factor Lmo0753 in soil survival, biofilm production and surface attachment to fresh produce of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K Salazar

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of an infectious disease, listeriosis. L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature and has the ability to persist in food processing environments for extended periods of time by forming biofilms and resisting industrial sanitization. Human listeriosis outbreaks are commonly linked to contaminated dairy products, ready-to-eat meats, and in recent years, fresh produce such as lettuce and cantaloupes. We identified a putative Crp/Fnr family transcription factor Lmo0753 that is highly specific to human-associated genetic lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lmo0753 possesses two conserved functional domains similar to the major virulence regulator PrfA in L. monocytogenes. To determine if Lmo0753 is involved in environmental persistence-related mechanisms, we compared lmo0753 deletion mutants with respective wild type and complementation mutants of two fully sequenced L. monocytogenes genetic lineage II strains 10403S and EGDe for the relative ability of growth under different nutrient availability and temperatures, soil survival, biofilm productivity and attachment to select fresh produce surfaces including romaine lettuce leaves and cantaloupe rinds. Our results collectively suggested that Lmo0753 plays an important role in L. monocytogenes biofilm production and attachment to fresh produce, which may contribute to the environmental persistence and recent emergence of this pathogen in human listeriosis outbreaks linked to fresh produce.

  8. Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Sawe, Chemutai Tonui; Onyango, Cecilia Moraa

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches such as inspections, audits, and end product testing cannot detect the distribution and dynamics of microbial contamination. Despite the implementation of current food safety management systems, foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce continue to be reported. A microbial as...

  9. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  10. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  11. Membrane lipid profile monitored by mass spectrometry detected differences between fresh and vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Beatriz C S; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Cabral, Elaine C; Franco, Marcos F; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vitrification on membrane lipid profile obtained by mass spectrometry (MS) of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used to obtain individual embryo membrane lipid profiles. Due to conditions of analysis, mainly membrane lipids, most favorably phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs) have been detected. The following ions described by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and respective attribution presented increased relative abundance (1.2-20×) in the vitrified group: 703.5 [SM (16:0) + H]+; 722.5 [PC (40:3) + Na]+; 758.5 [PC (34:2) + H]+; 762.5 [PC (34:0) + H]+; 790.5 [PC (36:0) + H]+ and 810.5 [PC (38:4) + H]+ and/or [PC (36:1) + Na]+. The ion with a m/z 744.5 [PCp (34:1) and/or PCe (34:2)] was 3.4-fold more abundant in the fresh group. Interestingly, ions with m/z 722.5 or 744.5 indicate the presence of lipid species, which are more resistant to enzymatic degradation as they contain fatty acyl residues linked through ether type bonds (alkyl ether or plasmalogens, indicated by the lowercase 'e' and 'p', respectively) to the glycerol structure. The results indicate that cryopreservation impacts the membrane lipid profile, and that these alterations can be properly monitored by MALDI-MS. Membrane lipids can therefore be evaluated by MALDI-MS to monitor the effect of cryopreservation on membrane lipids, and to investigate changes in lipid profile that may reflect the metabolic response to the cryopreservation stress or changes in the environmental conditions.

  12. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  13. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762 of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1 LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2 LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3 conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4 conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml. LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298 and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197, compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively. Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343 using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa, and 73% (195/266 using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168 and fresh (5%, 15/323 oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784, advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908. Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  14. Marketing strategies adopted by Romanian smartphones producers. Case study: Visual Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSCOR Dana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition between smartphone producers at world level is increasing. The global players are threatened by smaller local producers from different foreign markets like China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and even Romania. An important element taken into account for the purchase of martphones is the reputation of producers for quality and reliability. Firms compete on quality, price and marketing. The present article presents the results of a research based on a focus group consisting of 16 Romanian students regarding their opinions on the quality of smartphones sold by the Romanian producer Visual Fan, with the brand Allview. The results of the study highlight that the company should continue to innovate and personalize its smartphones and should continue to compete with different products in all market segments.

  15. 76 FR 69678 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... obligations, including the maintenance of strategic marketing programs, in short crop years as well as provide... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order 987 and Referendum Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...

  16. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the quantity of....'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  17. Quality of fresh retail pork cuts stored in modified atmosphere under temperature conditions simulating export to distant markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L M; Stiles, M E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of storage temperature on microbial and sensory quality of retail cuts of pork was determined on samples stored under temperature regimens designed to simulate conditions that could be encountered in accessing distant markets with retail-ready product. Samples were packaged in modified atmosphere with 100% CO(2) and export of retail-ready pork cuts to distant markets with a three-week time for delivery to market at -1·5°C can be achieved with one to two weeks of marketing time at retail market at 4 to 7°C.

  18. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrzeźniak Monika; Nordlund Emilia; Mieszczakowska-Frąc Monika; Płocharski Witold; Konopacka Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields ob...

  20. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  1. The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adékambi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers Abs

  2. Discussion on Business Model of Fresh Produce in Supermarket%刍议超市生鲜农产品经营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊华

    2013-01-01

    The supermarket operation of fresh produce is the trend. Supermarket chains have a unique advantage in operating the fresh produce, at the same time face many challenges. By enhancing the brand management, category management, sourcing from base, distribution system, quality and safety, information platform six aspects, it can improve the business model of supermarket fresh produce, reduce costs, improve efficiency and quality, and ultimately increase consumer satisfaction and business performance of supermarket chains.%  生鲜农产品的超市化经营是大势所趋。连锁超市在生鲜农产品经营方面有着独特的优势,同时面临着诸多挑战。通过对品牌经营、品类管理、基地直采、配送体系、质量安全、信息平台六个方面进行提升,可以改善连锁超市生鲜农产品的经营模式,从而降低成本、提高效率及改善质量,最终提高消费者满意度和连锁超市的经营绩效。

  3. Relationship of producers and retail networks in the regional food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alexandrovich Neganov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of difficult and often uncooperative relationships between producers (suppliers and retail networks within thecontext of development of the new structure ofregional food market. At the present stage, the problem of numerous additional requirements presented by retail trade networks to producers during the conclusion of supply contract is noted as crucial for both parties. Hypotheses wereformulated during analysis of literaturetheir verification showed that the basis of disputed situations is mainly composed by price and bonus payments. The economic substance of bonus payments is collected by retail networks from agricultural producers and producers of food commodities is revealed. Relative importance of bonus payments in terms of retail networks and suppliers is compared; importance of divergence of their viewpoints is estimated. On the basis of quantitative and qualitative empirical data, the attempt to define the main disputed zones, with the help of modern marketing tools is undertaken.

  4. Competitiveness as the Factor of Settlements Terms Forming at the Market of Chocolate Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandrashina, Elena A.; Zotova, Anna S.; Smolina, Ekaterina S.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.; Dneprov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by increasing levels of competition in the industry markets of chocolate producers in Russia and the need to maintain the profitability of the companies' activities in the unstable macroeconomic conditions. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of competitive forces on settlements terms…

  5. Efficacy of timed embryo transfer with fresh and frozen in vitro produced embryos to increase pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Leibfried-Rutledge, M L; Thatcher, M J; Kassa, T; Binelli, M; Hansen, P J; Chenoweth, P J; Thatcher, W W

    1999-11-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen-thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchronized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2 alpha and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows (n = 129) were inseminated 16 h (d 0) after the second GnRH injection. On d 7, a fresh (n = 133) or frozen-thawed (n = 142) in vitro-derived embryo was transferred to cows assigned for timed embryo transfer after categorizing the corpus luteum by palpation per rectum as 3 (excellent), 2 (good or fair), 1 (poor), and 0 (nonpalpable). Response to the synchronization treatment, determined by plasma progesterone concentration (ng/ml) or = 2.0 on d 7, was 76.2%. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on d 7 increased as the quality of corpus luteum improved from category 0 to 3. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were elevated (> or = 2.0 ng/ml) at 21 d in 64.7 (fresh embryo), 40.3 (frozen embryo), and 41.4 +/- 0.1% (timed insemination) of cows, respectively. Cows that received a fresh embryo had a greater pregnancy rate at 45 to 52 d than did cows that received a frozen-thawed embryo or timed insemination (14.3 > 4.8, 4.9 +/- 2.3%). Body condition (d 0) of cows influenced the pregnancy rate and plasma progesterone concentrations. In summary, timed embryo transfer with fresh in vitro-produced embryos in heat-stressed dairy cattle improved pregnancy rate relative to timed insemination.

  6. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Attah, Simon K; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2014-11-25

    Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques. We purchased two batches of samples of cabbage, sweet bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, tomato and onion within a two week interval. The vegetables were washed by three methods and the wash solution was concentrated and analyzed for parasites. The prevalent parasites detected were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (43%) and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (16%). Others present were Hookworm ova, Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Entamoeba coli cysts, Trichuris trichiuria ova, Enterobius vermicularis ova, Isospora belli oocysts and Fasciolopsis buski ova. Contamination was highest in lettuce (61%) and cabbage and the least contaminated was tomato (18%). Contamination of vegetables sold at the open-aired markets was about ten-times that of the supermarkets. In Ghana, the large open-aired markets are the most patronized and serve as a supply point for most corner shops and stalls. The results thus highlight the potential of fresh vegetables serving as a major source of food-borne disease outbreaks and the contribution of open-aired markets to their transmission. Urgent public education on handling of fresh vegetables is recommended.

  7. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  8. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  9. STUDIES ON MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF POLYGALACTURONASE PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM THE SOIL OF VEGETABLES MARKET OF PATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJAY PATEL , DIPIKA PANDYA AND S.A. BHATT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Present work is carried out to check the study microbial diversity of polygalacturonase producing bacteria from the soil of fruits and vegetables market. Soil which is continuously dumped with waste of fruits and vegetables are rich sources of biopolymer viz, pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Presence of such biopolymer selectively promotes the growth of microorganisms which have potential to degrade pectin. In this study more than one hundred and twenty bacterial species are isolated from the soil on the basis of their cell and colony morphology. From these isolates, forty five bacterial species found to produce polygalacturonase enzyme and same have check for capability to produce protease and amylase enzyme. This study provides useful information of the microbial diversity of the soil of fruits and vegetable market. Further it is helpful to study the metabolism of microorganisms to degrade diverse biopolymer.

  10. PROFITABILITY OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMS BASED ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING COWS AND FRESH MILK MARKET PRICES AT LOWLAND AREAS OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Hertanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the profitability of smallholder dairy farmers at the lowland areas of Yogyakarta related to dairy cow performance (milk production to be achieved at various fresh milk market prices. Thirty lactating Holstein cows belonging to the 16 farmers at the lowland areas of Yogyakarta Province selling milk directly to the consumers were drawn as the samples. Profitability was determined by enterprise budgeting (accounting profit and economic profit and break even point. Input and output data were obtained from interview with the farmer samples along with direct observations on the cows performance. The results indicated that under the observed condition of 9.28 liter/day average milk production at IDR 4,700 market price, the accounting profit was found to be IDR 7,758,862/lactating cow/year. The farmers were able to make an economic profit of IDR 1,839,875 with profit margin index of 0.12. If the farmers have to sell the fresh milk to the Cooperatives at the price of IDR 2.800 or IDR 3.200/liter, in order to gain a positive economic profit, milk production must be at least 13.5 or 12.0 liters/day, respectively.

  11. As transações entre supermercados europeus e produtores brasileiros de frutas frescas The transactions between European supermarkets and Brazilian fresh fruit producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2009-09-01

    paper is to investigate the transactions between European supermarkets and Brazilian fresh fruit producers and the structure of the Brazilian mango and grape value chain to Europe. The element pointed out in this paper is the characteristic of the distributor segment. There are indications that the structures of the retail sector affect the strategies of developing countries producers in global markets. In addition, the procurement strategies of the retail sector are different when compare the United Kingdom and Germany. The Global Value Chain and Transaction Costs Economy approaches were used as theoretical background. The method selected for this study was the multiple case studies which were made viable by means of semi-structured questionnaires conducted with mango and grape producer's agents in Brazil and with mango and grape imported agents located in the United Kingdom and Germany.

  12. Producers' and consumers' attitudes towards frozen vegetables in the south african retail market: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Du Plessis

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the attitudes between consumers and producers of frozen vegetables and to determine whether income of respondents exert an influence on their attitudes towards frozen vegetables. A further objective is to establish how the product attributes in respect of both fresh and frozen vegetables are perceived by consumers. Results indicate that producers of frozen vegetables are significantly more positive towards frozen vegetables than consumers. Income level does not influence consumers' attitudes towards frozen vegetables, and it suggests that income should not be used as a segmentation variable. It was also found that consumers attitudes towards fresh and frozen vegetables differ significantly. Opsomming Die doelwitte met hierdie studie is om die verskillende houdings tussen verbruikers en produsente van gevriesde groente te ondersoek en om te bepaal of inkome van respondente 'n invloed uitoefen op sodanige houdings. 'n Verdere doelwit is om vas te stel hoe die produkattribute van beide vars en gevriesde groente deur verbruikers waargeneem word. Resultate dui daarop dat produsente van gevriesde groente beduidend meer positief teenoor gevriesde groente is as verbruikers. Inkomstevlakke beinvloed nie die verbruikers se houdings teenoor vars en gevriesde groente nie en dit suggereer dat inkome nie as 'n segmentasieveranderlike gebruik behoort te word nie. Daar is ook bevind dat verbruikers se houdings teenoor vars en gevriesde groente beduidend verskil.

  13. Total mercury in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) in relation to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M Ángeles; Núñez, Ricardo; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic trace metal, which can accumulate to levels threatening human and environmental health. In this study, contents of total mercury have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) purchased from supermarkets in NW Spain. Mercury was present in all samples analyzed; however, only one sample of fresh tuna (1.070 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w.w.)) slightly exceeded the limit of the EU (1.0 mg kg(-1) w.w.). The average mercury concentration in processed tuna was lower than fresh, 0.306 mg kg(-1) w.w., and ranged from 0.080 to 0.715 mg kg(-1) w.w. Results were compared with literature data. In regard to the three types of preparation-packaging media for canned tuna, total Hg content was found in the following order: olive oil > natural > pickled sauce; the last showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.01) with the other two preparations. Between the two evaluated canned tuna species, significant statistical differences (p = 0.008) were observed and Thunnus alalunga presented a greater mean content (0.332 ± 0.114 mg kg(-1) w.w.) compared to Thunnus albacares (0.266 ± 0.171 mg kg(-1) w.w.).Taking into account the AESAN recommendation for adults and children, as well as the EU regulations and the tuna consumption by the Spanish population, the Hg levels obtained in this study pose no risk to consumer health. However, additional studies, a monitoring process, and efforts to reduce Hg concentration in tuna would be necessary, as well as considering other sources of exposure to Hg.

  14. Modelling the optical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol produced in a smoke chamber: results from the EFEU campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hungershöfer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A better characterisation of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosol as a function of the burning conditions is required in order to quantify their effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry. Controlled laboratory combustion experiments with different fuel types were carried out at the combustion facility of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz, Germany as part of the 'Impact of Vegetation Fires on the Composition and Circulation of the Atmosphere' (EFEU project. Using the measured size distributions as well as mass scattering and absorption efficiencies, Mie calculations provided mean effective refractive indices of 1.60−0.010i and 1.56−0.010i (λ=0.55 μm for smoke particles emitted from the combustion of savanna grass and an African hardwood (musasa, respectively. The relatively low imaginary parts suggest that the light-absorbing carbon of the investigated fresh biomass burning aerosol is only partly graphitized, resulting in strongly scattering and less absorbing particles. While the observed variability in mass scattering efficiencies was consistent with changes in particle size, the changes in the mass absorption efficiency can only be explained, if the chemical composition of the particles varies with combustion conditions.

  15. Efficacy of in vitro embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows using fresh or vitrified embryos produced in a novel embryo culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Bonilla, L; Hansen, P J

    2010-11-01

    Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or

  16. Fresh produce consumption and the association between frequency of food shopping, car access, and distance to supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Gustat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The frequency of shopping is associated with car access but a further distance deters it. Access to stores closer to the shopper may promote more frequent shopping and consumption of produce.

  17. Application of magnetoelastic biosensors for detection of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with emphasis on statistical methods for elimination of detection errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Petrenko, Valery A.; Barbaree, James; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This work demonstrated a direct detection of Salmonella on fresh food produce using groups of magnetoelastic biosensors. The magnetoelastic biosensors were coated with E2 phage, which specifically binds with S. typhimurium. The resonance frequency of the biosensor is measured using a pulse excitation system, which allows simultaneous detection of multiple sensors. Multiple measurement and control biosensors were placed on fresh food surfaces that had been spiked with a known amount of Salmonella. Binding with bacteria was allowed to occur for 30 minutes in a humid air environment. The resonance frequencies of the groups of biosensors were then measured to determine the amount of bound bacteria. By using a statistical experimental design and by taking the average of repeated measurements, possible detection errors are decreased. By using multiple sensors at each site of interest, a higher portion of the contaminated surface has contact with biosensors, allowing for more complete information on the food produce surface. Results from SEM pictures of the sensor surface agree with the sensor frequency response results.

  18. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  19. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw and mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rain-fed fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Rolling harrow, flaming machine and precision hoe for weed control, which were either built, enhanced or modified by the University of Pisa were used separately (mechanical-thermal strategy or in combination with a straw mulch (mechanical-thermal-straw strategy. These two innovative strategies were compared with the traditional farming system, which uses a biodegradable plastic mulch film. The strategies were compared in terms of machine performance, weed density, total labour requirement, weed dry biomass, and crop fresh yield at harvest. The total operative time for weed control was on average ~25 h ha-1 for the two systems, which included mulching, and over 30 h ha-1 for the mechanical-thermal strategy. The three strategies controlled weeds effectively, with only 30 g m-2 in each treatment. Tomato yield, however, was 35% higher for strategies that included mulching (both biodegradable film and straw.

  20. [Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) in three markets of Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Alfieri Graterol, Ana Yudith; Gamboa, Orlando

    2009-09-01

    The incidence of L. monocytogenes in tomatoes and coriander obtained from three different markets, during eight weeks were determined. 192 samples were evaluated: 96 of tomatoes, and 96 of coriander. The isolation of L. monocytogenes was performed using COVENIN 3718:2001. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 12.0. Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis U test; Spearman's correlation were applied, and p<0.05 significance level was aplied. It was not found significant differences between the medias values and standard deviations of Most Probable Number (MPN) of Listeria spp to tomatoes and coriander during the eight weeks of recollection in the markets; neither between the distributions of MPN of tomatoes and coriander from the markets (Chi2=5,233 p<0,073; Chi2=1,624 p<0,444 respectively) neither the samples per weeks (Chi2=6,547 p<0,477; Chi2=2,667 p<0,914 respectively). In the number of MPN between tomatoes and coriander both distributions were significant different according to test U Mann Whitney U=3040,5 (Z=-4,216 p<0,0001). It was found statistical significance (p<0,001) between the number of MPN of tomatoes and coriander. The presence of Listeria spp in tomatoe was 41,66% (25,0% L. monocytogenes and 16,7% L. ivanovii); in coriander 77,08% (36,5% L. monocytogenes, 33,3% L. ivanovii and 7,3% L. seelige). We concluded that the high level of L. monocytogenes in tomatoes and coriander is independent of the markets store; we see the necessity of a microbiological control on the irrigation system, collection and distribution to ensure the quality of the product.

  1. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy and is difficult to predict, we explore the extent to which co-located energy storage can be used to improve expected profit and mitigate the the financial risk associated with shorting on the offered contracts. Using a simple stochastic model for wind power production and a model for the electricity market, we show that the problem of determining optimal contract offerings for a WPP with co-located energy storage can be solved using convex programming.

  2. Atmospheric Cold Plasma Inactivation of Escherichia Coli, Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria Monocytogenes Inoculated on Fresh Produce

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) represents a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal decontamination of foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a novel dielectric barrier discharge ACP device against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cherry tomatoes and strawberries, was examined. Bacteria were spot inoculated on the produce surface, air dried and sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container. Samples were...

