WorldWideScience

Sample records for frequency transducer applications

  1. Manufacturing technologies for ultrasonic transducers in a broad frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Sylvia; Hohlfeld, Kai; Günther, Paul; Neubert, Holger

    2018-01-01

    According to the application field, working frequency of ultrasonic transducers needs to be tailored to a certain value. Low frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies of 1 kHz to 1 MHz are especially interesting for sonar applications, whereas high frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies higher than 15 MHz are favorable for high-resolution imaging in biomedical and non-destructive evaluation. Conventional non-destructive testing devices and clinical ultrasoun...

  2. PMN-PT-PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-06-01

    We have successfully fabricated x (0.65PMN-0.35PT)-(1 - x )PZT ( x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol-gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a -6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB.

  3. PMN-PT–PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated x(0.65PMN-0.35PT)–(1 − x)PZT (xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT–0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a −6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB. PMID:23750072

  4. A New Wide Frequency Band Capacitance Transducer with Application to Measuring Metal Fill Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael DEABES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel low cost, high frequency circuit for measuring capacitance is proposed in this paper. This new capacitance measuring circuit is able to measure small coupling capacitance variations with high stray-immunity. Hence, it could be used in many potential applications such as measuring the metal fill time in the Lost Foam Casting (LFC process and Electrical Capacitive Tomography (ECT system. The proposed circuit is based on differential charging/discharging method using current feedback amplifier and a synchronous demodulation stage. The circuit has a wide high frequency operating range with zero phase shift; hence multiple circuits can work at different frequencies simultaneously to measure the capacitance. The non-ideal characteristic of the circuit has been analyzed and the results verified through LTSpice simulation. Results from the tests on a prototype and a simulation elucidate the practicality of the proposed circuit.

  5. Optimization of a phased-array transducer for multiple harmonic imaging in medical applications: frequency and topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Guillaume M; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mike G; Huijssen, Jacob; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico

    2011-03-01

    Second-harmonic imaging is currently one of the standards in commercial echographic systems for diagnosis, because of its high spatial resolution and low sensitivity to clutter and near-field artifacts. The use of nonlinear phenomena mirrors is a great set of solutions to improve echographic image resolution. To further enhance the resolution and image quality, the combination of the 3rd to 5th harmonics--dubbed the superharmonics--could be used. However, this requires a bandwidth exceeding that of conventional transducers. A promising solution features a phased-array design with interleaved low- and high-frequency elements for transmission and reception, respectively. Because the amplitude of the backscattered higher harmonics at the transducer surface is relatively low, it is highly desirable to increase the sensitivity in reception. Therefore, we investigated the optimization of the number of elements in the receiving aperture as well as their arrangement (topology). A variety of configurations was considered, including one transmit element for each receive element (1/2) up to one transmit for 7 receive elements (1/8). The topologies are assessed based on the ratio of the harmonic peak pressures in the main and grating lobes. Further, the higher harmonic level is maximized by optimization of the center frequency of the transmitted pulse. The achievable SNR for a specific application is a compromise between the frequency-dependent attenuation and nonlinearity at a required penetration depth. To calculate the SNR of the complete imaging chain, we use an approach analogous to the sonar equation used in underwater acoustics. The generated harmonic pressure fields caused by nonlinear wave propagation were modeled with the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method, the KZK, or the Burger's equation. The optimal topology for superharmonic imaging was an interleaved design with 1 transmit element per 6 receive elements. It improves the SNR by ~5 dB compared with

  6. PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Xu, Xiaochen; Gottlieb, Emanuel J; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-03-01

    High-frequency needle ultrasound transducers with an aperture size of 0.4 mm were fabricated using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-33% PT) as the active piezoelectric material. The active element was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing through direct contact curing. An outer matching layer of parylene was formed by vapor deposition. The active element was housed within a polyimide tube and a 20-gauge needle housing. The magnitude and phase of the electrical impedance of the transducer were 47 omega and -38 degrees, respectively. The measured center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the PMN-PT needle transducer were 44 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 15 dB. In vivo high-frequency, pulsed-wave Doppler patterns of blood flow in the posterior portion and in vitro ultrasonic backscatter microscope (UBM) images of the rabbit eye were obtained with the 44-MHz needle transducer.

  7. Microscale 1-3-Type (Na,K)NbO(3)-Based Pb-Free Piezocomposites for High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zong-Yang; Li, Jing-Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-05-01

    Fine-grained Pb-free (Na(0.535)K(0.485))(0.95)Li(0.05)(Nb(0.8)Ta(0.2))O(3) (NKLNT) piezoceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique was used to fabricate NKLNT/epoxy 1-3 composites with a modified dice-fill method. Because of its good machinability, SPSed NKLNT ceramic rods could be miniaturized to a lateral width of 50 µm. After lapping down to 56 µm in thickness, the composite was used to fabricate an ultrasonic transducer as the active piezoelectric element. This composite transducer showed a bandwidth at -6 dB nearly 90%at a center frequency of 29 MHz, demonstrating that this Pb-free composite thick film is very promising for the fabrication of high-frequency ultrasonic transducers in medical imaging applications.

  8. Piezoelectric Nanotube Array for Broadband High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Weng Heng; Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are vital in determining ultrasonic transducer and imaging performance as they offer the function for conversion between mechanical and electrical energy. Ultrasonic transducers with high-frequency operation suffer from performance degradation and fabrication difficulty of the demanded piezoelectric materials. Hence, we propose 1-D polymeric piezoelectric nanostructure with controlled nanoscale features to overcome the technical limitations of high-frequency ultrasonic transducers. For the first time, we demonstrate the integration of a well-aligned piezoelectric nanotube array to produce a high-frequency ultrasonic transducer with outstanding performance. We find that nanoconfinement-induced polarization orientation and unique nanotube structure lead to significantly improved piezoelectric and ultrasonic transducing performance over the conventional piezoelectric thin film. A large bandwidth, 126% (-6 dB), is achieved at high center frequency, 108 MHz. Transmission sensitivity of nanotube array is found to be 46% higher than that of the monolithic thin film transducer attributed to the improved electromechanical coupling effectiveness and impedance match. We further demonstrate high-resolution scanning, ultrasonic imaging, and photoacoustic imaging using the obtained nanotube array transducers, which is valuable for biomedical imaging applications in the future.

  9. Determination of acoustic impedances of multi matching layers for narrowband ultrasonic airborne transducers at frequencies <2.5 MHz - Application of a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2012-01-01

    The effective ultrasonic energy radiation into the air of piezoelectric transducers requires using multilayer matching systems with accurately selected acoustic impedances and the thickness of particular layers. One major problem of ultrasonic transducers, radiating acoustic energy into air, is to find the proper acoustic impedances of one or more matching layers. This work aims at developing an original solution to the acoustic impedance mismatch between transducer and air. If the acoustic impedance defences between transducer and air be more, then finding best matching layer(s) is harder. Therefore we consider PZT (lead zirconate titanate piezo electric) transducer and air that has huge acoustic impedance deference. The vibration source energy (PZT), which is used to generate the incident wave, consumes a part of the mechanical energy and converts it to an electrical one in theoretical calculation. After calculating matching layers, we consider the energy source as layer to design a transducer. However, this part of the mechanical energy will be neglected during the mathematical work. This approximation is correct only if the transducer is open-circuit. Since the possibilities of choosing material with required acoustic impedance are limited (the counted values cannot always be realized and applied in practice) it is necessary to correct the differences between theoretical values and the possibilities of practical application of given acoustic impedances. Such a correction can be done by manipulating other parameters of matching layers (e.g. by changing their thickness). The efficiency of the energy transmission from the piezoceramic transducer through different layers with different thickness and different attenuation enabling a compensation of non-ideal real values by changing their thickness was computer analyzed (base on genetic algorithm). Firstly, three theoretical solutions were investigated. Namely, Chebyshev, Desilets and Souquet theories. However, the

  10. High Frequency Longitudinal Damped Vibrations of a Cylindrical Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Valentin Predoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers used in classical nondestructive testing are producing in general longitudinal vibrations in the MHz range. A simple mechanical model of these transducers would be very useful for wave propagation numerical simulations, avoiding the existing complicated models in which the real components of the transducer are modeled by finite elements. The classical model for longitudinal vibrations is not adequate because the generated longitudinal wave is not dispersive, the velocity being the same at any frequency. We have adopted the Rayleigh-Bishop model, which avoids these limitations, even if it is not converging to the first but to the second exact longitudinal mode in an elastic rod, as obtained from the complicated Pochhammer-Chree equations. Since real transducers have significant vibrations damping, we have introduced a damping term in the Rayleigh-Bishop model, increasing the imaginary part and keeping almost identical real part of the wavenumber. Common transducers produce amplitude modulated signals, completely attenuated after several periods. This can be modeled by two close frequencies, producing a “beat” phenomenon, superposed on the high damping. For this reason, we introduce a two-rod Rayleigh-Bishop model with damping. Agreement with measured normal velocity on the transducer free surface is encouraging for continuation of the research.

  11. Transducer frequency response variations investigated by time reversal calibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A16-A16 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : calibration * time reversal * transducer * frequency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  12. Design of a Smart Ultrasonic Transducer for Interconnecting Machine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency ultrasonic transducer for copper or gold wire bonding has been designed, analyzed, prototyped and tested. Modeling techniques were used in the design phase and a practical design procedure was established and used. The transducer was decomposed into its elementary components. For each component, an initial design was obtained with simulations using a finite elements model (FEM. Simulated ultrasonic modules were built and characterized experimentally through the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV and electrical resonance spectra. Compared with experimental data, the FEM could be iteratively adjusted and updated. Having achieved a remarkably highly-predictive FEM of the whole transducer, the design parameters could be tuned for the desired applications, then the transducer is fixed on the wire bonder with a complete holder clamping was calculated by the FEM. The approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on wire bonding machines also is of major importance for wire bonding in modern electronic packaging. The presented method can lead to obtaining a nearly complete decoupling clamper design of the transducer to the wire bonder.

  13. Piezoelectric Polymer Ultrasound Transducers and Its Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Kang Lyeol; Cao, Yanggang [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    PVDF(poly vinylidene fluoride) and P(VDF-TrFE)(poly vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) are the typical piezoelectric polymers with unique properties. Even they are inferior to conventional piezoelectric ceramics PZT in electromechanical conversion efficiency and interior loss, though they are superior in receiving sensitivity and frequency bandwidth. Their acoustic impedances are relatively close to water or biological tissue and it is easier to make thin film than other piezoelectric materials. Furthermore, the film is so flexible that it is easy to attach on a complex surface. Those properties are suitable for the ultrasound transducers which are useful for medical and biological application, so that various types of polymer transducers have been developed. In this paper, several important considerations for design and fabrication of piezoelectric polymer transducers were described and their effect on the transducer performance were demonstrated through the KLM model analysis. Then, it was briefly reviewed about the structures of the polymer transducers developed for obtaining images as well as the characteristics of the images in several important medical and biological application fields.

  14. Crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit for high frequency ultrasound transceivers and transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-12

    . Therefore, we performed a pulse-echo test using a single element transducer in order to utilize the crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit in an ultrasound system. The SMPS-based protection circuit could be a viable alternative that provides better sensitivity, especially for high frequency ultrasound applications.

  15. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas J. Kazys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer −11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space.

  16. Use of a high-frequency aspiration-biopsy transducer for direct ultrasound-guided amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, R L

    1979-04-01

    The techniques and applications of amniocentesis performed with a new high-frequency aspiration-biopsy transducer are described in detail. The advantages of this technique are greatest in third-trimester patients where active fetal motion and diminished amniotic fluid volumes make unguided punctures difficult or impossible. The ability to visualize small-caliber needles within the fluid space further enhances the effectiveness of this technique.

  17. Effect of planecta and ROSE? on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE?, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and the...

  18. Transducers and microprocessors in oceanographic applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.

    Transducers used for the sensing of the ten most measured marine parameters have been described in this paper. The ten parameters have been classed under 5 sensor types, namely temperature, pressure, salinity, currents and waves. For each sensor...

  19. High-frequency Doppler ultrasound transducer for the peripheral circulatory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Yang, Jeongwon; Kang, Uk; Kim, Guanghoon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A Doppler ultrasound transducer was designed and implemented to measure the blood flow velocity in tiny vessels near the skin of hands or feet. The geometric parameters of the transducer for defining the observation volume were derived and implemented with an acoustic window made of polystyrene. The observation volume designed in this study was located 6.5 mm from the transducer, which was comparable to the value predicted geometrically. The two-way insertion loss of the transducer was -11.3 dB on ultrasound frequency of 20 MHz, and the 3-dB bandwidth was approximately 2 MHz. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency measured by using a Doppler device composed of the transducer and a Doppler signal processing unit was proportional to the flow velocity generated by a homemade flowing system. Finally, we concluded that the transducer could be applied to measure the blood flow velocity in hands or feet.

  20. High-frequency Doppler ultrasound transducer for the peripheral circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Yang, Jeongwon; Kang, Uk; Kim, Guanghoon

    2011-01-01

    A Doppler ultrasound transducer was designed and implemented to measure the blood flow velocity in tiny vessels near the skin of hands or feet. The geometric parameters of the transducer for defining the observation volume were derived and implemented with an acoustic window made of polystyrene. The observation volume designed in this study was located 6.5 mm from the transducer, which was comparable to the value predicted geometrically. The two-way insertion loss of the transducer was -11.3 dB on ultrasound frequency of 20 MHz, and the 3-dB bandwidth was approximately 2 MHz. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency measured by using a Doppler device composed of the transducer and a Doppler signal processing unit was proportional to the flow velocity generated by a homemade flowing system. Finally, we concluded that the transducer could be applied to measure the blood flow velocity in hands or feet.

  1. Moessbauer effect: on the application of digital synthesis in order tosynchronize the frequency of the function generator of the transducer with the frequency of the channel opening commands, in 'multiscale' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilho, R.J.; Marins, J.E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A new instrument for the channel opening command, synchronized to the movement, is designed, developed and produced, together with a new and complete amplifier for the transducer activation. (L.C.) [pt

  2. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60% near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB. Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  3. Note: Decoupling design for high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers with their clamping connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. J., E-mail: wangfujun@tju.edu.cn; Liang, C. M.; Tian, Y. L.; Zhao, X. Y.; Zhang, D. W. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Equipment Design and Manufacturing Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, H. J. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Mechatronics Equipment Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the flexure-mechanism based decoupling design between high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and their clamping connections to improve ultrasonic energy transmission efficiency. The ring, prismatic beam, and circular notched hinge based flanges were presented, and the crucial geometric dimensions of the transducers with the flexure decoupling flanges were determined. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transducers. Finally, experiments were conducted to examine and verify the effects of the proposed decoupling flanges. FEA and experimental results show that smaller frequency deviations and larger tip displacement amplitudes have been achieved by using the transducers with the flexure flanges compared with the transducer with a rigid ring-type flange, and thus the ultrasonic transmission efficiency can be improved through the flexure flanges.

  4. Dissimilar trend of nonlinearity in ultrasound transducers and systems at resonance and non-resonance frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Negareh; Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    Several factors can affect performance of an ultrasound system such as quality of excitation signal and ultrasound transducer behaviour. Nonlinearity of piezoelectric ultrasound transducers is a key determinant in designing a proper driving power supply. Although, the nonlinearity of piezoelectric...... was excited at different frequencies. Different excitation signals were generated using a linear power amplifier and a multilevel converter within a range of 30–200 V. Empirical relation was developed to express the resistance of the piezoelectric transducer as a nonlinear function of both excitation voltage...... and resonance frequency. The impedance measurements revealed that at higher voltage ranges, the piezoelectric transducer can be easily saturated. Also, it was shown that for the developed ultrasound system composed of two transducers (one transmitter and one receiver), the output voltage measured across...

  5. The design of high-efficiency and wide-band ultrasonic transducers for immersion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sun; Kim, Jin Ho; Kang, Eun Kyung

    2001-01-01

    The optimum design of low-loss and broad-band piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers has been performed for immersion application. In order to obtain the highest efficiency, the piezo plates are backed by air. After determining the matching layers by using the formulas proposed by Desilet et al., inserting both a series inductor and a series or parallel resistor was considerated such that the transducers are electrically matched to the voltage source at the free resonance frequency. By analysing the transfer functions and the time responses of the transducers numerically, it has been shown that the frequency bandwidth becomes broad with increasing the electro-mechanical coupling factor and the number of matching layers, and that the sensitivity becomes best as the motional resistance at the resonance frequency is equal to the voltage source resistance.

  6. Design of compact piezoelectric transducers for shock wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Thomas; Liebler, Marko; Riedlinger, Rainer E.; Ginter, Siegfried

    2003-10-01

    The application of focused intense sound pulses to treat several orthopedic diseases has gained in importance during the past years. Self-focusing piezoelectric transducers known from ESWL are not well suited for this purpose due to their size. Therefore compact transducers have to be designed. This implies an increase of the pressure pulse amplitude generated at the radiating surface. A stacked placement of two piezoelectric layers driven by two high-voltage pulses with an adjustable delay accomplishes this. Several designs are presented here representing transducers of different sizes. In principle piezoelectric transducers have the ability to vary the pressure pulse shape to a wider extent than other shock wave sources. Based on FEM simulations of the transducer the influence of some driving parameters, like a variation of the interpulse delay or shape of the driving voltage, on the resulting focal pressure signal is demonstrated. The results show the feasibility to control some parameters of the signal, for example the peak negative pressure amplitude. This possibility could provide new aspects in basic research as well as in clinical applications.

  7. Power doppler 'blanching' after the application of transducer pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, F.; Edmonds, J.; Lassere, M.; De Carle, R.; Rayment, M.; Bryant, C.; Shnier, R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if transducer pressure modifies power Doppler assessments of rheumatoid arthritis synovium at the metacarpophalangeal joints and metatarsophalangeal joints. Five rheumatoid arthritis patients of varying degrees of 'disease activity' and damage were assessed with power Doppler ultrasound scanning of the dominant hand second to fifth metacarpophalangeal joints. Two rheumatoid arthritis patients had their dominant foot first to fifth metatarsophalangeal joints assessed with power Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonography was performed with a high frequency transducer (14 MHz) with a colour mode frequency of 10 Mhz, and a standard colour box and gain. In the joint that showed the highest power Doppler signal, an image was made. A further image was taken after transducer pressure was applied. In all patients, there was increased flow to at least one joint. After pressure was applied, power Doppler signal intensity markedly reduced in all images and in some there was no recordable power Doppler signal. Increased transducer pressure can result in a marked reduction or obliteration in power Doppler signal. This power Doppler 'blanching' shows the need for further studies to evaluate sources of error and standardization before power Doppler ultrasound becomes a routine measure of 'disease activity' in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. An adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers based on ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Chen, Ruimin; Chen, Zeyu; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication, characterization, and microparticle manipulation capability of an adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) that is capable of flexibly changing the size of "tweezers" like ordinary metal tweezers with a single-element ultrahigh frequency (UHF) ultrasonic transducer. The measured resonant frequency of the developed transducer at 526 MHz is the highest frequency of piezoelectric single crystal based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. This focused UHF ultrasonic transducer exhibits a wide bandwidth (95.5% at -10 dB) due to high attenuation of high-frequency ultrasound wave, which allows the SBAT effectively excite with a wide range of excitation frequency from 150 to 400 MHz by using the "piezoelectric actuator" model. Through controlling the excitation frequency, the wavelength of ultrasound emitted from the SBAT can be changed to selectively manipulate a single microparticle of different sizes (3-100 μm) by using only one transducer. This concept of flexibly changing "tweezers" size is firstly introduced into the study of SBAT. At the same time, it was found that this incident ultrasound wavelength play an important role in lateral trapping and manipulation for microparticle of different sizes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2637-2647. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Transducer selection and application in magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuqi; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Qingyu; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    As an acoustic receiver, transducer plays a vital role in signal acquisition and image reconstruction for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). In order to optimize signal acquisition, the expressions of acoustic pressure detection and waveform collection are theoretically studied based on the radiation theory of acoustic dipole and the reception pattern of transducer. Pressure distributions are simulated for a cylindrical phantom model using a planar piston transducer with different radii and bandwidths. The proposed theory is also verified by the experimental measurements of acoustic waveform detection for an aluminum foil cylinder. It is proved that acoustic pressure with sharp and clear boundary peaks can be detected by the large-radius transducer with wide bandwidth, reflecting the differential of the induced Lorentz force accurately, which is helpful for precise conductivity reconstruction. To detect acoustic pressure with acceptable pressure amplitude, peak pressure ratio, amplitude ratio, and improved signal to noise ratio, the scanning radius of 5–10 times the radius of the object should be selected to improve the accuracy of image reconstruction. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for transducer selection and application in MAT-MI to obtain reconstructed images with improved resolution and definition.

  10. Transducer selection and application in magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuqi; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Qingyu, E-mail: maqingyu@njnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Sun, Xiaodong [China Key System & Integrated Circuit Co., Ltd., Wuxi 214072 (China); Zhang, Dong [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics of MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-03-07

    As an acoustic receiver, transducer plays a vital role in signal acquisition and image reconstruction for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). In order to optimize signal acquisition, the expressions of acoustic pressure detection and waveform collection are theoretically studied based on the radiation theory of acoustic dipole and the reception pattern of transducer. Pressure distributions are simulated for a cylindrical phantom model using a planar piston transducer with different radii and bandwidths. The proposed theory is also verified by the experimental measurements of acoustic waveform detection for an aluminum foil cylinder. It is proved that acoustic pressure with sharp and clear boundary peaks can be detected by the large-radius transducer with wide bandwidth, reflecting the differential of the induced Lorentz force accurately, which is helpful for precise conductivity reconstruction. To detect acoustic pressure with acceptable pressure amplitude, peak pressure ratio, amplitude ratio, and improved signal to noise ratio, the scanning radius of 5–10 times the radius of the object should be selected to improve the accuracy of image reconstruction. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for transducer selection and application in MAT-MI to obtain reconstructed images with improved resolution and definition.

  11. Single-transducer dual-frequency ultrasound generation to enhance acoustic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsieh, Chao-Ming

    2009-03-01

    Dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound stimulation is capable of effectively enhancing the acoustic cavitation effect over single-frequency ultrasound. Potential application of this sonoreactor design has been widely proposed such as on sonoluminescence, sonochemistry enhancement, and transdermal drug release enhancement. All currently available sonoreactor designs employed multiple piezoelectric transducers for generating single-frequency ultrasonic waves separately and then these waves were mixed and interfered in solutions. The purpose of this research is to propose a novel design of generating dual-frequency ultrasonic waves with single piezoelectric elements, thereby enhancing acoustic cavitation. Macroscopic bubbles were detected optically, and they were quantified at either a single-frequency or for different frequency combinations for determining their efficiency for enhancing acoustic cavitation. Visible bubbles were optically detected and hydrogen peroxide was measured to quantify acoustic cavitation. Test water samples with different gas concentrations and different power levels were used to determine the efficacy of enhancing acoustic cavitation of this design. The spectrum obtained from the backscattered signals was also recorded and examined to confirm the occurrence of stable cavitation. The results confirmed that single-element dual-frequency ultrasound stimulation can enhance acoustic cavitation. Under certain testing conditions, the generation of bubbles can be enhanced up to a level of five times higher than the generation of bubbles in single-frequency stimulation, and can increase the hydrogen peroxide production up to an increase of one fold. This design may serve as a useful alternative for future sonoreactor design owing to its simplicity to produce dual- or multiple-frequency ultrasound.

  12. A New Low-frequency Sonophoresis System Combined with Ultrasonic Motor and Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pancheng; Peng, Hanmin; Yang, Jianzhi; Mao, Ting; Sheng, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Low frequency sonophoresis (LFS) is currently being attempted as a transdermal drug delivery method in clinical areas. However, it lacks both an effective control method and the equipment to satisfy the varying drug dosage requirements of individual patients. Herein, a novel method aimed at controlling permeability is proposed and developed, using a pressure control strategy which is based on an accurate, adjustable and non-invasive ultrasound transdermal drug delivery system in in vitro LFS. The system mainly consists of a lead screw linear ultrasonic motor and an ultrasonic transducer, in which the former offers pressure and the latter provides ultrasound wave in the liquid. The ultrasound can enhance non-invasive permeation and the pressure from the motor can control the permeability. The calculated and experimental results demonstrate that the maximum pressure on artificial skin is under the area with the maximum vibration amplitude of the ultrasonic transducer, and the total pressure consists of acoustic pressure from the transducer and approximate static pressure from the motor. Changing the static pressure from the ultrasonic motor can effectively control the non-invasive permeability, by adjusting the duty ratio or the amplitude of the motor’s driving voltage. In addition, the permeability control of calcein by thrust control is realized in 15 min, indicating the suitability of this method for application in accurate medical technology. The obtained results reveal that the issue of difficult permeability control can be addressed, using this control method in in vitro LFS to open up a route to the design of accurate drug delivery technology for individual patients.

  13. Comparison of low and high frequency transducers in the detection of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacherer, D; Wrede, C; Obermeier, F; Schölmerich, J; Schlottmann, K; Klebl, F

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the benefit of the additional use of a high frequency ultrasound probe (7.5 MHz) in finding suspicious liver lesions compared to the examination using a 3.5-MHz transducer only. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with underlying malignant disease were examined with both transducers using one of three ultrasound machines (Siemens Sonoline Elegra, GE Healthcare Logic 9, or Hitachi EUB-8500). Findings on hepatic lesions were collected on a standardised documentation sheet and evaluated by descriptive statistics. Ninety-three patients (59.2% of all patients) showed no evident liver lesion on conventional ultrasound with the 3.5 MHz probe. In 29 patients (18.5%) new suspicious liver lesions were found by using the high frequency transducer. Thirteen of these 29 patients (44.8%) were suspected to suffer from diffuse infiltration of the liver with malignant lesions or at least 10 additional visible lesions. In 14 patients, no liver lesion had been known before high frequency ultrasound examination. The size of newly described liver lesions ranged from 2 mm to 1.5 cm. Time needed for the additional examination with the high frequency transducer ranged between 1 and 15 min with an average of 4.0 min. The additional use of a high frequency transducer in patients with underlying malignant disease slightly extends the examination time, but reveals new, potentially malignant hepatic lesions in almost every fifth patient.