  3. Stuody on the Optimal Process of Chitosan Producing Fresh Cheese%壳聚糖优化制作新鲜奶酪的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙万成

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to optimize the craft condition of fresh soft cheese through adding functional chitosan. [ Method ] The lactic acid was taken as the chitosan dissolved by single factor experiment and the optimum condition for the production of fresh cheese was determined by orthodox experiment. [ Result] Orthogonal factor test proved lactic acid as lytic agent of chitosan and determined calcium concentration and curd temperature as factoring influencing the yield of cheese. Thus, the optimum production craft was formed: 0.6 mg/ml CaC12,6 mg/ml chitosan soluble in lactic acid solution and 32 ℃ curd temperature. Under such condition, the yield of fresh cheese was high and the color and plasticity was the best. [ Conclusion] The study provided basic data for the dairy company to produce fresh soft cheese.%[目的]通过添加功能性壳聚糖,优化新鲜软奶酪制作的工艺条件.[方法]单因素试验确定壳聚糖的最佳溶解剂,正交试验确定鲜奶酪制作的最佳工艺条件.[结果]通过单因素试验确定乳酸作为壳聚糖的溶解剂,并确定了氯化钙浓度、壳聚糖浓度、凝乳温度作为最终影响奶酪得率的因素.新鲜奶酪的最佳制作工艺为氯化钙0.6 mg/ml,溶于乳酸溶液的壳聚糖6 mg/ml,凝乳温度为32 ℃.在此条件下的鲜奶酪得率最高,色泽和塑性最好.I结论]该研究为乳品企业进一步工业化生产新鲜软奶酪提供了基础数据.

  4. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis in Fresh Cheeses Expended at Markets in the Veracruz-Boca Del Río Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Flores-Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium bovis presence in fresh cheese sold at markets in the Veracruz-Boca del Rio metropolitan area, Mexico and to determine the associated risk factors, using a cross-sectional study. A sample size of 30 was calculated with the program Win Episcope Ver 2.0. Samples were collected in two occasions, during the dry and rainy seasons of 2010. Sampling was conducted in six cheese markets officially registered by the health authorities. Samples were processed by conventional bacteriological and molecular techniques (PCR. Mycobacterium spp. was isolated from one of the samples (1.67%, but its typing by biochemical tests was unsuccessful; however, by PCR it was identified as M. fortuitum. There were no differences between the variables (p>0.05 and no risk factors were identified. We concluded that Mycobacterium spp. was isolated, even though it was not identified by PCR as M. bovis, but as M. fortuitum.

  5. Desempenho de cultivares de tomateiro para mesa em ambiente protegido Performance of fresh market tomato cultivars under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Gualberto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de cultivares de tomate de mesa, cultivadas em ambiente protegido, foi conduzido em 2003 um experimento na Universidade de Marília (SP, com dez híbridos (AF 4392, Carmen, Débora Max, Diana, Duradoro, Fanny, Raisa N, Séculus, Sheila e Tilila. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas quatro plantas úteis. Ocorreram diferenças significativas (pThe yield of fresh tomato cultivars was evaluated under protected cultivation. The experiment was carried out in 2003, at the University of Marília. Ten hybrids (AF 4392, Carmen, Debora Max, Diana, Duradoro, Fanny, Raisa N, Seculus, Sheila, and Tilila were evaluated in a randomized complete blocks design, four replications and plots of four useful plants. There were significant differences (p50 mm yield was similar among all genotypes, ranging from 154.3 t ha-1 (AF 4392 hybrid to 125.2 t ha-1 (Debora Max hybrid, except for the hybrid Tilila (88.0 t ha-1, lower than the others. Hybrids AF 4392 (176 g and Duradoro (175 g were those with the heaviest fruits, although similar to hybrids Fanny (164 g, Sheila (155 g, Carmen (150 g, and Seculos (149 g. Hybrid Debora Max was the only one to present the ratio longitudinal:transversal diameter equal to 1,0. All other hybrids showed average for this ratio superior to 1,00.

  6. Improving Income Positions of Primary Producers in International Marketing Channels: The Lake Victoria-EU Nile Perch Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Although fair distribution of incomes within marketing channels and systems receives increasing attention in companies¿ corporate social responsibility policies, the marketing literature offers few insights that may be helpful to initiate projects that improve incomes of primary producers in mainstr

  7. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuzina, D; Patil, S; Cullen, P J; Keener, K M; Bourke, P

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) represents a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal decontamination of foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a novel dielectric barrier discharge ACP device against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cherry tomatoes and strawberries, was examined. Bacteria were spot inoculated on the produce surface, air dried and sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container. Samples were indirectly exposed (i.e. placed outside plasma discharge) to a high voltage (70 kVRMS) air ACP and subsequently stored at room temperature for 24 h. ACP treatment for 10, 60 and 120 s resulted in reduction of Salmonella, E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations on tomato to undetectable levels from initial populations of 3.1, 6.3, and 6.7 log10 CFU/sample, respectively. However, an extended ACP treatment time was necessary to reduce bacterial populations attached on the more complex surface of strawberries. Treatment time for 300 s resulted in reduction of E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes populations by 3.5, 3.8 and 4.2 log10 CFU/sample, respectively, and also effectively reduced the background microflora of tomatoes.

  8. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat marketed in Casablanca (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S; Fassouane, A; Filliol, I; Hassar, M; Cohen, N

    2011-03-01

    The contamination of meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157 Escherichia coli (STEC), obtained from markets in Casablanca, Morocco, was investigated. A total of 460 meat and meat products were sampled between March 2004 and July 2006 analysed and 176 strains of E. coli were isolated from these samples. The presence of the stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes, recognized as major virulence factors of STEC, was tested in E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STEC was detected in 4 (0.9%) samples. The result of serotyping by molecular method showed that two of these STEC isolates corresponded to the serotype O157:H7. The others Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157 corresponded to O6:H21 and O76:H19. The presence of O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC in meat and meat products marketed in Casablanca, Morocco, emphasizes the importance of implementing the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as well as the need for implementing, evaluating, and validating antimicrobial interventions to reduce the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms.

  9. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  10. Application of metagenomic sequencing to food safety: detection of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli on fresh bagged spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Susan R; Mammel, Mark K; Lacher, David W; Elkins, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Culture-independent diagnostics reduce the reliance on traditional (and slower) culture-based methodologies. Here we capitalize on advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) to apply this approach to food pathogen detection utilizing NGS as an analytical tool. In this study, spiking spinach with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) following an established FDA culture-based protocol was used in conjunction with shotgun metagenomic sequencing to determine the limits of detection, sensitivity, and specificity levels and to obtain information on the microbiology of the protocol. We show that an expected level of contamination (∼10 CFU/100 g) could be adequately detected (including key virulence determinants and strain-level specificity) within 8 h of enrichment at a sequencing depth of 10,000,000 reads. We also rationalize the relative benefit of static versus shaking culture conditions and the addition of selected antimicrobial agents, thereby validating the long-standing culture-based parameters behind such protocols. Moreover, the shotgun metagenomic approach was informative regarding the dynamics of microbial communities during the enrichment process, including initial surveys of the microbial loads associated with bagged spinach; the microbes found included key genera such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Exiguobacterium. Collectively, our metagenomic study highlights and considers various parameters required for transitioning to such sequencing-based diagnostics for food safety and the potential to develop better enrichment processes in a high-throughput manner not previously possible. Future studies will investigate new species-specific DNA signature target regimens, rational design of medium components in concert with judicious use of additives, such as antibiotics, and alterations in the sample processing protocol to enhance detection.

  11. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  12. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  13. Pregnancy rates following timed embryo transfer with fresh or vitrified in vitro produced embryos in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Krininger, C E; Block, J; Thatcher, W W; Hanse, P J

    2002-07-01

    Timed embryo transfer (TET) using in vitro produced (IVP) embryos without estrus detection can be used to reduce adverse effects of heat stress on fertility. One limitation is the poor survival of IVP embryos after cryopreservation. Objectives of this study were to confirm beneficial effects of TET on pregnancy rate during heat stress as compared to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and to determine if cryopreservation by vitrification could improve survival of IVP embryos transferred to dairy cattle under heat stress conditions. For vitrified embryos (TET-V), a three-step pre-equilibration procedure was used to vitrify excellent and good quality Day 7 IVP Holstein blastocysts. For fresh IVP embryos (TET-F), Holstein oocytes were matured and fertilized; resultant embryos were cultured in modified KSOM for 7 days using the same method as for production of vitrified embryos. Excellent and good quality blastocysts on Day 7 were transported to the cooperating dairy in a portable incubator. Nonpregnant, lactating Holsteins (n = 155) were treated with GnRH (100 microg, i.m., Day 0), followed 7 days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha, 25 mg, i.m.) and GnRH (100 microg) on Day 9. Cows in the TAI treatment (n = 68) were inseminated the next day (Day 10) with semen from a single bull that also was used to produce embryos. Cows in the other treatments (n = 33 for TET-F; n = 54 for TET-V) received an embryo on Day 17 (i.e. Day 7 after anticipated ovulation and Day 8 after second GnRH treatment). The proportion of cows that responded to synchronization based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 10 and Day 17 was 67.7%. Pregnancy rate for all cows on Day 45 was higher (P cows responding to synchronization, pregnancy rate was also higher (P cows producing more milk had lower (P cows producing less milk. In conclusion, ET of fresh IVP embryos can improve pregnancy rate under heat stress conditions, but pregnancy rate following transfer of vitrified embryos was no

  14. Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in each of these contractual arrangements, and what are the implications for their production and investment decisions. Main attention is given to the effects of institutional organization for equity, efficiency and sustainability. The analysis is based on detailed case studies for two non-traditional commodities (pepper and chayote. Results suggest that contracts provide an important insurance device for farmers meeting investment and information constraints, and offer incentive for more intensive input use. This suggests that contract farming may be a critical requirement enabling smallholders to enter into specialized markets.Resumen: Campesinos, mercados y contratos: La integración al mercado de los pequeños productores de Costa RicaFrecuentemente se considera a la agricultura de contrato como un mecanismo apropiado para fomentar la integración campesina en mercados dinámicos. Discutimos los fundamentos que explican la gran variedad en arreglos contractuales entre pequeños productores y empresas agroindustriales en la zona Norte y Central de Costa Rica. Diferentes configuraciones mercantiles inducen condiciones de suministro que varían entre negociaciones en el mercado mismo hasta contratos verbales y escritos. Aquí analizamos qué tipo de productores se relacionan normalmente en cada uno de estos arreglos contractuales, y cuáles son las implicaciones para sus decisiones de producción e inversión. Prestamos especial atención a los efectos de la

  15. Management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Sviridova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the definition of the content of interaction between attractiveness producer and its recipients through the prism of general and derived management principles. Actuality of this article is caused by the formation of long-term relationships between business subjects. The main aim of these relationships is attracting and using of resources to further joint production and benefits distribution from these activities. Formation of such long-term relationships in condition of high competitiveness is one of the urgent problems of modern enterprises. In this regard, the traditional management principles are supplemented by the principles of the interaction and attractiveness managing. The purpose of the article is further improving of management principles through the establishment of specific management principles of the interaction between market attractiveness producer and its recipients.The results of the analysis. Management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. The research of classic, general and structural management principles is conducted in the article. The possibility and necessity of ascertainment of the derivative management principles of interaction between subjects of market environment is noted. Derivative management principles reflect the content of the specialized management activity on forming of enterprise attractiveness. The analysis of existing management principles of different objects is conducted. It is established that as a basis for systematization of management principles scientists use different management features, such as socio-political principles, principles of management culture and state-administrative activity, socio-political, structural, scientific, legal, personnel and organizational basis.Results of research of management principles and management interaction proved

  16. 76 FR 4204 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  17. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  18. Market maturation or social transformation? A study of configurations of Danish producer-consumer networks 1970-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris

    The Danish market for organic food is distinguished among other European countries by a high market share of organic products. This can be interpreted in different ways. One interpretation is the that these developments is a case of an alternative becoming mainstream, which erases the distinctive...... features of the once ‘alternative’. Another interpretation is that the development of the organic market has created new, alternative economic spaces, which has and will continue to redefine the ‘rules of the game’. The aim of the paper is to address this issue, using the development of the Danish market...... for organic food as the field of inquiry and in particular the evolution of producer-consumer relations in the period 1970-2011. The data used in the paper comes from a historical study of the development of the Danish organic market, studies of recent innovative initiatives, operating on both regional...

  19. Robust Optimization of the Self- scheduling and Market Involvement for an Electricity Producer

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-01-07

    This work address the optimization under uncertainty of the self-scheduling, forward contracting, and pool involvement of an electricity producer operating a mixed power generation station, which combines thermal, hydro and wind sources, and uses a two-stage adaptive robust optimization approach. In this problem the wind power production and the electricity pool price are considered to be uncertain, and are described by uncertainty convex sets. Two variants of a constraint generation algorithm are proposed, namely a primal and dual version, and they are used to solve two case studies based on two different producers. Their market strategies are investigated for three different scenarios, corresponding to as many instances of electricity price forecasts. The effect of the producers’ approach, whether conservative or more risk prone, is also investigated by solving each instance for multiple values of the so-called budget parameter. It was possible to conclude that this parameter influences markedly the producers’ strategy, in terms of scheduling, profit, forward contracting, and pool involvement. Regarding the computational results, these show that for some instances, the two variants of the algorithms have a similar performance, while for a particular subset of them one variant has a clear superiority

  20. Chain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development : a guide to multi-stakeholder processes for linking small-scale producers to modern markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Woodhill, A.J.; Proctor, F.; Delnoye, R.

    2008-01-01

    This guide provides a set of concepts and analytical tools for finding ways to better link small-scale producers to the modern markets associated with today’s largescale supermarket retail and wholesale operations. It is has been developed through iterative testing with partners in several organisat

  1. A Market-Window Analysis for Crown-Cut Broccoli Produced in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, John; Kmak, Heather; Russ, M.J.; Coale, Charles W., Jr.; Bratsch, Tony; Reaves, Dixie Watts

    2006-01-01

    This research determines the profitability for farmers of marketing film-wrapped Crown-Cut broccoli in Southwest Virginia. Historical price data was collected in three eastern terminal markets (Atlanta, Baltimore, and Philadelphia) for Crown-Cut and bunched broccoli from October 1998 to January 2005. Cost-of-production budgets were estimated for Crown-Cut broccoli. The economic data was entered into a market window analysis and the profitability of each market was evaluated. The profitability...

  2. Supermarket market-channel participation and technology decisions of horticultural producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Y. Mainville

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationships between growers’ choice of market channel (emphasizing the supermarket market-channel versus others, technology use, and grower characteristics such as human capital and farm size. Three key findings emerged. First, both tomato and lettuce growers selling to the supermarket market-channel had more human capital than those not participating. Second, while farm size was important in whether lettuce growers sell to supermarkets, it was not important for tomato growers. Third, technology use was significantly more capital-intensive among lettuce growers selling to the supermarket channels, however, that was generally not the case for tomato growers. These results are important to agribusiness researchers and policymakers interested in technology design and research and extension to enable producers to adapt to the needs of changing agrifood markets, with new requirements of attributes of products and transactions, which in turn have implications for technology adoption and human capital investment among growers. This is particularly pressing in places like Brazil where the market for horticultural products is changing quickly, conditioned by the rapid rise of supermarkets.Este artigo analisa as relações entre a escolha dos canais de distribuição dos produtores (enfatizando distribuição por meio de supermercados versus outros canais, o uso da tecnologia e as características dos produtores como capital humano e tamanho da propriedade. Foram identificados três resultados principais. O primeiro revela que produtores de tomate e alface que distribuem por meio de supermercados apresentaram maior capital humano que aqueles que não utilizam esse canal. O segundo resultado indica que enquanto o tamanho da propriedade foi importante para produtores de alface decidirem distribuir por meio de supermercados, essa variável não foi importante para produtores de tomate. O terceiro resultado sugere que o uso da

  3. Mitigation of biofilm formation on corrugated cardboard fresh produce packaging surfaces using a novel thiazolidinedione derivative integrated in acrylic emulsion polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrandwein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analogue cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed.

  4. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed.

  5. Infrared sensor-based aerosol sanitization system for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Ha, Jae-Won; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    An economical aerosol sanitization system was developed based on sensor technology for minimizing sanitizer usage, while maintaining bactericidal efficacy. Aerosol intensity in a system chamber was controlled by a position-sensitive device and its infrared value range. The effectiveness of the infrared sensor-based aerosolization (ISA) system to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on spinach leaf surfaces was compared with conventional aerosolization (full-time aerosol treated), and the amount of sanitizer consumed was determined after operation. Three pathogens artificially inoculated onto spinach leaf surfaces were treated with aerosolized peracetic acid (400 ppm) for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). Using the ISA system, inactivation levels of the three pathogens were equal or better than treatment with conventional full-time aerosolization. However, the amount of sanitizer consumed was reduced by ca. 40% using the ISA system. The results of this study suggest that an aerosol sanitization system combined with infrared sensor technology could be used for transportation and storage of fresh produce efficiently and economically as a practical commercial intervention.

  6. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBrusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxing-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine and manipulator hands (n= 450 obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin, rfbO157 (O157 lipopolysaccharide, fliCH7 (H7 flagellin, eae (intimin, ehxA (enterohemolysin and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin, were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5% beef samples and 16 (4.4% environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2% and 182 (50.5%, respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%, and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%; stx2 (29.7%; and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%. None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19 and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  7. Supply Chain Coordination for Fresh Produce under Controllable Logistics Time and Random Deterioration Loss%基于时间可控和随机损失的生鲜农产品供应链协调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏菊宁; 刘晨光; 殷勇; 张娜

    2015-01-01

    生鲜农产品不仅是易腐的,其寿命还具有随机性,在订货和由产地运往远方销地的过程中,面临随机供给与需求的匹配、变质损失与物流成本的平衡这两重难题。基于现代物流条件下物流时间的可控性,分别建立了分散控制和集中控制供应链的决策模型,分析得到了它们的最优订货量和最优物流时间。在此基础上,设计了一组联合契约,推导出了实现生鲜农产品供应链协调时契约参数取值范围的计算公式。研究结果表明:通过选择合理的契约参数φ,联合契约能够完美协调生鲜农产品供应链、实现供需双方帕累托最优。进一步,对变质率参数和需求价格弹性系数进行了敏感性分析,为生鲜农产品供应链实践提供了一些管理启示。%The fresh produce is not only perishable, but its lifetime is random also.So there are two challenges for the supply chain of fresh produce in the process of the fresh produce ordering and shipping from origin to re-mote market:matching stochastic supply with stochastic demand, balancing deterioration loss and logistics cost. Based on the controllable logistics time under the condition of modern logistics, the decision models of the decen-tralized system and the centralized system are established respectively.And the optimal ordering quantity and the optimal logistics time in two systems are obtained.On this basis, the combined contracts are proposed.The value range of contract parameter that can realize the coordination of supply chain is derived.The results show that the combined contracts can perfectly coordinate the supply chain, and can achieve the Pareto optimal of supplier and retailer through choosing reasonable contract parameter.Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of the deterioration rate factor and demand price elasticity coefficient are performed.Several managerial insights are also deduced from the analytical results.

  8. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  9. Qualidade da classificação do tomate de mesa em unidades de beneficiamento Evaluation of fresh market tomato in packing houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Ferrari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade da classificação foi realizada em duas unidades de beneficiamento de tomates de mesa, com equipamentos de classificação eletrônica e mecânica, e em dois períodos de produção, safras de verão e inverno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a conformidade de classificação por diâmetro e coloração dos equipamentos com o proposto pelo Programa Brasileiro para a Modernização da Horticultura (PBMH, e verificar a classificação obtida por diâmetro com os equipamentos, na regulagem programada pela unidade de beneficiamento, sendo utilizados tomates da cultivar Carmen. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que não houve conformidade entre a classificação por diâmetro e a coloração feita com os equipamentos, com o proposto nas normas de classificação do PBMH. Concordância da classificação obtida com a do programa foi encontrada somente para a classe de maior diâmetro, em ambos os equipamentos. O equipamento eletrônico apresentou melhor desempenho que o mecânico; no entanto, esse equipamento deverá ser monitorado em suas atividades visando à eficiência e à viabilização do investimento. Por sua vez, no equipamento mecânico, será necessário rever o sistema de classificação com correia de lona furada para que se possa atender à legislação de classificação para o tomate de mesa.Quality evaluation of classification was done in two fresh market tomatoes packing house, using electronically and mechanical equipments in two harvest periods, summer and winter seasons. The main goal of this work was to evaluate size and color grading conformity with the standards proposed by the Brazilian Program for Horticulture Modernization and size grading obtainded with the one established by the packer. The cultivar studied was Carmen. The results showed that there was no grade conformity with the fresh tomato quality standards proposed by the Brazilian Program for Horticulture Modernization. The grade

  10. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... to sell their raisin-variety fresh grapes to alternate market outlets: fresh, wine, or juice... wine and juice markets, which compete for grapes with the raisin industry. In addition, the European... producers and handlers under the above scenario, the long-term benefits of this action are expected...

  11. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  12. Designing a Fresh Food Supply Chain Network: An Application of Nonlinear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, many fresh food companies have complex supply networks to distribute their products. For example, agricultural products are distributed through a multiechelon supply chain which includes agricultural association, agricultural produce marketing corporations (APMCs, markets, and so forth. In this paper a fresh produce supply network model is designed to determine the optimal service area for APMCs, the replenishment cycle time of APMCs, and the freshness-keeping effort, while maximizing the total profit. The objective is to address the integrated facility location, inventory allocation, and freshness-keeping effort problems. This paper develops an algorithm to solve the nonlinear problem, provides numerical analysis to illustrate the proposed solution procedure, and discusses the effects of various system parameters on the decisions and total profits. A real case of an agricultural product supply chain in Taiwan is used to verify the model. Results of this study can serve as a reference for business managers and administrators.

  13. THE IMPACT OF MARKETING EXPERIMENTS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOFTWARE PRODUCERS AND THEIR RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERȚANU ANDREEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a marketing experiment done on the Romanian software market. The main purpose of this research is to determine how the marketing campaigns of software manufacturers can influence the decisions of software retailers. Through this marketing experimental research an evaluation and an analysis of the impact that marketing policies of software companies have on the retailers from all over the country is made. Three different marketing campaigns were proposed to three groups of software vendors from the most important cities of the country. The total number of software retailers included in this experiment is of 45, and the marketing campaigns proposed by the authors in this experiment refer to the Microsoft brand. Promotion strategies such as: sales promotion by encouraging sales force and promotional pricing or even the policy of partner relationship management have a great impact on three aspects regarding software retailers: loyalty, purchase and resale intention and attitude towards a brand. The results of the experiment show a high interest for the strategy of promotional pricing. The representatives of the software vendors have a positive orientation towards sales promotion by encouraging sales force. Regarding the influences of the manipulations used in the experiment, the greatest impact on the loyalty of the software vendors it has the strategy of promotional pricing. Also the policy of sales promotion by encouraging sales force has the biggest impact on the purchase and sale intention of the software retailers. All three manipulations have also an impact on the attitude towards a brand of the vendors, but the differences are too small to determine which of the proposed stimuli has a greater impact on this aspect. The results of the experiment may help and could have a great influence on the future marketing decisions of manufacturers regarding the strategies and marketing policies used on the Romanian

  14. Desempenho agronômico de híbridos F1 de tomate de mesa Agronomic attributes of F1 fresh market tomato hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Franco B dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar híbridos experimentais F1 de tomate de mesa do grupo salada quanto ao desempenho agronômico em condições de campo. Conduziu-se o experimento na Estação Experimental da Nunhems do Brasil, em Paulinia-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2008. Obtiveram-se híbridos experimentais entre dez linhagens do BAG de tomate da Nunhems. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental blocos casualizados com 36 tratamentos, quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Com base no agrupamento de médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott, os resultados do desempenho agronômico dos híbridos experimentais para sete características avaliadas mostraram grande variabilidade entre os genótipos para comprimento de fruto e largura de fruto, com quatro grupos de médias. Os híbridos mostraram boa variabilidade para produção de frutos por planta e altura de planta, com três agrupamentos cada e, para as características número de frutos por planta, número de pencas por planta e distância da primeira penca do solo, mostraram-se menos divergentes, com dois grupos de médias. HE-38 e HE-14, com valores heteróticos positivos, destacaram-se como os mais produtivos em relação ao híbrido-padrão Aplauso.The study aims to obtain and select F1 resistant hybrids of tomato for fresh market and evaluate their agronomic attributes in field conditions. The work was carried out at Nunhems Experimental Station, located in Paulínia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to June 2008. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with 36 treatments, four replications and ten plants per plot. Based on the grouping of means by Scott-Knott test, the performance of hybrids for seven agronomic traits showed great variability among genotypes for fruit length and width with four groups of means. There was good variability for yield per plant, and plant height with three groups of means for each character. The traits fruit number per plant, cluster

  15. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  16. Organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc sp.) contribute to sensorial quality loss in modified-atmosphere-packed fresh-cut iceberg lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paillart, M.J.M.; Vossen, van der J.M.B.M.; Lommen, E.; Levin, E.; Otma, E.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce packed in a modified atmosphere (MA) is determined by its "overall visual quality" (OVQ), being a measure of its general appearance based on colour and shape criteria. In addition to the OVQ, the development of off-flavour and acid off-smell reduces consumer ac

  17. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli, and Enterotoxigenic E. coli on tomatoes from public markets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Andjavier

    2013-09-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) are important foodborne pathogens in various countries, including Mexico. However, no data exist on the presence of DEP on fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopericum) from Mexico. The frequency of fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, and DEP were determined for two tomato varieties. One hundred samples of a saladette tomato variety and 100 samples of a red round tomato variety were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Each tomato sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. For the 100 saladette samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 70, 60, and 10% of samples, respectively. For the 100 red round samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 75, 65, and 11% of samples, respectively. Identified DEP included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). STEC were isolated from 6% of saladette samples and 5% of red round samples. ETEC were isolated from 3% of saladette samples and 4% of red round samples. EPEC were isolated from 2% of saladette samples and 3% of red round samples, and EIEC were isolated from 1% of saladette samples. Both STEC and ETEC were identified in two saladette samples and 1 red round sample. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in any STEC-positive samples.

  19. Bringing Produce to the People: Implementing a Social Marketing Food Access Intervention in Rural Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana

    2017-02-01

    This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on Fresh Farm Produce Logistics Supply Chain Management in Shandong:A Corporate Perspective%企业视角下山东省生鲜农产品物流供应链管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, from a corporate perspective, we analyzed the current status of the fresh farm produce logistics enterprises in Shandong, and in view of the problems in the supply chain management of these enterprises, proposed to establish the suitable fresh farm produce logistics supply chain management mode.%以企业视角下山东省生鲜农产品物流管理模式为研究对象,分析了山东省生鲜农产品物流现状,针对其生鲜农产品物流供应链管理中存在的问题,提出了构建了生鲜农产品物流供应链管理模式。

  1. 农超对接下生鲜农产品的期权契约定价策略%Strategy for Futures Contracting and Pricing of Fresh Farm Produce in Farmer-supermarket Direct Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹武军; 樊苗

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the coordination of the fresh farm produce supply chain in farmer-supermarket direct supply and introduces the futures contract which not only realizes the coordination of the supply chain, but also its pricing parameter is related to the value loss of the fresh farm produce. Finally according to the characteristics of the fresh farm produce, the paper verifies the finding in a numerical example.%基于收益共享和损耗共担的策略,考虑价值损耗,引入期权机制,对农超对接中生鲜农产品供应链协调问题进行研究,引入的期权契约不仅实现了供应链的协调,并且其定价参数与价值损耗相关,最后根据生鲜农产品的特征,通过数例分析对结果进行了验证.

  2. Getting paid writing graffiti : How graffiti artists produce value within marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    In settings such as hotels, bars and boutiques, things like cars, sodas, clothes, and cities, are fueled with the symbolic capital of graffiti. The purpose of this ethnographic study is to understand how graffiti writers, through marketing, increase the value of their work, as well as that of other products, and how this commercialization affects the meaning of graffiti.  Utilizing a perspective of social constructionism, the analysis shows how actors and social fields that are constructed as...

  3. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRODUCERS AND POLICY MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.; Burnham, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint analysis is used to elicit consumer preferences for attributes of genetically modified foods. Market segments are identified based on a cluster analysis of respondents' preferences for brand, price, and GMO content. A logit analysis is used to analyze consumer characteristics associated with the acceptance of GMO foods. Those consumers who were most risk averse, most likely to believe that GMOs improved the quality or safety of food, and most knowledgeable about biotechnology were th...

  4. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  5. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  6. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  7. 中国新鲜农产品市场能力、供应链管理以及物流问题%Market Ability,SC Management,and Logistics Challenges in the Chinese Fresh Products Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪; REVELLBrian; 傅泽田

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides both a descriptive and an analytical understanding of how chain management and logistics are linked to the distribution of market ability within the supply chain for fresh products in China. The article is structured around three parts. The first outlines the concept of power in supply chains and the types of chain associated with dyadic buyer-seller transactions. The second part provides an overview of the Chinese fresh products supply chains based on the key functional stages. The final section contains a discussion of the type of chain management structures emerging in relation to the power distribution through the supply chains, and examines the logistics challenges of China's fresh products sector.%首先,介绍了供应链伙伴能力的概念并从购销相互关系角度对供应链类别进行了划分;并对中国新鲜农产品的供应链情况进行了全面的分析和描述;最后,讨论了供应链伙伴能力变化中呈现的供应链管理结构,并探讨了中国新鲜农产品面临的物流挑战.

  8. 不同产地PVC保鲜膜中DOP的含量分析%Determination and Comparison of the Dioctyl Phthalate(DOP) Pollution in PVC Fresh Keeping Film from Different Producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海燕

    2011-01-01

    采用HPLC测定结合溶剂萃取方法分析比较不同产地PVC保鲜膜中邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DOP)的含量,结果表明,DOP标样回收率在90.2%~91.8%,在HPLC测定条件下DOP出峰达到基线分离.不同产地的PVC保鲜膜中DOP含量存在明显的差异,其中中国产PVC保鲜膜中DOP含量最高(3.074 2μg/g),韩国产PVC保鲜膜中DOP含量最低(1.0000μg/g),但均远远低于欧盟规定的TDI值.%The contents of Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in PVC fresh keeping film from different producing areas were determined by HPLC with solution-extraction. The result showed that the recovery rate of DOP was 90.2%~91.8%, under the detection condition of HPLC,DOP peak achieved baseline separation. There were great differences among the contents of DOP in PVC fresh keeping film from different producing areas. The content of DOP in fresh keeping film from China was highest (3.074 2 μg/g). However, the content of DOP in fresh keeping film from South Korea was lowest (1.000 0 μg/g),far lower than TDI value seted by EU.

  9. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  10. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  11. Qualidade dos frutos de tomate de mesa quando submetidos a impacto por ocasião do beneficiamento Fresh market tomatoes quality when submitted to impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Magalhães

    2006-12-01

    , conclui-se que o uso de superfícies protetoras diminui significativamente os danos internos nos frutos e que tomates submetidos à queda em caixas plásticas demonstraram significativa incidência em danos físicos, portanto, modificações devem ser realizadas na etapa de embalagem.The cultivation of fresh market tomatoes has been modernized with the introduction of packing lines for cleaning, sorting and classifying. Despite of those technological changes, post harvest losses are still high, mainly due to the incidence of the mechanical damages that occurr in the transfer points and during packing. The main goal of this research was to evaluate tomato quality of cv. Debora, subject to dropping after being subjected to the cleaning step on a prototype developed in laboratory to simulate a commercial system, relating quality changes to impact magnitude (G, m/s2. Therefore, fruits were subject to a 100 rpm rotation and submitted to a fall from three different heights (10, 20 e 30 cm and three different surfaces (foam, plastic box and metallic sheet. The impact magnitude (G, m/s2 was measured using an instrumented sphere, 70 mm Techmark, Inc., Lansing, EUA. Fruit quality after impact was evaluated by weight loss (%, internal bruising, and chemical analyses. The use of an instrumented sphere showed that a foam surface decreases maximum acceleration (G, m/s2 by about 70% for 10 and 20 cm high drops and 47% for 30 cm drop, compared to a metallic surface. Tomatoes submitted to drops from 30 cm high over metal surface showed increase on 31% on internal bruising when compared to fruits submitted to drops at the same height on the covered surface (foam. The highest weight loss (3,46% was found in fruits submitted to a drop from 30 cm on plastic boxes. No statistical differences were observed between the different treatments. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the use of protective surfaces significantly decrease internal bruising and weight loss and tomatoes

  12. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  13. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  14. Consumer-Producer Interaction: A Strategic Analysis of the Market for Customized Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); N. Syam (Niladri)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the process by which consumers and producers interact to create better value for consumers. This happens in many situations but is arguably most prominent in mass-customization, an area that has recently gained a lot of popularity among manufacturers (Business Week,

  15. Consumer-Producer Interaction: A Strategic Analysis of the Market for Customized Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); N. Syam (Niladri)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the process by which consumers and producers interact to create better value for consumers. This happens in many situations but is arguably most prominent in mass-customization, an area that has recently gained a lot of popularity among manufacturers (Business Week,

  16. EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING E. COLI CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT IN THE IRISH RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearbháile Morris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals represent potential reservoirs for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Twenty domestically produced chicken meat samples were collected from 19 retail outlets in Ireland, inoculated into Bolton broth and cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA and Preston agars. Selected representative coliforms included 16 E.coli and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All E.coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, 15 isolates harbored a blaCTX-M group-1 gene, and none belonged to the E.coli 025b:H4-ST131 clonal group. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis identified 13 distinct pulsed field profiles and comparison with more than 300 human clinical isolates of ESBL producing E. coli did not reveal any similarities. ESBL producing E. coli were detected on retail meats in the Irish market place. Although no similarity was apparent between poultry and human isolates this does not preclude a role for ESBL-producing E.coli in meat in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. The Challenge of Producing and Marketing Colloidal Silver Water Filters in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Bogler; Regula Meierhofer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obtaining safe drinking water can be a challenge in Nepal. By training potters and setting up production sites for Colloidal Silver Filters, several non-governmental organizations have tried to provide local people with a low-cost option for household water treatment. Out of 19 trained entrepreneurs, only four are currently producing filters. The goal of this evaluation was to find out what conditions lead to the successful continuation of the production and the reasons for fail...

  18. The study of doping market: How to produce intelligence from Internet forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Thomas; Schopfer, Adrien; Grossrieder, Lionel; Broséus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre; Rossy, Quentin

    2016-11-01

    Despite the predominant role played by Internet in the distribution of doping substances, little is currently known about the online offer of doping products. Therefore, the study focuses on the detection of doping substances and suppliers discussed in Internet forums. It aims at having a comprehensive understanding of products and sellers to lead an operational monitoring of the online doping market. Thirteen community forums on the Internet were investigated and one million topics were extracted with source code scrappers. Then, a semantic analysis was conducted with a semi-automatic process to classify the relevant words according to doping matters. Additionally, the ranking of doping products, active substances and suppliers in regards to the number of contributors to the forums were established and analyzed over time. Finally, promotion methods of suppliers were evaluated. The results show that anabolic androgenic steroids, used to enhance body image and performance, are the most discussed type of products. A temporal analysis illustrates the stability of the most popular products as well as the emergence of new products such as peptides (e.g. CJC-1295). 327 suppliers were detected, mostly with dedicated websites or direct sales by e-mail as selling methods. Globally, the implemented methodology shows its ability to detect products and suppliers as well as to follow their temporal trends. The intelligence will serve the definition of online monitoring strategies (e.g. the selection of appropriate keywords). Additionally, it also allows the adjustment of customs inspection strategies and anti-doping analysis by monitoring the popular and emerging substances.

  19. Famers’ satisfaction with group market arrangements as a measure of group market performance: A transaction cost analysis of Non Timber Forest Products’ producer groups in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foundjem Tita, D.; Haese, D' M.; Degrande, A.; Tchoundjeu, Z.; Damme, Van P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of Non Timber Forest Product (NTFP) group market initiatives by examining whether these groups meet the objectives for which they were created. Group marketing has often been cited as one way through which farmers can increase their access to markets by improving

  20. Rural Associativity of Small Milk Producers and Collective Actions in the Free Market and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Cortés Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper emerges as a result of the research “Design of public policies for the Associativity o milk producers in Colombia”. The creation process of milk producers associations in Cundinamarca is shown, with the goal of offering a framework for public policy that makes it possible to support and recognize rural communities immersed in globalization processes, involved in free commerce treaties with the United States and the European Union. The methodology defined for the project had a qualitative framework, expressed through an interpretative discursive typology. Thorough interviews were made with a focus on categorization that, for the project, linked the narrations and perceptions of the collective identity components, traditional practices and collective political action. On the other hand, the methodological experience made it possible to link complementary strategies such as social cartography, documentary collection and ethnographic diaries, with which it was possible not only to collect information related to the categories of the study in an important proportion, but also to enrich the analysis itself, with the diversity and plurality that suggests an investigation of this nature.

  1. Establishment of Integrated Mode of Fresh Farm Produce Cold Chain Logistics in Hubei%湖北生鲜农产品冷链物流一体化模式构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李诗珍; 宁静

    2012-01-01

    In light of the reality of the development of fresh farm produce Cold chain ldgtstics in Hubei, we've proposed the line of thought for establishing the integrated mode of cold chain logistics and, based On the diversified relationship in the supply of fresh farm produce, constructed the logistics system which integrates the farm-trade docking of local low-end products, the farm-supermarket docking of regional circulation products as well as the wholesale cold-chain logistics for exported products,%根据湖北省生鲜农产品冷链物流发展的实际,提出了冷链物流一体化模式的构建思路.基于生鲜农产品多元化的供求关系,构建了地方低端产品的“农贸对接”、区域流通产品的“农超对接”以及外销出口产品的批发型冷链物流一体化模式.

  2. 知识共享视角下生鲜农产品供应链决策行为研究%A Knowledge Sharing Perspective on Decision-making Behaviors within Fresh Farm Produce Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱洪全

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of an exposition of the knowledge sharing in the fresh farm produce supply chain and the concept of supply chain relationship, and with the“one-to-many”two-echelon supply chain system composed by one wholesaler and multiple retailers in the fresh farm produce industry as example, we built its knowledge sharing system model with the Stackelberg game characteristics, and in view of the result of the quantitative analysis, discussed the decisions of the wholesaler and retailers toward knowledge sharing.%在阐述生鲜农产品供应链知识共享和分析供应链关系的基础上,以生鲜农产品供应链中一家批发商与多家零售商构成的“单对多”二级供应链系统为例,构建了其具备Stackelberg博弈特征的知识共享系统模型,并针对定量分析的结果探讨了批发商与零售商知识共享的决策行为。

  3. Study on Fresh Farm Produce Logistics Cost Control Based on System Dynamics%基于系统动力学的生鲜农产品物流成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金虹敏; 张于贤; 王璐; 韩文胜

    2015-01-01

    在分析影响生鲜农产品物流成本因素的基础之上,以Vensim仿真软件为平台,采用系统动力学的方法,构建生鲜农产品物流成本系统模型,并进行仿真实验.研究结果表明:生鲜农产品物流成本在一定时间段呈大幅度波动趋势,运输成本是其波动的主要原因,而运输费率是导致运输成本变化的重要因素.%In this paper,on the basis of an analysis of the factors influencing the logistics cost of the fresh farm produce and on the Vensim simulation platform,we used the system dynamics methodology to build the fresh farm produce logistics cost system model and applied it in a simulation test,reaching some useful conclusions.