  14. Multiharmonic Frequency-Chirped Transducers for Surface-Acoustic-Wave Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Matthias; Hörner, Andreas L.; Zallo, Eugenio; Atkinson, Paola; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2018-01-01

    Wide-passband interdigital transducers are employed to establish a stable phase lock between a train of laser pulses emitted by a mode-locked laser and a surface acoustic wave generated electrically by the transducer. The transducer design is based on a multiharmonic split-finger architecture for the excitation of a fundamental surface acoustic wave and a discrete number of its overtones. Simply by introducing a variation of the transducer's periodicity p , a frequency chirp is added. This combination results in wide frequency bands for each harmonic. The transducer's conversion efficiency from the electrical to the acoustic domain is characterized optomechanically using single quantum dots acting as nanoscale pressure sensors. The ability to generate surface acoustic waves over a wide band of frequencies enables advanced acousto-optic spectroscopy using mode-locked lasers with fixed repetition rate. Stable phase locking between the electrically generated acoustic wave and the train of laser pulses is confirmed by performing stroboscopic spectroscopy on a single quantum dot at a frequency of 320 MHz. Finally, the dynamic spectral modulation of the quantum dot is directly monitored in the time domain combining stable phase-locked optical excitation and time-correlated single-photon counting. The demonstrated scheme will be particularly useful for the experimental implementation of surface-acoustic-wave-driven quantum gates of optically addressable qubits or collective quantum states or for multicomponent Fourier synthesis of tailored nanomechanical waveforms.

  15. New technique for fabrication of high frequency piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Zawada, T

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for fabrication of linear arrays of high frequency piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (pMUT) on silicon substrates is presented. Piezoelectric elements are formed by deposition of PZT ((PbZrxTi1-x)O3) into etched features of the silicon substrate such that the de......A novel technique for fabrication of linear arrays of high frequency piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (pMUT) on silicon substrates is presented. Piezoelectric elements are formed by deposition of PZT ((PbZrxTi1-x)O3) into etched features of the silicon substrate...

  16. Impact of transducer frequency setting on speckle tracking measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars

    2018-01-01

    .5/3.0 MHz. The images were obtained immediately after each other at the exact same position for the two settings. Speckle tracking was performed in three apical projections, allowing for acquisition of layered global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate measures. Concordance between the frequency...

  17. Influence of the Spatial Dimensions of Ultrasonic Transducers on the Frequency Spectrum of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas

    2017-08-08

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain

  18. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  19. Creaming enhancement in a liter scale ultrasonic reactor at selected transducer configurations and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Temmel, Sandra; Rout, Manoj; Swiergon, Piotr; Mawson, Raymond; Knoerzer, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency ultrasound (0.4-3 MHz), can enhance milkfat separation in small scale systems able to treat only a few milliliters of sample. In this work, the effect of ultrasonic standing waves on milkfat creaming was studied in a 6L reactor and the influence of different frequencies and transducer configurations in direct contact with the fluid was investigated. A recombined coarse milk emulsion with fat globules stained with oil-red-O dye was selected for the separation trials. Runs were performed with one or two transducers placed in vertical (parallel or perpendicular) and horizontal positions (at the reactor base) at 0.4, 1 and/or 2 MHz (specific energy 8.5 ± 0.6 kJ/kg per transducer). Creaming behavior was assessed by measuring the thickness of the separated cream layer. Other methods supporting this assessment included the measurement of fat content, backscattering, particle size distribution, and microscopy of samples taken at the bottom and top of the reactor. Most efficient creaming was found after treatment at 0.4 MHz in single and double vertical transducer configurations. Among these configurations, a higher separation rate was obtained when sonicating at 0.4 MHz in a vertical perpendicular double transducer setup. The horizontal transducer configuration promoted creaming at 2 MHz only. Fat globule size increase was observed when creaming occurred. This research highlights the potential for enhanced separation of milkfat in larger scale systems from selected transducer configurations in contact with a dairy emulsion, or emulsion splitting in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Choi, Hongsoo; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient ( e 31 ) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ -Al 2 O 3 ), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO 2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size. (topical review)

  1. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Ryu, Jungho; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient (e 31) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ-Al2O3), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size.

  2. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided

  3. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  4. Development of a novel omnidirectional magnetostrictive transducer for plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Cobb, Adam; Bartlett, Jonathan; Udagawa, Youichi

    2018-04-01

    The application of guided waves for the testing of plate-type structures has been recently investigated by a number of research groups due to the ability of guided waves to detect corrosion in remote and hidden areas. Guided wave sensors for plate applications can be either directed (i.e., the waves propagate in a single direction) or omnidirectional. Each type has certain advantages and disadvantages. Omnidirectional sensors can inspect large areas from a single location, but it is challenging to define where a feature is located. Conversely, directed sensors can be used to precisely locate an indication, but have no sensitivity to flaws away from the wave propagation direction. This work describes a newly developed sensor that combines the strengths of both sensor types to create a novel omnidirectional transducer. The sensor transduction is based on a custom magnetostrictive transducer (MsT). In this new probe design, a directed, plate-application MsT with known characteristics was incorporated into an automated scanner. This scanner rotates the directed MsT for data collection at regular intervals. Coupling of the transducer to the plate is accomplished using a shear wave couplant. The array of data that is received is used for compiling B-scans and imaging, utilizing a synthetic aperture focusing algorithm (SAFT). The performance of the probe was evaluated on a 0.5-inch thick carbon steel plate mockup with a surface area of over 100 square feet. The mockup had a variety of known anomalies representing localized and distributed pitting corrosion, gradual wall thinning, and notches of different depths. Experimental data was also acquired using the new probe on a retired storage tank with known corrosion damage. The performance of the new sensor and its limitations are discussed together with general directions in technology development.

  5. Enhanced statistical damage identification using frequency-shift information with tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Tang, J; Wang, K W

    2008-01-01

    The frequency-shift-based damage detection method entertains advantages such as global detection capability and easy implementation, but also suffers from drawbacks that include low detection accuracy and sensitivity and the difficulty in identifying damage using a small number of measurable frequencies. Moreover, the damage detection/identification performance is inevitably affected by the uncertainty/variations in the baseline model. In this research, we investigate an enhanced statistical damage identification method using the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry. The tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can lead to much enriched information on frequency shift (before and after damage occurrence). The circuitry elements, meanwhile, can be directly and accurately measured and thus can be considered uncertainty-free. A statistical damage identification algorithm is formulated which can identify both the mean and variance of the elemental property change. Our analysis indicates that the integration of the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can significantly enhance the robustness of the frequency-shift-based damage identification approach under uncertainty and noise

  6. A variable-frequency structural health monitoring system based on omnidirectional shear horizontal wave piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Qiang; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2018-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is of great importance for engineering structures as it may detect the early degradation and thus avoid life and financial loss. Guided wave based inspection is very useful in SHM due to its capability for long distance and wide range monitoring. The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave based method should be most promising since SH0 is the unique non-dispersive wave mode in plate-like structures. In this work, a sparse array SHM system based on omnidirectional SH wave piezoelectric transducers (OSH-PT) was proposed and the multi data fusion method was used for defect inspection in a 2 mm thick aluminum plate. Firstly, the performances of three types OSH-PTs was comprehensively compared and the thickness-poled d15 mode OSH-PT used in this work was demonstrated obviously superior to the other two. Then, the signal processing method and imaging algorithm for this SHM system was presented. Finally, experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the proposed SHM system in defect localization and imaging. Results indicated that this SHM system can locate a through hole as small as 0.12λ (4 mm) in diameter (where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the central operation frequency) under frequencies from 90 to 150 kHz. It can also locate multiple defects accurately based on the baseline subtraction method. Obviously, this SHM system can detect larger areas with sparse sensors because of the adopted single mode, non-dispersive and low frequency SH0 wave which can propagate long distance with small attenuation. Considering its good performances, simple data processing and sparse array, this SH0 wave-based SHM system is expected to greatly promote the applications of guided wave inspection.

  7. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  8. Effect of using a Planecta™ port with a three-way stopcock on the natural frequency of blood pressure transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Tachihara, Keiichi; Mori, Satoshi; Ouchi, Kentaro; Yokoe, Chizuko; Imaizumi, Uno; Morimoto, Yoshinari; Miki, Yoichiro; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yoshida, Kazu-Ichi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Blood pressure transducer kits are equipped with two types of Planecta™ ports-the flat-type Planecta™ port (FTP) and the Planecta™ port with a three-way stopcock (PTS). We reported that FTP application decreased the natural frequency of the kits. However, Planecta™ is an invaluable tool as it prevents infection, ensures technical simplicity, and excludes air. Hence, an ideal Planecta™ port that does not decrease the frequency characteristics is required. As a first step in this direction, we aimed to assess the influence of PTSs on the natural frequency of blood transducer kits. A DTXplus transducer kit (DT4812J; Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) was used along with ≥1 PTSs (JMS, Hiroshima, Japan), and the frequency characteristics were assessed. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained by using frequency characteristics analysis software, and these parameters were evaluated by plotting them on Gardner's chart. Regardless of whether one or two PTSs were inserted, the natural frequency of the kits only slightly decreased (from 42.5 to 41.1 Hz, when 2 PTSs were used). Thus, the frequency characteristics of the kits with PTSs were adequate for pressure monitoring. The insertion of ≥2 FTPs in pressure transducer kits should be avoided, as they markedly decrease the natural frequency and lead to underdamping. However, the effect of PTS insertion in pressure transducer kits on the frequency characteristics is minimal. Thus, we found that the use of PTS markedly improved the frequency characteristics as compared to the use of FTP.

  9. FEM Modeling of a Magnetoelectric Transducer for Autonomous Micro Sensors in Medical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Talleb, Hakeim; Gensbittel, Aurélie; Ren, Zhuoxiang

    2015-11-01

    In the context of wireless and autonomous sensors, this paper presents the multiphysics modeling of an energy transducer based on magnetoelectric (ME) composite for biomedical applications. The study considers the power requirement of an implanted sensor, the communication distance, the size limit of the device for minimal invasive insertion as well as the electromagnetic exposure restriction of the human body. To minimize the electromagnetic absorption by the human body, the energy source is provided by an external reader emitting low frequency magnetic field. The modeling is carried out with the finite element method by solving simultaneously the multiple physics problems including the electric load of the conditioning circuit. The simulation results show that with the T-L mode of a trilayer laminated ME composite, the transducer can deliver the required energy in respecting different constraints.

  10. High-Speed Universal Frequency-to-Digital Converter for Quasi-Digital Sensors and Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. Yurish

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available New fast, accurate universal integrated frequency-to-digital converter (UFDC-1M-16 is described in the article. It is based on the novel patented modified method of the dependent count and has non-redundant conversion time from 6.25 ms to 6.25 ms for 1 to 0.001 % relative errors respectively, comparable with conversion time for successive-approximation and S-D ADC. The IC can work with different sensors, transducers and encoders, which have frequency, period, duty-cycle, PWM, phase shift, pulse number, etc. output.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Single-Aperture 3.5-MHz BNT-Based Ultrasonic Transducer for Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghaddos, Elaheh; Ma, T; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qifa; Wan, M X; Safari, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and characterization of 3.5-MHz single-element transducers for therapeutic applications in which the active elements are made of hard lead-free BNT-based and hard commercial PZT (PZT-841) piezoceramics. Composition of (BiNa 0.88 K 0.08 Li 0.04 ) 0.5 (Ti 0.985 Mn 0.015 )O 3 (BNKLT88-1.5Mn) was used to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramic. Mn-doped samples exhibited high mechanical quality factor ( ) of 970, thickness coupling coefficient ( ) of 0.48, a dielectric constant ( ) of 310 (at 1 kHz), depolarization temperature ( ) of 200 °C, and coercive field ( ) of 52.5 kV/cm. Two different unfocused single-element transducers using BNKLT88-1.5Mn and PZT-841 with the same center frequency of 3.5 MHz and similar aperture size of 10.7 and 10.5 mm were fabricated. Pulse-echo response, acoustic frequency spectrum, acoustic pressure field, and acoustic intensity field of transducers were characterized. The BNT-based transducer shows linear response up to the peak-to-peak voltage of 105 V in which the maximum rarefactional acoustic pressure of 1.1 MPa, and acoustic intensity of 43 W/cm 2 were achieved. Natural focal point of this transducer was at 60 mm from the surface of the transducer.

  12. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw, K C; McDaid, A J

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications

  13. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications.

  14. Simulation and fabrication of 0-3 composite PZT films for ultrahigh frequency (100-300 MHz) ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fei, Chunlong; Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Ruimin; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents simulation, fabrication, and characterization of single-element ultrahigh frequency (100-300-MHz) needle ultrasonic transducers based on 0-3 composite Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films prepared by using composite ceramic sol-gel film and sol-infiltration technique. The center frequency of the developed transducer at 300-MHz was the highest frequency of PbTiO3 ceramic-based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. Furthermore, a brief description of the composite model was followed by the development of a new expression for predicting the longitudinal velocity, the clamped dielectric constant, and the complex electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of these films, which is very important in ultrasonic transducer design. Moreover, these parameters are difficult to obtain by measuring the frequency dependence of impedance and phase angle because of the weak signal of the previous 0-3 composite films transducer (>100 MHz). The modeling results show that the Cubes model with a geometric factor n = 0.05 fits well with the measured data. This model will be helpful for developing the 0-3 composite systems for ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer design.

  15. Characterization of very high frequency transducers with wire target and hydrophone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bin; Shung, K Kik

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the wire-target technique will be shown to be a useful alternative for beam profile measurements in very high frequency range (30-60 MHz). A 9 cm long tungsten wire with a diameter of 8 μm was used as the pulse-echo target to measure the lateral beam profiles at the focal points of two transducers, a spherically focused 40 MHz Panametrics transducer with an aperture size of 6.35 mm and a geometrical focal length of 12.7 mm and a lense-focused in-house lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) 60 MHz transducer with an aperture size of 2 mm and a geometrical focal length around 6.5 mm. For comparison, measurements on the same transducers were performed by three small-aperture hydrophones. The first one is a polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) membrane hydrophone developed by Hewlett-Packard, which has a geometric diameter of 37 μm, a measured effective diameter of less than 100 μm and a -3 dB bandwidth of more than 150 MHz. The second one is a needle-type PVDF hydrophone from Precision Acoustics, which has a 9 μm-thick PVDF element, a 40 μm geometrical aperture and a measured effective diameter of less than 100 μm. The third one is a needle-type PVDF hydrophone from Onda, which has a 150 μm geometrical aperture and an effective diameter of about 180 μm. Experimental results show that the -6 dB two-way beam widths measured by this 8 μm wire-target are in agreement with -3 dB transmitted beam widths measured by small-aperture hydrophones. Compared to small-aperture hydrophones, the wire-target technique is simpler and more cost-effective. Its major advantage however is in the frequency range above 100 MHz in which commercial hydrophones are not yet available

  16. Piezoelectric textured ceramics: Effective properties and application to ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levassort, Franck; Pham Thi, Mai; Hemery, Henry; Marechal, Pierre; Tran-Huu-Hue, Louis-Pascal; Lethiecq, Marc

    2006-12-22

    Piezoelectric textured ceramics obtained by homo-template grain growth (HTGG) were recently demonstrated. A simple model with several assumptions has been used to calculate effective parameters of these new materials. Different connectivities have been simulated to show that spatial arrangements between the considered phases have little influence on the effective parameters, even through the 3-0 connectivity delivers the highest electromechanical thickness factor. A transducer based on a textured ceramic sample has been fabricated and characterised to show the efficiency of these piezoelectric materials. Finally, in a single element transducer configuration, simulation shows an improvement of 2 dB sensitivity for a transducer made with textured ceramic in comparison with a similar transducer design based on standard soft PZT (at equivalent bandwidths).

  17. Performance limitations of piezoelectric and force feedback electrostatic transducers in different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Karatzas, L S

    2009-01-01

    Current limitations in piezoelectric and electrostatic transducers are discussed. A force-feedback electrostatic transducer capable of operating at bandwidths up to 20 kHz is described. Advantages of the proposed design are a linearised operation which simplifies the feedback control aspects and robustness of the performance characteristics to environmental perturbations. Applications in nanotechnology, optical sciences and acoustics are discussed.

  18. Performance limitations of piezoelectric and force feedback electrostatic transducers in different applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W [Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Karatzas, L S, E-mail: s.hadjiloucas@reading.ac.u [Temasek Polytechnic, School of Engineering, 21 Tampines Avenue 1, Singapore, 529757 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Current limitations in piezoelectric and electrostatic transducers are discussed. A force-feedback electrostatic transducer capable of operating at bandwidths up to 20 kHz is described. Advantages of the proposed design are a linearised operation which simplifies the feedback control aspects and robustness of the performance characteristics to environmental perturbations. Applications in nanotechnology, optical sciences and acoustics are discussed.

  19. A Doubly-Curved Piezoelectric Composite with 1-3 Connectivity for Underwater Transducer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Likun; Qin, Lei; Liao, Qingwei; Zhong, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Aim to increase the horizontal and vertical beam width of the high frequency transducer simultaneously, we present a doubly-curved 1-3 piezoelectric composite element. It consists of 54% piezoelectric ceramic volume fraction and two phases polymer matrix. The finite element analysis (FEA) is used to evaluate the dynamic response of composite. Electroacoustic response in water was measured for the doubly-curved composite being considered as underwater transducer. An underwater transducer was fabricated using the doubly-curved 1-3 piezoelectric composite element. The -3 dB full angle beam width of transducer is approximately 106° and 36° in the horizontal and vertical plane respectively. Both the FEA simulations and experimental results show the potential of a broad covered area of the composite transducer in underwater environment.

  20. Fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Bok; Hsu, David K; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Young-Gil; Barnard, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT, and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications. As a front matching layer between test material (Austenite stainless steel, SUS316) and piezoelectric materials, alumina ceramics was selected. The appropriate acoustic impedance of the backing materials for each transducer was determined based on the results of KLM model simulation. Prototype ultrasonic transducers with the center frequencies of approximately 2.25 and 5MHz for contact measurement were fabricated and compared to each other. The PMN-PT single crystal ultrasonic transducer shows considerably improved performance in sensitivity over the PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling of multilayer piezoelectric transducers for echographic applications Equivalent circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.; Riera, E.; San Emeterio, J.L.; Sanz, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the main equivalent circuits of pulse-echo, single element, multilayer piezoelectric transducers, are analysed. The analogy of matching layers with lossless transmission lines is described. Finally, using the KLM model, the effects of backing and matching layers on the bandwidth and impulse response is analysed. (Author)

  2. Application of digital PWM technology in current transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huifang; Hu Zhimin; Li Rui

    2012-01-01

    With the development of DSP technology and mature use of PID technology,, a new program for DC or AC signal measurement is proposed. Combined with the DSP chip timer module and PID algorithm, PWM signals are generated to control the feedback circuit for the compensation current. Finally the measured current value can be obtained according to the ampere-turns compensation current and the measured current. Studies have shown that this technology enables new current transducers have high stability. (authors)

  3. Characterization of HIFU transducers designed for sonochemistry application: Acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J-Y; Bailly, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation distribution in a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound sonoreactors (HIFU) has been extensively described in the recent literature, including quantification by an optical method (Sonochemiluminescence SCL). The present paper provides complementary measurements through the study of acoustic streaming generated by the same kind of HIFU transducers. To this end, results of mass transfer measurements (electrodiffusional method) were compared to optical method ones (Particle Image Velocimetry). This last one was used in various configurations: with or without an electrode in the acoustic field in order to have the same perturbation of the wave propagation. Results show that the maximum velocity is not located at the focal but shifted near the transducer, and that this shift is greater for high powers. The two cavitation modes (stationary and moving bubbles) are greatly affect the hydrodynamic behavior of our sonoreactors: acoustic streaming and the fluid generated by bubble motion. The results obtained by electrochemical measurements show the same low hydrodynamic activity in the transducer vicinity, the same shift of the active focal toward the transducer, and the same absence of activity in the post-focal axial zone. The comparison with theoretical Eckart's velocities (acoustic streaming in non-cavitating media) confirms a very high activity at the "sonochemical focal", accounted for by wave distortion, which induced greater absorption coefficients. Moreover, the equivalent liquid velocities are one order of magnitude larger than the ones measured by PIV, confirming the enhancement of mass transfer by bubbles oscillation and collapse close to the surface, rather than from a pure streaming effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High frequency P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer broadband annular array ultrasound transducers using high density flexible circuit interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Emanuel J.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Hu, Chang Hong; Shung, K. K.

    2005-04-01

    A kerfless eight element high frequency ultrasound annular array transducer using 9 μm P(VDF-TrFE) bonded to a high density flexible interconnect was fabricated. The flexible circuit composed of Kapton polyimide film with gold electrode pattern of equal area annuli apertures on the top side of a 50 μm thick Kapton polyimide film. Each element had several 30 μm diameter electroplated vias that connected to electrode traces on the bottom side of the Kapton polyimide film. There was a 30 μm spacing between elements. The total aperture of the array was 3.12 mm. The transducer's performance has been modeled by implementing the Redwood version of the Mason model into PSpice and using the Krimholtz, Leedom and Matthaei (KLM) model utilized in the commercial software PiezoCAD. The transducer"s performance was evaluated by measuring the electrical impedance with a HP 4194 impedance analyzer, pulse echo response using a Panametrics 5900 pulser/receiver and crosstalk measurement for each element in the array. The measured electrical impedance for each element was 540 Ω and -84° phase. In order to improve device sensitivity an inductor was attached in series with each element to reduce the insertion loss to 33 dB. The measured average center frequency and bandwidth of each element was 55 MHz and 50% respectively. The measured crosstalk at the center frequency was -45 dB in water.

  5. LOFT liquid level transducer application techniques and measurement uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, D.L.; Biladeau, G.L.; Goodrich, L.D.; Nightingale, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer (LLT) has been designed and used successfully for determining whether steam or water is present in the Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT) performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The presence of steam or water is determined by establishing a discriminator level which is set manually. A computer program establishes the presence or absence of water for each data point taken. In addition to liquid level, the LLT is used for reactor vessel mass and volume calculations. The uncertainty in the liquid level is essentially the spacing of the LLT electrodes

  6. Bendable Electro-Acoustic Transducer Fabricated Utilizing Frequency Dispersion of Elastic Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tetsu; Ohga, Juro

    2013-09-01

    To realize the speaker diaphragm that can be united with a flexible display without deteriorating lightweight properties and flexibility, a novel bendable electro-acoustic transducer (BEAT) based on 0-3-type piezoelectric composites has been developed. To overcome the trade-off between flexibility and the transmission efficiency of vibration energy, a viscoelastic polymer that has local maximum points in the loss factor as well as large frequency dispersion in the storage modulus near room temperature was employed as the matrix of the piezoelectric composite layer. Against the comparatively slow (10 Hz or less) deformation from the outside, the viscoelastic matrix is viscous enough to prevent cracking and delamination. On the other hand, in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz), the matrix is elastic enough to transmit piezoelectric vibration energy, maintaining a moderately large loss factor as well as a high sound velocity. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated a rollable speaker that can continue to generate a high-quality sound while being rolled and unrolled repeatedly onto a cylinder with a curvature radius of 4 mm.

  7. Energetic balance in an ultrasonic reactor using focused or flat high frequency transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J Y; Klima, J

    2007-09-01

    In order to undertake irradiation of polymer blocks or films by ultrasound, this paper deals with the measurements of ultrasonic power and its distribution within the cell by several methods. The electric power measured at the transducer input is compared to the ultrasonic power input to the cell evaluated by calorimetry and radiation force measurement for different generator settings. Results obtained in the specific case of new transducer types (composites and focused composites i.e., HIFU: high intensity focused ultrasound) provide an opportunity to conduct a discussion about measurement methods. It has thus been confirmed that these measurement techniques can be applied to HIFU transducers. For all cases, results underlined the fact that measurement of radiation pressure for power evaluation is more adapted to low powers (generator-transducer-liquid and sample.

  8. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  9. A Molecular Electronic Transducer based Low-Frequency Accelerometer with Electrolyte Droplet Sensing Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mengbing

    "Sensor Decade" has been labeled on the first decade of the 21st century. Similar to the revolution of micro-computer in 1980s, sensor R&D developed rapidly during the past 20 years. Hard workings were mainly made to minimize the size of devices with optimal the performance. Efforts to develop the small size devices are mainly concentrated around Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. MEMS accelerometers are widely published and used in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming consoles, anti-shake camera and vibration detectors. This study represents liquid-state low frequency micro-accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET), in which inertial mass is not the only but also the conversion of mechanical movement to electric current signal is the main utilization of the ionic liquid. With silicon-based planar micro-fabrication, the device uses a sub-micron liter electrolyte droplet sealed in oil as the sensing body and a MET electrode arrangement which is the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) in parallel as the read-out sensing part. In order to sensing the movement of ionic liquid, an imposed electric potential was applied between the anode and the cathode. The electrode reaction, I3-- + 2e-- ↔ 3I --, occurs around the cathode which is reverse at the anodes. Obviously, the current magnitude varies with the concentration of ionic liquid, which will be effected by the movement of liquid droplet as the inertial mass. With such structure, the promising performance of the MET device design is to achieve 10.8 V/G (G=9.81 m/s2) sensitivity at 20 Hz with the bandwidth from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 100 microg/sqrt(Hz) at 20 Hz.

  10. Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possetti, G R C; De Arruda, L V R; Muller, M; Fabris, J L; Côcco, L C; Yamamoto, C I; Falate, R

    2009-01-01

    This work shows prospects of long-period fibre grating applications as transducers for fuel conformity analysis. The proposed long-period grating transducer was employed to assess the gasoline conformity in commercial gas stations. Grating responses were used to train and validate a radial base function topology of an artificial neural network. The obtained results show that fibre optic sensors supervised by artificial neural networks can integrate systems for smart sensing with high applicability in the petrochemical field. The radial base function had reached a correct classification probability of approximately 94%. The device applicability in the analysis of hydrated ethanol fuel was also investigated by measuring the concentration of ethanol in ethanol–water mixtures. The results showed that the developed transducer can be used to infer the ethanol–water concentration with a resolution of up to 0.23%

  11. Acoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  12. Time and frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, H

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities of atomic clocks and quartz crystal oscillators in terms of available precision of time and frequency signals. The generation, comparison, and dissemination of time and frequency is then discussed. The principal focus is to survey uses of time and frequency in navigation, communication, and science. The examples given include the Global Positioning System, a satellite-based global navigation system, and general and dedicated communication networks, as well as experiments in general relativity and radioastronomy. The number of atomic clocks and crystal oscillators that are in actual use worldwide is estimated.

  13. Development of a high frequency single-element ultrasound needle transducer for anesthesia delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Son, Jungik; Liang, Jingwei; Foster, F. Stuart; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Peters, Terry M.