  4. The Challenge of Producing and Marketing Colloidal Silver Water Filters in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bogler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining safe drinking water can be a challenge in Nepal. By training potters and setting up production sites for Colloidal Silver Filters, several non-governmental organizations have tried to provide local people with a low-cost option for household water treatment. Out of 19 trained entrepreneurs, only four are currently producing filters. The goal of this evaluation was to find out what conditions lead to the successful continuation of the production and the reasons for failure. Methods: The evaluation of the potters was based on a Qualitative Comparative Analysis and the conditions looked at were: “Production”, “Collaboration”, “Market” and “Potter”. Results: Analysis showed that production problems and insufficient demand led to the termination of ceramic filter production and that both trouble-free production and high demand are necessary for a sustainable business.

  5. Evaluating cash benefits as real options for a commodity producer in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cash a firm should maintain is an old problem tackled by finance literature. The recent advances in finance, mainly in the derivatives area, has opened the opportunity to revisit this subject. Cossin and Hricko (2004 studied the benefits of cash holdings using the Real Options approach. We follow their ideas extending the problem to a specific commodity producer firm in an emerging economy. We evaluate the benefits considering that raising capital takes time (timing benefit and also the benefit of avoiding the issue of securities at unfavorable moments (underpricing benefit. We use numerical procedures to solve the problem. Despite the fact that the results are not totally intuitive, we verify that the timing benefit is much more relevant than that of avoiding the underpricing benefit and that firms in emerging economies have greater advantage holding cash than those in developed economies. There is empirical evidence of this last result in the literature.

  6. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads, fruit soft drinks and ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of fruits and vegetables to the local market and 0.13 million tonnes to export market.

  7. FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MARKET IN MINEIROS, GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL MERCADO DE HORTIFRUTÍCOLAS FRESCAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MINEIROS-GO

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Barbosa Martins Filho; Núbia Sousa Carrijo; Marilaine de Sá Fernandes; Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2008-01-01

    The complex fruit and vegetable commercialization system requires constant marketing studies for elaboration and implementation of strategies and actions to improve it. The objective of this study was to evaluate fruits and vegetables commercialization in the Mineiros municipality, Goiás State, B...

  8. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Simon K Attah; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing ...

  9. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...

  10. Application of a marketing concept to patient-centered care: co-producing health with heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Robert P; Walker, Charles A; Curry, Linda Cox; Agee, Elizabeth J

    2012-04-03

    Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for heart failure each year. One out of four of the heart failure patients who receives care in a hospital is readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. Effective discharge instruction is critical to prevent these patient readmissions. Co-production is a marketing concept whereby the customer is a partner in the delivery of a good or service. For example, a patient and nurse may partner to co-produce a patient-centered health regimen to improve patient outcomes. In this article we review the cost of treating heart failure patients and current strategies to decrease hospital readmissions for these patients along with the role of the nurse and the concept of co-producing health as related to heart failure patients. Next we describe our study assessing the degree to which discharge processes were co-produced on two hospital units having a preponderance of heart failure patients, and present our findings indicating minimal evidence of co-production. A discussion of our findings, along with clinical implications of these findings, recommendations for change, and suggestions for future research are offered. We conclude that standardized discharge plans lead to a mindset of 'one size fits all,' a mindset inconsistent with the recent call for patient-centered care. We offer co-production as a patient-centered strategy for customizing discharge teaching and improving health outcomes for heart failure patients.

  11. Irradiation of fresh fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  12. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  13. Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Small engines slow car sales Auto production and sales remained stable in China last year, but growth was a bit slower because of lukewarm demand for vehicles of low engine displacement. China produced 8.88 million motor vehicles and sold 8.79 million, up 22.02 percent and 21.84 percent respectively over the previous year.

  14. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  15. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  16. MERCADO DE HORTIFRUTÍCOLAS FRESCAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MINEIROS-GO FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MARKET IN MINEIROS, GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O complexo sistema de comercialização de hortifrutícolas requer estudos mercadológicos freqüentes, para a elaboração e implementação de estratégias e ações de melhorias do sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento do mercado de frutas e hortaliças, em Mineiros, GO, visando a fornecer informações mercadológicas ao setor varejista destes produtos. Foram realizadas pesquisas em equipamentos varejistas como supermercados, quitandas e feiras-livres, entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006, mediante aplicação de questionário. Dentre as frutas relacionadas pelos resultados da pesquisa, a laranja foi a que apresentou o maior volume semanal de comercialização (7.196 kg, seguida da banana (2.812 kg, maçã (2.526 kg e abacaxi (1.935 kg. Entre as olerícolas, o tomate (7.854 kg, a melancia (6.600 kg, a cebola (4.882 kg e a batata inglesa (4.272 kg foram aquelas comercializadas em maior volume. Os supermercados e as quitandas são os principais responsáveis pelo comércio de frutas e hortaliças na região. O mercado destes produtos, no município, é dependente do fornecimento a longas distâncias, sendo o agronegócio de hortifruticultura local incapaz de abastecer o município em suas necessidades.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE:Hortaliças;comercialização; mercado; fruticultura; olericultura.

    The complex fruit and vegetable commercialization system requires constant marketing studies for elaboration and implementation of strategies and actions to improve

  17. Produced water re-injection in a non-fresh water aquifer with geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular dispersion and adsorption kinetics controlling: model development and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obe, Ibidapo; Fashanu, T. A.; Idialu, Peter O.; Akintola, Tope O.; Abhulimen, Kingsley E.

    2017-06-01

    An improved produced water reinjection (PWRI) model that incorporates filtration, geochemical reaction, molecular transport, and mass adsorption kinetics was developed to predict cake deposition and injectivity performance in hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields. Thus, the improved PWRI model considered contributions of geochemical reaction, adsorption kinetics, and hydrodynamic molecular dispersion mechanism to alter the injectivity and deposition of suspended solids on aquifer wall resulting in cake formation in pores during PWRI and transport of active constituents in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injectivity decline and cake deposition for specific case studies of hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields were characterized with respect to its well geometry, lithology, and calibrations data and simulated in COMSOL multiphysics software environment. The PWRI model was validated by comparisons to assessments of previous field studies based on data and results supplied by operator and regulator. The results of simulation showed that PWRI performance was altered because of temporal variations and declinations of permeability, injectivity, and cake precipitation, which were observed to be dependent on active adsorption and geochemical reaction kinetics coupled with filtration scheme and molecular dispersion. From the observed results and findings, transition time t r to cake nucleation and growth were dependent on aquifer constituents, well capacity, filtration coefficients, particle-to-grain size ratio, water quality, and more importantly, particle-to-grain adsorption kinetics. Thus, the results showed that injectivity decline and permeability damage were direct contributions of geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular diffusion, and adsorption kinetics to the internal filtration mechanism, which are largely dependent on the initial conditions of concentration of active constituents of produced water and aquifer capacity.

  18. Produced water re-injection in a non-fresh water aquifer with geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular dispersion and adsorption kinetics controlling: model development and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obe, Ibidapo; Fashanu, T. A.; Idialu, Peter O.; Akintola, Tope O.; Abhulimen, Kingsley E.

    2016-12-01

    An improved produced water reinjection (PWRI) model that incorporates filtration, geochemical reaction, molecular transport, and mass adsorption kinetics was developed to predict cake deposition and injectivity performance in hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields. Thus, the improved PWRI model considered contributions of geochemical reaction, adsorption kinetics, and hydrodynamic molecular dispersion mechanism to alter the injectivity and deposition of suspended solids on aquifer wall resulting in cake formation in pores during PWRI and transport of active constituents in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injectivity decline and cake deposition for specific case studies of hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields were characterized with respect to its well geometry, lithology, and calibrations data and simulated in COMSOL multiphysics software environment. The PWRI model was validated by comparisons to assessments of previous field studies based on data and results supplied by operator and regulator. The results of simulation showed that PWRI performance was altered because of temporal variations and declinations of permeability, injectivity, and cake precipitation, which were observed to be dependent on active adsorption and geochemical reaction kinetics coupled with filtration scheme and molecular dispersion. From the observed results and findings, transition time t r to cake nucleation and growth were dependent on aquifer constituents, well capacity, filtration coefficients, particle-to-grain size ratio, water quality, and more importantly, particle-to-grain adsorption kinetics. Thus, the results showed that injectivity decline and permeability damage were direct contributions of geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular diffusion, and adsorption kinetics to the internal filtration mechanism, which are largely dependent on the initial conditions of concentration of active constituents of produced water and aquifer capacity.

  19. Providing of marketing innovation in the competitive advantages of the management system in the mineral waters producer companies: concept, organizational resource, results

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Tarnavska; O.S. Golodniuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article. The article aims to develop and study the conceptual model of marketing innovations provision in competitive advantage management system of mineral waters producer companies to form a innovation portfolio for a particular company. The results of the analysis. The necessity to provide on innovative orientation to manage the competitive advantages through the development and implementation of marketing practices in innovation on the basis of the multidisciplinary approach...

  20. Providing of marketing innovation in the competitive advantages of the management system in the mineral waters producer companies: concept, organizational resource, results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tarnavska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article aims to develop and study the conceptual model of marketing innovations provision in competitive advantage management system of mineral waters producer companies to form a innovation portfolio for a particular company. The results of the analysis. The necessity to provide on innovative orientation to manage the competitive advantages through the development and implementation of marketing practices in innovation on the basis of the multidisciplinary approach was substantiated. Scientific novelty of the research includes the formulation of marketing innovations in management competitive advantage concept as an ordered set of scientific statements and related methodological guidelines and provision of innovative marketing competitive advantage that creates the highest potential for successful operation of the business entity in a dynamic market environment. The authors offered the definition of marketing innovations in management competitive advantage provision as the process of ideas, scientific knowledge and competencies of marketing trends transformation into the innovative product that is used in an enterprise or is monetized to increase innovator’s business value on the basis of the growing share of latent competitive advantages held by the company. The transition from the set of empirical data to the synthesis of the market trends on mineral waters market of Ukraine was provided within the developed concept. The national market was divided into two groups (due to global economic processes and the national character to define environmental research challenges of the market. A classification feature «hierarchy of innovations» with the further its division into conceptual and applied was distinguished. A business model as the one that is central for the successful operation of any enterprise in a dynamic market environment changes was singled out. It was proved that marketing innovation should be considered

  1. Shop Local—and Fresh—at the Summer Farmers' Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The summer farmers’ market at NCI at Frederick is under way right on schedule, undeterred by a cool and rainy May. Shoppers can find fresh produce, starter plants, local meats and cheeses, coffee, crafts, and more in the front parking lot of Building 549 every Tuesday from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. The market will run through Oct. 25.

  2. Shop Local—and Fresh—at the Summer Farmers' Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The summer farmers’ market at NCI at Frederick is under way right on schedule, undeterred by a cool and rainy May. Shoppers can find fresh produce, starter plants, local meats and cheeses, coffee, crafts, and more in the front parking lot of Building 549 every Tuesday from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. The market will run through Oct. 25.

  3. Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Thunberg, Richard L; Johnson, Mildred L; Hammack, Thomas S; Andrews, Wallace H

    2004-01-01

    occurred when mineral oil overlay was used with Oxyrase for Broth. The use of Oxyrase for Broth with a 0.5 cm mineral oil overlay is a practical alternative for anaerobic enrichment with the BAM method in the analysis of some produce types. Differences in recovery among the different produce types and methods occurred between S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143, emphasizing the need for additional S. sonnei strains in future evaluations.

  4. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  5. Expression of red-shifted green fluorescent protein by Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a marker for the detection of cells on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, K; Frank, J F

    2001-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 was transformed with a plasmid vector red-shifted green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) to express red-shifted green fluorescence protein (EGFP) from Aequorea victoria. The EGFP expression among total cells and nonviable cells was determined at the cellular level by microscopic observation of immunostained and membrane-impermeable, dye-stained cultures, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 retained pEGFP during frozen storage at -80 degrees C. The percentage of EGFP expression was improved by repeated subculturing, reaching 83.4 +/- 0.1%, although the fluorescence intensity varied among cells. A low percentage of EGFP-expressing cells was nonviable. The percentage of EGFP decreased when the culture plate was kept at 4 degrees C, suggesting that some cells lost pEGFP during refrigeration. The storage of the culture suspension in sterile deionized water at 4 degrees C for 24 h reduced the percentage of EGFP expression, indicating that some EGFP was denatured. The application of EGFP as a marker for E. coli O157:H7 on green leaf lettuce, cauliflower, and tomato was evaluated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. EGFP-transformed cells were readily visible under confocal scanning laser microscopy on all produce types. The numbers of E. coli O157:H7 cells detected with EGFP were equivalent to those detected with immunostaining for green leaf lettuce and cauliflower but less for tomato. E. coli O157:H7 attached preferentially to damaged tissues of green leaf lettuce and tomato over intact tissue surfaces and to flowerets of cauliflower than to stem surfaces. EGFP can serve as a marker to characterize E. coli O157:H7 attachment on green leaf lettuce and cauliflower but may not be suitable on tomato.

  6. Perfil dos compradores de tomate de mesa em supermercados da região de Campinas Market profile of fresh tomato consumers in the Campinas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andreuccetti

    2005-03-01

    buying and that tomatoes are consumed raw. 95,69% of those interviewed complained about the quality of the tomatoes, the presence of physical damage to the tomato being the main complaint. The quality of the tomatoes displayed do not live up to customers expectations (color, uniformity of size and mechanical injuries. Consumers disclosed that they would pay higher prices for tomatoes with better quality attributes. Ahead of the consumers' complaints and considering the preference for fresh tomatoes, special attention must be given to the appearance, promoting appropriate handling in the post-harvest stages, to minimize injuries. The opinion of the consumers must be considered in order to trace technological and/or strategical solutions that can minimize this problem, therefore reaching their expectations related to product quality.

  7. Veggie Van Pilot Study: Impact of a Mobile Produce Market for Underserved Communities on Fruit and Vegetable Access and Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Lucia A; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a pilot evaluation of the Veggie Van, a mobile produce market that brings weekly boxes of reduced-cost locally grown fruits and vegetables (F&V) to lower-income communities and offers cooking and nutrition education to customers. We conducted surveys just prior to starting Veggie Van at each of 3 sites and again at 2-3 months. F&V intake was measured with a 2-question item and a 10-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a subset of participants. At baseline, average servings/day of F&V was 4.9 (SD = 2.6, n = 60). At follow-up, individuals who reported shopping at Veggie Van frequently (n = 32) increased their F&V consumption by 0.41 servings/day compared with a decrease of -1.19 for those who rarely/never used Veggie Van (n = 27), a total difference of 1.6 servings/day (P = .01). There were no statistically significant differences in F&V consumption between groups based on the FFQ measure. Frequent shoppers reported additional health improvements and increases in their ability to buy enough F&V. We conclude that offering weekly boxes of affordable F&V paired with education in underserved communities may improve F&V consumption for frequent program users.

  8. Integrating cobenefits produced with water quality BMPs into credits markets: Conceptualization and experimental illustration for EPRI's Ohio River Basin Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Swallow, Stephen K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a method that incorporates the public value for environmental cobenefits when a conservation buyer can purchase water quality credits based on nonmarket valuation results. We demonstrate this approach through an experiment with adult students in a classroom laboratory environment. Our application contributes to the study of individual preference and willingness to pay for cobenefits associated with the production of water quality credits in relation to the Ohio River Basin Trading Project. We use three different methods to elicit individuals' willingness to pay (WTP), including (1) a hypothetical referendum, (2) a real referendum lacking incentive compatibility, and (3) a real choice with incentive compatibility. Methodologically, our WTP estimates suggest individuals are more sensitive to the cost changes and reveal the lowest value in the real choice with incentive compatibility. Practically, we find individuals value certain cobenefits and credits as public goods. Incorporating public value toward cobenefits may improve the overall efficiency of a water quality trading market. Based on our specification of a planner's welfare function, results suggest a substantial welfare improvement after identifying an optimal allocation of a buyer's budget across credits derived from agricultural management practices producing different portfolios of cobenefits.

  9. 77 FR 33076 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... 49 percent of world sales, and are expected to hold steady, or increase slightly, in upcoming years... prior years that is available for sale at the beginning of a new marketing year), which serves as a... increases in projected demand are all positive indicators of improving marketing conditions for Scotch...

  10. Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli, on Raw Nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and in Nopalitos Salads from Local Retail Markets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Mdel Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in food is a significant public health concern. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) are foodborne bacteria. In Mexico, DEPs have been associated with diarrheal illness. There is no information about the presence of multidrug-resistant DEPs on fresh vegetables and in cooked vegetable salads in Mexico. "Nopalitos" (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a Cactacea extensively used as a fresh green vegetable throughout Mexico. The presence of generic E. coli and multidrug-resistant DEPs on raw whole and cut nopalitos and in nopalitos salad samples was determined. One hundred raw whole nopalitos (without prickles) samples, 100 raw nopalitos cut into small square samples, and 100 cooked nopalitos salad samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli was determined using the most probable number procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEP strains by standard test. Of the 100 whole nopalitos samples, 100 cut nopalitos samples, and 100 nopalitos salad samples, generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 80% and 10%, 74% and 10%, and 64% and 8%. Eighty-two DEP strains were isolated from positive nopalitos samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least six antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of multidrug-resistant and antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC, ETEC, and EPEC on raw nopalitos and in nopalitos salads in Mexico.

  11. Avaliação de linhas de beneficiamento e padrões de classificação para tomate de mesa Evaluation of packing lines and classification standards for fresh market tomatoes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, existem disponíveis no mercado brasileiro alternativas quanto a equipamentos de beneficiamento e classificação para tomate de mesa, sendo os mais comuns aqueles que realizam a padronização através dos parâmetros tamanho e peso do produto. Neste trabalho realizou-se um levantamento em cinco unidades de beneficiamento e classificação para tomate de mesa, localizadas na região de Campinas (SP, caracterizando o tipo de equipamento, seu funcionamento, as etapas envolvidas no processo e aferindo a classificação utilizada pelos galpões, comparando-a com aquela determinada pelo Programa Brasileiro para a Modernização da Horticultura, desenvolvido pela Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo, Ceagesp. A classificação dos tomates foi realizada medindo-se os diâmetros transversais dos frutos por meio de um paquímetro digital. Na avaliação das linhas de beneficiamento e classificação, observou-se grande variação nas etapas do processo: quanto às dimensões, determinou-se aproximadamente 99% de diferença entre os comprimentos aferidos; quanto ao número e ao tipo de escovas, na etapa de lavagem encontrou-se o mínimo de 4 escovas e o máximo de 19 escovas nylon, na etapa de secagem o mínimo de 5 e o máximo de 15 escovas espuma (poliuretano-poliéter, e na etapa da segunda secagem, incluindo o polimento, o mínimo de 6 e o máximo de 64 escovas, preferencialmente de origem animal, crina. Observou-se ainda para os padrões de classificação maiores o não cumprimento das normas nos galpões de beneficiamento avaliados. Das 14 amostragens realizadas nas 5 unidades de beneficiamento, 57,2% enquadraram-se às normas de classificação recomendadas.Currently, are available in the Brazilian market some alternatives of packing and standardization equipment for fresh market tomatoes. The most common ones classify the fruits through their size and weight. Five packing line units for classifying fresh market

  12. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  13. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  14. Price-Maker Wind Power Producer Participating in a Joint Day-Ahead and Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Ordoudis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The large scale integration of stochastic renewable energy introduces significant challenges for power system operators and disputes the efficiency of the current market design. Recent research embeds the uncertain nature of renewable sources by modelling electricity markets as a two...... Constraints (MPEC) that is reformulated as a single-level Mixed-Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be readily solved. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behaviour may improve producer’s expected profit as the share of wind power increases. However, this incentive diminishes in power systems...... where available flexible capacity is high enough to ensure an efficient market operation....

  15. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ There was no sign of recovery from the downturn of rare earth market.The overall rare earth market still presented slipping trend.There was no sufficient replenishment from NdFeB and phosphor producers.

  16. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been shown to promote the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into dual-species biofilms. In this study, interactions between E. coli O157:H7 and R. insidiosa were examined under different incubating conditions. Under static culture conditions, the incorporation of E. coli O157:H7 into biofilms with R. insidiosa was not significantly affected by either low incubating temperature (10°C) or by limited nutrient availability. Greater enhancement of E. coli O157:H7 incorporation in dual-species biofilms was observed by using a continuous culture system with limited nutrient availability. Under the continuous culture conditions used in this study, E coli O157:H7 cells showed a strong tendency of colocalizing with R. insidiosa on a glass surface at the early stage of biofilm formation. As the biofilms matured, E coli O157:H7 cells were mostly found at the bottom layer of the dual-species biofilms, suggesting an effective protection by R. insidiosa in the mature biofilms.

  17. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Characterization of Escherichia coli and Hygiene Indicator Bacteria Isolated from Leafy Green Produce, Beef, and Pork Obtained from Farmers' Markets in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua A; Dudley, Edward G; Campbell, Jonathan; Roberts, Beth; DiMarzio, Michael; DebRoy, Chitrita; Cutter, Catherine N

    2017-02-01

    The popularity of farmers' markets in the United States has led to over 8,400 farmers' markets being in operation in 2015. As farmers' markets have increased in size and complexity in the kinds of foods sold at these venues, so have the potential food safety risks. Since 2008, seven major foodborne illness outbreaks and two recalls associated with food products from farmers' markets have occurred, causing 80 known reported illnesses and one death. Various researchers also have observed vendors performing high-risk food safety retail behaviors, and others have identified microbiological hazards in foods sold at farmers' markets. In this study, the presence of hygiene indicators (coliforms, fecal coliforms, Listeria spp., and Escherichia coli ) was assessed in select samples of leafy green produce and meat obtained from farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. E. coli isolates were further characterized by phylogenetic profile and virulence potential. E. coli was present in 40% (20 of 50) and 18% (9 of 50) of beef and pork samples, respectively, and in 28% (15 of 54), 29% (15 of 52), and 17% (8 of 46) of kale, lettuce, and spinach samples, respectively. Listeria spp. was found in 8% (4 of 50) of beef samples, 2% (1 of 54) of kale samples, 4% (2 of 52) of lettuce samples, and 7% (3 of 46) of spinach samples. Among the 10 Listeria spp. isolates, 3 were identified as L. monocytogenes . E. coli isolated from meat samples mainly clustered into phylogroup B1 (66%; 19 of 29), whereas produce isolates clustered into phylogroups B2 (36%; 14 of 39) and B1 (33%; 13 of 39). These E. coli isolates possessed the fimH, iroN, hlyD, and eae genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli . The high prevalence but low levels of E. coli and Listeria spp. found on both produce and meat products obtained from farmers' markets in this study strongly indicate that farmers' market vendors would benefit greatly from food safety training and increased

  18. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Barry Broadbent, Marketing Specialist, or Gary Olson, Regional Director, Northwest...; Telephone: (503) 326-2724, Fax: (503) 326-7440, or Email: Barry.Broadbent@ams.usda.gov or...

  19. 77 FR 5385 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barry Broadbent, Marketing Specialist, or Gary Olson, Regional Manager..., USDA; Telephone: (503) 326-2724, Fax: (503) 326-7440, or Email: Barry.Broadbent@ams.usda.gov or...

  20. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  1. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  2. 7 CFR 944.700 - Fresh prune import regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....700 Fresh prune import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement...); the term diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to the...

  3. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  4. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Survey of market fresh vegetables contaminated with parasite eggs in Guyuan area%固原地区市售新鲜蔬菜寄生虫虫卵污染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬华; 陈凤; 穆巧霞; 王翠霞; 台健馨; 张小娥; 林玉洁; 何亚男

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解固原地区市售新鲜蔬菜寄生虫卵污染情况。方法:随机抽样分布于固原地区(黑城、彭阳、海原、红河、李寨)5个村镇菜市场的蔬菜,每个菜市场采购10种蔬菜(以凉拌蔬菜为主)各500 g,每种10份,共计500份,随意分发到当地农家,农家主妇第1次洗涤,笔者第2次洗涤,收集洗菜水各500 mL,分别标记。取沉淀物,用饱和盐水浮聚法制片,显微镜下观察,不论虫种检出一个虫卵或幼虫判为阳性,数据经统计学分析。结果:检查10种蔬菜,发现10种有蛔虫卵,9种有蛲虫卵,6种有钩虫卵,4种有绦虫卵,2种有鞭虫卵。500份%Objective: To investigate the market fresh vegetables contaminated with parasite eggs in Guyuan area.Methods: 500 samples were randomly collected from Heicheng,Pengyang,Haiyuan,Honghe and Lizhai,which distributed to the local farmers.The precipitation fil

  6. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  7. Um estudo da competitividade dos diferentes canais de distribuição de hortaliças A study of the competitiveness of different fresh produce distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Bressan Smith Lourenzani

    2004-12-01

    oportunistas.Many retailers have stopped using traditional fresh produce supply channels through government entrepôts because of problems mostly involving poor logistics and quality. To meet retail demand, new supply structures have been developed whereby products are purchased from growers or specialized wholesalers. This supply channel should be closely examined since, under certain circumstances, it may offer both threats and opportunities for producers. We therefore analyzed the efficiency of the main fresh vegetable distribution channels and found that ways to render supply channels more efficient can be identified by pinpointing the channels' advantages and barriers. The findings obtained from a field research indicated that distribution through retail supply structures is more efficient than through government entrepôts However, although retail supply structures show a better performance, this performance does not seem sustainable because the difference in power between retailers and producers leads to conflicting and opportunistic practices.

  8. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  9. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... the current marketing year or by releasing oil from the reserve pool. As of May 31, 2011, the Committee estimated the Scotch reserve pool to contain 454,715 pounds of spearmint oil and the Native reserve pool to contain 606,942 pounds of spearmint oil. When the allotment percentage...

  10. 77 FR 13019 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... contributed relief to the industry's oversupply situation. There are also reports that indicate consumer... some handlers with caution. As mentioned previously, consumer demand for mint flavored products is... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion...

  11. 75 FR 13445 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... spearmint oil is expected to grow slowly for the foreseeable future because the demand for consumer...

  12. 75 FR 27631 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... because the demand for consumer products that use spearmint oil will likely expand slowly, in line...

  13. 76 FR 33969 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion... consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in fewer retail sales of..., handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. This rule will not impose any additional reporting or...

  14. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh cow milk and meat samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State Nigeria. ... effective against predominant food spoilers (Saccharomyces, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and ...

  15. Can Increasing Fuel Costs Make Locally Produced Food More Competitive?

    OpenAIRE

    Grigsby, Chuck; Hellwinckel, Chad; Lambert, Dayton; Yu, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce in the United States often travels thousands of miles in diesel operated semi-trucks before arriving to market. Under a high fuel cost scenario, the current low cost, efficient supply chain could become a high cost organizational structure for US food distribution. Rising transportation costs of food sourced from distant locations may provide competitive opportunities for small- and mid-sized local producers if transportation costs are a smaller portion of their total costs. Far...

  16. National and International Factors in Pickle Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report presents global and domestic information regarding production, trade and market developments for pickled cucumbers. U.S. cucumber production and trade are commonly divided into two categories: fresh and pickling. Michigan is the largest producer of pickling cucumbers in the country, accounting for 18 percent of total U.S. production. Like many agri-food industries, this processed product sector has gone through numerous changes in the past decade which have influenced production a...

  17. Cultivation, Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriocin from Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai. Market in Niger State, ... nutritive nature of meat products makes them a good medium that ..... trend, micrococin FMS2 (11mm) was effective against related ...

  18. 生鲜农产品电子商务物流优化研究进展%Progress of Studies on Fresh Farm Produce E-commerce Logistics Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋; 乔忠; 王开义

    2016-01-01

    针对当前生鲜农产品电子商务物流研究现状进行分析,以期探寻研究的热点问题、研究中存在的问题以及未来的发展方向。分析表明,生鲜农产品电子商务物流的现有研究成果中更多的是定性分析,缺乏更深层次的理论研究以及定量分析,优化策略的可操作性不强。最后指出,随着物流保鲜技术的快速发展、电子商务模式的多样化以及信息技术的广泛应用,智慧物流将是未来的主要发展方向。%In this paper, we studied the current logistics status of the fresh farm produce e-businesses in order to identify the hot spots in the relevant research fields, the existing problems and the direction of its future development. Through the analysis we found that most of the current researches in this field were qualitative analysis, thus in-depth theoretical research, quantitative study and optimization and strategic investigations were lacking. At last, we pointed out that smart logistics would be the direction for this field in the future.

  19. Baryogensis in fresh inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M

    2002-01-01

    I study the possibility of baryogenesis can take place in fresh inflation. I find that it is possible that violation of baryon number conservation can occur during the period out-of-equilibrium in this scenario. Indeed, baryogenesis could be possible before the thermal equilibrium is restored at the end of fresh inflation.

  20. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  1. Controle automático do fluxo de água na etapa de limpeza em unidades de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Automatic control of water sistems in the cleaning step in fresh market tomato packing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A água é um recurso cada vez mais escasso e também de alto custo em várias regiões. O beneficiamento de frutas e hortaliças, em geral, apresenta elevado consumo de água durante o processo de limpeza. A linha de beneficiamento e de classificação do tomate de mesa é constituída de: recebimento, limpeza, seleção, classificação e embalagem. Normalmente, o recebimento dos tomates em uma linha de beneficiamento ocorre com taxa de alimentação constante, porém com interrupções frequentes dos operadores, ocasionando desperdício de energia e água, e a eficiência de limpeza dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um sistema de limpeza dos frutos, equipado com um controle automático de fluxo de água, visando ao uso racional de água. Para a avaliação da eficiência do processo de limpeza, aplicou-se uma metodologia que utiliza o turbidímetro. Observou-se que o índice de limpeza foi, segundo critérios estatísticos, semelhante nos sistemas automatizado e tradicional, todavia o consumo de água no sistema automatizado foi quatro vezes inferior quando comparado ao sistema tradicional, indicando o potencial de aplicação comercial deste sistema.Water is a natural resource becoming scarce in many regions. Cleaning fruits and vegetables, generally demands high water consumption. A fresh market tomato packing-line is composed of: receiving, cleaning, sorting, classifying and packing. Normally, the receiving process for tomatoes in a packing line happens in a constant flow, however often interruptions of operators cause loss of water, energy and also fruits cleaning efficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop an automation system for cleaning fruits, with a rational water use. For evaluating cleaning efficiency it was developed a methodology using a turbidimiter. The results showed that the cleaning efficiency index was statistically similar between the two systems; however, water consumption for the automated

  2. Otimização da eficiência de limpeza em equipamento de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa Optimizing cleaning efficiency at a fresh market tomato packing line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de limpeza no sistema de beneficiamento do tomate de mesa é essencial para a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor, pois o grau de limpeza dos frutos está diretamente relacionado com a qualidade do produto. Entretanto, a etapa de lavagem, nos atuais equipamentos de limpeza, utilizada em unidades comerciais de beneficiamento, demanda volume excessivo de água, trazendo sérias preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência de limpeza em dois sistemas, avaliando diferentes configurações operacionais relacionadas com a rotação de escovas, vazão do sistema e tempo de permanência do fruto sobre o jato. Comparou-se o sistema convencional utilizado em equipamentos comerciais com o sistema composto por um bocal de spray do tipo cone cheio. Os resultados demonstraram que a eficiência de limpeza não está diretamente relacionada com o volume de água utilizado, mas, sim, à pressão da água, associado ao tempo de permanência dos frutos e à rotação das escovas. Portanto, o uso de spray em sistemas de limpeza de frutos de tomate pode trazer benefícios tanto para a eficiência de limpeza, com incrementos superiores a 13%, como para o meio ambiente, trazendo redução no consumo de água.The post-harvesting cleaning process in fresh market tomatoes production is essential to the consumer acceptance, since the degree of dirtiness of the fruits is directly related to its quality. However, the washing stage of the cleaning process of commercial packinghouse demands an excessive water volume, bringing serious environmental concerns. The objective of this work was to compare the cleaning efficiency in two cleaning systems through the evaluation of different operational conditions of the cleaning process, related with the brush rotation, water flow and fruit standing time under the system. It was compared the conventional system utilized in commercial equipment with a system using commercial sprays. The

  3. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES: Comments must be received by November 16... timely manner. The proposed changes are expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers of... annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons with poor spearmint...

  4. Welfare Implications of Selected Supply and Demand Shocks on Producers and Marketers of U.S. Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberry, Shida Rastegari; Mutondo, Joao E.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2007-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement model is developed and used to estimate the welfare impacts of government and industry-funded promotion programs, country of origin labeling (COOL), and the disease-driven, international bans on U.S. beef. The model goes beyond past studies by including the U.S. domestic market and both U.S. meat imports and exports, with meats differentiated by source of origin. The results indicate that while the benefits from beef and pork promotions are higher, the negative imp...

  5. Power, leadership and control of the distribution companies in the export of fresh vegetables from Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Avilés Ochoa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A key concept in the construction of the paradigm of global value chains is governance, for its constitution the variables of power, leadership and control are essential. The research focuses on Sinaloa vegetable distributors in the U.S.A. market, which reveals the interaction between regions of different countries for the formation of a horticultural value chain. The result is an index that defines which of the actors, involved in the fresh produce trade, practices more governance.

  6. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  7. PRICE TRANSMISSION IN SELECTED MALAYSIAN FRUITS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for fresh produce such as fruits in Malaysia is alleged to be inefficient due to poor flow of information between market levels and uncompetitive market particularly at the wholesale and retail levels. Due to these structural problems, pricing efficiency is questionable, in that they are not integrated. This study intends to examine the cointegration and causality relationships between the farm and retail prices in the Malaysian market of fruits. To that end, the bivariate cointegration approach, using Granger causality tests, is applied. The study uses monthly data from January 2000 through December 2010. The results show that there is evidence of long run bidirectional causal relationship between farm and retail prices for banana and watermelon. However, the analysis revealed a long run unidirectional relationship from farm prices to retail prices with no evidence of reverse or feedback causality running from farm price to retail prices for jackfruit and durian.

  8. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... destination by city and state or city and country; (5) The name and address of such handler; and (6)...

  9. 76 FR 11971 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... much of the pressure on the industry's current oversupply situation may be relieved moving forward. In... the estimated season average price to producers is likely to exceed parity. Conformity with the USDA's... brought about through group action of essentially small entities acting on their own behalf. There...

  10. Impacts of a liberalization in the USA market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice: why Florida's producers are so afraid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Fracalanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining the resource allocation and welfare implications of the reduction of barriers in the United States market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ imported from Brazil. The present paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents an overview of the main features of the market and current trade regime for orange juice, as well as the possible impacts of liberalization within FTAA and with the European Union; section 3 describes the partial equilibrium model of imperfect substitute goods used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization in the United States, on prices and quantities and on welfare; in section 4 two possible scenarios for liberalization are designed using the large country model. The last section summarizes the main conclusions.Este artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o exame das implicações em termos da alocação de recursos e de bem-estar de uma eventual redução das barreiras tarifárias no mercado dos EUA de suco de laranja concentrado e congelado (FCOJ importado do Brasil. Depois da introdução, uma segunda seção apresenta uma visão geral das principais características do mercado e do regime de comércio para o suco de laranja, bem como uma avaliação preliminar dos possíveis impactos da liberalização comercial dentro do quadro de acordos comerciais com o NAFTA e com a União Européia. A terceira seção descreve os modelos de equilíbrio parcial com bens substitutos utilizados para o exame dos impactos em termos de quantidades, preços e bem-estar da redução tarifária nos mercados de FCOJ dos EUA. A quarta seção apresenta dois possíveis cenários da liberalização comercial usando o modelo de «país grande». A última seção sumariza os principais resultados.

  11. BRS Eliza: cultivar de batata para mesa, com película lisa e resistência à pinta-preta e à requeima BRS Eliza: a fresh market potato cultivar, with smooth skin and early and late blight resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione S. Pereira

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available BRS Eliza é uma cultivar de batata para consumo de mesa liberada em 2001, pela Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas (RS. É mais adequada ao preparo de purê e salada (cremosa. O ciclo é médio. Os tubérculos têm formato oval, película lisa e amarela, pouca sensibilidade ao esverdeamento, polpa amarelo-clara e olhos superficiais. Não mostrou defeitos fisiológicos nos tubérculos. Tem boa resistência de campo à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e à pinta- preta (Alternaria solani e mediana a viroses. BRS Eliza é suscetível à canela-preta (Erwinia carotovara. Produz alta percentagem de tubérculos de tamanho comercial. Deve ser comercialisada imediatamente após a colheita, requerendo manejo cuidadoso da semente no armazenamentoBRS Eliza is a tablestock potato cultivar released in 2001, by Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, Brazil. It is adequate for purée and salad. Maturity is medium early. Tubers are oval shaped, yellow and smooth skin, low sensitivity to greening, yellow clear flesh and shallow eyes. BRS Eliza did not show physiological defects on the tubers. Has a good field resistance to late (Phytophthora infestans and early blight (Alternaria solani, and medium resistance to main viroses. BRS Eliza is susceptible to black leg (Erwinia carotovora. It produces a high percentage of commercial tubers. Must be marketed immediately after harvesting. It requires accurate seed management in storage.

  12. Quality Evaluation of Some Fresh and Imported Frozen Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Hassan Mohamed Ali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was done to evaluate the quality parameters of fresh and imported frozen seafood (fillets and shrimp. A total of 120 seafood samples, fillets and shrimp (fresh and imported frozen 30 each, collected from fish markets at Giza Governorate were sensory, bacteriological, chemical investigated. Panelists rejected 5.0 (16.6% and 0.0 (0.0% of fresh fillets and shrimp samples, while the number raised up to 12.0 (40.0% and 15.0 (50.0% of frozen fillets and shrimp samples respectively. Fresh seafood had a significant lower (p<0.05 pH values in compared to frozen products. There were observed significant difference (p<0.05 in the TBA and TVB-N values between the fresh and frozen seafood samples. All fresh and frozen seafood samples were judge as safe food from microbiological point of view. The total proteolytic, lipolytic, psychrotrophic and pseudomonas/aeromonas counts for all examined seafood samples were lie within the standard permissible limits. L. monocytogenes could not be detected from fresh or frozen fillets. Few freqyency of L. monocytogenes found in fresh and imported frozen shrimp. As well as V. parahaemolyticus and Y. enterocolitica were recovered from examined fresh and frozen seafood samples. The public health significance of the isolated organisms was also discussed. The quality of fresh fillets and shrimp were better than that of imported frozen one.

  13. Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance.

  14. Price-Maker Wind Power Producer Participating in a Joint Day-Ahead and Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Ordoudis, Christos;

    2015-01-01

    -stage stochastic problem, co-optimizing day-ahead and real-time dispatch. In this framework, we introduce a bilevel model to derive the optimal bid of a strategic wind power producer acting as price-maker both in day-ahead and real-time stages. The proposed model is a Mathematical Program with Equilibrium...... Constraints (MPEC) that is reformulated as a single-level Mixed-Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be readily solved. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behaviour may improve producer’s expected profit as the share of wind power increases. However, this incentive diminishes in power systems...

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s financial markets remained stable in 2007, the central bank said,but the stock market stumbled on the heels of international market fluctuations.Food supplies were in short- age as the blizzard in southern provinces blocked transportation and destroyed farm produce.China Minmetals moved abroad to Canada for gold and copper,while the South Korean Lotte Shopping looked to China for the supermarket boom.