    2017-03-01

    Epidural anesthesia is one of the most commonly used and yet challenging techniques employed for pain management and anesthesia delivery. The major complications of this procedure are due to accidental dural puncture, with an incidence of 1-3%, which could lead to both temporary and irreversible permanent neurological complications. Needle placement under ultrasound (US) guidance has received increasing interest for improving needle placement accuracy. However, poor needle visibility in US, difficulties in displaying relevant anatomical structure such as dura mater due to attenuation and bone shadowing, and image interpretation variability among users pose significant hurdles for any US guidance system. As a result, US guidance for epidural injections has not been widely adopted for everyday use for the performance of neuraxial blocks. The difficulties in localizing the ligamentum flavum and dura with respect to the needle tip can be addressed by integrating A-mode US, provided by a single-element transducer at the needle tip, into the B-mode US guidance system. We have taken the first steps towards providing such a guidance system. Our goal is to improve the safety of this procedure with minimal changes to the clinical workflow. This work presents the design and development of a 20 MHz single-element US transducer housed at the tip of a 19 G needle hypodermic tube, which can fit inside an epidural introducer needle. In addition, the results from initial transducer characterization tests and performance evaluation of the transducer in a euthanized porcine model are provided.

  14. Experimental study of underwater transmission characteristics of high-frequency 30 MHz polyurea ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Marie; Aoyagi, Takahiro; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the transmission characteristics of a polyurea ultrasonic transducer operating in water. In this study, we used a polyurea transducer with fundamental resonance at approximately 30 MHz. Firstly, acoustic pressure radiated from the transducer was measured using a hydrophone, which has a diameter of 0.2 mm. The transmission characteristics such as relative bandwidth, pulse width, and acoustic sensitivity were calculated from the experimental results. The results of the experiment showed a relative bandwidth of 50% and a pulse width of 0.061 μs. The acoustic sensitivity was 0.60 kPa/V with good linearity, where the correlation coefficient R in the fitting calculation was 0.996. A maximum pressure of 13.1 kPa was observed when the transducer was excited at a zero-to-peak voltage of 21 V. Moreover, we experimentally verified the results. The results of the pulse/echo experiment showed that the estimated diameters of the copper wires were 458 and 726 μm, where the differences between the actual and measured values were 15% and 4%, respectively. Acoustic streaming was also observed so that a particle velocity map was estimated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The sound pressure calculated from the particle velocity obtained by PIV showed good agreement with the acoustic pressure measured using the hydrophone, where the differences between the calculated and measured values were 12-19%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenomenally High Transduction Air/gas Transducers for Practical Non-Contact Ultrasonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Mahesh C.

    2009-03-01

    Based on novel acoustic impedance matching layers and high coupling piezoelectric materials this paper describes exceptionally high air/gas transduction ultrasonic transducers. By providing applications oriented performance of these transducers we also usher in the era of much desired Non-Contact Ultrasound (NCU) testing and analysis of a wide range of materials including early stage formation of materials such as uncured composite prepregs, green ceramics and powder metals, plastics, elastomers, porous, hygroscopic, chemically bonded and other materials. Besides quality control, ultimately NCU offers timely opportunities for cost-effective materials production, energy savings, and environment protection.

  16. Fabrication and properties of radially C textured PMN-PT cylinders for transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterala, Stephen F.; Meyer, Richard J.; Messing, Gary L.

    2012-07-01

    C Textured PMN-PT ceramics have electromechanical properties (d33 = 850-1050 pm/V, k33 = 0.79-0.83) between those of conventional PZT ceramics and relaxor PMN-PT crystals. In this work, we tailor crystallographic orientation in textured PMN-PT ceramics for transducer designs with non-planar poling surfaces. Specifically, omni-directional cylindrical transducer elements were fabricated using monolithic, radially C textured and poled PMN-PT ceramic. Texture was produced by templated grain growth using NBT-PT templates, which were oriented radially by wrapping green ceramic tapes around a cylindrical mandrel. Finished transducer elements measure ˜5 cm in diameter by ˜2.5 cm in height and demonstrate scalability of textured ceramic fabrication techniques. The fabricated cylinders are ˜50 vol. % textured and show high 31-mode electromechanical properties compared to PZT ceramics (d31 = -259 pm/V, k31 = 0.43, ɛT33 = 3000, and Qm = 350). Frequency bandwidth is related to the square of the hoop mode coupling coefficient kh2, which is ˜60% higher in textured PMN-PT cylinders compared to PZT 5H. Finite element simulations show that this parameter may be further increased by improving texture quality to ≥90 vol. %. Radially textured PMN-PT may thus improve performance in omni-directional cylindrical transducers while avoiding the need for segmented single crystal designs.

  17. New Soft Polymeric Materials Applicable as Elastomeric Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    An elastomer is a material characterized by the capability to regain its original size and shape after being deformed (stretched or distorted). An ideal elastomer for electroactive polymer (EAP) applications is a system characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and a good mechanical fatigue....... Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are part of electronic EAPs presenting a good combination of electromechanical properties such as high achievable strains and stresses, fast response speeds, long lifetime, high reliability and high efficiency1. Subjected to a voltage, a polymeric electroactive material sandwiched...... easy to handle. From a mechanical point of view, the materials for EAPs use have to be soft with sufficient mechanical strength so the rupture of the material can be avoided at high strain actuation. Considering the EAP requirements and the experimental data for the hyperswollen networks based...

  18. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  19. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  20. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, M; Boots, H; Kumar, B; Heesch, C van; Mauczok, R; Keur, W; Wild, M de; Esch, H van; Roest, A L; Reimann, K; Leuken, L van; Wunnicke, O; Zhao, J; Schmitz, G; Mienkina, M; Mleczko, M; Tiggelman, M

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm 2 , high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85 deg. C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  1. Motion Sensors and Transducers to Navigate an Intelligent Mechatronic Platform for Outdoor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail G. PAPOUTSIDAKIS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The initial goal of this project is to investigate if different sensor types and their attached transducers can support everyday human needs. Nowadays, there is a constant need to automate many time consuming applications not only in industrial environments but also in smaller scale applications, therefore robotics is a field that continuously tracks research interest. The area of human assistance by machines in everyday needs, continues to grow and to keep users interest very high. "Mechatronics" differ from Robotics in terms of integrated electronics, the advantage of being easily re-programmable and more over the versatility of hosting all kind of sensor types, sensor networks, transducers and actuators. In this research project, such an integrated autonomous device will be presented, focusing around the use of sensors and their feedback signals for proximity, position, motion, distance, placement and finally navigation. The ultimate sensor type choice for the task as well as all transducers signals management will also be highlighted. An up-to-date technology microcontroller will host all the above information and moreover move the mechatronic platform via motor actuators. The control algorithm which will be designed for the application is responsible for receiving all feedback signals, processing them and safely navigate the system in order to undertake its mission. The project scenario, the necessary electronic equipment and the controller design method will be highlighted in the following paragraphs of this document. Conclusions and results of sensor usage, platform's performance and problems solutions, forms the rest of this paper body.

  2. Investigation of power and frequency for 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy with a dual frequency multi-element transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Transurethral ultrasound therapy uses real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature feedback to enable the 3D control of thermal therapy accurately in a region within the prostate. Previous canine studies showed the feasibility of this method in vivo. The aim of this study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining targeting accuracy, by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. Simulations and validation experiments in gel phantoms were used, with a collection of nine 3D realistic target prostate boundaries obtained from previous preclinical studies, where multi-slice MR images were acquired with the transurethral device in place. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on temperature feedback at the prostate boundary. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimised interdependently, as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency. The concept of dual frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the third harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. Numerical modelling enabled assessment of the effects of several acoustic parameters on treatment outcomes. The range of treatable prostate radii extended with increasing power, and tended to narrow with decreasing frequency. Reducing the frequency from 8 MHz to 4 MHz or increasing the surface acoustic power from 10 to 20 W/cm(2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. A dual frequency configuration of 4/12 MHz with 20 W/cm(2) ultrasound intensity exposure can treat entire prostates up to 40 cm(3) in volume within 30 min. The interdependence between power and frequency may, however, require integrating multi-parametric functions in the controller for future optimisations.

  3. An improved phase-locked loop method for automatic resonance frequency tracing based on static capacitance broadband compensation for a high-power ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui-juan; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wu, Han-fu

    2012-02-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) method is widely used for automatic resonance frequency tracing (ARFT) of high-power ultrasonic transducers, which are usually vibrating systems with high mechanical quality factor (Qm). However, a heavily-loaded transducer usually has a low Qm because the load has a large mechanical loss. In this paper, a series of theoretical analyses is carried out to detail why the traditional PLL method could cause serious frequency tracing problems, including loss of lock, antiresonance frequency tracing, and large tracing errors. The authors propose an improved ARFT method based on static capacitance broadband compensation (SCBC), which is able to address these problems. Experiments using a generator based on the novel method were carried out using crude oil as the transducer load. The results obtained have demonstrated the effectiveness of the novel method, compared with the conventional PLL method, in terms of improved tracing accuracy (±9 Hz) and immunity to antiresonance frequency tracing and loss of lock.

  4. Model Robust Calibration: Method and Application to Electronically-Scanned Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric L.; Starnes, B. Alden; Birch, Jeffery B.; Mays, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the application of a recently developed statistical regression method to the controlled instrument calibration problem. The statistical method of Model Robust Regression (MRR), developed by Mays, Birch, and Starnes, is shown to improve instrument calibration by reducing the reliance of the calibration on a predetermined parametric (e.g. polynomial, exponential, logarithmic) model. This is accomplished by allowing fits from the predetermined parametric model to be augmented by a certain portion of a fit to the residuals from the initial regression using a nonparametric (locally parametric) regression technique. The method is demonstrated for the absolute scale calibration of silicon-based pressure transducers.

  5. High frequency transducer for vessel imaging based on lead-free Mn-doped (K0.44Na0.56)NbO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinpeng; Xue, Saidong; Zhao, Xiangyong; Wang, Feifei; Tang, Yanxue; Duan, Zhihua; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou; Yue, Qingwen; Zhou, Huifang; Luo, Haosu; Fang, Bijun

    2017-08-01

    We report a high frequency ultrasonic transducer up to 50 MHz for vessel imaging based on a lead-free (K0.44Na0.56)NbO3-0.5 mol. % Mn (Mn-KNN) single crystal, which has a high electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of 0.64 and a large thickness frequency constant Nt of 3210 kHz . mm. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Mattaei (KLM) equivalent circuit model was utilized to simulate and optimize the pulse-echo response combined with PiezoCAD software. Theoretically, a high -6 dB bandwidth of 74.94% was obtained at a center frequency of 50.47 MHz and optimized matching conditions. The experimental results showed a center frequency of 51.8 MHz with a -6 dB bandwidth of 70.2%. The excellent global performance makes this lead-free single-crystal transducer quite potential in an environmentally friendly vessel imaging transducer.

  6. Single Interdigital Transducer Approach for Gravimetrical SAW Sensor Applications in Liquid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Hoa Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are well known for mass-sensitive sensor applications. In biosensing applications, chemical and biochemically evoked binding processes on surfaces are detected in liquid environments using delay line or resonator sensor configurations, preferably in combination with the appropriate microfluidic devices. All configurations share the common feature of analyzing the transmission characteristic of the propagating SAW. In this paper, a novel SAW-based impedance sensor type is introduced which uses only one interdigital transducer (IDT, simultaneously as the SAW generator and the sensor element. Here, the input port reflection coefficient S11 is measured at the IDT instead of the commonly used S21 transmission forward gain parameter. Thus, a sharp and distinct peak of the S11 spectrum is obtained, enabling a comfortable direct readout of the sensor signal. Proof of the concept was gained by analyzing the specific binding of the 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid gold nanoparticles (MPA–AuNP directly to the IDT surface. The corresponding binding kinetic of the MPA–AuNP on the functionalized gold surface has been analyzed and a sensitivity of 7.4 mΩ nM−1 has been determined.

  7. Thermal effects on transducer material for heat assisted magnetic recording application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Rong, E-mail: Ji-Rong@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Xu, Baoxi; Cen, Zhanhong; Ying, Ji Feng; Toh, Yeow Teck [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2015-05-07

    Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) is a promising technology for next generation hard disk drives with significantly increased data recording capacities. In HAMR, an optical near-field transducer (NFT) is used to concentrate laser energy on a magnetic recording medium to fulfill the heat assist function. The key components of a NFT are transducer material, cladding material, and adhesion material between the cladding and the transducer materials. Since transducer materials and cladding materials have been widely reported, this paper focuses on the adhesion materials between the Au transducer and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cladding material. A comparative study for two kinds of adhesion material, Ta and Cr, has been conducted. We found that Ta provides better thermal stability to the whole transducer than Cr. This is because after thermal annealing, chromium forms oxide material at interfaces and chromium atoms diffuse remarkably into the Au layer and react with Au to form Au alloy. This study also provides insights on the selection of adhesion material for HAMR transducer.

  8. Transducer handbook user's directory of electrical transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, H B

    2013-01-01

    When selecting or using a particular type of transducer or sensor, there are a number of factors which must be considered. The question is not only for what kind of measurement, but under what physical conditions, constraints of accuracy, and to meet which service requirements, is a transducer needed? This handbook is designed to meet the selection needs of anyone specifying or using transducers with an electrical output. Each transducer is described in an easy-to-use tabular format, giving all of the necessary data including operating principles, applications, range limits, errors, over-range protection, supply voltage requirements, sensitivities, cross sensitivities, temperature ranges and sensitivities and signal conditioning needs. The author has added notes that reflect his broad practical experience. Added to this is an extensive worldwide suppliers directory.

  9. Fabrication of Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) on film carriers for in-situ application and generation of surface acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, V; Stratoudaki, T; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2015-01-01

    Cheap optical transducers (CHOTs) are patterns on the surface of a component activated by lasers to generate and detect ultrasound. Excited optically, with minimal surface impact, and fully customizable, CHOTs provide a simple alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers, offering wireless, remote operation. Of particular interest is application of CHOTs for in-situ ultrasonic inspection of hard-to reach and complex-geometry components such as those of aero-engines. A suitable fabrication method has been developed to allow in-situ application of CHOTs onto large size and curved components, as well as those already in service, challenging for current laboratory-based micro-patterning methods. This work describes the fabrication of a transferable g-CHOT for generation of ultrasound. The g- CHOT has been made on an SU8 carrier film using a sacrificial polystyrene layer, allowing the transducer to be transferred from the substrate and subsequently delivered and applied to the surface of the sample in-situ. The functionality of the fabricated transducer is demonstrated by detection of the Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) generated by the g-CHOT transferred onto glass and aluminium samples

  10. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  11. Practical ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature applications using bismuth titanate and Ceramabind 830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Janet L.; Batista, Caio F. G.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring of large valve bodies in high-temperature environments such as power plants faces several limitations: commercial transducers are not rated for such high temperatures, gel couplants will evaporate, and measurements cannot be made in-situ. To solve this, we have furthered the work of Ledford in applying a practical transducer in liquid form which hardens and air dries directly onto the substrate. The transducer material is a piezoceramic film composed of bismuth titanate and a high-temperature binding agent, Ceramabind 830. The effects of several fabrication conditions were studied to optimize transducer performance and ensure repeatability. These fabrication conditions include humidity, binder ratio, water ratio, substrate roughness, and film thickness. The final product is stable for both reactive and non-reactive substrates, has a quick fabrication time, and has an operating temperature up to the Curie temperature of BIT, 650°C, well beyond the safe operating temperature of PZT (150°C).

  12. Template-based fluoroethylenepropylene piezoelectrets with tubular channels for transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafim, Ruy Alberto Pisani; Qiu, Xunlin; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Altafim, Ruy Alberto Corrêa; Basso, Heitor Cury; Jenninger, Werner; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    We describe the concept, the fabrication, and the most relevant properties of a piezoelectric-polymer system: Two fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) films with good electret properties are laminated around a specifically designed and prepared polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) template at 300 °C. After removing the PTFE template, a two-layer FEP film with open tubular channels is obtained. For electric charging, the two-layer FEP system is subjected to a high electric field. The resulting dielectric barrier discharges inside the tubular channels yield a ferroelectret with high piezoelectricity. d33 coefficients of up to 160 pC/N have already been achieved on the ferroelectret films. After charging at suitable elevated temperatures, the piezoelectricity is stable at temperatures of at least 130 °C. Advantages of the transducer films include ease of fabrication at laboratory or industrial scales, a wide range of possible geometrical and processing parameters, straightforward control of the uniformity of the polymer system, flexibility, and versatility of the soft ferroelectrets, and a large potential for device applications e.g., in the areas of biomedicine, communications, production engineering, sensor systems, environmental monitoring, etc.

  13. Performance of magneto-optical glass in optical current transducer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yan; Lu, Yunhe; Liu, Zhao; Yu, Xueliang; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    First, a theoretical analysis was performed on the effect of temperature on the performance of the sensing element of paramagnetic rare earth-doped magneto-optical glass material that can be used in an optical current transducer application. The effect comprises two aspects: the linear birefringence and the Verdet constant. On this basis, rare earth-doped glass temperature characteristics were studied, and the experimental results indicated that the linear birefringence of rare earth-doped glass increased with increasing temperature, while its magneto-optical sensitivity decreased. Comparative experiments performed for various concentrations of rare earth dopant in the glass revealed that changes in the dopant concentration had no significant effect on the performance of magneto-optical glass. At last, a comparison between rare earth-doped magneto-optical and diamagnetic dense flint glass showed that the sensitivity of the former was six times that of the latter, although the temperature stability of the former was poorer. - Highlights: • Theoretical analysis on the effects of temperature on RE glass. • Rare earth doping leads to higher magneto-optical sensitivity. • The sensitivity of the RE glass is six times that of the dense flint glass

  14. Model of a Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Debra

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to control liquid and gas in propellant tanks in zero gravity. A possible a design would utilize acoustic liquid manipulation (ALM) technology which uses ultrasonic beams conducted through a liquid and solid media, to push gas bubbles in the liquid to desirable locations. We can propel and control the bubble with acoustic radiation pressure by aiming the acoustic waves on the bubble s surface. This allows us to design a so called smart tank in which the ALM devices transfer the gas to the outer wall of the tank and isolating the liquid in the center. Because the heat transfer rate of a gas is lower of that of the liquid it would substantially decrease boil off and provide of for a longer storage life. The ALM beam is composed of little wavelets which are individual waves that constructively interfere with each other to produce a single, combined acoustic wave front. This is accomplished by using a set of synchronized ultrasound transducers arranged in an array. A slight phase offset of these elements allows us to focus and steer the beam. The device that we are using to produce the acoustic beam is called the piezoelectric transducer. This device converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, which appears in the form of acoustic energy. Therefore the behavior of the device is dependent on both the mechanical characteristics, such as its density, cross-sectional area, and its electrical characteristics, such as, electric flux permittivity and coupling factor. These devices can also be set up in a number of modes which are determined by the way the piezoelectric device is arranged, and the shape of the transducer. For this application we are using the longitudinal or thickness mode for our operation. The transducer also vibrates in the lateral mode, and one of the goals of my project is to decrease the amount of energy lost to the lateral mode. To model the behavior of the transducers I will be using Pspice, electric circuit modeling tool, to

  15. NMR signal transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryaev, A.G.; Oliferchuk, N.L.

    1975-01-01

    A signal transducer of nuclear magnetic resonance for simultaneously measuring frequency and intensitivity of two various isotope signals, which are in one specimen is described. The transducer represents radiofrequency circuit with two resonance frequences, which is common for two autodyne generators. To decrease measuring time and to increase recording diagram stability the radiofrequency circuit has LC netork, in the inductivity of which investigated specimen is located; a circuit variable capacity is connected in parallel with one of the autodyne generators. Besides the radiofrequency circuit has an inductance coil in series with a standard specimen inside as well as a variable capacitor connected in parallel with the second autodyne generator. An amplitude of oscillation of each resonance frequency is controlled and adjusted separately. The transducer described can be used for the measurement of a nuclei concentration, isotope concentration and for the spin determination

  16. Coaxial Transducer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruffa, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a coaxial transducer that uses lead zirconate titanate ceramic or other suitable material as an isolator between the conductors in a coaxial cable to transmit acoustic...

  17. Out-of-plane buckled cantilever microstructures with adjustable angular positions using thermal bimorph actuation for transducer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2015-10-27

    The integration of thermal bimorph actuators and buckled cantilever structures to form an out-of-plane plate with adjustable angular positions is reported. This structure could be used as a platform to build other transducers such as optical micromirrors, scanning antennas, switches or low-frequency oscillators. The electromechanical characterisation has shown that these structures can adjust their angular position by 6° when they are operated using a DC source. The thermal characterisation performed by an infrared camera showed that the heat-affected zone reaches a maximum temperature of 125°C while the rest of the structure remains unaffected by the generated heat.

  18. Application of heat-resistant non invasive acoustic transducers for coolant control in the NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, V.; Nigmatulin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic waves enables remote testing of the coolant flow, detection of solid and gaseous occlusions and measuring of the water velocity and level. Analysis of the acoustic noise makes it possible to detect coolant leaks and diagnose the state and operation of the rotating mechanisms and bearings. Results are given of the research in the development of highly reliable waveguide-type non-invasive acoustic transducers with a long service life. Examples are given of the use of transducers in various fields of nuclear technology: detection of gas in coolant, indication of the coolant level, control of pipe filling and drainage, measurement of liquid film velocity at the pipe inner surface. (M.D.)

  19. Application of transducers to the control of temperatures and of alternating and direct voltages (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoult, N.

    1960-11-01

    The temperature regulator and the voltage regulators described have been studied with a view to conferring a high degree of safety to the apparatuses in which they are used. They make use almost exclusively of Transducers which are passive elements acting mainly in these apparatuses as amplifiers and which are entirely satisfactory, ensuring that the regulators studied keep their essential qualities i.e accuracy, reliability, stability and sensitivity. (author) [fr

  20. Optimum Operating Conditions of (PbxX1−x(ZryTizY1−y−z Piezoelectric Transducer for Vibrational Energy Harvesting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy production capability of bimorph (PbxX1-x(ZryTizY1-y-z fiber composite piezoelectric transducer has been investigated for energy harvesting applications. The material has been analyzed under different frequencies, bending amounts, and temperatures. The operating conditions for maximum electrical energy outcome have been determined. The natural frequencies of oscillations in the macro dimensions have been found to be inversely proportional to the length of the material. On the other hand, the voltage output with respect to the oscillation frequency exhibits an interesting behavior such that the characteristic curve shifts to higher frequencies as the bending radius is decreased. This behavior has been interpreted as a result of possible overtone transitions of the oscillations to a stiffer mode. The increasing temperature has been observed to have a negative effect on the piezoelectric energy harvesting property. When the determined optimum conditions were utilized, the amount of electrical energy stored in 6300 s by an energy harvester circuitry has been found to be 0.8 J.

  1. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  2. Dynamic torsional response analysis of mechanoluminescent paint and its application to non-contacting automotive torque transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Kim, Ji-Sik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of a preliminary experimental study on the dynamic torsional response analysis of mechanoluminescent (ML) paint for potential development as a new type of non-contacting torque transducer. The torsional torque applied to a transmission shaft is measured by sensing the ML intensity emitting from an ML paint coating a transmission shaft. This study provides the fundamental knowledge for the development of new non-contacting torque sensing technology based on the ML intensity detection. The proposed measurement principle appears to offer potential applications in automotive torque measurement systems, even though the loading rate-dependent characteristics of the ML intensity needs to be examined further. (paper)

  3. Dynamic torsional response analysis of mechanoluminescent paint and its application to non-contacting automotive torque transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Kim, Ji-Sik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of a preliminary experimental study on the dynamic torsional response analysis of mechanoluminescent (ML) paint for potential development as a new type of non-contacting torque transducer. The torsional torque applied to a transmission shaft is measured by sensing the ML intensity emitting from an ML paint coating a transmission shaft. This study provides the fundamental knowledge for the development of new non-contacting torque sensing technology based on the ML intensity detection. The proposed measurement principle appears to offer potential applications in automotive torque measurement systems, even though the loading rate-dependent characteristics of the ML intensity needs to be examined further.

  4. Out-of-plane platforms with bi-directional thermal bimorph actuation for transducer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the Buckled Cantilever Platform (BCP) that allows the manipulation of the out of plane structures through the adjustment of the pitch angle using thermal bimorph micro-Actuators. Due to the micro-fabrication process used, the bimorph actuators can be designed to move in both: Counter Clockwise (CCW) and Clockwise (CW) directions with a resolution of up to 110 μm/V, with smallest step in the range of nanometers. Thermal and electrical characterization of the thermal bimorph actuators showed low influence in the platforms temperature and low power consumption (< 35μW) mainly due to the natural isolation of the structure. Tip displacements larger than 500μm were achieved. The precise angle adjustment achieved through these mechanisms makes them optimal for a range of different MEMS applications, like optical benches and low frequency sweeping sensors and antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Ultrasonic transducers with resonant cavities as emitters for air-borne applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero De Espinosa Freijo, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new proposal to improve the emission efficiency of air-borne ultrasonic transducers is introduced. A theoretical ultrasonic transducer design is studied using a piezoelectric membrane and a Helmholtz resonator with two acoustic ports. The resonator provides radiation in the acoustic ports in phase with that of the membrane. Several finite element simulations and experimental results are used to study the device. The finite element models were used to compare its behaviour with that of conventional vacuum-cavity transducers. These results show an improvement in the bandwidth reaching a quality factor value of 19. Furthermore, the experimental measurements were used to study the effects of the resonant cavity in the response. Several measurements for different cavity depths were performed. The results show an improvement of 25 dB in the emitted pressure through tuning the transducer.

    En este trabajo se presenta una nueva propuesta para mejorar la eficiencia de transductores ultrasónicos acoplados a aire. Para este estudio se ha empleado un diseño teórico de transductor ultrasónico que utiliza una membrana piezoeléctrica y un resonador de Helmholtz con dos puertos acústicos. El resonador hace que la radiación en los puertos acústicos se encuentre en fase con la producida por la membrana. Para estudiar el dispositivo se utilizaron resultados obtenidos mediante programas de elementos finitos y resultados experimentales. Por un lado, los modelos de elementos finitos se utilizaron para comparar el comportamiento del dispositivo con el de transductores convencionales con cavidades al vacío. Estos resultados indican una mejora en el ancho de banda alcanzando valores de factor de calidad de 19. Por otro lado, los resultados experimentales se emplearon para identificar los efectos de la cavidad resonante en el funcionamiento del dispositivo. Para ello se realizaron varias medidas utilizando ciertas profundidades de cavidad

  6. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T. [Non Destructive Testing Department at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX, (France); Baque, F. [Department of Sodium Technology at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance CEDEX, (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  7. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T.; Baque, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  8. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  9. A Direct Driver for Electrostatic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes a power stage suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer under biasing. Measurement results of a ±400 V prototype amplifier are shown. THD below 1% is reported....