  16. Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, M; Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L; Motte, J-C; Van Hove, F; Schneider, Y-J; Van Peteghem, C; Larondelle, Y

    2006-09-01

    Beer was chosen as a cereal-derived and homogeneous product for a comparison of organic and conventional production methods in terms of mycotoxin contamination levels. Ochratoxin A (OTA, a storage mycotoxin) and deoxynivalenol (DON, a field mycotoxin) were assessed by HPLC in organically and conventionally produced beers sold in Belgium. Immunoaffinity column (OchraTest and DONPrep) purification was used prior to HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out with the spiked beers in the ranges of 50-200 ng OTA l-1 and 20-100 microg DON l-1, led to the overall averages of 91% (RSD = 10%, n = 9) and 93% (RSD = 5%, n = 27), respectively. Organic beers collected during 2003-2004 were more frequently OTA-contaminated (95%, n = 40) than their conventional counterparts (50%, n = 40). Conventional beers were OTA-contaminated at a mean concentration of 25 ng l-1 (range: 19-198 ng l-1), while organic beers contained a mean level of 182 ng l-1 (range: 18-1134 ng l-1). High OTA contamination above the limit of 200 ng l-1 (up to 1134 ng l-1) occasionally occurred in organically produced beers. A complementary survey performed with the same brands in 2005 did not confirm this accidental presence of excessive OTA loads (range: 3-67 ng l-1 for 10 conventional beers and 19-158 ng l-1 for 10 organic beers). Establishing a maximum of 3 microg OTA kg-1 in malt, the application of the regulation EC No. 466/2001 (entered in force before the last sampling) may be related to the observed improvement. The overall incidence of DON was 67 and 80% in conventional and organic beers, respectively. DON concentrations ranged from 2 to 22 microg DON l-1 (mean = 6 microg DON l-1) in conventional beers, while organic beers ranged from 2 to 14 microg DON l-1 (mean=4 microg DON l-1). Thus, DON in beers does not appear to be a major matter of concern. From the statistical tests, it was concluded that the variation between different batches was significant (P < 0.0001), in

  17. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  18. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s yuan exchange rate regime reform has produced mixed results for the economy.House prices hold up in most Chinese cities,though clouds are already gathering over the markets.Thermal power genera

  19. 生鲜食品保鲜物流系统的研究及市场前景分析%Fresh Food Preservation Logistics System Research and the Analysis of Market Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天奇

    2016-01-01

    The current state of fresh products cold chain logistics development and pattern in China were ana-lyzed. The total cost of the production and sales of logistics system is also in constant progress. However , some problems also existed. Some suggestions of the fresh food cold chain logistics development in China were pro-posed as well. Finally, the prospects based on the cold chain logistics of fresh agricultural products development were analyzed in detail.%对目前我国生鲜产品冷链物流发展现状和现有模式进行研究,提出我国近几年生鲜生产和销售总值呈上升姿态,物流系统也在不断进步,但仍存在一些问题,并针对性地提出未来我国鲜食品冷链物流系统发展的几点建议。最后提出基于冷链物流基础的生鲜农产品发展前景将十分广阔并详细分析了其原因。

  20. Global Shortage of Fresh Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>阅读下表。以Global Shortage of Fresh Water为题写一篇短文。词数:100—120学生习作:Global Shortage of Fresh Water Fresh water seems ineverywhere,in rivers,lakes,wells as well as rain,which make some people think that we can’t use up water.

  1. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: Critical factors influencing microbiology and novel approaches to prevent microbial risks—A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovais Shafiq Qadri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables comprise an essential part of human diet as they are the major source of dietary nutrients of great importance. Consumption of fruits has been found to counteract many of the chronic diseases, including cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, recommendations for a balanced diet must include the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Consumers in developing countries have become more concerned about the nutritional and sensory aspects as well as the safety of the food they eat due to growing health awareness. At the same time, consumer demand for convenience products is increasing and so is the demand for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Fresh-cut market has expanded considerably in recent years. However, quality and safety of such products are an issue of concern as these products can act as vehicles for transmitting infectious diseases. Furthermore, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to spoilage and can facilitate rapid growth of spoilage micro-organisms as well as the micro-organisms of public health significance. Nonetheless, keeping in consideration the vast scope of fresh-cut products, this article intends to thoroughly review information about microbiology and public health risks associated with them. Discussions regarding different approaches to extend the shelf life and to minimize the risk of infection associated with their consumption are also included.

  2. Modelo sistêmico de ocorrência de ações coletivas: um estudo multicaso na comercialização de frutas, legumes e verduras Cooperation in marketing channels: a multicase study on fresh fruit and vegetable marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lago da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cooperação desempenha um papel de grande relevância para a participação competitiva de indivíduos e empresas na atividade econômica, especialmente nas condições de um ambiente dinâmico e cercado de incertezas, como é o caso do setor de FLV. Assim, o principal objetivo dessa pesquisa foi elaborar um modelo sistêmico capaz de demonstrar as relações causais (interdependências entre as variáveis de ocorrência da cooperação. Com base na confrontação teoria-pesquisa empírica, foram analisados os relacionamentos interorganizacionais horizontais e verticais a partir da análise de dez estudos de caso realizados em cinco regiões brasileiras. A partir dessa análise, foi possível elaborar um modelo sistêmico que demonstrava a existência de relações causais entre as variáveis de ocorrências da cooperação. Sob o ponto de vista sistêmico, na medida em que as variáveis estão inter-relacionadas, interferências externas ou decisões dos agentes resultam em ajustes em todo o sistema. Assim, há uma importante oportunidade para ações de políticas públicas e estratégias privadas visando à utilização de sistemas de comercialização inovadores.Cooperation plays an important role in the competitive participation of individuals and firms in the economic activity, especially in dynamic and uncertain environments such as the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV market in Brazil. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to develop a systemic model able to demonstrate causal interdependencies between cooperation occurrence variables. The systemic model revealed several collective action occurrence variables as well their interdependencies, identified in the literature and in the empirical study. From a systemic point of view, depending on how they are interrelated, changes in the variables or in the agents behaviour can lead to adjustments in the system. Thus, since the variables are dynamic, external interferences or

  3. Marketing Channel Selection by Smallholder Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.; Pascucci, S.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing Beninese smallholder famers’ selection of high value markets, such as export and processing-oriented marketing channels, in the pineapple supply chain. Four main marketing channels were investigated: rural, urban, and export fresh pineapple markets and

  4. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  5. 生鲜农产品供应链牛鞭效应控制研究%The Study of Bullwhip Effect Control for Fresh Agriculture Produce Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华英

    2013-01-01

    This article is objected to study bullwhip effect of local fresh agricultural product supply chain, and build the cooperative mode of the cross-chain inventory replenishment based on the third-party logistics (TPL) and vendor managed inventory (VMI), and use VENSIM software to simulate it.The result verify that the mode is quiet effective to reduce the bullwhip effect.%以本地生鲜农品供应链牛鞭效应为研究对象,构建基于第三方物流(TPL)和供应商管理库存(VMI)的生鲜农产品供应链跨链间库存补充合作运作模式,利用VENSIM软件进行建模仿真,结果表明,该模式相比传统生鲜农品供应链运作模式,牛鞭效应显著地降低.

  6. Internet marketing 401.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan J

    2010-11-01

    For facial plastic surgeons who are already realizing increased patient consultation requests from their online marketing efforts, the primary concern often becomes implementing additional tactics and strategies that can keep their online marketing fresh, relevant, and effective. This article creates a framework for evaluating advanced online marketing opportunities by analyzing each opportunity according to the variables of possible return, average cost to implement, probability of success, and implementation time. Within this framework, 11 distinct tactics are discussed, with special emphasis on the most common marketing needs and challenges of facial plastic surgery practices.

  7. On China's Market Efficiency Based on the Price Relationship Between Producer and Consumer of Fuji Apple%从富士苹果产销地价格关系看中国市场效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美丽

    2012-01-01

    Based on the random walk model,the market efficiency hypothesis,the co-integration analysis and Granger causality test,this article studies China's market efficiency by Fuji apples' producer and consumer price.It shows that while the producer's prices follow the random walk model,the consumer's price fit in with the hypothesis of high risk and high profit with ARCH effect.Due to entry barriers in circulation,the producer market and the consumer market are not unified.While production price changes have significant transfer effect on consumer market price changes,the consumer market price changes do not have significant force effect to the production price changes.The speculation and rent-seeking on the market is intensifying the market segmentation and social welfare loss.After 30-years construction of the market economy,there is still room for China's market efficiency.Chinese government should weaken the market entry barriers,promote the market efficiency and enhance the social welfare.%基于随机游走和市场有效假说,采用协整分析、格兰杰因果检验等方法,通过研究富士苹果产销地价格关系研究中国市场效率。结果表明,产地价格波动遵循随机游走;销地价格波动不遵循随机游走,存在ARCH效应,满足高风险高收益假说;产销地价格间存在长期稳定均衡关系,但由于流通领域进入壁垒等的存在,产销地市场并不是统一完善的有效市场,而是两个市场;市场间传递效应显著而倒逼效应不显著;市场上投机和寻租等的存在正加剧着市场分割和社会福利损失。由此说明,历经30余年市场经济建设,中国市场效率仍待改进。政府应削弱市场进入障碍,增进市场效率,提升社会福利。

  8. Study on the Store and Qualitative Change of Marketable Fresh Meat%市售鲜肉食品的贮存与质量变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓灵; 罗宗铭; 张永

    2001-01-01

    The protein, nitrite and nitrate in fresh meats were determinedby Kieldahl method, spectrophotometry of N-1-naphthyl-ethylenediamine and reduction of cadmium post respectively.In 48h and 29℃,the protein in fresh meats reduce remarkably.The percentages of fall apart of proteins in fresh meats were in the order of spotted silver carp,pork, grass carp and chicken to be 72%,74.1% , 64.5% and 48.5%.Besides the nitrite increase largely by 200 to 80 times from spotted silver carp to chicken. If stored temperature at 4℃,the speed of reduction of protein and rise of nitrite can be decreased i.e.protein to reduce by 35~6.0 per cent and nitrite to increase by 14~54 times.%对鲜肉中的蛋白质,亚硝酸盐及硝酸盐分别用凯氏法,N-1-萘基乙二胺分光光度法和镉柱还原分光光度法进行了测定。在48h内,在常温29℃下,鲜肉中蛋白质明显下降,大头鱼降低72%,猪肉降低74.1%,草鱼降低64.5%,鸡肉降低48.5%。而亚硝酸却又显著升高,其升高的倍数依次分别为200,40,60和80。若在4℃冷藏,则蛋白质的降低和亚硝酸盐的升高速度,将大为减少,蛋白质只降低35%~6.0%,亚硝酸盐只升高14~54倍。

  9. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

  10. Effect of mushroom powder in fresh pasta development

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Esteves, Sabrina; Guiné, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Fresh pastas with Shiitake mushroom flour (MF) were produced. The MF was produced by drying the mushrooms at 40, 50, and 60 ᵒC. Proportions of 5%, 10%, and 15% MF were used to prepare the fresh pastas (FP), with two types of wheat flour (regular (RWF) and 30% semolina wheat flour (SWF)). Mushroom pastas were analysed before (FP) and after cooking (CP). FP presented moisture and water acidity lower than 35% and 0.95, respectively. The L* and b* colo...

  11. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market February 20-29 RE market became active recently.Price of most RE products began to rise promoted by tight supply of mixed RE carbonates and insufficient stockpile of spot merchandise in southern China.It was thought NdFeB producers would continue to replenish their stock in the following few weeks,which would consequently drive continuous price rise of partial RE products in March.

  12. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market Mar.20~30 Affected by slight price falling of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal,rare earth market was smooth recently.Price of most rare earth products was stable. Price of mixed rare earth carbonate increased from RMB$15,000~15,500/ton to RMB$16,000-16,500/ton in Baotou due to restriction of the product sales in spot market by main producers.Dealings are mostly done among long-term clients.Supply of rare earth carbonate was very tight.

  13. Target Markets for Grain and Cotton Marketing Consultants and Market Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Oscar; Coble, Keith H.; Hudson, Darren; Knight, Thomas O.; Patrick, George F.; Baquet, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the use of market consultants and market information systems by grain and cotton producers. A model of producer demand for marketing information and consultants is proposed that decomposes price received into exogenous and endogenous components. The analysis is based on a survey of over 1,600 producers. The results suggest that expenditures on market information systems and market consultants are not independent and, more specifically, expenditures on marketing consultants...

  14. 77 FR 36480 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the 2010-2011 Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the... review of, inter alia, the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... Department received review requests from PRC producers/exporters of fresh garlic \\2\\ and the Fresh...

  15. Factors affecting the postharvest performance of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is often offset by a rapid deterioration, due to severe physical stress, such as peeling, cutting, slicing, shredding, and trimming. Due to this wounding, the already short shelf-life of these harvested products is even more reduced in the market place.

  16. The measurement and evaluation of sulphur dioxide in dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh longan in Guangxi market%广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉、保鲜龙眼中SO2残留量测定及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守廷; 蒋天成; 叶开富; 罗平; 李健梅; 陶弋; 谭芳维; 唐琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the situation of sulphur dioxide in dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh longan available in Guangxi, and provide reference basis for the market regulators to strengthen food safety supervision. Methods: Sixty - four samples of dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh fruits collected in the trading market from 2011 to 2012 were determined according to the second method of distillation method in Determination of Sulphite in Foods by GB/G5009. 34 -2003. Results: There were 43 samples consistent with the state standards and the qualified rate was 67%. The highest was fresh fruits (100% ) , followed by dried longan (75% ), dried litchi (69%) and dried longan pulp (50% ). Conclusion: In Guangxi, there are 33% of the dried longan, dried litchi and dried longan pulp exceeding the state health standard, performing different levels of SO2 residues, especially in the dried longan pulp, which is 8. 6 times of the state health standard.%目的:了解广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉、保鲜龙眼中SO2的残留情况,为市场监管部门加强食品安全监督提供参考.方法:2010年-2012年随机抽取广西市场上的保鲜龙眼、龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉64个样品,按GB/T5009.34-2003《食品中亚硫酸盐的测定》第二法测定SO2残留量.结果:符合国家卫生标准的43份,合格率67%,其合格率从高到低依次为保鲜龙眼(100%)>龙眼干(75%)>荔枝干(69%)>桂圆肉(50%).结论:广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉中,超国家卫生标准的达33%,不同程度地存在SO2残留量超标的情况,桂圆肉中最高SO2残留量超国家卫生标准8.6倍.

  17. Viabilidade técnica e econômica da caixa Embrapa para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura Technical and economic viability of the Embrapa crate for marketing of fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as vantagens econômicas da nova embalagem desenvolvida pela Embrapa Hortaliças para comercialização de tomate para consumo in natura. A caixa tipo "K", embalagem mais usada no Brasil, tem grande número de características indesejáveis. Considerando os problemas da caixa tipo "K" e o alto índice de perdas pós-colheita na cadeia produtiva de hortaliças, a Embrapa Hortaliças iniciou um programa de pesquisa para o desenvolvimento de uma nova embalagem para tomate. O trabalho culminou com a definição da nova embalagem de plástico nomeada caixa Embrapa. Além de outras vantagens técnicas a nova embalagem, comparada com a caixa tipo "K", apresentou redução de perdas pós colheita (17%, considerando a conservação e integridade dos frutos. Para um horizonte de 5 anos, os indicadores econômicos para ambas embalagens, mostraram viabilidade econômica superior para a caixa Embrapa, sendo o valor presente líquido de, aproximadamente, R$ 60,7 mil e R$ 90,0 mil para a caixa tipo "K" e Caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. A taxa de benefício/custo foi de 4,80 e 7,80 para a caixa tipo "K" e caixa Embrapa, respectivamente. Considerando preços correntes e custos totais, a caixa Embrapa apresentou-se técnica e economicamente viável.The economic advantages of a new crate developed for commercialization of fresh tomatoes was evaluated. The Box type "K", name of the package for fresh vegetables crops mostly employed in Brazil, has many undesirables features. Considering the problems of box type "K" and the high index of post harvest losses in the production chain of vegetables, Embrapa Hortaliças started a research program focusing on the development of a new container for fresh tomatoes. This work ended with the adaptation of a new crate model made of plastic. This Embrapa crate showed comparative physical advantages of approximately 17% reduction in postharvest losses when compared to the box type K, considering conservation and

  18. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...

  19. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  20. Not a bad result. German solar producers were able to retain their world market share in 2010; Nicht schlecht geschlagen. Deutsche Solarfirmen konnten im Jahr 2010 ihren Weltmarktanteil in etwa halten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.; Podewils, Christoph

    2011-01-15

    The German solar industry was quite successful in 2010. More silicon, solar wafers, solar cells, solar modules, and current inverters were produced and sold than in the year before. Expectations for 2011 are good, and many producers intend to enhance their production capacities as this is the only way to keep up. Fast growth, cost reduction, and the development of interesting markets abroad are key elements of success.

  1. QUALITY SYSTEMS IN THE FRESH FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Netterville

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The fresh fruit export industry has traditionally relied heavily on end point inspection to achieve quality. In response to several changes in international markets and concerns over the inability of end point inspection to ensure product safety and quality, many codes of practice and quality standard have been developed specifically for the food industry. This article reviews the principles and practicalities of implementation of the standards which have achieved international recognition. Producers and packers face technical challenges integrating these systems into a holistic management system while this may also present a significant entry barrier for smaller producers who lack the resources and expertise.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die varsvrugteuitvoerbedryf maak tradisioneel gebruik van eindpuntinspeksie vir die handhawing van gehalte. Twyfel oor die doeltreffendheid van hierdie vorm van inspeksie ten opsigte van veiligheid en gehalte in die konteks van internasionale markte het tot gevolg gehad dat verskeie gebruikskodes vir die voedselbedryf tot stand gekom het. Die beginsels en praktiese implementering van hierdie standaarde wat internasionale erkenning geniet, word hierin behandel. Produsente en verpakkers ondervind tegniese uitdagings oor hoe die standaarde in ’n holistiese bestuurstelsel geïntegreer kan word, gesien die problematiek van marktoetrede vir klein produsente sonder kundigheid en voldoende bronne.

  2. Potential Application of Ascorbic Acid, Citric Acid and Oxalic Acid for Browning Inhibition in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Weerayuth SUTTIRAK; Supranee MANURAKCHINAKORN

    2010-01-01

    The market for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables has grown rapidly in recent decades as a result of their freshness, convenience, and human health benefits. However, fresh fruits and vegetables deteriorate very rapidly after processing, especially cut-surface browning resulting from wound-induced physiological and biochemical changes. The application of antibrowning agents is one of the most effective methods for controlling the enzymatic browning reaction in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Th...

  3. Selected characteristics of the wholefood market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Šenkeříková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with characteristics of branch with products of ecological agriculture in Czech Republic. Present state of crop and animal production on ecological farms is analyzed. Paper is also focused on analysing distribution channels of organic products.To the most often manufactured organic products belong according to dominate activities of producers meat processing, producing bake, confectioner and other floury products (mainly fresh pastry, milk processing, production of dairy commodities and cheese and fruit and vegetables. In the last few years the number of wine manufacturer is rising. Second important category for development of market with organic products are distributors or subjects, who set afloat wholefood or organic products including import and export without whatever further processing. In terms of marketed organic products and wholefood, sale of animal organic products dominates above crop. In terms of sharing main categories of ecologicaly cropped growns in the Czech Republic, the biggest share have legumes processed for corns and vegetables. The most important category in ecological agriculture in animal production is explicitly beef-raising. In comparison with the end of 2008 number of wholefood producers increased up of 14 percents, which means retardation in comparison with the growth between the years 2007 and 2008. Leading position on the market with offered wholefood has the drug-store chain dm. It offered more than 488 organic products in September 2010. With a big distance Globus follows this drug-store chain with 341 organic products and then are all nets of hypermarkets. According to the shares of particular suppliers dm drug-store market is found on the top, which supplies its shops with wholefood of german producer Alnatura. In the second place there is the company Pro-bio and in the third place is the supplier of infantile nutrition HiPP Czech. One possibility for launching organic products into the market

  4. Efficacy of Neutral pH Electrolyzed Water in Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on Fresh Produce Items using an Automated Washer at Simulated Food Service Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, George K; Hung, Yen-Con; King, Christopher H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety.