  10. Characterisation and Modelling of MEMS Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, M F; Hariz, A J

    2006-01-01

    Silicon ultrasonic transducer micro arrays based on micro-electro-mechanicalsystem (MEMS) technologies are gaining popularity for applications in sonar sensing and excitation. A current challenge for many researchers is modelling the dynamic performance of these and other micro-mechanical devices to ascertain their performance and explain experimental observations reported. In this work, the performance simulation of a MEMS ultrasonic transducer array made from silicon nitride has been successfully carried out using CoventorWare package. The dynamic response of the entire transducer array was characterised, and the results were compared with theoretical predictions. Individual elements were found to vibrate with Bessel-like displacement patterns, and they were resonant at approximately 3 MHz, depending on thickness and lateral dimensions. The frequency shows a linear dependence around the common thickness of 2 μm. Peak displacement levels were examined as a function of frequency, DC bias voltage, and AC drive voltage. Accounting for fabrication variations, and uniformity variations across the wafer, the full array showed minimal variations in peak out-of-plane displacement levels across the device, and isolated elements that were over-responsive and under-responsive. Presently, the effect of observed variations across the array on the performance of the transducers and their radiated fields are being examined

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Langevin-Type Piezoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Peréz Alvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Langevin transducers are employed in several applications, such as power ultrasound systems, naval hydrophones, and high-displacement actuators. Nonlinear effects can influence their performance, especially at high vibration amplitude levels. These nonlinear effects produce variations in the resonant frequency, harmonics of the excitation frequency, in addition to loss of symmetry in the frequency response and “frequency domain hysteresis”. In this context, this paper presents a simplified nonlinear dynamic model of power ultrasound transducers requiring only two parameters for simulating the most relevant nonlinear effects. One parameter reproduces the changes in the resonance frequency and the other introduces the dependence of the frequency response on the history of the system. The piezoelectric constitutive equations are extended by a linear dependence of the elastic constant on the mechanical displacement amplitude. For introducing the frequency hysteresis, the elastic constant is computed by combining the current value of the mechanical amplitude with the previous state amplitude. The model developed in this work is applied for predicting the dynamic responses of a 26 kHz ultrasonic transducer. The comparison of theoretical and experimental responses, obtained at several input voltages around the tuned frequency, shows a good agreement, indicating that the model can accurately describe the transducer nonlinear behavior.

  12. Piezoelectric transducer vibrations in a one-dimensional approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    1973-01-01

    The theory of piezoelectric transducer vibrations, which may be treated as one-dimensional, is developed in detail for thin discs vibrating in a pure thickness extensional mode. An effort has been made to obtain relations of general validity, which include losses, and which are in a simple explicit form convenient for practical calculations. The behaviour of transducers is discussed with special attention to their characteristics at the two fundamental frequencies, the so-called parallel and series resonances. Several peculiarities occur when transducers are coupled to media with considerably different acoustic impedances. These peculiarities are discussed and illustrated by numerical results for quartz and PZT 4 piezoelectric discs radiating into water, air and liquid hydrogen. The application of the theory to different types of vibrations is briefly illustrated for thin bars vibrating longitudinally. Short discussions are included on compound transducer systems, and on the properties of thin discs as receiv...

  13. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaiskos, G; Tsangouri, E; Aggelis, D G; Van Hemelrijck, D; Deraemaeker, A

    2015-01-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods. (paper)

  14. Toric focusing for radiation force applications using a toric lens coupled to a spherically focused transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic elastography using radiation force requires that an ultrasound field be focused during hundreds of microseconds at a pressure of several megapascals. Here, we address the importance of the focal geometry. Although there is usually no control of the elevational focal width in generating a tissue mechanical response, we propose a tunable approach to adapt the focus geometry that can significantly improve radiation force efficiency. Several thin, in-house-made polydimethylsiloxane lenses were designed to modify the focal spot of a spherical transducer. They exhibited low absorption and the focal spot widths were extended up to 8-fold in the elevation direction. Radiation force experiments demonstrated an 8-fold increase in tissue displacements using the same pressure level in a tissue-mimicking phantom with a similar shear wave spectrum, meaning it does not affect elastography resolution. Our results demonstrate that larger tissue responses can be obtained for a given pressure level, or that similar response can be reached at a much lower mechanical index (MI). We envision that this work will impact 3-D elastography using 2-D phased arrays, where such shaping can be achieved electronically with the potential for adaptive optimization.

  15. Applications of Flexible Ultrasonic Transducer Array for Defect Detection at 150 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Woei Liaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the feasibility of using a one dimensional 16-element flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT array for nondestructive testing at 150 °C is demonstrated. The FUT arrays were made by a sol-gel sprayed piezoelectric film technology; a PZT composite film was sprayed on a titanium foil of 75 µm thickness. Since the FUT array is flexible, it was attached to a steel pipe with an outer diameter of 89 mm and a wall thickness of 6.5 mm at 150 °C. Using the ultrasonic pulse-echo mode, pipe thickness measurements could be performed. Moreover, using the ultrasonic pulse-echo and pitch-catch modes of each element of FUT array, the defect detection was performed on an Al alloy block of 30 mm thickness with a side-drilled hole (SDH of f3 mm at 150 °C. In addition, a post-processing algorithm based on the total focusing method was used to process the full matrix of these A-scan signals of each single transmitter and multi-receivers, and then the phase-array image was obtained to indicate this defect- SDH. Both results show the capability of FUT array being operated at 150 °C for the corrosion and defect detections.

  16. Study on low frequency probe characterization for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Pauzi Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been widely used in metal and non-metal material. For non-metal material such as concrete, a probe emitting low frequency ultrasonic wave is applied. This paper describes the comparison between three custom made probes using same design and piezoelectric crystal. The only difference is the backing material, which comprise of three different materials. Characterization of each transducer is compared in order to understand the effects of backing material in the probe. (Author)

  17. A new hybrid longitudinal–torsional magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karafi, Mohammad Reza; Hojjat, Yousef; Sassani, Farrokh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid longitudinal–torsional magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer (HL–TMUT) is introduced. The transducer is composed of a magnetostrictive exponential horn and a stainless steel tail mass. In this transducer a spiral magnetic field made up of longitudinal and circumferential magnetic fields is applied to the magnetostrictive horn. As a result, the magnetostrictive horn oscillates simultaneously both longitudinally and torsionally in accordance with the Joule and Wiedemann effects. The magnetostrictive exponential horn is designed in such a manner that it has the same longitudinal and torsional resonant frequency. It is made up of ‘2V Permendur’, which has isotropic magnetic properties. The differential equations of the torsional and longitudinal vibration of the horn are derived, and a HL–TMUT is designed with a resonant frequency of 20 573 Hz. The natural frequency and mode shapes of the transducer are considered theoretically and numerically. The experimental results show that this transducer resonates torsionally and longitudinally with frequencies of 20 610 Hz and 20 830 Hz respectively. The maximum torsional displacement is 1.5 mrad m −1 and the maximum longitudinal displacement is 0.6 μm. These are promising features for industrial applications. (paper)

  18. A theoretical study of cylindrical ultrasound transducers for intracavitary hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-L.; Fan, W.-C.; Yen, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Shieh, M.-J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the heating patterns and penetration depth when a cylindrical ultrasound transducer is employed for intracavitary hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: The present study employs a simulation program based on a simplified power deposition model for infinitely long cylindrical ultrasound transducers. The ultrasound power in the tissue is assumed to be exponentially attenuated according to the penetration depth of the ultrasound beam, and a uniform attenuation for the entire treatment region is also assumed. The distribution of specific absorption rate (SAR) ratio (the ratio of SAR for a point within the tissue to that for a specific point on the cavity surface) is used to determine the heating pattern for a set of given parameters. The parameters considered are the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity. Results: Simulation results show that the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity are the most influential parameters for the distribution of SAR ratio. A low frequency transducer located in a large cavity can produce a much better penetration. The cavity size is the major parameter affecting the penetration depth for a small cavity size, such as interstitial hyperthermia. The heating pattern can also be dramatically changed by the transducer eccentricity and radiating sector. In addition, for a finite length of cylindrical transducer, lower SAR ratio appears in the regions near the applicator's edges. Conclusion: The distribution of SAR ratio indicates the relationship between the treatable region and the parameters if an appropriate threshold of SAR ratio is taken. The findings of the present study comprehend whether or not a tumor is treatable, as well as select the optimal driving frequency, the appropriate cavity size, and the eccentricity of a cylindrical transducer for a specific treatment

  19. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments.

  20. Real-time monitoring of focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier opening via subharmonic acoustic emission detection: implementation of confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Liao, Yi-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-04-01

    Burst-tone focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles has been demonstrated to be effective at inducing temporal and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which promises significant clinical potential to deliver therapeutic molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). Traditional contrast-enhanced imaging confirmation after focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure serves as a post-operative indicator of the effectiveness of FUS-BBB opening, however, an indicator that can concurrently report the BBB status and BBB-opening effectiveness is required to provide effective feedback to implement this treatment clinically. In this study, we demonstrate the use of subharmonic acoustic emission detection with implementation on a confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric ceramic structure to perform real-time monitoring of FUS-BBB opening. A confocal dual-frequency (0.55 MHz/1.1 MHz) focused ultrasound transducer was designed. The 1.1 MHz spherically-curved ceramic was employed to deliver FUS exposure to induce BBB-opening, whereas the outer-ring 0.55 MHz ceramic was employed to detect the subharmonic acoustic emissions originating from the target position. In stage-1 experiments, we employed spectral analysis and performed an energy spectrum density (ESD) calculation. An optimized 0.55 MHz ESD level change was shown to effectively discriminate the occurrence of BBB-opening. Wideband acoustic emissions received from 0.55 MHz ceramics were also analyzed to evaluate its correlations with erythrocyte extravasations. In stage-2 real-time monitoring experiments, we applied the predetermined ESD change as a detection threshold in PC-controlled algorithm to predict the FUS exposure intra-operatively. In stage-1 experiment, we showed that subharmonic ESD presents distinguishable dynamics between intact BBB and opened BBB, and therefore a threshold ESD change level (5.5 dB) can be identified for BBB-opening prediction. Using this ESD change threshold detection as a

  1. Real-time monitoring of focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier opening via subharmonic acoustic emission detection: implementation of confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Liao, Yi-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Burst-tone focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles has been demonstrated to be effective at inducing temporal and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which promises significant clinical potential to deliver therapeutic molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). Traditional contrast-enhanced imaging confirmation after focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure serves as a post-operative indicator of the effectiveness of FUS-BBB opening, however, an indicator that can concurrently report the BBB status and BBB-opening effectiveness is required to provide effective feedback to implement this treatment clinically. In this study, we demonstrate the use of subharmonic acoustic emission detection with implementation on a confocal dual-frequency piezoelectric ceramic structure to perform real-time monitoring of FUS-BBB opening. A confocal dual-frequency (0.55 MHz/1.1 MHz) focused ultrasound transducer was designed. The 1.1 MHz spherically-curved ceramic was employed to deliver FUS exposure to induce BBB-opening, whereas the outer-ring 0.55 MHz ceramic was employed to detect the subharmonic acoustic emissions originating from the target position. In stage-1 experiments, we employed spectral analysis and performed an energy spectrum density (ESD) calculation. An optimized 0.55 MHz ESD level change was shown to effectively discriminate the occurrence of BBB-opening. Wideband acoustic emissions received from 0.55 MHz ceramics were also analyzed to evaluate its correlations with erythrocyte extravasations. In stage-2 real-time monitoring experiments, we applied the predetermined ESD change as a detection threshold in PC-controlled algorithm to predict the FUS exposure intra-operatively. In stage-1 experiment, we showed that subharmonic ESD presents distinguishable dynamics between intact BBB and opened BBB, and therefore a threshold ESD change level (5.5 dB) can be identified for BBB-opening prediction. Using this ESD change threshold detection as a

  2. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  3. OW FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND APPLICATION IN KNEE ARTHROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pedder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in vitro study of ultrasound dissection devices' impact on meniscus and knee cartilage as well as comparison of outcomes with familiar arthroscopic techniques.Materials and methods. Meniscus and joint cartilage specimen obtained during total knee replacement were placed in a normal saline. All experiments were conducted no later than in 2 hours after obtaining and followed by histology of biopsy specimens. In the first series of experiment the authors performed meniscus dissection with ultrasound instrument «Scalpel», cold plasm ablator and surgical scalpel.Results. The first series of experiments demonstrated disruption of fibers orientation on meniscus rim after dissection with scalpel; necrosis depth after coblation is 0,7-0,8 mm. Ultrasound dissection devices leave necrosis depth of 0,1-0,2 mm and smooth cartilage surface. The second series of experiments proved that after shaver application cartilage surface was coarse; certain necrosis sections of 16-90 nm were observed on relatively smooth cartilage surface after coblation. Application of ultrasound «Miller» device leaves smooth cartilage surface with no fibers, no signs of cartilage thinning and necrosis not exceeding 15 nm.Conclusion. The results of experiments confirm that use of low frequency ultrasound dissection devices is advantageous as compared to mechanical and ablation cutting techniques while ensuring histologically proven atraumatic handling of biopsy specimens of meniscus and hyaline cartilage.

  4. Superconducting microwave cavity parametric converter transducer sensitive to 10-19 M harmonic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Toward the development of a transducer suitable for the detection of high frequency gravitational effects, a superconducting microwave coupled-cavity parametric converter transducer has been analyzed, developed and tested. An analysis is presented of the intermodal parametric conversion which is produced by harmonic perturbaton of the length of a 10 GHz TE 011 mode cylindrical resonant cavity. The converter is examined as a transducer of displacement with harmonic frequency near the intermodal difference frequency. Transducer sensitivity dependence upon cavity tunings, couplings, and Q-factors is analyzed and experimentally tested with excellent agreement. The transducer consists of two identical coupled TE 011 niobium cavities with one endwall driven into mechanical oscillation by an externally mounted piezoelectric ceramic. A displacement with effective amplitude (3.7 +/- 1.3) x 10 -19 m and frequency 1.13 MHz has been observed by detecting a 10GHz conversion power of 10 -21 watts. This measurement was obtained with 0.12 mJ stored in a cavity resonance with an unloaded Q-factor of 6.7 x 10 8 at 1.55 0 K. The applications of this device in the detection of high frequency gravitational effects are also discussed. Finally, the prospects for improvement of transducer sensitivity and the ultimate limitations are presented

  5. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  6. Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a boay which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation...

  7. The Dynamic Performance of Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Feeney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural ultrasonic transducers are principally used as proximity sensors and for industrial metrology. Their operation relies on a piezoelectric ceramic to generate a flexing of a metallic membrane, which delivers the ultrasound signal. The performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers has been largely limited to excitation through a short voltage burst signal at a designated mechanical resonance frequency. However, a steady-state amplitude response is not generated instantaneously in a flexural ultrasonic transducer from a drive excitation signal, and differences in the drive characteristics between transmitting and receiving transducers can affect the measured response. This research investigates the dynamic performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers using acoustic microphone measurements and laser Doppler vibrometry, supported by a detailed mechanical analog model, in a process which has not before been applied to the flexural ultrasonic transducer. These techniques are employed to gain insights into the physics of their vibration behaviour, vital for the optimisation of industrial ultrasound systems.

  8. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... manipulations are developed to satisfy the more complicated boundary conditions, and a model of a condenser microphone with a coupled membrane is developed. The model is tested against measurements of ¼ inch condenser microphones and analytical calculations. A detailed discussion of the results is given....

  9. Proceedings of transducer 84 conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In the broad and varied field of sensors this conference reviews thermal sensors for temperature measurements, gas sensors for gas analysis (for example analysis of exhaust gases from vehicles), optical fiber sensors, applications for optics, mechanics, robotics and signal processing. In particular one of the applications concerns acoustical transducers operating in liquid sodium for LMFBR reactors.

  10. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F

    2017-07-24

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of f o . When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2f o with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at f o frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  11. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2017-07-01

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of fo. When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2fo with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at fo frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  12. An Innovative 3D Ultrasonic Actuator with Multidegree of Freedom for Machine Vision and Robot Guidance Industrial Applications Using a Single Vibration Ring Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative 3D piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator using a single flexural vibration ring transducer, for machine vision and robot guidance industrial applications. The proposed actuator is principally aiming to overcome the visual spotlight focus angle of digital visual data capture transducer, digital cameras and enhance the machine vision system ability to perceive and move in 3D. The actuator Design, structures, working principles and finite element analysis are discussed in this paper. A prototype of the actuator was fabricated. Experimental tests and measurements showed the ability of the developed prototype to provide 3D motions of Multidegree of freedom, with typical speed of movement equal to 35 revolutions per minute, a resolution of less than 5μm and maximum load of 3.5 Newton. These initial characteristics illustrate, the potential of the developed 3D micro actuator to gear the spotlight focus angle issue of digital visual data capture transducers and possible improvement that such technology could bring to the machine vision and robot guidance industrial applications.

  13. Coalgebraising subsequential transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Hansen (Helle); J. Adamek; C.A. Kupke (Clemens)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractSubsequential transducers generalise both classic deterministic automata and Mealy/Moore type state machines by combining (input) language recognition with transduction. In this paper we show that normalisation and taking differentials of subsequential transducers and their underlying

  14. Coalgebraising Subsequential Transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Subsequential transducers generalise both classic deterministic automata and Mealy/Moore type state machines by combining (input) language recognition with transduction. In this paper we show that normalisation and taking differentials of subsequential transducers and their underlying structures can

  15. Transducers and arrays for underwater sound

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, John L

    2016-01-01

    This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains updates to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to select...

  16. Control of the ultrasonic beam transmitted through an irregular profile using a smart flexible transducer: modelling an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, O.; Mahaut, S.; Casula, O. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, DRT/LIST/DECS/STA/LMUS, 92 (France)

    2001-07-01

    In most of industries as aeronautics, aerospace and nuclear, the main part of the ultrasonic testing is carried out directly in touch with the inspected component. Among others, the cooling piping of French pressurized water reactor comprises many welding components with complex geometry: elbows, butt welds, nozzles. In service inspections of such components performed with conventional ultrasonic contact transducers present limited performances. Variations in sensitivity are produced by unmatched contact on irregular surface, which results in poor detection performances. In addition, the beam orientation transmitted through complex interfaces cannot be totally controlled, because of the disorientations suffered by the transducer during its displacement. As a result, a possible defect cannot be correctly detected, positioned and characterized. At last, the geometry of some components limits the displacement of the transducer, resulting in an uncovered scan area. To overcome these difficulties and to improve the performances of such inspections, the CEA, supported by the safety authorities (IPSN), has developed a new concept of phased array. Recent studies have been made to obtain further performances improvements of this system, including instrumentation development and a new phased array design. Inspections have been performed on a specimen containing artificial defects under a realistic profile, with an adaptive mode to compensate the effect of the irregular profile. Experimental results, displayed using specific imaging, show the ability of this system to detect and characterize defects under irregular profiles, using longitudinal or shear waves in a fully mastered beam. (authors)

  17. PSpice Modeling of a Sandwich Piezoelectric Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducer in Longitudinal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandwiched piezoelectric transducers are widely used, especially in high power applications. For more convenient analysis and design, a PSpice lossy model of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers in longitudinal vibration is proposed by means of the one-dimensional wave and transmission line theories. With the proposed model, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies are obtained, and it is shown that the simulations and measurements have good consistency. For the purpose of further verification the accuracy and application of the PSpice model, a pitch-catch setup and an experimental platform are built. They include two sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and two aluminum cylinders whose lengths are 20 mm and 100 mm respectively. Based on this pitch-catch setup, the impedance and transient analysis are performed. Compared with the measured results, it is shown that the simulated results have good consistency. In addition, the conclusion can be drawn that the optimal excitation frequency for the pitch-catch setup is not necessarily the resonance frequency of ultrasonic transducers, because the resonance frequency is obtained under no load. The proposed PSpice model of the sandwiched piezoelectric transducer is more conveniently applied to combine with other circuits such as driving circuits, filters, amplifiers, and so on.

  18. PSpice Modeling of a Sandwich Piezoelectric Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducer in Longitudinal Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Yuan; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    Sandwiched piezoelectric transducers are widely used, especially in high power applications. For more convenient analysis and design, a PSpice lossy model of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers in longitudinal vibration is proposed by means of the one-dimensional wave and transmission line theories. With the proposed model, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies are obtained, and it is shown that the simulations and measurements have good consistency. For the purpose of further verification the accuracy and application of the PSpice model, a pitch-catch setup and an experimental platform are built. They include two sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and two aluminum cylinders whose lengths are 20 mm and 100 mm respectively. Based on this pitch-catch setup, the impedance and transient analysis are performed. Compared with the measured results, it is shown that the simulated results have good consistency. In addition, the conclusion can be drawn that the optimal excitation frequency for the pitch-catch setup is not necessarily the resonance frequency of ultrasonic transducers, because the resonance frequency is obtained under no load. The proposed PSpice model of the sandwiched piezoelectric transducer is more conveniently applied to combine with other circuits such as driving circuits, filters, amplifiers, and so on.

  19. Handheld multi-channel LAPS device as a transducer platform for possible biological and chemical multi-sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Torsten; Molina, Roberto; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo; Kloock, Joachim P.; Biselli, Manfred; Canzoneri, Michelangelo; Schnitzler, Thomas; Schoening, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The light-addressable potentiometric sensor is a promising technology platform for multi-sensor applications and lab-on-chip devices. However, many prior LAPS developments suffer from their lack in terms of non-portability, insufficient robustness, complicate handling, etc. Hence, portable and robust LAPS-based measurement devices have been investigated by the authors recently. In this work, a 'chip card'-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor system is presented. The utilisation of ordinary 'chip cards' allows an easy handling of different sensor chips for a wide range of possible applications. The integration of the electronic and the mechanical set-up into a single reader unit results in a compact design with the benefits of portability and low required space. In addition, the presented work includes a new multi-frequency measurement procedure, based on an FFT algorithm, which enables the simultaneous real-time measurement of up to 16 sensor spots. The comparison between the former batch-LAPS and the new FFT-based LAPS set-up will be presented. The immobilisation of biological cells (CHO: Chinese hamster ovary) demonstrates the possibility to record their metabolic activity with 16 measurement spots on the same chip. Furthermore, a Cd 2+ -selective chalcogenide-glass layer together with a pH-sensitive Ta 2 O 5 layer validates the use of the LAPS for chemical multi-sensor applications

  20. Coplanar stripline components for high frequency application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Dib, Nihad; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coplanar stripline discontinuities such as a slit, a right angle bend and a T-junction are characterized and their performance is parameterized with respect to frequency and geometry. Lumped equivalent circuits are presented for some of them. The element values are obtained from the measured discontinuity scattering (S) parameters. The experimental results are compared with theoretical data obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FD-TD) technique for validation and show very good agreement.

  1. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  2. A flexible ultrasound transducer array with micro-machined bulk PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-23

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  3. Frequency stabilized lasers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mike; Adkins, Mike; Pierce, Robert; Warden, Robert; Wallace, Cynthia; Weimer, Carl

    2014-09-01

    metrology, spectroscopy, atomic clocks and geodesy. This technology will be a key enabler to several proposed NASA science missions. Although lasers such as Q-switched Nd-YAG are now commonly used in space, other types of lasers - especially those with narrow linewidth - are still few in number and more development is required to advance their technology readiness. In this paper we discuss a reconfigurable laser frequency stabilization testbed, and end-to-end modeling to support system development. Two important features enabling testbed flexibility are that the controller, signal processing and interfaces are hosted on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) which has spacequalified equivalent parts, and secondly, fiber optic relay of the beam paths. Given the nonlinear behavior of lasers, FPGA implementation is a key system reliability aspect allowing on-orbit retuning of the control system and initial frequency acquisition. The testbed features a dual sensor system, one based upon a high finesse resonator cavity which provides relative stability through Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) modulation and secondly an absolute frequency reference by dither locking to an acetylene gas cell (GC). To provide for differences between ground and space implementation, we have developed an end-to-end Simulink/ Matlab®-based control system model of the testbed components including the important noise sources. This model is in the process of being correlated to the testbed data which then can be used for trade studies, and estimation of space-based performance and sensitivities. A 1530 nm wavelength semiconductor laser is used for this initial work.

  4. Radio frequency transistors principles and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Norm

    1993-01-01

    Cellular telephones, satellite communications and radar systems are adding to the increasing demand for radio frequency circuit design principles. At the same time, several generations of digitally-oriented graduates are missing the essential RF skills. This book contains a wealth of valuable design information difficult to find elsewhere.It's a complete 'tool kit' for successful RF circuit design. Written by experienced RF design engineers from Motorola's semiconductors product section.Book covers design examples of circuits (e.g. amplifiers; oscillators; switches; pulsed power; modular syst

  5. A Low-Power CMOS Piezoelectric Transducer Based Energy Harvesting Circuit for Wearable Sensors for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeho Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric vibration based energy harvesting systems have been widely utilized and researched as powering modules for various types of sensor systems due to their ease of integration and relatively high energy density compared to RF, thermal, and electrostatic based energy harvesting systems. In this paper, a low-power CMOS full-bridge rectifier is presented as a potential solution for an efficient energy harvesting system for piezoelectric transducers. The energy harvesting circuit consists of two n-channel MOSFETs (NMOS and two p-channel MOSFETs (PMOS devices implementing a full-bridge rectifier coupled with a switch control circuit based on a PMOS device driven by a comparator. With a load of 45 kΩ, the output rectifier voltage and the input piezoelectric transducer voltage are 694 mV and 703 mV, respectably, while the VOUT versus VIN conversion ratio is 98.7% with a PCE of 52.2%. The energy harvesting circuit has been designed using 130 nm standard CMOS process.

  6. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  7. High precision synchronization of time and frequency and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lijun

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the concept and methods for remote synchronization of time and frequency. We discuss a recent experiment that demonstrated time and frequency synchronization via a commercial fiber network, reaching accuracy of 7 × 10 -15 /s, 5 × 10 -19 /day, and a maximum time uncertainty of less than 50 femtoseconds. We discuss synchronization methods applicable to different topologies and their important scientific applications. (authors)

  8. Microhydraulic transducer technology for actuation and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Roberts, David C.; Saggere, Laxminarayana; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Chen, Kuo-Shen; Carretero, Jorge A.; Li, Hanqing; Mlcak, Richard; Pulitzer, Seward W.; Schmidt, Martin A.; Spearing, S. Mark; Su, Yu-Hsuan

    2000-06-01

    The paper introduces a novel transducer technology, called the solid-state micro-hydraulic transducer, currently under development at MIT. The new technology is enabled through integration of micromachining technology, piezoelectrics, and microhydraulic concepts. These micro-hydraulic transducers are capable of bi-directional electromechanical energy conversion, i.e., they can operate as both an actuator that supplies high mechanical force in response to electrical input and an energy generator that transduces electrical energy from mechanical energy in the environment. These transducers are capable of transducing energy at very high specific power output in the order of 1 kW/kg, and thus, they have the potential to enable many novel applications. The concept, the design, and the potential applications of the transducers are presented. Present efforts towards the development of these transducers, and the challenges involved therein, are also discussed.

  9. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W. Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the efficient use of both the propellant mass and power. Efficient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process

  10. Using Portable Transducers to Measure Tremor Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Elble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Portable motion transducers, suitable for measuring tremor, are now available at a reasonable cost. The use of these transducers requires knowledge of their limitations and data analysis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical overview and example software for using portable motion transducers in the quantification of tremor. Methods: Medline was searched via PubMed.gov in December 2015 using the Boolean expression “tremor AND (accelerometer OR accelerometry OR gyroscope OR inertial measurement unit OR digitizing tablet OR transducer.” Abstracts of 419 papers dating back to 1964 were reviewed for relevant portable transducers and methods of tremor analysis, and 105 papers written in English were reviewed in detail. Results: Accelerometers, gyroscopes, and digitizing tablets are used most commonly, but few are sold for the purpose of measuring tremor. Consequently, most software for tremor analysis is developed by the user. Wearable transducers are capable of recording tremor continuously, in the absence of a clinician. Tremor amplitude, frequency, and occurrence (percentage of time with tremor can be computed. Tremor amplitude and occurrence correlate strongly with clinical ratings of tremor severity. Discussion: Transducers provide measurements of tremor amplitude that are objective, precise, and valid, but the precision and accuracy of transducers are mitigated by natural variability in tremor amplitude. This variability is so great that the minimum detectable change in amplitude, exceeding random variability, is comparable for scales and transducers. Research is needed to determine the feasibility of detecting smaller change using averaged data from continuous long-term recordings with wearable transducers.

  11. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  12. Ultrasonic properties of all-printed piezoelectric polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Sanat; Decharat, Adit; Bodö, Peter; Melandsø, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The ability of producing ultrasonic transducers from screen-printing has been explored experimentally, through printing and characterization of a large number of transducers. In an all-printed test design, 124 transducers with four different electrode sizes ranging from 1 to 4.9 mm2, were printed layer-by-layer on a high performance polyethyleneimine polymer. Inks from ferroelectric and conductive polymers were applied to the active part of a transducer, to provide a good acoustical match between the individual layers. Ultrasonic characterizations of the transducers done by two independent methods provided a broad-banded frequency response with a maximum response around 100 MHz.

  13. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...

  14. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  15. Modeling of ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David

    This Ph.D. dissertation addresses ultrasound transducer modeling for medical ultrasound imaging and combines the modeling with the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The project firstly presents two new models for spatial impulse responses (SIR)s to a rectangular elevation focused transducer...... (REFT) and to a convex rectangular elevation focused transducer (CREFT). These models are solvable on an analog time scale and give exact smooth solutions to the Rayleigh integral. The REFT model exhibits a root mean square (RMS) error relative to Field II predictions of 0.41 % at 3400 MHz, and 1.......37 % at 100MHz. The CREFT model exhibits a RMS deviation of 0.01 % relative to the exact numerical solution on a CREFT transducer. A convex non-elevation focused, a REFT, and a linear flat transducer are shown to be covered with the CREFT model as well. Pressure pulses calculated with a one...

  16. PIG's Speed Estimated with Pressure Transducers and Hall Effect Sensor: An Industrial Application of Sensors to Validate a Testing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo F; Freitas, Victor C G; Araújo, Renan P; Maitelli, André L; Salazar, Andrés O

    2017-09-15

    The pipeline inspection using a device called Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) is safe and reliable when the PIG is at low speeds during inspection. We built a Testing Laboratory, containing a testing loop and supervisory system to study speed control techniques for PIGs. The objective of this work is to present and validate the Testing Laboratory, which will allow development of a speed controller for PIGs and solve an existing problem in the oil industry. The experimental methodology used throughout the project is also presented. We installed pressure transducers on pipeline outer walls to detect the PIG's movement and, with data from supervisory, calculated an average speed of 0.43 m/s. At the same time, the electronic board inside the PIG received data from odometer and calculated an average speed of 0.45 m/s. We found an error of 4.44%, which is experimentally acceptable. The results showed that it is possible to successfully build a Testing Laboratory to detect the PIG's passage and estimate its speed. The validation of the Testing Laboratory using data from the odometer and its auxiliary electronic was very successful. Lastly, we hope to develop more research in the oil industry area using this Testing Laboratory.

  17. Capacitance high temperature strain transducer by Interatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    Special strain transducers are necessary to perform structure mechanical experiments on real components under creep-fatigue load. The new development of the transducer was able to solve the problem. In the meantime, different characteristics of the transducer have been examined and many successful applications have been effected. Some important aspects are given in this report. Up to now the longest operation period has been 24000 h on a pipe at 630 0 C service temperature in a conventional power station. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Calculations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a body which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation losses as well as internal losses may be important. Due to the complexity of the problem, a closed form solution is the exception rather than the rule. For this reason, it is necessary to use approximate methods for the analysis. Equivalent circuits, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, Mindlin plate theory and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacement and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also given, in the form of a complex stiffness matrix. A special stacking procedure, for analysis of the backing has been developed. This procedure gives a saving, which is similar to that of the fast fourier transform algorithm, and is also wellsuited for analysis of finite and infinite waveguides. Results obtained by the finite element method are shown and compared with measurements and exact solutions. Good agreement is obtained. It is concluded that the finite element method can be a valueable tool in analysis and design of ultrasonic transducers. (author)

  19. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  20. Tungsten Oxide Photonic Crystals as Optical Transducer for Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Wu, Xia; Wagner, Thorsten

    2018-01-26

    Some metal oxide semiconductors, such as tungsten trioxide or tin dioxide, are well-known as resistive transducers for gas sensing and offer high sensitivities down to the part per billion level. Electrical signal read-out, however, limits the information obtained on the electronic properties of metal oxides to a certain frequency range and its application because of the required electrical contacts. Therefore, a novel approach for building an optical transducer for gas reactions utilizing metal oxide photonic crystals is presented here. By the rational design of the structure and composition it is possible to synthesize a functional material which allows one to obtain insight into its electronic properties in the optical frequency range with simple experimental measures. The concept is demonstrated by tungsten trioxide inverse opal structure as optical transducer material for hydrogen sensing. The sensing behavior is analyzed in a temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C and in a wide hydrogen concentration range (3000 ppm to 10%). The sensing mechanism is mainly the refractive index change resulting from hydrogen intercalation in tungsten trioxide, but the back reaction has also impact on the optical properties of this system. Detailed chemical reaction studies provide suggestions for specific sensing conditions.

  1. Smart transducer with radiomodem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, V. N.; Voronin, E. L.

    2018-04-01

    Systems for measuring different parameters enabling metering and wireless data transmission are an urgent problem in the industry. One of the most promising solutions is the developments of metering instruments enabling radio-link and GSM data transmission. The article describes a transducer operating with temperature sensors of different types as well as with the sensors of other physical values with the output signal represented as current or voltage with subsequent measurement data transmission from the transducer to the computer via radio-link. The article provides transducer measurement accuracy check. The work confirmed the claimed temperature measurement accuracy, noted a stable data transmission via radio link and convenience of work with the transducer and software.

  2. Scientific applications of frequency-stabilized laser technology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Bonny L.

    1990-01-01

    A synoptic investigation of the uses of frequency-stabilized lasers for scientific applications in space is presented. It begins by summarizing properties of lasers, characterizing their frequency stability, and describing limitations and techniques to achieve certain levels of frequency stability. Limits to precision set by laser frequency stability for various kinds of measurements are investigated and compared with other sources of error. These other sources include photon-counting statistics, scattered laser light, fluctuations in laser power, and intensity distribution across the beam, propagation effects, mechanical and thermal noise, and radiation pressure. Methods are explored to improve the sensitivity of laser-based interferometric and range-rate measurements. Several specific types of science experiments that rely on highly precise measurements made with lasers are analyzed, and anticipated errors and overall performance are discussed. Qualitative descriptions are given of a number of other possible science applications involving frequency-stabilized lasers and related laser technology in space. These applications will warrant more careful analysis as technology develops.

  3. Generation of a frequency comb and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Mark J; Yarotski, Dmitry A

    2013-12-03

    Apparatus for generating a microwave frequency comb (MFC) in the DC tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by fast optical rectification, cause by nonlinearity of the DC current vs. voltage curve for the tunneling junction, of regularly-spaced, short pulses of optical radiation from a focused mode-locked, ultrafast laser, directed onto the tunneling junction, is described. Application of the MFC to high resolution dopant profiling in semiconductors is simulated. Application of the MFC to other measurements is described.

  4. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Supported by the expert-level advice of pioneering researchers, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the foundations and applications of one of the most promising access technologies for current and future wireless networks. It includes authoritative coverage of the history, fundamental principles, key techniques, and critical design issues of OFDM systems. Covering various techniques of effective resource management for OFDM/OFDMA-based wireless communication systems, this cutting-edge reference:Add

  5. A Novel Design of Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ziliang; Wu, Zheng; Shen, Huajiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frequency reconfigurable antenna which could be easily operate in a single notched-band (WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz)) UWB frequency band, another single notched-band (WLAN (5-6 GHz)) UWB frequency band and the dual band-notched UWB frequency band (the stopband covers the WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz) and WLAN (5-6 GHz)). The reconfigurability is achieved by changing the states of PIN diodes. The simulated results are in agreement well with the measured results. And the measured patterns are slightly changed with antenna reconfiguration. The proposed antenna is a good candidate for various UWB applications.

  6. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  7. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D [Davis Derby Limited (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the mining industry for both surface and underground mines. The history of the RFID system, types available, the transponder, and the various techniques used are described and compared. The design and certification of a system for use in a hazardous area are described, noting the hazard of inadvertent detonator ignition. 2 refs.

  8. Optimization of a phased-array transducer for multiple harmonic imaging in medical applications: frequency and topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matte, G.M.; Neer, P.M.L.J. van; Danilouchkine, M.G.; Huijssen, J.; Verweij, M.; Jong, N. de

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—Second-harmonic imaging is currently one of the standards in commercial echographic systems for diagnosis, because of its high spatial resolution and low sensitivity to clutter and near-field artifacts. The use of nonlinear phenomena mirrors is a great set of solutions to improve

  9. Optimization of a Phased-Array Transducer for Multiple Harmonic Imaging in Medical Applications: Frequency and Topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matte, Guillaume M.; van Neer, Paul L.M.J.; Danilouchkine, Mike G.; Huijssen, Jacob; Verweij, Martin D.; de Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    Second-harmonic imaging is currently one of the standards in commercial echographic systems for diagnosis, because of its high spatial resolution and low sensitivity to clutter and near-field artifacts. The use of nonlinear phenomena mirrors is a great set of solutions to improve echographic image

  10. Development and research of in-core transducers at IAE (Institute of Atomic Energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yucai; Qian Shunfa; Jia Guozhen

    1989-10-01

    The development of in-core transducers at IAE (Institute of Atomic Energy) and their applications in in-pile fuel assembly test are mentioned. These transducers include mainly tubed tungsten-rhenium thermocouple assembly, displacement transducer of linear variable differential transformer, pressure transducer of membrane type, gamma thermometer, turbine flow meter, self-powered neutron detector etc

  11. Design and fabrication of a double-sided piezoelectric transducer for harvesting vibration power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Tsai; Chen, Ying-Chung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Kuo-Sheng [Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chu, Yu-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Cheng, Chien-Chuan, E-mail: chengccc@dlit.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, De Lin Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    This investigation examines a means of integrating high-performance ZnO piezoelectric thin films with a flexible stainless steel substrate (SUS304) to fabricate a double-sided piezoelectric transducer for vibration-energy harvesting applications. The double-sided piezoelectric transducer is constructed by depositing ZnO piezoelectric thin films on both the front and the back sides of the SUS304 substrate. The titanium and platinum layers were deposited using a dual-gun DC sputtering system between the ZnO piezoelectric thin film and the back side of the SUS304 substrate. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of ZnO piezoelectric films reveal a rigid surface structure and a highly c-axis-preferring orientation. To fabricate a transducer with a low resonant frequency, a tip-mass of 0.5 g and a vibration-area of 1 cm{sup 2} are designed, based on the cantilever vibration theory. The maximum open circuit voltage of the power transducer is approximately 18 V. After rectification and filtering through a 33 nF capacitor, a specific power output of 1.31 μW/cm{sup 2} is obtained from the transducers with a load resistance of 6 MΩ. The variation of the power output of ± 0.001% is obtained after 24-hour continuous test. - Highlights: ► A double-sided piezoelectric transducer is fabricated with the ZnO thin films. ► Vibrated frequency of a double-sided transducer is designed and presented. ► A maximum output power of 3.23 μW/cm{sup 2} is obtained under turbulent vibration.

  12. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime; Application de la technologie multi-elements a la caracterisation des materiaux par ondes acoustiques de surface en regime impulsionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenet, D

    2000-07-01

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  13. Production of particulates from transducer erosion: implications on food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Raymond; Rout, Manoj; Ripoll, Gabriela; Swiergon, Piotr; Singh, Tanoj; Knoerzer, Kai; Juliano, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    nanoparticulate in terms of the third dimension, this research suggests that there are no serious health implications resulting from the formation of nanoparticles under the evaluation conditions. Therefore, high frequency transducer plates can be safely operated in direct contact with foods. However, due to significant production of metallic micro-particulates, redesign of lower frequency sonotrodes and reaction chambers is advised to enable operation in various food processing direct-contact applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Flexible Capacitive Ultrasound Transducers and the Use of Ultrasound for Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Scott A.

    Ultrasound is a widely applicable technique for therapy in the biomedical arena. However, conventional ultrasound transducers are not conducive for non-planar surfaces. Therefore, we developed flexible transducers capable of performing ultrasound and evaluated their use in biomedical applications. Flexible capacitive ultrasound transducers based on micrometer-thick dielectric tapes were developed and fabricated. These transducers were able to be made by hand at low-cost while still demonstrating good tolerances in center operating frequency. Intensities of up to 120 mW/cm2 were recorded and operation was dependent upon the applied AC and DC voltages along with the thickness of the dielectric insulation. These capacitive ultrasound transducers were used to stimulate MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblast cells to investigate the effects of low-frequency ultrasound on osteogenic gene expression and anabolic signaling pathways. After stimulation by 94.5 kHz continuous wave ultrasound for 20 minutes, significant increases in the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and concentration of intracellular calcium were observed. Daily stimulation by ultrasound showed a trend of increased osteogenic gene expression across the phases of matrix deposition, maturation and calcification by osteoblasts. Finally, the heating of osteoblasts for stimulating osteoclastogenic responses was investigated. The application of increased temperatures of 42 and 47 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes showed significant increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio in media conditioned by osteoblasts. However, the altered RANKL/OPG ratio was not able to generate increases in osteoclastogenesis for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells culture in the condition media. This was possibly due to high overall osteoprotegerin expression, or unwanted inducement of M1 and M2 macrophage activation in the cell population. The overall work of this thesis demonstrates the development of novel capacitive transducers. These conformable

  15. Linear Array Ultrasonic Transducers: Sensitivity and Resolution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramb, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) under contract by the US Air Force has designed and integrated a fully automated inspection system for the inspection of turbine engines that incorporates linear phased array ultrasonic transducers. Phased array transducers have been successfully implemented into weld and turbine blade root inspections where the defect types are well known and characterized. Embedded defects in aerospace turbine engine components are less well defined, however. In order to determine the applicability of linear arrays to aerospace inspections the sensitivity of array transducers to embedded defects in engine materials must be characterized. In addition, the implementation of array transducers into legacy inspection procedures must take into account any differences in sensitivity between the array transducer and that of the single element transducer currently used. This paper discusses preliminary results in a study that compares the sensitivity of linear array and conventional single element transducers to synthetic hard alpha defects in a titanium alloy

  16. Study on electrical impedance matching for broadband ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Bok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kwang Sae [Elache Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrasonic transducers with high resolution and resonant frequency are required to detect small defects (less than hundreds of μm) by ultrasonic testing. The resonance frequency and resolution of an ultrasonic transducer are closely related to the thickness of piezo-electric materials, backing materials, and the electric impedance matching technique. Among these factors, electrical impedance matching plays an important role because it can reduce the loss and reflection of ultrasonic energy differences in electrical impedance between an ultrasonic transducer and an ultrasonic defects detecting system. An LC matching circuit is the most frequently used electric matching method. It is necessary for the electrical impedance of an ultrasonic transducer to correspond to approximately 50 Ω to compensate the difference in electrical impedance between both connections. In this study, a 15 MHz immersion ultrasonic transducer was fabricated and an LC electrical impedance circuit was applied to that for having broad-band frequency characteristic.

  17. Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Tang, Juming; Wang, Yifen; Koral, Tony L

    2018-03-25

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

  18. Advances on Frequency Diverse Array Radar and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenqin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the conventional phased array that provides only angle-dependent transmit beampattern, Frequency Diverse Array (FDA employs a small frequency increment across its array elements to produce automatic beam scanning without requiring phase shifters or mechanical steering. FDA can produce both rangedependent and time-variant transmit beampatterns, which overcomes the disadvantages of conventional phased arrays that produce only angle-dependent beampattern. Thus, FDA has many promising applications. Based on a previous study conducted by the author, “Frequency Diverse Array Radar: Concept, Principle and Application” (Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2016, 38(4: 1000–1011, the current study introduces basic FDA radar concepts, principles, and application characteristics and reviews recent advances on FDA radar and its applications. In addition, several new promising applications of FDA technology are discussed, such as radar electronic warfare and radar-communications, as well as open technical challenges such as beampattern variance, effective receiver design, adaptive signal detection and estimation, and the implementation of practical FDA radar demos.

  19. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  20. Finite element analysis of hysteresis effects in piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkovics, Reinhard; Landes, Hermann; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Hoffelner, Johann; Lerch, Reinhard

    2000-06-01

    The design of ultrasonic transducers for high power applications, e.g. in medical therapy or production engineering, asks for effective computer aided design tools to analyze the occurring nonlinear effects. In this paper the finite-element-boundary-element package CAPA is presented that allows to model different types of electromechanical sensors and actuators. These transducers are based on various physical coupling effects, such as piezoelectricity or magneto- mechanical interactions. Their computer modeling requires the numerical solution of a multifield problem, such as coupled electric-mechanical fields or magnetic-mechanical fields as well as coupled mechanical-acoustic fields. With the reported software environment we are able to compute the dynamic behavior of electromechanical sensors and actuators by taking into account geometric nonlinearities, nonlinear wave propagation and ferroelectric as well as magnetic material nonlinearities. After a short introduction to the basic theory of the numerical calculation schemes, two practical examples will demonstrate the applicability of the numerical simulation tool. As a first example an ultrasonic thickness mode transducer consisting of a piezoceramic material used for high power ultrasound production is examined. Due to ferroelectric hysteresis, higher order harmonics can be detected in the actuators input current. Also in case of electrical and mechanical prestressing a resonance frequency shift occurs, caused by ferroelectric hysteresis and nonlinear dependencies of the material coefficients on electric field and mechanical stresses. As a second example, a power ultrasound transducer used in HIFU-therapy (high intensity focused ultrasound) is presented. Due to the compressibility and losses in the propagating fluid a nonlinear shock wave generation can be observed. For both examples a good agreement between numerical simulation and experimental data has been achieved.

  1. Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology Principle, Operation and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a remarkable convergence among the fields of ultrafast optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. This convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The resulting spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as "femtosecond comb technology." They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. This book provides an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the connection between time and frequency descriptions of their output and the physical origins of the electric field dynamics, together with an overview of applications of femtosecond comb technology. Individual chapters go into more detail on mode-locked laser development, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric ...

  2. A Compact Flexible and Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Quintuple Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, compact coplanar waveguide fed flexible antenna is presented. The proposed design uses flexible Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (0.508mm thickness as a substrate with small size of 30×28.4 mm^2. Two switches are integrated on the antenna surface to change the current distribution which consequently changes the resonance frequency under different conditions of switches, thereby making it a frequency reconfigurable antenna. The antenna design is simulated on CST®MWS®. The proposed antenna exhibits VSWR less than 2 and appreciable radiation patterns with positive gain over desired frequency bands. Good agreement exists between simulated and measured results. On the basis of results, the proposed antenna is envisioned to be deployed for the following applications; aeronautical radio navigation [4.3 GHz], AMT fixed services [4.5 GHz], WLAN [5.2 GHz], Unlicensed WiMAX [5.8 GHz] and X-band [7.5 GHz].

  3. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and the methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters

  4. Risks and injuries in laser and high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giering, K.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of injuries and risks using high frequency (HF) and lasers in medicine based on a literature search with MEDLINE was performed. The cases reported in the literature were classified according to the following criteria: (1) Avoidable in an optimal operational procedure. These kind of injuries are caused by a chain of unfortunate incidents. They are in principle avoidable by the 'right action at the right time' which presupposes an appropriate training of the operating team, selection of the optimal parameters for procedure and consideration of all safety instructions. (2) Avoidable, caused by malfunction of the equipment and/or accessories. The injuries classified into this group are avoidable if all safety regulations were fulfilled. This includes a pre-operational check-up and the use of medical lasers and high frequency devices only which meet the international safety standards. (3) Avoidable, caused by misuse/mistake. Injuries of this group were caused by an inappropriate selection of the procedure, wrong medical indication or mistakes during application. (4) Unavoidable, fateful. These injuries can be caused by risks inherent to the type of energy used, malfunction of the equipment and/or accessories though a pre-operational check-up was done. Some risks and complications are common to high frequency and laser application. But whereas these risks can be excluded easily in laser surgery there is often a great expenditure necessary or they are not avoidable if high frequency if used. No unavoidable risks due to laser energy occur.

  5. Design of HIFU Transducers to Generate Specific Nonlinear Ultrasound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Vera A.; Yuldashev, Petr V.; Rosnitskiy, Pavel B.; Maxwell, Adam D.; Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    Various clinical applications of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have different requirements on the pressure level and degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focus. Applications that utilize nonlinear waves with developed shocks are of growing interest, for example, for mechanical disintegration as well as for accelerated thermal ablation oftissue. In this work, an inverse problem of determining transducer parameters to enable formation of shockswith desired amplitude at the focus is solved. The solution was obtained by performing multipledirect simulations of the parabolic Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation for various parameters of the source. It is shown that results obtained within the parabolic approximation can be used to describe the focal region of single element spherical sourcesas well as complex transducer arrays. It is also demonstrated that the focal pressure level at which fully developed shocksare formed mainly depends on the focusing angle of the source and only slightly depends on its aperture and operating frequency. Using the simulation results, a 256-element HIFU array operating at 1.5 MHz frequency was designed for a specific application of boiling-histotripsy that relies on the presence of 90-100 MPa shocks at the focus. The size of the array elements and focusing angle of the array were chosen to satisfy technical limitations on the intensity at the array elements and desired shock amplitudes in the focal waveform. Focus steering capabilities of the array were analysed using an open-source T-Array software developed at Moscow State University.

  6. Radio frequency identification and its application in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Witold; Price, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which is one of the Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) technologies (Wamba and Boeck, 2008) and discusses the application of RFID in E-Commerce. Firstly RFID is defined and the tag and reader components of the RFID system are explained. Then historical context of RFID is briefly discussed. Next, RFID is contrasted with other AIDC technologies, especially the use of barcodes which are commonly applied in E-Commerce. Las...

  7. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, P F; Kairouz, J; Daneshmend, L K; Pathak, J [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Canadian Centre for Automation and Robotics in Mining

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in underground hardrock mines. The operating principles and some of the applications of RDIF systems are described. The system operates by the exchange of information between transponder tags and an antenna and controller device. The suitability of RFID systems for process control, inventory control, materials handling, control of access, security, and transportation in underground coal and hardrock mines is discussed. An ore tonnage tracking system is under development that uses RDIF transponder tags to locate vehicles in an underground mine. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Design, Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Tri-Phasic Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Juan Pedro

    Piezoelectric ceramics exhibit excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties that is the basis of practically all transducers and piezoelectric devices, but their inherent properties, such as brittleness, non-ductility and poor shapeability may limit their applications in areas such as vibration sensing, impact detection, structural health monitoring and other reinforced structures and energy harvesting. To compensate for such limitations, the 1-3 piezoelectric composites transducers have become the material of choice for many high performance ultrasound transducers since it was invented in the late 1970's [ref. Newnham/Cross]. Extensive studies on 1-3 composites have been performed since then to improve the performance of a transducer by modifying their electromechanical coupling, bandwidth, quality factor, and flexibility and by reducing or eliminating the cross talk, i.e., induced noise between the active piezoelectric elements, especially in high power and low frequency applications. These fundamental issues, their possible solutions and their wide impact underline the motivation of the current work in this dissertation report. The motivation for this dissertation was to study and provide a foundation to designing multiphasic piezoelectric transducers that could be useful for multitude of applications. The goal was to improve the 1-3 diphasic composite transducer by eliminating the cross talk between the active piezoelectric elements while maintaining and improving the figures of merit of the design. To achieve the ultimate goal, the steps outlined below were followed: i. Understanding the theoretical and mathematical modeling for tri-phasic piezoelectric composite. ii. Implement Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and simulations of tri-phasic piezoelectric composites where the different active piezoelectric material PZT-5H and PMN-30%PT is surrounded by a vacuum phase that is enclosed by a hexagonal polymer walls. iii. Propose a redesign of the tri

  9. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  10. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  11. Generation of Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs for Spectroscopic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Daniel L.

    Mid-infrared laser sources prove to be a valuable tool in exploring a vast array of phenomena, finding their way into applications ranging from trace gas detection to X-ray generation and carbon dating. Mid-infrared frequency combs, in particular, are well-suited for many of these applications, owing to their inherent low-noise and broadband nature. Frequency comb technology is well-developed in the near-infrared as a result of immense technological development by the telecommunication industry in silica fiber and the existence of readily-available glass dopants such as ytterbium and erbium that enable oscillators at 1 and 1.5 ?m. However, options become substantially more limited at longer wavelengths, as silica is no longer transparent and the components required in a mid-infrared frequency comb system (oscillators, fibers, and both fiber and free-space components) are far less technologically mature. This thesis explores several different approaches to generating frequency comb sources in the mid-infrared region, and the development of sources used in the nonlinear processes implemented to reach these wavelengths. An optical parametric oscillator, two approaches to difference frequency generation, and nonlinear spectral broadening in chip-scale waveguides are developed, characterized, and spectroscopic potential for these techniques is demonstrated. The source used for these nonlinear processes, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier, is also studied and discussed throughout the design and optimization process. The nonlinear optical processes critical to this work are numerically modeled and used to confirm and predict experimental behavior.