  5. Mitigation of saltwater intrusion by 'integrated fresh-keeper' wells combined with high recovery reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Wisam M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Khadra, Ibrahim M

    2017-01-01

    Most countermeasures to mitigate saltwater intrusion in coastal, karstic or fractured aquifers are hindered by anisotropy, high transmissivities and complex dynamics. A coupled strategy is introduced here as a localized remedy to protect shallow freshwater reserves while utilizing the deeper intercepted brackish water. It is a double sourcing application where fresh-keeper wells are installed at the bottom of a deepened borehole of selected salinized wells, and then supported by high recovery RO desalination. The RO design has <1kWh/m(3) energy consumption, and up to 96% recovery in addition to low scaling propensity without use of any anti-scalant. A feasibility study is presented as an example for a salinizing, brackish well (TDS ~1600mg/L) in the Damour coastal aquifer in Lebanon. The concept is expected to produce ca. 1000m(3)/d of freshwater from this well by pumping 250m(3)/d of fresh groundwater from the top well screen and 800m(3)/d of brackish groundwater (to be later desalinized) from the fresh-keeper well screen below. Cost analysis shows that the capital cost could be returned back in 1 to 4years depending on the choice of produced water (bottled or tap) and available market. As an alternative, water from the RO plant could be blended with lower quality water, for instance untreated brackish groundwater (if unpolluted), to supply 3 more volumes for domestic use. The usage of brackish groundwater from integrated fresh-keeper wells thus serves 3 purposes: production of high quality drinking water, financial gain and mitigation of water stress by overpumping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Llorente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1% samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57; stx2, 86.0% (49/57; stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57; ehxA, 61.4% (35/57; eae, 26.3% (15/57; saa, 24.6% (14/57. Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54; stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54; stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54; stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54; stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54; stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54. Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  7. Modelling sensorial and nutritional changes to better define quality and shelf life of fresh-cut melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Amodio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh-cut produce is mostly determined by evaluating the external appearance since this is the major factor affecting consumer choice at the moment of purchase. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the major quality attributes in order to better define the shelf life of fresh-cut melons. Melon pieces were stored for eight days in air at 5°C. Sensorial and physical attributes including colour, external appearance, aroma, translucency, firmness, and chemical constituents, such as soluble solids, fructose, vitamin C, and phenolic content, along with antioxidant activity were monitored. Attributes showing significant changes over time were used to test conventional kinetic models of zero and first order, and Weibullian models. The Weibullian model was the most accurate to describe changes in appearance score, translucency, aroma, firmness and vitamin C (with a regression coefficient always higher than 0.956, while the other parameters could not be predicted with such accuracy by any of the tested models. Vitamin C showed the lowest kinetic rate among the model parameters, even though at the limit of marketability (appearance score 3, estimated at five days, a loss of 37% of its initial content was observed compared to the fresh-cut product, indicating a much lower nutritional value. After five days, the aroma score was already 2.2, suggesting that this quality attribute, together with the vitamin C content, should be taken into account when assessing shelf life of fresh-cut melons. In addition, logistical models were used to fit the percentage of rejected samples on the basis of non-marketability and non-edibility (appearance score <3 and <2, respectively. For both parameters, correlations higher than 0.999 were found at P<0.0001; for each mean score this model helps to understand the distribution of the samples among marketable, nonmarketable, and non-edible products.

  8. Dimensional Measurements of Fresh CANDU Fuel Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Su; Jo, Chang Keun; Jung, Jong Yeob; Koo, Dae Seo; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    This paper intends to provide the dimensional measurements of fresh CANDU fuel (37-element) bundle for the estimation of deformation of post-irradiated (PI) bundle. It is expensive and difficult to measure the fretting wear of bearing pad, the element bowing and the waviness of endplate at the two-phase high flow condition (above 24 kg/s) of out-of-reactor test. So, it is recommended to compare the geometry of fresh bundle with that of PI bundle to estimate the integrity of fuel bundle in the CANDU-6 fuel channel with two-phase flow condition. The measurement system has been developed to provide the visual inspection and the dimensional measurements within the accuracy of 10 {mu}m. It is applicable in-air and underwater to the CANDU bundle as well as the CANFLEX bundle. The in-air measurements of the 36 fresh CANDU bundles (S/N: B400892 {approx} B400927) are done by this system from February 2004 to March 2004 in the PHWR fresh fuel storage building of KNFC. These bundles are produced by KNFC manufacturing procedure and are waiting for the delivery to the Wolsong-3 plant, and are planned to load into the proposed test channels. The detail measurements contain the outer rod profile (including the bearing pad), the diameter of bundle, the bowing of bundle, the rod length and the surface profile of end plate (waviness)

  9. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  10. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE OVENS ON THE DEMAND FOR FRESH AND FROZEN POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Levi, Annette E.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in the number of homes with microwave ovens has changed food preferences and preparation methods. The objective of this study was to determine the impact that microwave oven ownership has had on the demand for fresh and frozen potatoes. Using data from the 1970-88 period, demand equations were estimated for fresh potatoes, frozen potatoes in the retail market and frozen potatoes in the food service market. Results indicate that increases in the percentage of homes that own microwave ov...

  12. Microbial dynamics of indicator microorganisms on fresh tomatoes in the supply chain from Mexico to the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Claire; Venegas, Fabiola; Churey, John J; Dávila-Aviña, Jorge; Grohn, Yrjo T; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-12-05

    Quality and safety of fresh produce are important to public health and maintaining commerce between Mexico and USA. While preventive practices can reduce risks of contamination and are generally successful, the variable environment of the supply chain of fresh produce can be suitable for introduction or proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms. As routine surveillance of these pathogens is not practical, indicator microorganisms are used to assess the sanitary conditions of production and handling environments. An opportunity exists to use indicators on fresh produce to measure how handling and transport from field to market may affect microbial populations that contribute to their quality or safety. The objective was to quantify indicator microorganisms on tomatoes sampled along the supply chain during the harvest year, in order to observe the levels and changes of populations at different locations. Roma tomatoes (n=475) were taken from the same lots (n=28) at four locations of the postharvest supply chain over five months: at arrival to and departure from the packinghouse in México, at the distribution center in Texas, and at retail in USA. Samples were analyzed individually for four microbial populations: aerobic plate count (APC), total coliforms (TC), generic Escherichia coli, and yeasts and molds (YM). APC population differed (psupply chain. YM populations remained supply chain during a harvest year, while the large variances in some locations indicate opportunities for improvement. Overall, packinghouse and supermarket locations were identified as crucial points to control microbial safety risks.

  13. Risk factors and spatial distribution of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing- Escherichia coli at retail poultry meat markets in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aliyu, A B; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Zunita, Z

    2016-01-01

    .... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets...

  14. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  15. Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Determinants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashina Allydice-Francis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased focus on healthy eating and consuming raw vegetables, this study assessed the extent of contamination of fresh vegetables by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica and examined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the presence of various virulence associated determinants of P. aeruginosa. Analyses indicated that vegetables from retail markets and supermarkets were widely contaminated by P. aeruginosa; produce from markets were more frequently contaminated, but the difference was not significant. Lettuce and carrots were the most frequently contaminated vegetables, while tomatoes were the least. Pigment production (Pyoverdine, pyocyanin, pyomelanin and pyorubin, fluorescein and alginate were common in these isolates. Imipenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most inhibitory antimicrobial agents. However, isolates were resistant or showed reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and aztreonam, and up to 35% of the isolates were resistant to four antimicrobial agents. As many as 30% of the isolates were positive for the fpv1 gene, and 13% had multiple genes. Sixty-four percent of the isolates harboured an exoenzyme gene (exoS, exoT, exoU or exoY, and multiple exo genes were common. We conclude that P. aeruginosa is a major contaminant of fresh vegetables, which might be a source of infection for susceptible persons within the community.

  16. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  17. 鲜活农产品拍卖市场品类价格波动的相关性分析与检验%The Correlations and Tests of the Breed Price Fluctuations in Fresh Agricultural Product Auction Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱苗绘; 秦开大; 杨保建

    2012-01-01

    Cointegration and Granger causality tests are widely used to analyze the relationship among economic variables in macroeconomic fields. However, it is rarely seen such analysis in enterprise micro market structure. The paper chooses the real deal data of rose in Kunming international flower auction market from Feb. 16, 2009 to Feb. 12, 2010, and analyzes correlations and influences of the rose price fluctuations. The empirical results show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between price and supply volume which is the the endogenous variable of price. Price has an impact on supply volume with one lagged period, whereas supply volume with three lagged periods on the price. At the same time, the price affect the rate of abortion with three lagged periods, and the abortion rate has no causality to the price.%协整与Granger因果检验被广泛应用于宏观经济领域经济变量间的关系分析中,但是,将协整与Granger因果检验应用于企业微观市场结构经济变量之间的分析的文献还鲜见报道.论文选择昆明国际花卉拍卖市场2009年2月16日至2010年2月12日间玫瑰的交易数据,分析鲜活农产品拍卖市场品类价格波动的相关性及其影响.实证结果表明:价格与供货量存在长期的均衡关系,供货量是价格的内生变量;价格对滞后一期的供货量产生影响,供货量则影响滞后三期的价格;此外,价格对滞后三期的流拍率产生影响,但流拍率的变化不会对价格产生影响.

  18. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  19. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  20. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world’s largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  1. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  2. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By ordering another hike in interest rates,China spares no effort to combat inflation.China’s oil giants are faring well,though rising crude prices are putting pressure on Sinopec,China’s top oil refiner.China reorganizes the dairy industry,forcing many unqualified producers out of the market.The manufacturing industry has staged a swift comeback,with the purchasing managers index rebounding in March.The U.S.chemicals guru The Dow Chemical Co.makes a push into the Chinese market by building a joint venture with Shandong-based Befar Group Co.Ltd.

  4. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Economic statistics for August released on September 11 ignited serious concerns over inflation and led to a sharp plummet of the Chinese stock market.The consumer price index growth rate in August hit the highest in a single month in 11 years to 6.5 percent and the producer price index grew a mild 2.6 percent.The real estate market continued its rapid growth momentum,while the trade surplus ranked the second highest in history.The Chinese Government decided to stabilize its trade policies and dump frequent policy adjustments to provide a healthy and stable policy environment for its companies.

  5. Valoração dos atributos de qualidade do tomate de mesa: um estudo com atacadistas da CEAGESP Valuation of the quality attributes of tomato for fresh market: a study with CEAGESP wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina L de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grande variação no valor do tomate de mesa, do mesmo grupo varietal, mesma classificação e no mesmo dia de comercialização, no mercado atacadista da CEAGESP, tem entre suas causas mais importantes a diferença de qualidade nos atributos destes frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi criar uma ferramenta de avaliação dos atributos de qualidade considerados importantes para o tomate de mesa e, a partir da avaliação, apontar os mais relevantes na diferença de valor praticado na comercialização da CEAGESP. Primeiramente, foram levantados os principais atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate de mesa a partir de entrevista com agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP. A partir deste levantamento, foi criado um gabarito de avaliação visual da qualidade. Por fim, foram levantados os lotes de tomate de mesa de preço máximo e os de preço mínimo para três classificações (graúdo, médio e miúdo comercializados no mesmo dia, avaliando-se os seus atributos de qualidade por dois sistemas: sistema I - avaliação dos atributos de qualidade por meio de notas de desempenho de acordo com o gabarito, e o sistema II - levantamento da frequência de ocorrência de cada atributo avaliado no lote de tomate. Os atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate, segundo os agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP, são: o tamanho (tipo ou calibre, a coloração do fruto, a ausência de defeitos, durabilidade, embalagem e sabor. Os atributos determinantes na variação de preços avaliados pelo sistema I são embalagens paletizáveis e embalagens que proporcionem um adequado empilhamento, enquanto que, para o sistema II, estes atributos são: frutos sem danos superficiais de casca e proteção adequada da embalagem contra injúrias mecânicas.The great variation in the value of tomato from the same variety group, same classification and on the same day of marketing, registered by the Terminal Market of CEAGESP, were related to

  6. Freshly brewed continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  7. Determinants of Fresh Fish Purchasing Behavior Among Malaysian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Farah Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates demographic and attitudinal characteristics that can affect the purchase decisions of marine fish among Malaysian consumers. A survey was conducted on Kuala Lumpur households using structured questionnaires. Seven hundred respondents were randomly interviewed with regard to their buying behaviour pattern, attitude and perception on fresh marine fish consumption. The data were analyzed using a logit binary model. It was found that the size and income of the households, gender, taste and the nutritional value of fresh fish significantly influenced the purchasing behavior of the respondents. The Malaysian seafood sector may find this study useful to encourage further consumer-based studies for promoting the growth of the domestic fresh marine fish and seafood market in general.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  9. A Review on Correlations between Fish Freshness and pH during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness of fish in most markets was found to be the significant quality parameter. The state of fish freshness was assessed by various methods but most of them were costly, time-consuming and not user friendly tools which made the development of simple, easy, undemanding and reliable system for the evaluation of fish freshness unresolved goal. The findings of many researchers revealed that there was remarkable correlation between the pH and the fish freshness which suggested that this physical characteristic could be used as suitable tool for the analysis and fish freshness evaluation rather than sensory evaluation method which inherent many uncertainties. Based on this demand, this paper was established with the objective of reviewing the literature which focused on the pH as one of the simple and reliable freshness indicator for cold stored fish samples.

  10. Dietitians' attitudes, perceptions, and usage patterns for fresh-cut fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Katherine A; Johnston, Elizabeth M; Porter, Jennifer L; Lowe, Judith; Oxby, Debra M

    2008-01-01

    New fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products are being developed worldwide. Nutrition educators' perceptions of these products were studied. Professional dietitians in Nova Scotia were asked to complete a questionnaire on their use of fresh-cut produce. The questionnaire also elicited their attitudes and perceptions about the convenience, taste/quality, nutrition/health benefits, cost, and safety of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. Sixty-three percent of respondents reported eating five to six servings of fruit and vegetables a day. This group most frequently consumed fresh-cut fruit as snacks or dessert, and vegetables in stir-fry dishes or salads or cooked with meals. In general, fresh-cut fruit and vegetables were perceived as convenient, safe, and nutritious. While approximately 50% of participants felt fresh-cut produce did not differ in taste from whole fresh produce, almost the same number considered whole fresh produce superior in taste. Dietitians have a generally positive perception of fresh-cut products; however, there is uncertainty about the nutritional value, cost/benefit, and use of the products. Dietitians require more information on the nutrient value of these products and on suggested alternative uses. Attention should be paid to developing fresh-cut products that have good sensory quality.

  11. Food glowing with freshness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desautels, L.

    1984-12-01

    Irradiation is gaining ground as a food preservation technique in Canada. Some fears remain among members of the public about the safety of irradiated foods, but government standards are being met. Two radiation sources can be used in food irradiation: gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source, or electrons from an accelerator. The radiation affects the DNA of cells within food such as potatoes, preventing sprouting. It also causes changes within lipids, producing an undesirable rancid flavour. As a result, radiation processing is used primarily on fruits, vegetables, cereals and lean meats. The dose required for preservation is around 0.3 kGy, but higher doses are required for sterilization: 1 to 10 kGy, or even as high as 50 kGy for complete sterilization.

  12. Supply chain risks and smallholder fresh produce farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chain that inhibit investment and access to capital. Table 1 ... mcxixPoor management decisions in asset allocation and livelihood/enterprise selection ..... model adopted by the processor that was interviewed is that growers are contracted.

  13. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Quality Attributes of Fresh Seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Haider, Wolfgang; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    We applied a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to investigate consumer demand and choice behavior for fresh seafood in a retail market. The LCE was conducted for a large number of seafood alternatives (i.e., seafood species) labeled by the respective seafood name (e.g., cod, salmon, mussels). Consu...... allows respondents to evaluate choice alternatives through both attribute judgment and alternative comparison. Exploring a variety of product alternatives is also meaningful to firms with multiple products (e.g., fresh seafood retailers) or firms with many direct competitors......., production method, and country of origin), and the rank ordered-intrinsic value were estimated for each seafood alternative within classes and the entire market. The WTP estimate in our study is expected to be more accurate than those derived from studies based on single product alternatives because the LCE...

  14. Pre-Harvest light intensity affects shelf-Life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The industry of fresh-cut produce is continuously growing due to increasing demand for fresh, healthy and convenient foods. However, processing of vegetables accelerates quality deterioration due to structural, physiological and biochemical changes. Therefore, the value of the produce to the consume

  15. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  16. Evaluation for fresh consumption of new broad bean genotypes with a determinate growth habit in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baginsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad bean (Vicia faba L. [unranked] major (Harz Beck is usually consumed dry. In Chile, however, broad bean is grown as a vegetable crop with indeterminate genotypes. The new 'Alarga', 'Retaca' and 'Verde Bonita' broad bean genotypes, which have a determinate growth habit, were evaluated in six irrigated environments in central Chile at three locations (Rancagua, Talca, and Talagante and on two planting dates (F1 and F2; 1-mo apart. The aim was to characterize their yield and select the best-yielding genotypes in terms of pod yield (PY and fresh grain yield (GY. The best location(s to produce fresh pods and fresh grain were also identified and described. Fresh grain yield and components were measured and the genotype x environment interaction (GxE was analyzed. Pod yield differed among genotypes; 'Verde Bonita' and 'Retaca' had the highest PY (15 500 kg ha-1, 8% higher than 'Alarga'. There was a GxE interaction for GY and 'Retaca' had its highest yield in Talca on the two planting dates and in Rancagua when planted late (F2. Mean GY of 'Retaca' was 3900 kg ha-1 with the highest number of grains per 1 m² (NG. The best GY was related to a higher seasonal photothermal quotient (ranging from 1.15 to 1.82 MJ m-2 d-1 °C-1, r = 0.90, P d" 0.001. The lowest GY was in Talagante on F1. Genotypes differed in yield composition; 'Retaca' had many small pods giving many seeds per unit area and 'Verde Bonita' had large pods yielding fewer grains per unit area. The 'Retaca' genotype is preferred by the frozen broad bean industry, whereas 'Verde Bonita' is preferred by the fresh broad bean market.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s economic figures for February indicated serious inflationary pressure with the consumer price index(CPI) surging 8.7 percent and the producer price index(PPI)jumping 6.6 percent,year on year.Though many repeatedly believed that prices would go down in the future,the fact that consumer goods continued to rise amid various countermeasures can no longer be ignored.The good news for the international market was that China’s trade surplus shrank over 60 percent in February year on year,a reward for the government’s efforts to rein in exports.In addition,China is determined to produce steel conglomerates to lift the country’s competence in the international market. By LIU YUNYUN

  18. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market in December of 2005 Prices of rare earth fluctuated slimly in December of 2005. Most rare earth products were stable while some were reduced. Baotou is a major producing area of light rare earths. However, most rare earth plants stopped production due to environmental protection control. Meanwhile, Chinese government took strict measures to protect ion adsorption ore in Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces. Recently, people in rare earth circle started to pay attention to the distribution of rare earth quota.

  19. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer....

  20. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen while still fresh (i.e., the food had been recently harvested when frozen). Blanching of the food...

  1. Green certificates and market power in the Nordic power market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power on a Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) market can be used to affect an entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with this. One is that a small number...... principles and a numerical model based on that to investigate the Swedish TGC market operating in a setting of a common Nordic electricity market. The analysis shows that Swedish producers may exercise market power using the TGC-market but that this problem will be eliminated by opening the TGC-market...