  12. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail

  13. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Rong, E-mail: haven21c@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Man [University of Incheon, Songdo-dong, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  14. Phononic Crystal Waveguide Transducers for Nonlinear Elastic Wave Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Mankar, Akash; Marini, Andrea

    2017-11-07

    Second harmonic generation is one of the most sensitive and reliable nonlinear elastic signatures for micro-damage assessment. However, its detection requires powerful amplification systems generating fictitious harmonics that are difficult to discern from pure nonlinear elastic effects. Current state-of-the-art nonlinear ultrasonic methods still involve impractical solutions such as cumbersome signal calibration processes and substantial modifications of the test component in order to create material-based tunable harmonic filters. Here we propose and demonstrate a valid and sensible alternative strategy involving the development of an ultrasonic phononic crystal waveguide transducer that exhibits both single and multiple frequency stop-bands filtering out fictitious second harmonic frequencies. Remarkably, such a sensing device can be easily fabricated and integrated on the surface of the test structure without altering its mechanical and geometrical properties. The design of the phononic crystal structure is supported by a perturbative theoretical model predicting the frequency band-gaps of periodic plates with sinusoidal corrugation. We find our theoretical findings in excellent agreement with experimental testing revealing that the proposed phononic crystal waveguide transducer successfully attenuates second harmonics caused by the ultrasonic equipment, thus demonstrating its wide range of potential applications for acousto/ultrasonic material damage inspection.

  15. Investigation of focused and unfocused transducer beam patterns in moderately nonlinear absorbing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The novel solution of the KZK equation for acoustic pressure of the second harmonic in slightly focused beam of a circular transducer was obtained in a closed form for moderately nonlinear absorbing media (Gol'dberg numbers ~ 1). The solution is based on the method of slowly changing wave profile in combination with the method of successive approximations. Two pairs of transducers (Valpey-Fisher Corp.) Were compared to investigate the influence of focusing on the applicability of the moderate nonlinearity approach. The first pair was of 0.25' diameter and the second was of 0.5' diameter. Both pairs has one transducer with flat surface and the other geometrically focused at 4'. The central frequency for all transducers was 5 MHz. Measurements were undertaken in the blood-mimicking solution of water and glycerine. The results demonstrated that for slightly focused transducers with circular apertures, the moderate nonlinearity approach is still valid, as it was proved for flat sources with the same source level, despite the higher pressures in the focal region. The peak pressure for the weakly focused system occurs at a shorter range than focal length.

  16. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D J [Davis Derby Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are one of the automatic data capture technologies taking over from bar codes and magnetic swipe cards in many applications involving automatic hands free operation in arduous environments. RFID systems are based on the use of miniature radio transponders carrying encoded electronic data that is used to uniquely identify the identity of transponders. The paper reviews the types of system available and compares the various techniques involved in the different systems. The various types of transponder are described including the latest state of the art passive read/write high performance types. The problems involved in designing and certifying a system for use in hazardous areas are described, with particular reference to the problems of inadvertent detonator ignition by radio systems. Applications of RFID systems in the mining industry are described, covering applications both on the surface and underground. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  17. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  18. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  19. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  20. Microminiature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Emery, Mike S.; Falter, Kelly G.; Nowlin, C. H.; Rochelle, Jim M.; Clonts, Lloyd G.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests are discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its small size of 2.2 multiplied by 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications are presented.

  1. OBTAINING HYSTERESIS LOOPS AT LOW FREQUENCY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS TO BE USED IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Arshad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The promising development of magnetic sensors in biomedical field demands an appropriate level of understanding of the magnetic properties of the materials used in their fabrication. To date only few of the types of magnetic materials are encountered where their magnetic properties, characterization techniques and magnetization behavior are yet to be explored more suitably in the light of their applications. This research work studies the characterization of materials by using a cost effective and simple circuit consisting of inductive transducer and an OP-AMP as a voltage integrator. In this approach the circuit was simulated using PSPICE and experiments have been conducted to achieve the desired results. The simulation and experimental results are obtained for three test materials namely iron, steel and plastic. The novelty lies in applying the simple circuit for material testing and characterization via obtaining simulation results and validating these results through experiment. The magnetic properties in low external magnetic field are studied with materials under test. The magnetization effect of a magneto-inductive sensor is detected in low frequency range for different magnetic core materials. The results have shown magnetization behaviour of magnetic materials due to the variation of permeability and magnetism. The resulted hysteresis loops appeared to have different shapes for different materials. The magnetic hysteresis loop found for iron core demonstrated a bigger coercive force and larger reversals of magnetism than these of steel core, thus obtaining its magnetic saturation at a larger magnetic field strength. The shape of the hysteresis loop itself is found to be varying upon the nature of the material in use. The resulted magnetization behaviors of the materials proved their possible applicability for use in sensing devices. The key concern of this work is found upon selecting the appropriate magnetic materials at the desired

  2. Nonstationary Hydrological Frequency Analysis: Theoretical Methods and Application Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Because of its great implications in the design and operation of hydraulic structures under changing environments (either climate change or anthropogenic changes), nonstationary hydrological frequency analysis has become so important and essential. Two important achievements have been made in methods. Without adhering to the consistency assumption in the traditional hydrological frequency analysis, the time-varying probability distribution of any hydrological variable can be established by linking the distribution parameters to some covariates such as time or physical variables with the help of some powerful tools like the Generalized Additive Model of Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). With the help of copulas, the multivariate nonstationary hydrological frequency analysis has also become feasible. However, applications of the nonstationary hydrological frequency formula to the design and operation of hydraulic structures for coping with the impacts of changing environments in practice is still faced with many challenges. First, the nonstationary hydrological frequency formulae with time as covariate could only be extrapolated for a very short time period beyond the latest observation time, because such kind of formulae is not physically constrained and the extrapolated outcomes could be unrealistic. There are two physically reasonable methods that can be used for changing environments, one is to directly link the quantiles or the distribution parameters to some measureable physical factors, and the other is to use the derived probability distributions based on hydrological processes. However, both methods are with a certain degree of uncertainty. For the design and operation of hydraulic structures under changing environments, it is recommended that design results of both stationary and nonstationary methods be presented together and compared with each other, to help us understand the potential risks of each method.

  3. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  4. Radio-frequency quadrupole: general properties and specific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Hamm, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. Recent experimental tests have confirmed its expected performance and have led to an increased interest in a wide range of possible applications. The general properties of RFQ accelerators are reviewed and beam dynamics simulation results are presented for their use in a variety of accelerating systems. These include the low-beta sections of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Accelerator, a 200-MHz proton linear accelerator, and a xenon accelerator for heavy ion fusion

  5. On application of mean frequency for seismic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargahi-Noubary, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    A simple discriminant is introduced for differentiation of the underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. Here instead of magnitude which is related to the energy consideration is given to the mean frequency which is related to zero crossings and carries sufficient information concerning the energy. It is shown that this discriminant can be used in the absence of the facilities such as digitizer and computer. Finally, application of the proposed procedure is demonstrated using data from some underground and atmospheric explosions. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Electromagnetic Modelling of MMIC CPWs for High Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinulingga, E. P.; Kyabaggu, P. B. K.; Rezazadeh, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Realising the theoretical electrical characteristics of components through modelling can be carried out using computer-aided design (CAD) simulation tools. If the simulation model provides the expected characteristics, the fabrication process of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) can be performed for experimental verification purposes. Therefore improvements can be suggested before mass fabrication takes place. This research concentrates on development of MMIC technology by providing accurate predictions of the characteristics of MMIC components using an improved Electromagnetic (EM) modelling technique. The knowledge acquired from the modelling and characterisation process in this work can be adopted by circuit designers for various high frequency applications.

  7. Design optimization of embedded ultrasonic transducers for concrete structures assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Cédric; Deraemaeker, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    In the last decades, the field of structural health monitoring and damage detection has been intensively explored. Active vibration techniques allow to excite structures at high frequency vibrations which are sensitive to small damage. Piezoelectric PZT transducers are perfect candidates for such testing due to their small size, low cost and large bandwidth. Current ultrasonic systems are based on external piezoelectric transducers which need to be placed on two faces of the concrete specimen. The limited accessibility of in-service structures makes such an arrangement often impractical. An alternative is to embed permanently low-cost transducers inside the structure. Such types of transducers have been applied successfully for the in-situ estimation of the P-wave velocity in fresh concrete, and for crack monitoring. Up to now, the design of such transducers was essentially based on trial and error, or in a few cases, on the limitation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between the PZT and concrete. In the present study, we explore the working principles of embedded piezoelectric transducers which are found to be significantly different from external transducers. One of the major challenges concerning embedded transducers is to produce very low cost transducers. We show that a practical way to achieve this imperative is to consider the radial mode of actuation of bulk PZT elements. This is done by developing a simple finite element model of a piezoelectric transducer embedded in an infinite medium. The model is coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm which is used to design specific ultrasonic embedded transducers both for hard and fresh concrete monitoring. The results show the efficiency of the approach and a few designs are proposed which are optimal for hard concrete, fresh concrete, or both, in a given frequency band of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  9. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  10. Single Trial Probability Applications: Can Subjectivity Evade Frequency Limitations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequency probability theorists define an event’s probability distribution as the limit of a repeated set of trials belonging to a homogeneous collective. The subsets of this collective are events which we have deficient knowledge about on an individual level, although for the larger collective we have knowledge its aggregate behavior. Hence, probabilities can only be achieved through repeated trials of these subsets arriving at the established frequencies that define the probabilities. Crovelli (2009 argues that this is a mistaken approach, and that a subjective assessment of individual trials should be used instead. Bifurcating between the two concepts of risk and uncertainty, Crovelli first asserts that probability is the tool used to manage uncertain situations, and then attempts to rebuild a definition of probability theory with this in mind. We show that such an attempt has little to gain, and results in an indeterminate application of entrepreneurial forecasting to uncertain decisions—a process far-removed from any application of probability theory.

  11. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  12. Linearization of resistance thermometers and other transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    deflection output or to null balance output. The application to the common temperature transducers is considered. It is shown that thermistors, linear metals (e.g., copper), and nickel can be linearized in terms of temperature, but platinum cannot be. If linearization is desired in terms of the reciprocal...

  13. [Recording of ventricular pressure by conventional catheter manometer systems. Efficiency of several combinations of conventional catheters, modern transducers and catheter-flush systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellige, G

    1976-01-01

    The experimentally in vitro determined dynamic response characteristics of 38 catheter manometer systems were uniform in the worst case to 5 c.p.s. and optimally to 26 c.p.s. Accordingly, some systems are only satisfactory for ordinary pressure recording in cardiac rest, while better systems record dp/dt correct up to moderate inotropic stimulation of the heart. In the frequency range of uniform response (amplitude error less +/- 5%) the phase distortion is also negligible. In clinical application the investigator is often restricted to special type of cardiac catheter. In this case a low compliant transducer yields superior results. In all examined systems the combination with MSD 10 transducers is best, whereas the combination with P 23 Db transducers leads to minimal results. An inadequate system for recording ventricular pressure pulses leads in most cases to overestimations of dp/dtmax. The use of low frequency pass filters to attenuate higher frequency artefacts is, under clinical conditions, not suitable for extending the range of uniform frequency response. The dynamic response of 14 catheter manometer systems with two types of continuous self flush units was determined. The use of the P 37 flush unit in combination with small internal diameter catheters leads to serious error in ordinary pressure recording, due to amplitude distortion of the lower harmonics. The frequency response characteristics of the combination of an Intraflow flush system and MSD 10 transducer was similar to the non-flushing P 23 Db transducer feature.

  14. Bonding and impedance matching of acoustic transducers using silver epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyu Tak; Lee, Chin C

    2012-04-01

    Silver epoxy was selected to bond transducer plates on glass substrates. The properties and thickness of the bonding medium affect the electrical input impedance of the transducer. Thus, the thickness of the silver epoxy bonding layer was used as a design parameter to optimize the structure for the transducer input impedance to match the 50 Ω output impedance of most radio frequency (RF) generators. Simulation and experimental results show that nearly perfect matching is achieved without using any matching circuit. At the matching condition, the transducer operates at a frequency band a little bit below the half-wavelength resonant frequency of the piezoelectric plate. In experiments, lead titanate (PT) piezoelectric plates were employed. Both full-size, 11.5 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, and half-size, 5.75 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, can be well matched using optimal silver epoxy thickness. The transducer assemblies demonstrate high efficiency. The conversion loss from electrical power to acoustic power in soda-lime glass is 4.3 dB. This loss is low considering the fact that the transducers operate at off-resonance by 12%. With proper choice of silver epoxy thickness, the transducer can be matched at the fundamental, the 3rd and 5th harmonic frequencies. This leads to the possible realization of triple-band transducers. Reliability was assessed with thermal cycling test according to Telcordia GR-468-Core recommendation. Of the 30 transducer assemblies tested, none broke until 2900 cycles and 27 have sustained beyond 4050 cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A ring transducer system for medical ultrasound research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Robert C; Fedewa, Russell J

    2006-10-01

    An ultrasonic ring transducer system has been developed for experimental studies of scattering and imaging. The transducer consists of 2048 rectangular elements with a 2.5-MHz center frequency, a 67% -6 dB bandwidth, and a 0.23-mm pitch arranged in a 150-mm-diameter ring with a 25-mm elevation. At the center frequency, the element size is 0.30lambda x 42lambda and the pitch is 0.38lambda. The system has 128 parallel transmit channels, 16 parallel receive channels, a 2048:128 transmit multiplexer, a 2048:16 receive multiplexer, independently programmable transmit waveforms with 8-bit resolution, and receive amplifiers with time variable gain independently programmable over a 40-dB range. Receive signals are sampled at 20 MHz with 12-bit resolution. Arbitrary transmit and receive apertures can be synthesized. Calibration software minimizes system nonidealities caused by noncircularity of the ring and element-to-element response differences. Application software enables the system to be used by specification of high-level parameters in control files from which low-level hardware-dependent parameters are derived by specialized code. Use of the system is illustrated by producing focused and steered beams, synthesizing a spatially limited plane wave, measuring angular scattering, and forming b-scan images.

  16. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D J [Davis Derby Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are one of the automatic data capture technologies taking over from bar codes and magnetic swipe cards in many applications involving automatic hands free operation in arduous environments. RFID systems are based on the use of miniature radio transponders carrying encoded electronic data that is used to uniquely identify the identity of transponders. This paper reviews the types of system available and compares the various techniques involved in the different systems. The various types of transponder are described including the latest state of the art passive read/write high performance types. A review of the history of RFID systems in the mining industry is also given in the paper. The problems involved in designing and certifying a system for use in hazardous areas are also described, with particular reference to the problems of inadvertent detonator ignition by radio systems. Applications of RFID systems in the mining industry are described in considerable detail, covering applications both on the surface and underground. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  18. Mutual Information in Frequency and Its Application to Measure Cross-Frequency Coupling in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Rakesh; Johnson, Don H.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; Tandon, Nitin; Aazhang, Behnaam

    2018-06-01

    We define a metric, mutual information in frequency (MI-in-frequency), to detect and quantify the statistical dependence between different frequency components in the data, referred to as cross-frequency coupling and apply it to electrophysiological recordings from the brain to infer cross-frequency coupling. The current metrics used to quantify the cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience cannot detect if two frequency components in non-Gaussian brain recordings are statistically independent or not. Our MI-in-frequency metric, based on Shannon's mutual information between the Cramer's representation of stochastic processes, overcomes this shortcoming and can detect statistical dependence in frequency between non-Gaussian signals. We then describe two data-driven estimators of MI-in-frequency: one based on kernel density estimation and the other based on the nearest neighbor algorithm and validate their performance on simulated data. We then use MI-in-frequency to estimate mutual information between two data streams that are dependent across time, without making any parametric model assumptions. Finally, we use the MI-in- frequency metric to investigate the cross-frequency coupling in seizure onset zone from electrocorticographic recordings during seizures. The inferred cross-frequency coupling characteristics are essential to optimize the spatial and spectral parameters of electrical stimulation based treatments of epilepsy.

  19. Application of step-frequency radars in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, L.; Alekhin, M.; Tataraidze, A.; Ivashov, S.; Bugaev, Alexander S.; Soldovieri, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper summarizes results of step-frequency radars application in medicine. Remote and non-contact control of physiological parameters with modern bioradars provides a wide range of possibilities for non-contact remote monitoring of a human psycho-emotional state and physiological condition. The paper provides information about technical characteristics of bioradars designed at Bauman Moscow State Technical University and experiments using them. Results of verification experiment showed that bioradars of BioRASCAN type may be used for simultaneous remote measurements of breathing and heart rate parameters. In addition, bioradar assisted experiments for detecting of different sleep disorders are described. Their results proved that method of bioradiolocation allows correct estimation of obstructive sleep apnea severity compared to the polysomnography method, which satisfies standard medical recommendations.

  20. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron; Lassen, Benny; Rechenbach, Björn; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O’Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation. (paper)

  1. Standards for dielectric elastomer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Anderson, Iain; Bauer, Siegfried; Frediani, Gabriele; Gallone, Giuseppe; Gei, Massimiliano; Graaf, Christian; Jean-Mistral, Claire; Kaal, William; Kofod, Guggi; Kollosche, Matthias; Kornbluh, Roy; Lassen, Benny; Matysek, Marc; Michel, Silvain; Nowak, Stephan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Pei, Qibing; Pelrine, Ron; Rechenbach, Björn; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer transducers consist of thin electrically insulating elastomeric membranes coated on both sides with compliant electrodes. They are a promising electromechanically active polymer technology that may be used for actuators, strain sensors, and electrical generators that harvest mechanical energy. The rapid development of this field calls for the first standards, collecting guidelines on how to assess and compare the performance of materials and devices. This paper addresses this need, presenting standardized methods for material characterisation, device testing and performance measurement. These proposed standards are intended to have a general scope and a broad applicability to different material types and device configurations. Nevertheless, they also intentionally exclude some aspects where knowledge and/or consensus in the literature were deemed to be insufficient. This is a sign of a young and vital field, whose research development is expected to benefit from this effort towards standardisation.

  2. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (generator that uses an extremely stable sinusoidal power oscillator topology. The second circuit employs a commercially available integrated step-up converter characterized by a particularly efficient switching topology. The circuit is used to bias the CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  3. Analysis of eigenfrequencies in piezoelectric transducers using the finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    transducers, which include the complete set of piezoelectric equations, have been included. They can find eigenfrequencies for undamped transducers and perform forced-response analysis for transducers with internal and radiation damping. The superelement technique is used to model the transducer backing......It is noted that the finite-element method is a valuable supplement to the traditional methods for design of novel transducer types because it can determine the vibrational pattern of piezoelectric transducers and is applicable to any geometry. Computer programs for analysis of axisymmetric...

  4. Monitoring of composite structures using a network of integrated PVDF film transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán, Enrique; Cugnoni, Joël; Gmür, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to reduce costs, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film patches are an emerging alternative to more classic piezoelectric technologies, like ceramic patches, as transducers to measure local deformation in many structural applications. This choice is supported by advantages such as the low weight and mechanical flexibility of PVDF, making this polymer suitable for embedding inside full scale polymer based composite structures. Piezoelectric transducer patches can be used as actuators to dynamically excite full-scale composite structures, and as sensors to measure the strain. The main objective of this paper is to verify that the PVDF transducers can provide exploitable signals in the context of structural health monitoring. In order to do so, two aspects of the design of transducer network are investigated: the optimization of the sensor network, for which the effective independence method is proposed, and the use of operational modal analysis (OMA), since it is a simple method to extract the natural frequencies of a structure from a time series. The results of the analysis are compared to a reference set issued from experimental modal analysis (EMA), a simple, well-known, classic method, which is carried out using accelerometers and an impact hammer. By statistical means, it is shown that there is no significant difference between the two methods, and an optimized PVDF transducer network combined with OMA can perform the dynamic analysis of a structure as well as a classic EMA setup would do. This leads the way to the use of low-cost PVDF embedded transducer networks for robust composite material characterization. (paper)

  5. Fabrication and characterization of a 20 MHz ultrasonic transducer using soft mold process: Poster presented at Joint IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics, European Conference on Applications of Polar Dielectrics & Workshop on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy, ISAF/ECAPD/PFM 2016, Darmstadt, 21.-25.8.2016

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Paul; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Neubert, Holger; Herzog, Thomas; Heuer, Henning; Walter, Susan

    2016-01-01

    High frequency ultrasonic transducers based on fine scale 1-3 piezocomposites enable high resolution in medical or material imaging. As increasing frequency requires decreasing pillar size and kerf width, the conventional dice-and-fill technique is limited by blade thickness and becomes more sophisticated with smaller dimensions. In contrast, the soft mold technique allows for fine-scale piezoceramic arrays with free design of pillar geometry and spatial distribution. Basis of the procedure a...

  6. Measuring the photodetector frequency response for ultrasonic applications by a heterodyne system with difference- frequency servo control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    A technique for the calibration of photodiodes in ultrasonic measurement systems using standard and cost-effective optical and electronic components is presented. A heterodyne system was realized using two commercially available distributed feedback lasers, and the required frequency stability and resolution were ensured by a difference-frequency servo control scheme. The frequency-sensitive element generating the error signal for the servo loop comprised a delay-line discriminator constructed from electronic elements. Measurements were carried out at up to 450 MHz, and the uncertainties of about 5% (k = 2) can be further reduced by improved radio frequency power measurement without losing the feature of using only simple elements. The technique initially dedicated to the determination of the frequency response of photodetectors applied in ultrasonic applications can be transferred to other application fields of optical measurements.

  7. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  8. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O_2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H_2O_2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H_2O_2 addition with O_2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH"•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O_2 injected and H_2O_2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  9. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  10. MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.

  11. Influence of Installation Errors On the Output Data of the Piezoelectric Vibrations Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuch, Barbara; Chelmecki, Jaroslaw; Tatara, Tadeusz

    2017-10-01

    The paper examines an influence of installation errors of the piezoelectric vibrations transducers on the output data. PCB Piezotronics piezoelectric accelerometers were used to perform calibrations by comparison. The measurements were performed with TMS 9155 Calibration Workstation version 5.4.0 at frequency in the range of 5Hz - 2000Hz. Accelerometers were fixed on the calibration station in a so-called back-to-back configuration in accordance with the applicable international standard - ISO 16063-21: Methods for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers - Part 21: Vibration calibration by comparison to a reference transducer. The first accelerometer was calibrated by suitable methods with traceability to a primary reference transducer. Each subsequent calibration was performed when changing one setting in relation to the original calibration. The alterations were related to negligence and failures in relation to the above-mentioned standards and operating guidelines - e.g. the sensor was not tightened or appropriate substance was not placed. Also, there was modified the method of connection which was in the standards requirements. Different kind of wax, light oil, grease and other assembly methods were used. The aim of the study was to verify the significance of standards requirements and to estimate of their validity. The authors also wanted to highlight the most significant calibration errors. Moreover, relation between various appropriate methods of the connection was demonstrated.

  12. Ultrasonic Transducer Fabricated Using Lead-Free BFO-BTO+Mn Piezoelectric 1-3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped 0.7BiFeO3-0.3BaTiO3 (BFO-0.3BTO+Mn 1% mol lead-free piezoelectric ceramic were fabricated by traditional solid state reaction. The phase structure, microstructure, and ferroelectric properties were investigated. Additionally, lead-free 1–3 composites with 60% volume fraction of BFO-BTO+Mn ceramic were fabricated for ultrasonic transducer applications by a conventional dice-and-fill method. The BFO-BTO+Mn 1-3 composite has a higher electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt = 46.4% and lower acoustic impedance (Za ~ 18 MRayls compared with that of the ceramic. Based on this, lead-free piezoelectric ceramic composite, single element ultrasonic transducer with a center frequency of 2.54 MHz has been fabricated and characterized. The single element transducer exhibits good performance with a broad bandwidth of 53%. The insertion loss of the transducer was about 33.5 dB.

  13. Transducers for the Brazilian gravitational wave detector 'Mario Schenberg'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frajuca, Carlos; Ribeiro, Kilder L; Andrade, Luiz A; Jr, Walter F Velloso; Melo, Jose L; Aguiar, Odylio D; Magalhaes, Nadja S

    2002-01-01

    'Mario Schenberg' is a spherical resonant-mass gravitational wave (GW) detector that will be part of a GW detection array of three detectors. The other two will be built in Italy and the Netherlands. Their resonant frequencies will be around 3.2 kHz with a bandwidth of about 200 Hz. This range of frequencies is new in a field where the typical frequencies lie below 1 kHz, making the transducer development much more complex. In this paper, the design of the mechanical part of the transducer will be shown, as well as the attachment method to the sphere and the expected sensitivity

  14. Full-scale Mark II CRT program: dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-12-01

    A dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers was conducted in support of the JAERI Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program. The test results indicated that certain of the cavity-type transducers used in the early blowdown test had undesirable response characteristics. The transducer mounting scheme was modified to avoid trapping of air bubbles in the pressure transmission tubing attached to the transducers. The dynamic response of the modified transducers was acceptable within the frequency range of 200 Hz. (author)

  15. Ferrite Nanoparticles, Films, Single Crystals, and Metamaterials: High Frequency Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies (up to ten decades). They remain the preferred magnetic materials, having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices (including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators). Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites. Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites, with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites. We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms

  16. Features calibration of the dynamic force transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sc., M. Yu Prilepko D.; Lysenko, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The article discusses calibration methods of dynamic forces measuring instruments. The relevance of work is dictated by need to valid definition of the dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics taking into account their intended application. The aim of this work is choice justification of calibration method, which provides the definition dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics under simulation operating conditions for determining suitability for using in accordance with its purpose. The following tasks are solved: the mathematical model and the main measurements equation of calibration dynamic forces transducers by load weight, the main budget uncertainty components of calibration are defined. The new method of dynamic forces transducers calibration with use the reference converter “force-deformation” based on the calibrated elastic element and measurement of his deformation by a laser interferometer is offered. The mathematical model and the main measurements equation of the offered method is constructed. It is shown that use of calibration method based on measurements by the laser interferometer of calibrated elastic element deformations allows to exclude or to considerably reduce the uncertainty budget components inherent to method of load weight.

  17. Reducing mechanical cross-coupling in phased array transducers using stop band material as backing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, J.; Gerlach, A.; Storck, H.; Cebulla, H.; Marburg, S.

    2018-06-01

    Phased array transducers are widely used for acoustic imaging and surround sensing applications. A major design challenge is the achievement of low mechanical cross-coupling between the single transducer elements. Cross-coupling induces a loss of imaging resolution. In this work, the mechanical cross-coupling between acoustic transducers is investigated for a generic model. The model contains a common backing with two bending elements bonded on top. The dimensions of the backing are small; thus, wave reflections on the backing edges have to be considered. This is different to other researches. The operating frequency in the generic model is set to a low kHz range. Low operating frequencies are typical for surround sensing applications. The influence of the backing on cross-coupling is investigated numerically. In order to reduce mechanical cross-coupling a stop band material is designed. It is shown numerically that a reduction in mechanical cross-coupling can be achieved by using stop band material as backing. The effect is validated with experimental testing.

  18. Dissipation in vibrating superleak second sound transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, N.

    1985-01-01

    We have performed an experimental study of the generation and detection of second sound in 4 He using vibrating superleak second sound transducers. At temperatures well below T/sub lambda/ and for low driving amplitudes, the magnitude of the generated second sound wave is proportional to the drive amplitude. However, near T/sub lambda/ and for high drive amplitudes this is no longer the case--instead, the second sound amplitude saturates. In this regime we also find that overtones of the drive frequency are generated. Our results suggest that this behavior is due to critical velocity effects in the pores of the superleak in the generator transducer. This type of measurement may prove to be a useful way in which to study critical velocity effects in confined geometries

  19. Thermoelectric Transducer Using Bio Nano Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Ferritin; Thermal Transducer; Nanoparticle; Ammonium acetate; Separation distance; Debye length . ABSTRACT: As an application to thermos...condition of 10 mM concentration, the Debye length of ferritin is shorter than 3 nm 40 . Comparing it with the DLS results (Fig. 3), the Debye length is...modified PEGs will obstruct additional modification. This effect should strengthen when PEG length becomes longer which means the utilization of

  20. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...

  1. A compact frequency stabilized telecom laser diode for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, C.; Holleville, D.; Le Targat, R.; Wolf, P.; Leveque, T.; Le Goff, R.; Martaud, E.; Acef, O.

    2017-09-01

    We report on a Telecom laser diode (LD) frequency stabilization to a narrow iodine hyperfine line in the green range, after frequency tripling process using fibered nonlinear waveguide PPLN crystals. We have generated up to 300 mW optical power in the green range ( 514 nm) from 800 mW of infrared power ( 1542 nm), corresponding to a nonlinear conversion efficiency h = P3?/P? 36%. Less than 10 mW of the generated green power are used for Doppler-free spectroscopy of 127I2 molecular iodine, and -therefore- for the frequency stabilization purpose. The frequency tripling optical setup is very compact (test the potential of this new frequency standard based on the couple "1.5 ?m laser / iodine molecule". We have already demonstrated a preliminary frequency stability of 4.8 x 10-14 ? -1/2 with a minimum value of 6 x 10-15 reached after 50 s of integration time, conferred to a laser diode operating at 1542.1 nm. We focus now our efforts to expand the frequency stability to a longer integration time in order to meet requirements of many space experiments, such earth gravity missions, inters satellites links or space to ground communications. Furthermore, we investigate the potential of a new approach based on frequency modulation technique (FM), associated to a 3rd harmonic detection of iodine lines to increase the compactness of the optical setup.

  2. A CMOS frequency generation module for 60-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Lei; Wang Hongrui; Qian He

    2012-01-01

    A frequency generation module for 60-GHz transceivers and phased array systems is presented in this paper. It is composed of a divide-by-2 current mode logic divider (CML) and a doubler in push-push configuration. Benefiting from the CML structure and push-push configuration, the proposed frequency generation module has a wide operating frequency range to cover process, voltage, and temperature variation. It is implemented in a 90-nm CMOS process, and occupies a chip area of 0.64 × 0.65 mm 2 including pads. The measurement results show that the designed frequency generation module functions properly with input frequency over 15 GHz to 25 GHz. The whole chip dissipates 12.1 mW from a 1.2-V supply excluding the output buffers. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. A Compact Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for LTE Mobile Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact (8 × 62 × 5 mm3; 2.48 cc frequency reconfigurable antenna that uses electrical switching with PIN diodes is proposed for the low frequency LTE band (699 MHz–862 MHz, high frequency LTE band (2496 MHz–2690 MHz, GSM850/900 bands (824 MHz–960 MHz, and DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands (1710 MHz–2170 MHz. The penta-band PIFA is first designed for GSM850/900/DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands by using two slits and ground pins within a limited antenna volume (8 × 54.6 × 5 mm3; 2.18 cc. The frequency reconfigurable antenna based on this penta-band PIFA is thus proposed to additionally cover all LTE bands. The proposed antenna has two PIN diodes with an optimal location. For State 1 (PIN diode 1: ON state, PIN diode 2: OFF state, the proposed antenna covers the low frequency LTE band, DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands, and high frequency LTE band. For State 2 (PIN diode 1: OFF state, PIN diode 2: ON state, the antenna covers the GSM850/900 bands. Simulated and measured results show that the total efficiency of the proposed antenna was greater than 40% for all operating frequency bands.

  4. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  5. A new ultrasonic transducer for improved contrast nonlinear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouakaz, Ayache; Cate, Folkert ten; Jong, Nico de

    2004-01-01

    Second harmonic imaging has provided significant improvement in contrast detection over fundamental imaging. This improvement is a result of a higher contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) achievable at the second harmonic frequency. Nevertheless, the differentiation between contrast and tissue at the second harmonic frequency is still in many situations cumbersome and contrast detection remains nowadays as one of the main challenges, especially in the capillaries. The reduced CTR is mainly caused by the generation of second harmonic energy from nonlinear propagation effects in tissue, which hence obscures the echoes from contrast bubbles. In a previous study, we demonstrated theoretically that the CTR increases with the harmonic number. Therefore the purpose of our study was to increase the CTR by selectively looking to the higher harmonic frequencies. In order to be able to receive these high frequency components (third up to the fifth harmonic), a new ultrasonic phased array transducer has been constructed. The main advantage of the new design is its wide frequency bandwidth. The new array transducer contains two different types of elements arranged in an interleaved pattern (odd and even elements). This design enables separate transmission and reception modes. The odd elements operate at 2.8 MHz and 80% bandwidth, whereas the even elements have a centre frequency of 900 kHz with a bandwidth of 50%. The probe is connected to a Vivid 5 system (GE-Vingmed) and proper software is developed for driving. The total bandwidth of such a transducer is estimated to be more than 150% which enables higher harmonic imaging at an adequate sensitivity and signal to noise ratio compared to standard medical array transducers. We describe in this paper the design and fabrication of the array transducer. Moreover its acoustic properties are measured and its performances for nonlinear contrast imaging are evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary results demonstrate the advantages of

  6. Application of multiple signal classification algorithm to frequency estimation in coherent dual-frequency lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixiao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Changming

    2018-01-01

    Coherent dual-frequency Lidar (CDFL) is a new development of Lidar which dramatically enhances the ability to decrease the influence of atmospheric interference by using dual-frequency laser to measure the range and velocity with high precision. Based on the nature of CDFL signals, we propose to apply the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm in place of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to estimate the phase differences in dual-frequency Lidar. In the presence of Gaussian white noise, the simulation results show that the signal peaks are more evident when using MUSIC algorithm instead of FFT in condition of low signal-noise-ratio (SNR), which helps to improve the precision of detection on range and velocity, especially for the long distance measurement systems.

  7. Single, simultaneous and sequential applications of ultrasonic frequencies for the elimination of ibuprofen in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziylan-Yavas, Asu; Ince, Nilsun H

    2018-01-01

    The study is about the assessment of single and multi-frequency operations for the overall degradation of a widely consumed analgesic pharmaceutical-ibuprofen (IBP). The selected frequencies were in the range of 20-1130kHz emissions coming from probes, baths and piezo-electric transducers attached to plate-type devices. Multi-frequency operations were applied either simultaneously as "duals", or sequentially at fixed time intervals; and the total reaction time in all operations was 30-min. The work also covers evaluation of the effect of zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the efficiency of the degradation process and the performance of the reaction systems. It was found that low-frequency probe type devices especially at 20kHz were ineffective when applied singly and without ZVI, and relatively more effective in combined-frequency operations in the presence of ZVI. The power efficiencies of the reactors and/or reaction systems showed that 20-kHz probe was considerably more energy intensive than all others, and was therefore not used in multi-frequency operations. The most efficient reactor in terms of power consumption was the bath (200kHz), which however provided insufficient mineralization of the test chemical. The highest percentage of TOC decay (37%) was obtained in a dual-frequency operation (40/572kHz) with ZVI, in which the energy consumption was neither low nor exceptionally too high. A sequential operation (40+200kHz) in that respect was more efficient, because it required much less energy for a similar TOC decay performance (30%). In general, the degradation of IBP increased with increased power consumption, which in turn reduced the sonochemical yield. The study also showed that advanced Fenton reactions with ZVI were faster in the presence of ultrasound, and the metal was very effective in improving the performance of low-frequency operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An enzyme logic bioprotonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Takeo; Keene, Scott; Deng, Yingxin; Rolandi, Marco, E-mail: rolandi@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2120 (United States); Josberger, Erik E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2120 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Translating ionic currents into measureable electronic signals is essential for the integration of bioelectronic devices with biological systems. We demonstrate the use of a Pd/PdH{sub x} electrode as a bioprotonic transducer that connects H{sup +} currents in solution into an electronic signal. This transducer exploits the reversible formation of PdH{sub x} in solution according to PdH↔Pd + H{sup +} + e{sup −}, and the dependence of this formation on solution pH and applied potential. We integrate the protonic transducer with glucose dehydrogenase as an enzymatic AND gate for glucose and NAD{sup +}. PdH{sub x} formation and associated electronic current monitors the output drop in pH, thus transducing a biological function into a measurable electronic output.

  9. A Novel HBT Frequency Doubler Design for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we presents a novel HBT frequency doubler design for millimeter-wave application. A HBT frequency doubler theory is described which leads to accurate design equations for optimal performance. The developed theory shows that an optimal HBT frequency doubler can be achieved using a no...

  10. Cymbal and BB underwater transducers and arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnham, R.E.; Zhang, J.; Alkoy, S.; Meyer, R.; Hughes, W.J.; Hladky-Hennion, A.C.; Cochran, J.; Markley, D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The cymbal is a miniaturized class V flextensional transducer that was developed for use as a shallow water sound projector and receiver. Single elements are characterized by high Q, low efficiency, and medium power output capability. Its low cost and thin profile allow the transducer to be assembled into large flexible arrays. Efforts were made to model both single elements and arrays using the ATILA code and the integral equation formulation (EQI).Millimeter size microprobe hydrophones (BBs) have been designed and fabricated from miniature piezoelectric hollow ceramic spheres for underwater applications such as mapping acoustic fields of projectors, and flow noise sensors for complex underwater structures. Green spheres are prepared from soft lead zirconate titanate powders using a coaxial nozzle slurry process. A compact hydrophone with a radially-poled sphere is investigated using inside and outside electrodes. Characterization of these hydrophones is done through measurement of hydrostatic piezoelectric charge coefficients, free field voltage sensitivities and directivity beam patterns. (orig.)

  11. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the transducer geometry, transducer...... change in geometry and that the coupling angle may be used as an additional tuning parameter for improved acoustophoretic control with single-frequency actuation. Further, we find that frequency-modulation actuation is suitable for diminishing such tuning effects and that it is a robust method to produce...... coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5 µm diameter beads and the results with the tunable-angle...

  12. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Drive for a Flywheel Application at Different Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.

  13. Research and development of in-core transducers at the CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yucai; Liu Yupu; Jia Guozhen; Liu Lianping

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, R and D of in-core transducers at the CIAE are briefly summarized. With the construction and commissioning of PWR nuclear power plant in China, fuel rod behaviour need to be studied carefully. As conventional transducers cannot meet the requirements of in-core applications, R and D of in-core transducers are developed. Since 1980's, several kinds of in-core transducers have been successfully fabricated and tested under the conditions simulating PWR. At present, in-pile tests of the transducers combining with the studies of individual behaviour of PWR fuel rod are being planned at the CIAE. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Failure frequencies and probabilities applicable to BWR and PWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.H.; Chockie, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report deals with failure probabilities and failure frequencies of nuclear plant piping and the failure frequencies of flanges and bellows. Piping failure probabilities are derived from Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events (PRAISE) computer code calculations based on fatigue and intergranular stress corrosion as failure mechanisms. Values for both failure probabilities and failure frequencies are cited from several sources to yield a better evaluation of the spread in mean and median values as well as the widths of the uncertainty bands. A general conclusion is that the numbers from WASH-1400 often used in PRAs are unduly conservative. Failure frequencies for both leaks and large breaks tend to be higher than would be calculated using the failure probabilities, primarily because the frequencies are based on a relatively small number of operating years. Also, failure probabilities are substantially lower because of the probability distributions used in PRAISE calculations. A general conclusion is that large LOCA probability values calculated using PRAISE will be quite small, on the order of less than 1E-8 per year (<1E-8/year). The values in this report should be recognized as having inherent limitations and should be considered as estimates and not absolute values. 24 refs 24 refs

  15. High-frequency strontium vapor laser for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvorostovsky, A.; Kolmakov, E.; Kudashev, I.; Redka, D.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Tsvetkov, K.; Lukyanov, N.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    Sr-laser with high pulse repetition rate and high peak radiation power is a unique tool for studying rapidly occurring processes in time (plasma diagnostics, photoablation, etc.). In addition, the study of the frequency characteristics of the active medium of the laser helps to reveal the physics of the formation of an inverse medium in metal vapor lasers. In this paper, an experimental study of an Sr-laser with an active volume of 5.8 cm3 in the pulse repetition frequency range from 25 to 200 kHz is carried out, and a comparison with the frequency characteristics of media with large active volumes is given. We considered the frequency characteristics of the active medium in two modes: at a constant energy in the excitation pulse CU2 / 2 and at a constant average power consumed by the rectifier. In the presented work with a small-volume GRT using the TASITR-5/12 TASITRON switch, a laser was generated for Pairs of strontium at a CSF of 200 kHz. The behavior of the characteristics of the generation lines of 6.456 μm, 1 μm, and 3 μm at increased repetition frequencies is considered. Using the example of large-volume GRT, it is shown that tubes with a large active volume increase their energy characteristics with the growth of the CSF. The possibility of laser operation at pulse repetition rates above 200 kHz is shown.

  16. Design and analysis of fractional order seismic transducer for displacement and acceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraian, Parthasarathi; Gandhi, Uma; Mangalanathan, Umapathy

    2018-04-01

    Seismic transducers are widely used for measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. This paper presents the design of seismic transducer in the fractional domain for the measurement of displacement and acceleration. The fractional order transfer function for seismic displacement and acceleration transducer are derived using Grünwald-Letnikov derivative. Frequency response analysis of fractional order seismic displacement transducer (FOSDT) and fractional order seismic acceleration transducer (FOSAT) are carried out for different damping ratio with the different fractional order, and the maximum dynamic measurement range is identified. The results demonstrate that fractional order seismic transducer has increased dynamic measurement range and less phase distortion as compared to the conventional seismic transducer even with a lower damping ratio. Time response of FOSDT and FOSAT are derived analytically in terms of Mittag-Leffler function, the effect of fractional behavior in the time domain is evaluated from the impulse and step response. The fractional order system is found to have significantly reduced overshoot as compared to the conventional transducer. The fractional order seismic transducer design proposed in this paper is illustrated with a design example for FOSDT and FOSAT. Finally, an electrical equivalent of FOSDT and FOSAT is considered, and its frequency response is found to be in close agreement with the proposed fractional order seismic transducer.

  17. Application of precursor methodology in initiating frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The precursor methodology developed in recent years provides a consistent technique to identify important accident sequence precursors. It relies on operational events (extracting information from actual experience) and infers core damage scenarios based on expected safety system responses. The ranking or categorization of each precursor is determined by considering the full spectrum of potential core damage sequences. The methodology estimates the frequency of severe core damage based on the approach suggested by Apostolakis and Mosleh, which may lead to a potential overestimation of the severe-accident sequence frequency due to the inherent dependencies between the safety systems and the initiating events. The methodology is an encompassing attempt to incorporate most of the operating information available from nuclear power plants and is an attractive tool from the point of view of risk management. In this paper, a further extension of this methodology is discussed with regard to the treatment of initiating frequency of the accident sequences

  18. Online frequency estimation with applications to engine and generator sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manngård, Mikael; Böling, Jari M.

    2017-07-01

    Frequency and spectral analysis based on the discrete Fourier transform is a fundamental task in signal processing and machine diagnostics. This paper aims at presenting computationally efficient methods for real-time estimation of stationary and time-varying frequency components in signals. A brief survey of the sliding time window discrete Fourier transform and Goertzel filter is presented, and two filter banks consisting of: (i) sliding time window Goertzel filters (ii) infinite impulse response narrow bandpass filters are proposed for estimating instantaneous frequencies. The proposed methods show excellent results on both simulation studies and on a case study using angular speed data measurements of the crankshaft of a marine diesel engine-generator set.

  19. Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuyu; Tian Hua

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed

  20. Characterization of Dielectric Electroactive Polymer transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Møller, Martin B.; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper analysis the small-signal model of the Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) transducer. The DEAP transducer have been proposed as an alternative to the electrodynamic transducer in sound reproduction systems. In order to understand how the DEAP transducer works, and provide...

  1. Application of artificial intelligence in load frequency control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the use of artificial intelligence to study the load frequency control of interconnected power system. In the proposed scheme, a control methodology is developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) for interconnected hydro-thermal power system. The control strategies ...

  2. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  3. Application of frequency spectrum analysis in the rotator moving equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Su Guanghui; Shang Zhi; Jia Dounan

    2001-01-01

    The experimental equipment is developed to simulate the rotator vibration. The running state of machine is simulated by using different running conditions. The vibration caused by non-equilibrium mass is analyzed and discussed for first order with focus load. The effective method is found out by using frequency spectrum analysis

  4. Electromechanical characteristics of discal piezoelectric transducers with spiral interdigitated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Chengliang; Xiao, Guangjun; Feng, Zhihua; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, piezoceramic thin disks with spiral interdigitated electrodes on their surfaces are proposed to generate in-plane torsional vibrations. Electromechanical characteristics of the discal piezoelectric transducers are investigated. Working principles of the transducers are explained while their static deformations are formulated. Dynamic models are derived to analyze the in-plane torsional vibrations of the disks together with the radial vibrations. The corresponding electromechanical equivalent circuits are also obtained. With different boundary conditions and structural parameters, frequency responses of their electric admittances are calculated numerically. Resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and electromechanical coupling coefficients of the vibration modes are also extracted. Prototype transducers are fabricated and tested to validate the theoretical results. (paper)

  5. Damage detection in concrete structures with smart piezoceramic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Akshay S. K.; Bhalla, Suresh

    2003-10-01

    Detection of damages and progressive deterioration in structures is a critical issue. Visual inspections are tedious and unreliable. Incipient damages are often not discernible by low frequency dynamic response and other NDE techniques. Smart piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) transducers are emerging as an effective alternative in health monitoring of structures. The electro-mechanical impedance method employs the self-actuating and sensing characteristics of the PZT, without having to use actuators and sensors separately. When excited by an ac source, the PZT transducers bonded to the host structure activates the higher modes of vibration locally. Changes in the admittance response of the transducer serves as an indicator of damage around the transducer. In this paper, the effectiveness of PZT transducers for characterizing damages in concrete, in terms of the damage extent and location, is experimentally examined. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) index, adopted to quantify the changes in the admittance signatures, correlates with the damage extent. The damages on the surface that is not mounted by the PZT are also discernible. An array of transducers proves effective in detecting the damaged zone. The progressive incipient crack can be detected much before it actually becomes visible to the naked eye.

  6. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J. R. Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.

  8. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers), which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet. PMID:27690031

  9. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Dapena, Adriana; González-López, Miguel

    2016-09-28

    This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers), which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet.

  10. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez-Albela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers, which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet.

  11. Theoretical Study of Amplitude Modulation Application during Radio Frequency Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karpuhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the investigation results of influence of the amplitude-modulated acting signal parameters on the thermoelectric characteristics of biological tissues for a specified geometry of the working electrode section during RF mono-polar electrocoagulation. The geometric model ‘electrode - a biological tissue’ was suggested to study the distribution of power and temperature fields in biological tissue during mono-polar coagulation. The model of biological tissue is represented as a cylinder and the needle electrode is an ellipsoid immersed in the biological tissue. The heat and quasi-electrostatics equations are used as a mathematical model. These equations are solved in Comsol Multiphysics environment.As a result, we have got the following findings: the technique of calculating parameters of the PAM acting signal which has a fixed carrier frequency for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and the immersion depth in biological tissues is suggested. Parameters of PAM signal are determined for this electrode geometry. These parameters provide a 60 ... 80°C heating range of biological tissues near the working part of the tool for different amplitudes of acting signal during RF coagulation. It has been found out that both the temperature and the relaxation frequency of biological tissue depend on exposure time for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and immersion depth of the working part of tool into biological tissue.It is shown that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue, subjected to the radiofrequency pulses, linearly depends on its heating temperature and can be used as a numerical criterion for maintaining the specified temperature conditions. It is found that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue depends on the contact area of the tool working part and biological tissues. To reduce this dependence it is necessary to provide automatic current control of the output action.

  12. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  13. Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Maiwald, Frank W.; Pearson, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory molecular spectroscopy provides the basis for interpretation of atmospheric, planetary, and astrophysical data gathered by remote sensing. Laboratory studies of atomic and molecular signatures across the electromagnetic spectrum provide high-precision, quantitative data used to interpret the observed environment from remote measurements. Historically, the region of the spectrum above 500 GHz has been relatively unexplored due to atmospheric absorption and technical difficulties generating and detecting radiation. Laboratory spectroscopy at these frequencies has traditionally involved measurement of one or two absorption features and relied on fitting of models to the limited data. We report a new spectrometer built around a computer-controlled commercial synthesizer and millimeter-wave module driving a series of amplifiers followed by a series of wide-bandwidth frequency doublers and triplers. The spectrometer provides the ability to rapidly measure large pieces of frequency space with higher resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity than with Fourier transform infrared techniques. The approach is simple, modular, and requires no custom-built electronics or high voltage and facilitates the use of infrared data analysis techniques on complex submillimeter spectra

  14. Time-frequency Representations Application in Psychological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIZ Romulus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A psychological test is a test that is designed to measure one aspect of human behavior. These tests are usually designed to evaluate a person’s ability to complete tasks that were individual's performance on certain tasks that have usually been requested in advance. Usually a test score is used to compare with other results to measure the individual’s performance regarding cognitive ability, aptitude, personality, etc. One such test is the so called “finger tapping” test, designed to measure the integrity of the neuromuscular system and examine motor control. There are several ways to perform such a test. The purpose of this paper isn’t to study the finger tapping test which is well documented in the literature, but to develop if possible a simple way of performing such a test. Using the method presented in the paper a nonstationary signal was obtained and it was analyzed using the Short-time Fourier time frequency representation to obtain the signals frequency and its variation in time. The results presented in the paper show that this method can be used to perform the test and the frequency and spatial amplitude of the obtained tapping signal can be determined easily.

  15. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  16. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... both years of experimentation, application of two irrigations significantly increased the India ... marginal lands with poor fertility under rainfed conditions. ... and 40 kg K20 ha-1 as muriate of potash was applied to each plot.

  17. Development and application of specially-focused ultrasonic transducers to location and sizing of defects in 75 mm- to 127 mm-thick austenitic stainless steel weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Benson, S.; McKinley, B.J.; Carodiskey, T.

    1992-08-01

    Special UT transducer parts, capable of focusing incident signals within a 25 mm {times} 25 mm {times} 25 mm volume in an austenitic stainless weld metal at depths that varied from 25 mm to 127 mm, were developed and demonstrated to be capable of detecting a defect with cross section equivalent to that of a 4.76 mm-dia flat-bottom hole. Defect length sizing could be accomplished to {plus_minus}50% for 100% of the time and to {plus_minus}25% on selected defect types as follows: porosity groups, 100%; cracks, 67%; combined slag and porosity, 60%; and linear slag indications, 59%. Extensive linear elastic-fracture-mechanics analyses were performed to establish allowable defect sizes at functions of stress, based on a cyclic-life criterion of 10{sup 3} full power cycles of the MFTF-B magnet system. These defect sizes were used to determine which UT indicating were to be removed and repaired and which were to be retained and their recorded sizes and locations.

  18. The Application of Time-Frequency Methods to HUMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Anna H.; Mosher, Marianne; Lewicki, David G.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the study of four time-frequency transforms applied to vibration signals and presents a new metric for comparing them for fault detection. The four methods to be described and compared are the Short Time Frequency Transform (STFT), the Choi-Williams Distribution (WV-CW), the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Vibration data of bevel gear tooth fatigue cracks, under a variety of operating load levels, are analyzed using these methods. The new metric for automatic fault detection is developed and can be produced from any systematic numerical representation of the vibration signals. This new metric reveals indications of gear damage with all of the methods on this data set. Analysis with the CWT detects mechanical problems with the test rig not found with the other transforms. The WV-CW and CWT use considerably more resources than the STFT and the DWT. More testing of the new metric is needed to determine its value for automatic fault detection and to develop methods of setting the threshold for the metric.

  19. High-frequency behavior of amorphous microwires and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, P.; Cortina, D.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    A magnetic microwire is a continuous filament of total diameter less than 100 μm consisting of an inner metallic magnetic nuclei covered by a glassy outer shell, usually obtained by Taylor's technique, with interesting magnetic properties connected with its high axial magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic sensors based on microwires used, as operating principle, the strong connection between the composition and the uniaxial anisotropy through a magnetostriction constant such as the large Barkhausen effect, Mateucci effect and giant magneto-impedance effect. The study of the microwave properties is also very promising technologically. In the microwave region (approaching GHz range), the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs and it is connected with the spin precession of the magnetisation vector due to the effect of the high-frequency electromagnetic field applied such that the magnetic component is perpendicular to the magnetisation vector. The natural ferromagnetic resonance (NFMR) has been also observed. The frequency depends upon the value of magnetic anisotropy and it is characterised by the single well-distinguished line in the 2-10 GHz range. Tags detector based on the microwires FMR and a new kind of electromagnetic radiation absorbers based on the microwires NFMR have been developed

  20. Composable Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling and Power Management for Dataflow Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; She, Dongrui; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca; Lopez, S.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we de﬿ne composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  1. Composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling and power management for dataflow applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.G.W.; She, D.; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we define composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  2. Design and application possibilities of superconducting radio-frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Deitinghoff, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent experiments, cw surface electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m have been obtained in a superconducting rf quadrupole (SCRFQ) device. In this paper we explore some design and application possibilities of SCRFQs which have been opened by these results. For example, SCRFQs may be able to accelerate higher cw currents than is now possible. Also, highly-modulated SCRFQs could be designed to provide compact, high-longitudinal-gradient devices. Some conceptual designs and applications will be discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs

  3. Development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System using Piezoelectric Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mineyuki; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Omata, Sadao

    This study describes the development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System which enables the mechanical property evaluation of a blood vessel. This system consists of a feedback circuit and a piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, and is operated based on a phase shift method so that the entire system oscillates at its inherent resonance frequency. Ultrasound reflected by the blood vessel makes a phase shift of the resonance system depending on the acoustic impedance of the reflector. The phase shift is then measured as a change in resonance frequency of the system; therefore, the detection resolution is highly improved. The correlation between the acoustic impedance and the resonance frequency change of the sensor system was demonstrated using silicone rubbers, metals and actual blood vessels from a pig. The performance of the sensor was also examined using vessel shaped phantom model. Finally, the discussion surveys a possibility of the novel sensor system in an application for intra vascular diagnosis.