  2. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  3. E-Marketing- A Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Parminder Kaur; Dr. Ashutosh Pathak

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products, information and services on the Internet and other online environments . E-Marketing is also known as web marketing , Online marketing and internet marketing. E- Marketing is a management process . The aim of e-marketing is marketing is establish maintain and long-term relationship with customers. Online Marketing includes identify unmet needs, producing products and services to meet those need and pricing, distrib...

  4. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Basic Study on Color Sorting of Fresh Market Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Kentaro; UMEDA, Shigeo; TSURUMI, Gaku

    1987-01-01

    The surface colors of tomatoes are one of decision factor for the ripeness rate of fruits, and that is mainly graded by the human sense in fact. The color sorting based on the surface colors of tomatoes was attemped by using an opto-electronic system consisting of the color sensors. The sample tomatoes of each ripeness rate were prepared and tested by the color sorting system. As the ripeness rate of tomatoes develops from unripe to ripe, the surface colors change from green to pink or red. W...

  6. Quality evaluation of fresh market tomato treated with ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Andreuccetti

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O tomate é uma das principais hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil. Procurou-se a partir de duas cultivares avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita desses frutos, colhidos no estádio de amadurecimento verde-maduro, submetidos ao tratamento com gás etileno. As cultivares utilizadas foram Débora e Andréa. O tratamento utilizado foi realizado a partir de mistura gasosa, etil 5% diluído em ar comprimido, fluxo dinâmico por 48 horas à temperatura ambiente de 20º±1ºC e umidade relativa de 90±5%. A conc...

  7. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chronic issue of policy concern in Ghana is the implication of trade .... in trade flow, and non-stationarity in commodity prices and transactions costs ... The dataset for the analysis comprises a low-frequency (monthly) wholesale level price.

  8. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    oils were determined, high mineral composition of almond was observed compared to other vegetables. Moisture ... Biodiesel “referred to as a miracle fuel” is a fuel that can be .... hydrochloric acid while the solution was still hot to determine ...

  9. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  10. ANALYSIS OF BY-PRODUCTS MARKET IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keniyz N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changing style of life, its rhythm and tendencies dictate their own conditions. The deficit of time makes us economize it on all, including the time for cooking. Among the main trends of the domestic meat market - switching consumers from frozen meat products to fresh cooled products. In connection with it the amount of consumers of meat semi-finished products grows. In the work there was considered the results of research of the Russian market of by-products. The market of frozen meat by-products is actively developed in large cities, where it has its own production. The participants of the market state that consumers have started to buy more frozen by-products by weight and the analysis of meat by-products assortment in retailing trade for 2014 testifies it. Trying to fasten their positions, operators of the market not only develop the production powers but work out new products and the analysis of dynamics of production volumes of meat by-products and shares of federal districts – producers of meat by-products testify it. The main players in this segment see the future market for complex, receipt, combined products and ready dishes that will lead to change of structure of meat semi-finished products sales

  11. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  12. Shelf-life extension and sanitation of fresh pork loin by E-beam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, Irene; Cambero, María I; Ordóñez, Juan A; Cabeza, María C

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of electron beam (E-beam) irradiation to increase the shelf life of whole fresh pork loin stored at 4°C has been studied. The shelf life was extended from 5 to 11 and 20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. If a temperature abuse situation were to occur during product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf life would be extended from 3 to 8 and 15 days, respectively, after application of the same doses. When considering Listeria monocytogenes from a public health point of view, the irradiated whole fresh loin may be marketable for periods longer than 2 weeks, thus guaranteeing a practically Listeria-free product. Irradiation produced no important changes in the rheological characteristics of the meat. Although the sensory quality of irradiated meat was scored lower than the control immediately after irradiation, after 5 days in storage, irradiated meat scored higher than or not different from the control.

  13. A qualitative study of shopper experiences at an urban farmers' market using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Bertmann, Farryl; Hekler, Eric B; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C; Wharton, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    To understand factors which enhance or detract from farmers' market shopper experiences to inform targeted interventions to increase farmers' market utilization, community-building and social marketing strategies. A consumer-intercept study using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool to capture real-time perceptions via photographs and audio narratives. An urban farmers' market in a large metropolitan US city. Thirty-eight farmers' market shoppers, who recorded 748 unique coded elements through community-based participatory research methods. Shoppers were primarily women (65 %), 18-35 years of age (54 %), non-Hispanic (81 %) and white (73 %). Shoppers captured 291 photographs (7·9 (sd 6·3) per shopper), 171 audio narratives (5·3 (sd 4·7) per shopper), and ninety-one linked photograph + audio narrative pairs (3·8 (sd 2·8) per shopper). A systematic content analysis of the photographs and audio narratives was conducted by eight independent coders. In total, nine common elements emerged from the data that enhanced the farmers' market experience (61·8 %), detracted from the experience (5·7 %) or were neutral (32·4 %). The most frequently noted elements were freshness/abundance of produce (23·3 %), product presentation (12·8 %), social interactions (12·4 %) and farmers' market attractions (e.g. live entertainment, dining offerings; 10·3 %). While produce quality (i.e. freshness/abundance) was of primary importance, other contextual factors also appeared important to the shoppers' experiences. These results may inform social marketing strategies to increase farmers' market utilization and community-building efforts that target market venues.

  14. SWOT Analysis of Fresh Agricultural Products Cold Chain Logistics in China%我国生鲜农产品冷链物流的 SWOT 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐妍

    2014-01-01

    市场对生鲜农产品冷链物流的需求越来越大,由于物流难度和风险很大,目前在我国还不是很发达。通过对我国发展生鲜农产品冷链物流问题进行 SWOT 分析,指出我国生鲜农产品冷链物流发展存在的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,并就此提出应对措施。%Market demand for fresh produce cold chain logistics is growing,due to the logistic difficulty and risky,in our country at present is not very developed.Through the development of our country's fresh produce cold chain logistics problems SWOT analysis,pointing out fresh produce cold chain logistics development of existing strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and challenges,and to propose countermeasures.

  15. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  16. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Coca-Cola Co. made an offer to buy China’s biggest juice producer Huiyuan Group to enhance the global beverage giant’s presence in the mainland’s market. Mainland mutual funds, deterred by sluggish domestic stock market performance, reported huge losses of more than 1 trillion yuan ($146 billion). To ease domestic inflationary pressure, government authorities raised the special export tariff on certain fertilizers to 150 percent, and the central bank continued its efforts to curb excessive liquidity by issuing more bills. Sinopec Group came in No. 1 again on the country’s list of top 500 companies. Construction on China’s largest coal-power base officially started in Inner Mongolia.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The government introduced a package of financial mea-sures to stimulate bank loans in the wake of the slowing economy.State investment organs agreed to save the battered mainland stock markets by buying more shares in open market transactions.China’s sovereign wealth fund said it would not make any risky overseas investments and would wait for the global financial environment to recover.The govern-ment canceled its 10-month food price controls,so that producers no longer must notify authorities before raising prices.The yuan fell sharply and unexpectedly against the U.S. dollar in early December,but analysts projected it would rebound soon.China Development Bank was officially incorporated as a commercial lender.

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s manufacturing sector warms up as indicated by an increase in the Purchasing Managers Index(PMI).The catering and retail sectors gain momentum each year during the National Day holiday(October 1-7).China allows interbank loan transfers,giving the lenders greater flexibility to manage their credit assets.Gold producer China National Gold Group Corp.fares well amid a prolonged gold market boom. Cotton prices skyrocket,casting an ominous shadow over prospects for the textile industry.The growth rate for China’s industrial profits slows,as government emission reduction measures take effect.The e-reader maker Hanvon makes forays into the Taiwan market.

  20. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  1. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.305 Producer. Producer means any person engaged...

  2. Traceability and Demand Sensitiveness: Evidences from Italian Fresh Potatoes Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When a traceability system takes place, either when mandatory or voluntary, many questions arise that need to be addressed and answered. One of the firsts concerns whether it introduces new costs with no gain in efficiency or, on the contrary, the system efficiency increases lowering costs and, as a consequence, market price of the good in hand. Among others, another issue that only rarely is addressed regards the effect of a price change on the final market. The objective of this paper was to simulate the effect on fresh Italian vegetables market of prices change due to a newer traceability procedure, focusing on early potato. Reasons why early potato was the main object of our study will be explained in detail later in the paper. Moreover, this study concerns a demand system estimation that has, as main goal, the measurement of own and cross price elasticities as well as expenditure elasticities. Such estimations are not strictly related with traceability because they measure any change in quantity demanded due to price changes due to any market perturbation. However, since early potato is experiencing a peculiar market and chain change in Italy, our simulation is meant to reason in terms of a “what if” approach, formally simulating the effect of any change in price due to an hypothesis of traceability system involved. In order to estimate a demand system, real household consumption data (3,000 observations of a statistically representative sample of the Italian population of households was taken into account. Relevant measures of market variables were estimated by means of a Linear Almost Ideal Demand System implementing a large set of fresh vegetables: potato split in early and late, cabbage, salad, mushrooms, fruits vegetables, roots, asparagus, onion, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, beans, zucchinis and others.

  3. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  4. Network marketing as an opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Hakun, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to clarify network marketing and how it works and to describe its advantages, disadvantages and opportunity which it offers to producer, distributor and consumer. The first chapter gives a definition of network marketing, explains how it works and refers to its history. In the second chapter the network marketing is compared to common distribution chain from producer's as well as consumer's point of view. Opportunities which network marketing offers to a distri...

  5. Network marketing as an opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Hakun, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to clarify network marketing and how it works and to describe its advantages, disadvantages and opportunity which it offers to producer, distributor and consumer. The first chapter gives a definition of network marketing, explains how it works and refers to its history. In the second chapter the network marketing is compared to common distribution chain from producer's as well as consumer's point of view. Opportunities which network marketing offers to a distri...

  6. Qualidade de produtos minimamente processados e comercializados em gôndolas de supermercados nas cidades de Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP Quality of fresh-cut produce commercialized on supermarket shelves in the cities of Lavras-MG, Brasília-DF, and São Paulo-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2009-02-01

    quality of fresh-cut produce collected from shelves of supermarkets in Lavras, Brasília and São Paulo as so to guide their suppliers and consumers for the need for an increased quality control due to the risks of contamination of raw material by pathogenic and decay-causing microorganisms. 144 samples were submitted to pH, titratable acidity, soluble solid analyses and microbiological analyses (coliforms at 45ºC, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. The results showed significant alterations in pH values. A decrease in acidity and soluble solids during storage was found. Contamination by coliforms at 45ºC during manufacture was verified in 50% of the presence verified. We have isolated Escherichia coli, which evidences contamination coming from inadequately cleaned raw material or by their presence on the handlers. However, no contamination by Salmonella sp. was detected. Our results indicate the need of the implementation of the Good Handling Practices for the quality control of these produce.

  7. Markets for Collective Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José; Pallesen, Trine

    tools already available - such as 'matters of public concern' (Marres 2007) and 'hybrid forums' (Callon et al. 2001; Callon 2009)- that help in framing the particularity of these arrangements. On the other hand, previous STS-market research notions developed mostly in the field of finance studies cannot...... simply be transposed to study markets for collective concerns. We will suggest three main translations: (i) from studying techno-scientific descriptions produced by financial economists inscribed in 'market devices' to studying markets as 'policy devices' enacted with the help of economists turned market......Despite the recent fall-out of finance, confidence in the market does not seem to be diminishing, but, on the contrary, market mechanisms are becoming key instruments to deal with core contemporary collective concerns, including global warming, education, environmental pollution, supply of energy...

  8. Developing effective marketing brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Semenenko, Vitalii

    2013-01-01

    Following report is produced with a goal of developing effective marketing communication channel (brochure) for a case company. Report covers findings in the areas of − model of communication − influences during communication process − target audience identification − decision-making process − types of decision-making process − role of marketing communication in decision-making − channels of marketing communication − practical recommendations from field expert Rep...

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s trade surplus shrinks,with the September figure hitting a five-month low.The auto market roars ahead as sales picked up in September.Property developers bask in the glow of a sales boom,but uncertainties remain as policymakers step up clampdowns.Chinese PC maker Lenovo boosts its product line for a more diversified source of returns.Five years after a failed investment deal,offshore oil and gas producer CNOOC regains its appetite for assets in the United States.The Hurun Research Institute releases the 2010 Hurun rich list.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese economy is right on track for recovery, though downward pressure remains. Consumer and producer prices continued to fall in April, and both stayed in negative territory. Home prices also fell in April year on year. But the possibility of deflation was ruled out due to abundant money supply in the market. New loan growth returned to a reasonable level after an upsurge in March. Foreign trade fell year on year, but rose month on month. The government ordered cuts in iron and steel output as once again, the country was beset with steel overcapacity.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China is becoming more expen- sive.Rising food and housing prices are empty- ing peoples’ wallets,while at the same time more money has been flowing into China through for- eign trade or through investment.The consumer price and producer price indexes both hit their highest points in history,forcing the central bank to raise the reserve requirement ratio once again, also to a record high.Amid wide speculation over a coming interest rate hike,the mainland stock market experienced its largest one-week loss ever in early November,but was recovering grad- ually going into mid-month.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government promulgated a series of industrial re- vitalization plans to keep the economy from slipping.The State Council approved a plan to revive the nation’s shipbuilding industry.The January consumer price and producer price indexes indicated inflationary pressure had disappeared,but suggested possible deflation.Imports and exports bore the brunt of the global economic downturn in January,with the total trade value slipping by almost 30 percent year on year.For the first time, China overtook the United States as the largest car market in the world.

  13. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit.

  14. Quality Label as the Guarantee of Top Quality Agricultural and Food Products Produced in Slovak Republic – a Case Study of Slovak Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Košičiarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to determine the Slovak consumer’s opinion about the purchase and quality level of agricultural and food products produced in the Slovak Republic, as well as to determine their knowledge and preference of the National Quality Label “Značka kvality SK”. As research methods, there have been used the methods of survey and structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. The total number of respondents was 2.808 randomly selected respondents from all over the Slovak Republic. For a deeper analysis of the obtained results, there have been set out nine hypothesis, which have been tested with the use of Pearson’s chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cramer’s contingency coefficient. The results of the present paper show, that the knowledge and preference of higher quality food is between Slovak consumers on a pretty high level – more than 44 % respondents think that they buy higher quality products, more than 49 % of respondents think that the agricultural and food products produced in Slovak Republic are rather higher and higher quality, more than 58 % of respondents know the Quality Label “Značka kvality SK”, over 56 % of respondents could describe its logo, more than 60 % of them could spontaneously name five brands, respectively products labelled with this Quality Label and almost 50 % of respondents buy also the ecological products.

  15. A Study on Producing and Marketing Docking Innovation Path and Mechanism of Agricultural Commodity in China%我国农产品产销对接的创新路径与机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇光涛; 卢凤君; 王文海

    2016-01-01

    The low efficiency of the market environment and the low value of information in the circulation of agri-cultural commodities lead to the emergy of the contradiction in supply and demand of agricultural commodities. Based on literature review and survey,we classify the model of agricultural products trade as" one-stop"," two stops" and " multi station",and analyze the problems in different modes of trade. According to the mutual needs between production and marketing members,the article designs the innovation path of producing and marketing docking,which is a kind of cooperation mode of" strong enterprises + service platform +production area alliance and the leading enterprise + consumption regional alliance and leading enterprise". In order to ensure the develop-ment of the trade subject and the smooth implementation of the innovation path,the mechanism design is carried out from the perspective of value -added symbiosis,incentive constraint and scale enlargement. Finally,the corre-sponding suggestions are put forward to the transformation and upgrading of producing and marketing docking modes in China.%针对我国农产品销售市场环境有效性差、农产品流通过程信息价值低等引致的农产品“卖难”和“买贵”等现象,基于文献查阅和实际调研等方式,将目前我国的产销对接模式分为“一站式”“二站式”及“多站式”,且分别剖析了不同模式运行中亟需解决的问题。从我国产销经营主体之间的彼此需求入手,设计了“涉农强企大企+服务平台+产区联盟与龙头企业+销区联盟与龙头企业”共同参与的产销对接创新路径,并从增值共生、激励约束和推广放大等角度进行了机制设计,保障参与成员的互利共赢与创新路径的顺利实施。最后提出了相应的建议,为我国农产品产销对接模式的转型升级提供决策思考。

  16. Perceived Influences on Farmers' Market Use among Urban, WIC-enrolled Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe

    2017-09-01

    We identified perceived barriers and facilitators to purchasing fruits and vegetables (FV) at farmers' markets, FV shopping practices, and reactions to a planned online lesson to promote farmers' market use among urban, inner-city WIC-enrolled women. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 3-5 participants each (N = 54). Common barriers were structural (transportation issues) and informational (not knowing the locations of markets). Improving access (by increasing the number of area markets, expanding market hours and locations, and increasing transportation options to markets) and raising awareness of the importance of eating healthfully were common facilitators. Information was sought on the locations of farmers who accept FV vouchers provided by WIC, FV sold at farmers' markets, reasons to eat locally grown FV, and FV food safety and preparation skills. Questions were raised about the accessibility of an online lesson; providing information via inperson seminars and handouts also was recommended. Although purchasing FV at supermarkets and corner stores and bodegas was common, concerns were expressed about the freshness, cost, quality, and variety of produce sold at these venues. Findings aid understanding of factors to consider in designing interventions to promote farmers' market use in this population.

  17. Factors associated with continued participation in a matched monetary incentive programme at local farmers' markets in low-income neighbourhoods in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratigan, Amanda R; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Chambers, Christina D; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Cronan, Terry A; Browner, Deirdre K; Wooten, Wilma J

    2017-10-01

    The Farmers' Market Fresh Fund Incentive Program is a policy, systems and environmental intervention to improve access to fresh produce for participants on governmental assistance in the USA. The current study examined factors associated with ongoing participation in this matched monetary incentive programme. Relationship of baseline factors with number of Fresh Fund visits was assessed using Poisson regression. Mixed-effects modelling was used to explore changes in consumption of fruits and vegetables and diet quality. San Diego, California. Recipients of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) who attended participating farmers' markets from 2010 to 2012 (n 7298). Among those with participation for ≤6 months, factors associated with increased visits included reporting more daily servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V) at baseline, being Vietnamese or Asian/Pacific Islander, and eligibility because of SNAP/CalFresh or SSI (v. WIC). Among those who came for 6-12 months, being Asian/Pacific Islander, eligibility because of SNAP/CalFresh and enrolling in the autumn, winter or spring were associated with a greater number of Fresh Fund visits. Among those who came for >12 months, being male and eligibility because of SSI were associated with a greater number of visits. Overall, the odds of increasing number of servings of F&V consumed increased by 2 % per month, and the odds of improved perception of diet quality increased by 10 % per month. Sustaining and increasing Fresh Fund-type programme operations should be a top priority for future policy decisions concerning farmers' market use in low-income neighbourhoods.

  18. Porta Palazzo, Anthropology of an Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Rachel E. Black, Porta Palazzo, The Anthropology of an Italian Market, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, 221 pp. Foreword by Carlo Petrini. Markets are trading spaces of a universal nature. They are places where people buy and sell small quantities of goods – mostly food, though not exclusively. Markets are also prime, symbolic places for fresh products; displayed in an eye-catching way, the goods emanate a whole range of colours, textures, aromas and smells that captivate...

  19. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers...

  20. Fresh inflation with increasing cosmological parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M

    2003-01-01

    I study a fresh inflationary model with an increasing F-cosmological parameter. The model provides sufficiently e-folds to solve the flatness/horizon problem and the density fluctuations agree with experimental values. The temperature increases during fresh inflation and reach its maximum value when inflation ends. I find that entropy perturbations always remain below $10^{-4}$ during fresh inflation and become negligible when fresh inflation ends. Hence, the adiabatic fluctuations dominate the primordial spectrum at the end of fresh inflation.