  4. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIOMETER-BASED NONLINEAR TRANSDUCER EMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to design and implement in hardware a transducer with a nonlinear response using potentiometer. Potentiometer is regarded as a linear transducer, while a the response of a nonlinear transducer can be treated as a concatenation of linear segments made out of the response curve of an actual nonlinear transducer at the points of inflections being exhibited by the nonlinear curve. Each straight line segment is characterized by its slope and a constant, called the y-intercept, which is ultimately realized by a corresponding electronic circuit. The complete circuit diagram is made of three stages: (i the input stage for range selection, (ii a digital logic to make appropriate selection, (iii a conditioning circuit for realizing a given straight-line segment identified by its relevant slope and reference voltage. The simulation of the circuit is carried using MULTISIM, and the designed circuit is afterward tested to verify that variations of the input voltage give us an output voltage very close to the response pattern envisaged in the analytical stage of the design. The utility of this work lies in its applications in emulating purpose built transducers that could be used to nicely emulate a transducer in a real world system that is to be controlled by a programmable digital system.

  5. Performance demonstration of a single-frequency optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, S.; Haldimann, M.; Ruffieux, R.; Thomann, P.; Berthoud, P.

    2017-11-01

    Observatoire de Neuchâtel (ON) is developing a compact optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard in the frame of an ESA-ARTES 5 project. The simplest optical scheme, which is based on a single optical frequency for both preparation and detection processes of atoms, has been chosen to fulfill reliability constraints of space applications. With our laboratory demonstrator operated at 852 nm (D2 line), we have measured a frequency stability of σy=2.74x10-12 τ -1/2, which is compliant with the Galileo requirement. The atomic resonator is fully compliant to be operated with a single diode laser at 894 nm (D1 line). Sensitivity measurements of the clock signal to the microwave power and to the optical pumping power are also presented. Present performance limitations are discussed and further improvements are proposed in order to reach our ultimate frequency stability goal of σy=1x10-12 τ -1/2. The clock driving software is also briefly described.

  6. Ultralow frequency bridge for dielectric measurements: applications to electrects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaets, J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of U.L.F. (Ultra Low Frequency) dielectric relaxation is investigated. An experimental model is proposed for a bridge covering the range of 10 -3 Hz-10Hz, pased on phase shift measurements originally proposed by Van Turhout and collaborators. The main experimental problems are also analyzed with such U.L.F. measurements and describe its construction and performance. The theoretical correlation between U.L.F. dielectric relaxation and electret thermal stimulated currents is also investigated. A correction for the integral expression given by Turnhout and collaborators, is calculated in particular that takes into account the value of the activation energy in the relation between the two techniques.The correction is important for values of the activation energy below 0,5eV, which occur frequently in dielectric relaxation processes. (Author) [pt

  7. Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-02

    We have wrapped metallic cylinders with strongly absorbing metamaterials. These resonant structures, which are patterned on flexible substrates, smoothly coat the cylinder and give it an electromagnetic response designed to minimize its radar cross section. We compare the normal-incidence, small-beam reflection coefficient with the measurement of the far-field bistatic radar cross section of the sample, using a quasi-planar THz wave with a beam diameter significantly larger than the sample dimensions. In this geometry we demonstrate a near-400-fold reduction of the radar cross section at the design frequency of 0.87 THz. In addition we discuss the effect of finite sample dimensions and the spatial dependence of the reflection spectrum of the metamaterial.

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR DIGITAL TRANSDUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, James L.

    1963-09-15

    A pressure transducer based on mechanical modulation of a beam of alpha particles is described. This type of transducer is capable of direct digital pressure measurexnent with corresponding telemetry advantages. Any variable that is sensed through a mechanical displacement is measurable by means of a corresponding member of this transducer family. Preliminary tests of an experimental pressure transducer show an overall accuracy within a few tenths of one percent, with promise of substantial improvement. General characteristics of nuclear digital transducers include exceptional long-term calibration stability and accuracy, independent of ambient environmental effects. Three concepts of systems enipioying these transducers are discussed. (auth)

  9. Efeito das dimensões da seção transversal e da frequência do transdutor na velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultra-som na madeira Effect of the transversal section dimensions and transducer frequency on ultrasound wave propagation velocity in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Julio Trinca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversas pesquisas vêm sendo realizadas com o uso da velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultra-som como parâmetro para estimar propriedades mecânicas da madeira. Tendo em vista que essa velocidade pode ser influenciada pela forma da peça ensaiada, bem como pela frequência do transdutor utilizado no ensaio, conhecer essas fontes de influência é fator importante para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. Durante estudo mais amplo sobre a influência da dimensão do corpo-de-prova em ensaios destrutivos de compressão paralela às fibras, os corpos-de-prova de 0,03 x 0,03 x 0,09 m e de 0,05 x 0,05 x 0,15 m foram também utilizados para avaliar a variação da velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultrassom em razão da dimensão da peça ensaiada. Para a avaliação da influência da frequência, os ensaios foram realizados com transdutores de onda longitudinal (compressão de 25 kHz, 45 kHz, 80 kHz, 100 kHz, 500 kHz e 1 MHz, em 119 corpos-de-prova de Pinus elliottii e 244 de Eucalyptus grandis. Os resultados indicaram que, em ambas as espécies, a seção transversal exerceu influência na propagação da onda de ultrassom e que a velocidade longitudinal foi fortemente afetada pela frequência do transdutor para frequências abaixo de 500 kHz, corroborando a importância de sempre se adotarem, nos ensaios, relações de comprimento de percurso/comprimento de onda superiores a 3,0.Several works use the ultrasound wave propagation velocity as the main parameter to determine the mechanical properties of wood. Since this velocity can be influenced by the specimen's dimension or by the transducer's frequency, this influence must be known to obtain reliable results. During research on the influence of specimen dimension on destructive testing of the compression parallel to the grain, 0.03 x 0.03 x 0.09 m and 0.05 x 0.05 x 0.15 m specimens were tested to evaluate the variation in wave propagation velocity as a function of specimen dimension

  10. Acoustic Levitation With One Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.

    1987-01-01

    Higher resonator modes enables simplification of equipment. Experimental acoustic levitator for high-temperature containerless processing has round cylindrical levitation chamber and only one acoustic transducer. Stable levitation of solid particle or liquid drop achieved by exciting sound in chamber to higher-order resonant mode that makes potential well for levitated particle or drop at some point within chamber.

  11. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF HIGH FREQUENCY INVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    SACHIN S. BANKAR; Dr. PRASAD M. JOSHI

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents modelling and simulation of high frequency inverter for induction heating applications. Induction heating has advantages like higher efficiency, controlled heating, safety and pollution free therefore this technology is used in industrial, domestic and medical applications. The high frequency full bridge inverter is used for induction heating, also MOSFET is used as a switching device for inverter and the control strategy used for inverter is Bipolar PWM control. The size ...

  12. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  13. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc [SBT, UMR-E CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Daniel, Christophe [CNES, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse, F-31401 (France)

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  14. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  15. System Control Applications of Low-Power Radio Frequency Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Roger

    2017-09-01

    This paper conceptualizes a low-power wireless sensor network design for application employment to reduce theft of portable computer devices used in educational institutions today. The aim of this study is to design and develop a reliable and robust wireless network that can eradicate accessibility of a device’s human interface. An embedded system supplied by an energy harvesting source, installed on the portable computer device, may represent one of multiple slave nodes which request regular updates from a standalone master station. A portable computer device which is operated in an undesignated area or in a field perimeter where master to slave communication is restricted, indicating a possible theft scenario, will initiate a shutdown of its operating system and render the device unusable. Consequently, an algorithm in the device firmware may ensure the necessary steps are executed to track the device, irrespective whether the device is enabled. Design outcomes thus far indicate that a wireless network using low-power embedded hardware, is feasible for anti-theft applications. By incorporating one of the latest Bluetooth low-energy, ANT+, ZigBee or Thread wireless technologies, an anti-theft system may be implemented that has the potential to reduce major portable computer device theft in institutions of digitized learning.

  16. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  17. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards

  18. Frequency notching applicable to CMOS implementation of WLAN compatible IR-UWB pulse generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Due to overlapping frequency bands, IEEE 802.11a WLAN and Ultra Wide-Band systems potentially suffer from mutual interference problems. This paper proposes a method for inserting frequency notches into the IR-UWB power spectrum to ensure compatibility with WLAN systems. In contrast to conventional...... approaches where complicated waveform equations are used, the proposed method uses a dual-pulse frequency notching approach to achieve frequency suppression in selected bands. The proposed method offers a solution that is generically applicable to UWB pulse generators using different pulse waveforms...

  19. Development, diagnostic and applications of radio-frequency plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac, N.

    2008-07-01

    In many areas of the industry, plasma processing of materials is a vital technology. Nonequilibrium plasmas proved to be able to produce chemically reactive species at a low gas temperature while maintaining highly uniform reaction rates over relatively large areas (Makabe and Petrovic 2006). At the same time nonequilibrium plasmas provide means for good and precise control of the properties of active particles that determine the surface modification. Plasma needle is one of the atmospheric pressure sources that can be used for treatment of the living matter which is highly sensitive when it comes to low pressure or high temperatures (above 40 C). Dependent on plasma conditions, several refined cell responses are induced in mammalian cells (Sladek et al. 2005). It appears that plasma treatment may find many biomedical applications. However, there are few data in the literature about plasma effects on plant cells and tissues. So far, only the effect of low pressure plasmas on seeds was investigated. It was shown that short duration pretreatments by non equilibrium low temperature air plasma were stimulative in light induced germination of Paulownia tomentosa seeds (Puac et al. 2005). As membranes of plants have different properties to those of animals and as they show a wide range of properties we have tried to survey some of the effects of typical plasma which is envisaged to be used in biotechnological applications on plant cells. In this paper we will make a comparison between two configurations of plasma needle that we have used in treatment of biological samples (Puac et al. 2006). Difference between these two configurations is in the additional copper ring that we have placed around glass tube at the tip of the needle. We will show some of the electrical characteristics of the plasma needle (with and without additional copper ring) and, also, plasma emission intensity obtained by using fast ICCD camera.

  20. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the system geometry, transducer...... in geometry and that the coupling angle may be used as an additional tuning parameter for improved acoustophoretic control with single-frequency actuation. Further, we find that frequency-modulation actuation is suitable for diminishing such tuning effects and that it is a robust method to produce uniform...... coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5-μm-diameter beads and the results with the tunable-angle...

  1. The research on high power transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wuling; Li Yubin; Peng Shuwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the transducer structure used double PWM mode, the control system design of hardware and software. The transducer has been applied in factory. From the real experiment, it shows that the system has a high reliability. (authors)

  2. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  3. Design of HIFU Transducers for Generating Specified Nonlinear Ultrasound Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnitskiy, Pavel B; Yuldashev, Petr V; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Maxwell, Adam D; Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2017-02-01

    Various clinical applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound have different requirements for the pressure levels and degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focus. The goal of this paper is to determine transducer design parameters that produce either a specified shock amplitude in the focal waveform or specified peak pressures while still maintaining quasi-linear conditions at the focus. Multiparametric nonlinear modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation with an equivalent source boundary condition was employed. Peak pressures, shock amplitudes at the focus, and corresponding source outputs were determined for different transducer geometries and levels of nonlinear distortion. The results are presented in terms of the parameters of an equivalent single-element spherically shaped transducer. The accuracy of the method and its applicability to cases of strongly focused transducers were validated by comparing the KZK modeling data with measurements and nonlinear full diffraction simulations for a single-element source and arrays with 7 and 256 elements. The results provide look-up data for evaluating nonlinear distortions at the focus of existing therapeutic systems as well as for guiding the design of new transducers that generate specified nonlinear fields.

  4. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-02-10

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  7. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  8. Methods and applications of radio frequency geophysics in glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Nicholas

    Simple radar systems of the past were used primarily for radar depth sounding, the process of using reflection travel times and electromagnetic velocities to determine the ice thickness. Modern radioglaciology uses both the travel times and reflection amplitudes to make inferences about the englacial and subglacial environments; however, non-uniqueness in geophysical data, combined with the large number of physical parameters that control reflection amplitude, have led to significant uncertainties in this type of analysis. In this set of studies, I improve on data collection, processing, and assimilation methods, with a focus on radar reflection amplitudes and internal layers. The first two studies are devoted to radar survey methods, in which I examine the impact of reflector geometry on amplitude (2), and investigate an independent measure of radar attenuation using variable-offset data, in an effort to eliminate the effects of ice chemistry and temperature on reflection amplitudes (3). These studies emphasize the fact that radar data are a product of both the physical system and the imaging process, and caution glaciologists from over-interpreting processing artifacts common in radar data collected in areas of complex glacial flow. In the following two chapters, I go on to provide glaciological applications of processed radar data, interpreting the record of complex flow left behind in englacial reflector slopes (4), and applying improved boundary conditions to better predict the maximum extent of West Antarctic collapse (5). These studies use geometric information from the bed reflector and englacial reflectors to describe the flow regime present in Antarctica today. Chapter 4 examines how boundary conditions that are difficult to observe directly (the geothermal heat flux, as well as the frictional and deformation characteristics of the ice-sheet substrate) manifest through internal layer deformation. Chapter 5 focuses on Marie Byrd Land (MBL), where

  9. A High-Voltage Class D Audio Amplifier for Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomer (DE) transducers have emerged as a very interesting alternative to the traditional electrodynamic transducer. Lightweight, small size and high maneuverability are some of the key features of the DE transducer. An amplifier for the DE transducer suitable for audio applications...... is proposed and analyzed. The amplifier addresses the issue of a high impedance load, ensuring a linear response over the midrange region of the audio bandwidth (100 Hz – 3.5 kHz). THD+N below 0.1% are reported for the ± 300 V prototype amplifier producing a maximum of 125 Var at a peak efficiency of 95 %....

  10. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A.; March, C.; Montoya, A.

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  11. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  12. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y; Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  13. Multichannel Recorder for Low Frequency Signals: Application of Oscilloscope as Integrated Mobile Service for a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kochlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data acquisition and processing are well known for some time. Many applications use powerful hardware to acquire, process, and visualize signal waveforms. But there are some applications that do not have to perform high resolution signal acquisition and process large amount of data, for example, low frequency applications of embedded design and applications for remote power grid monitoring. The paper describes special system for low frequency signal data sample acquisition, processing, and visualization implemented as a service on Android-based smart device. The service makes smart device functioning as an oscilloscope or arbitrary waveform generator which is accessible remotely through Bluetooth. The design respects low power consumption requirements, simplicity, and user friendliness in application design. Application scenario was implemented as wireless data acquisition system for power grid monitoring.

  14. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.

    1994-07-01

    For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

  15. Transducers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B

    stream_size 27 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Microcomputers_18_335.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Microcomputers_18_335.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Application of energies of optimal frequency bands for fault diagnosis based on modified distance function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanian, Amir Hosein [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Ohadi, Abdolreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Low-dimensional relevant feature sets are ideal to avoid extra data mining for classification. The current work investigates the feasibility of utilizing energies of vibration signals in optimal frequency bands as features for machine fault diagnosis application. Energies in different frequency bands were derived based on Parseval's theorem. The optimal feature sets were extracted by optimization of the related frequency bands using genetic algorithm and a Modified distance function (MDF). The frequency bands and the number of bands were optimized based on the MDF. The MDF is designed to a) maximize the distance between centers of classes, b) minimize the dispersion of features in each class separately, and c) minimize dimension of extracted feature sets. The experimental signals in two different gearboxes were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the presented technique. The results show the effectiveness of the presented technique in gear fault diagnosis application.

  17. Linear or/and circular displacement capacite transducers. Study and realization of high resolutive industrial prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulit, Jacques; Beaudet, J.-P.

    1975-07-01

    Proposals are made about a linear or/and circular displacement transducer measurements using a capacity variation method. Absolute measurements are allowed with great accuracy, approximately on micrometer or one thousandth of a degree, for dimensions up to some hundred millimeters, or 360 degrees. A first approach up to millimeters or degrees is given by a classical method (i.e. binary encoded beam). The division of each millimeter is obtained by linear variation of photo engraved capacity on a glass ruber and measured by an original capacity via frequency conversion method. In this system, the use of variable frequency signals allows one to reach long distance display without any trouble and then shows great interest for many applications such as space, machine tool and so on [fr

  18. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  19. Design and fabrication of liner-arroy ultrasonic transducer using KLM and FEM simulation for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Yuk; Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a linear-array transducer capable of overcoming the faults of a single element and phased array transducers with convex shape for non-destructive ultrasonic testing was designed and fabricated. A 5.5 MHz linear-array transducer was designed using the PiezoCAD program based on the KLM analysis and the PZFlex program based on the FEM analysis. A 2-2 composite structure was employed to achieve broad-band characteristics. A 128 element linear-array transducer was fabricated and its performance was compared with the simulation results. The center frequency of the fabricated transducer was 5.5 Mhzand the -6 dB frequency bandwidth was 70 %. Thus, we expect that the designed transducer can provide an effective inner image of the test material during non-destructive ultrasonic testing.

  20. Design and fabrication of liner-arroy ultrasonic transducer using KLM and FEM simulation for non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yuk; Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob [Dept. of Medical Biotechnology, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, a linear-array transducer capable of overcoming the faults of a single element and phased array transducers with convex shape for non-destructive ultrasonic testing was designed and fabricated. A 5.5 MHz linear-array transducer was designed using the PiezoCAD program based on the KLM analysis and the PZFlex program based on the FEM analysis. A 2-2 composite structure was employed to achieve broad-band characteristics. A 128 element linear-array transducer was fabricated and its performance was compared with the simulation results. The center frequency of the fabricated transducer was 5.5 Mhzand the -6 dB frequency bandwidth was 70 %. Thus, we expect that the designed transducer can provide an effective inner image of the test material during non-destructive ultrasonic testing.

  1. High field high frequency EPR techniques and their application to single molecule magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.S.; Hill, S.; Goy, P.; Wylde, R.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present details of a new high-field/high-frequency EPR technique, and its application to measurements of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). By using a quasi-optical set-up and microwave sources covering a continuous frequency range from 170 to 600 GHz, in conjunction with a millimetre-wave vector network analyser, we are able to measure EPR to high magnetic fields. For example, a g=2 system will exhibit EPR at about 14 T at a frequency of 400 GHz. We illustrate the technique by presenting details of recent high-frequency experiments on several SMMs which are variations of the well-known SMM Mn 12 -Ac. This material has a spin ground state of S=10 and large uniaxial anisotropy, hence frequencies above 300 GHz are required in order to observe EPR from the ground state

  2. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  3. Analysis on Coupled Vibration of a Radially Polarized Piezoelectric Cylindrical Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coupled vibration of a radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer is analyzed with the mechanical coupling coefficient method. The method has been utilized to analyze the metal cylindrical transducer and the axially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. In this method, the mechanical coupling coefficient is introduced and defined as the stress ratio in different directions. Coupled vibration of the cylindrical transducer is regarded as the interaction of the plane radial vibration of a ring and the longitudinal vibration of a tube. For the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer, the radial and longitudinal electric admittances as functions of mechanical coupling coefficients and angular frequencies are derived, respectively. The resonance frequency equations are obtained. The dependence of resonance frequency and mechanical coupling coefficient on aspect ratio is studied. Vibrational distributions on the surfaces of the cylindrical transducer are presented with experimental measurement. On the support of experiments, this work is verified and provides a theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer.

  4. Radio frequency interference noise reduction using a field programmable gate array for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, K; Narita, Y; Itozaki, H

    2007-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurement without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is one of the effective methods to reduce environmental noise. Recently, SQUIDs have been used in various applications at high frequencies, such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The NQR frequency from explosives is in the range 0.5-5 MHz. In this case, an NQR sensor is exposed to AM radio frequency interference (RFI). The feasibility of the ANC system for RFI that used digital signal processing was studied. Our investigation showed that this digital ANC system can be applied to SQUID measurements for RFI suppression

  5. Variable Sampling Composite Observer Based Frequency Locked Loop and its Application in Grid Connected System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN, K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified digital signal processing procedure is described for the on-line estimation of DC, fundamental and harmonics of periodic signal. A frequency locked loop (FLL incorporated within the parallel structure of observers is proposed to accommodate a wide range of frequency drift. The error in frequency generated under drifting frequencies has been used for changing the sampling frequency of the composite observer, so that the number of samples per cycle of the periodic waveform remains constant. A standard coupled oscillator with automatic gain control is used as numerically controlled oscillator (NCO to generate the enabling pulses for the digital observer. The NCO gives an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency making it suitable for power quality applications. Another observer with DC and second harmonic blocks in the feedback path act as filter and reduces the double frequency content. A systematic study of the FLL is done and a method has been proposed to design the controller. The performance of FLL is validated through simulation and experimental studies. To illustrate applications of the new FLL, estimation of individual harmonics from nonlinear load and the design of a variable sampling resonant controller, for a single phase grid-connected inverter have been presented.

  6. Design of a saturated analogue and digital current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pross, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    This project describes the development of a new analogue and digital current transducer, providing a range of new theoretical design methods for these novel devices. The main control feature is the limit cycling operation, and the novel use of the embedded sigma-delta modulator sensor structure to derive a low component count digital sensor. The research programme was initiated into the design, development and evaluation of a novel non-Hall sensing analogue and digital current transducer. These transducers are used for measurement of high currents in power systems applications. The investigation is concerned with a new design which uses a magnetic ferrite core without an air gap for current measurement. The motivation for this work was to design a new control circuit which provides a low component count, and utilises the non-linear properties of the magnetic ferrite core to transmit direct current. The use of a limit cycle control circuit was believed to be particularly suitable for the analogue and digital transducers, for two main reasons: the low component count, and the output signal is directly digital. In line with the motivations outlined above, the outcome of the research has witnessed the design, development and evaluation of a practically realisable analogue and digital current transducer. The design procedure, which is documented in this thesis, is considered to be a major contribution to the field of transducers design and development using a control systems approach. Mathematical models for both analogue and digital transducers were developed and the resulting model based predictions were found to be in good agreement with measured results. Simplification of the new model sensing device was achieved by approximating the non-linear ferrite core using FFT analysis. This is also considered to be a significant contribution. The development analogue and digital current censors employed a sampled data control systems design and utilised limit cycling

  7. Harvesting Low-Frequency (<5 Hz) Irregular Mechanical Energy: A Possible Killer Application of Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-26

    Electromagnetic generators (EMGs) and triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are the two most powerful approaches for harvesting ambient mechanical energy, but the effectiveness of each depends on the triggering frequency. Here, after systematically comparing the performances of EMGs and TENGs under low-frequency motion (frequency, while that of TENGs is approximately in proportion to the frequency. Therefore, the TENG has a much better performance than that of the EMG at low frequency (typically 0.1-3 Hz). Importantly, the extremely small output voltage of the EMG at low frequency makes it almost inapplicable to drive any electronic unit that requires a certain threshold voltage (∼0.2-4 V), so that most of the harvested energy is wasted. In contrast, a TENG has an output voltage that is usually high enough (>10-100 V) and independent of frequency so that most of the generated power can be effectively used to power the devices. Furthermore, a TENG also has advantages of light weight, low cost, and easy scale up through advanced structure designs. All these merits verify the possible killer application of a TENG for harvesting energy at low frequency from motions such as human motions for powering small electronics and possibly ocean waves for large-scale blue energy.

  8. Radiation-resistant pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Sh.M.; Kerimova, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The sensitive element of vibrofrequency tensor converter (VTC) is an electromechanical resonator of string type with electrostatic excitation of longitudinal mechanical vibrations. The string is made from tensosensitive thread-like monocrystal n-Ge1-x Six (length 1-5 mm, diameter 8-12 mcm) with current outlet and strictly fixed by ends at plate or deformable surface (in elastic element) at 50 mcm apartheid. With increasing Si atomic percent in n-Ge1-x Six the converter tens sensitivity increases. There has been shown the scheme of pressure transducer which contains monocrystalline silicon membrane and string tens converter from thread-like monocrystal Ge-Si. Using method, when crystal position on membrane while it deforms by pressure, corresponds to free (uptight) state, allowed to obtain the maximum sensitivity in measurement of pressure fluctuation. The transducers of absolute and pressure differential of this type can be used in automated systems of life activity. The high sensitivity of string transducers to pressure exceeding 100 hertz/mm (water column) permits to use them in devices for measuring gas concentration. The combination of optical and deformation methods of measurements forms the basis of their operation. The pressure change occurs due to the fact that gas molecules absorbing the quanta of incident light, become at excited state and then excitation energy of their vibrational-rotatory degrees of freedom converts to the energy of translational motion of molecules, i.e. to heat appropriate to pressure increase. Using these tens converters of high pressure one can prevent the possible accidents on oil pipe-like Baku-Tibilisi-Ceyhan

  9. New improvement of the combined optical fiber transducer for landslide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.-W.; Yuan, Q.-Y.; Liu, D.-Y.; Liu, B.; Liu, J.-C.; Luo, H.

    2014-08-01

    Landslide monitoring is important in predicting the behavior of landslides, thereby ensuring environmental, life, and property safety. On the basis of our previous studies, we conducted the double shear test by using a third-generation optical fiber transducer that uses expandable polystyrene (EPS) as base material. However, the third-generation transducer has poor performance when cohesive force is present between the grout and capillary stainless steel pipe of the transducer. Thus, the fourth-generation optical fiber transducer was invented. Similar to the third-generation transducer, the fourth-generation transducer also used EPS as its base material. Single shear test was conducted on the fourth-generation transducer after being grouted with cement mortar (1 : 1 mix ratio). The micro-bend loss mechanism of the optical fiber was considered, and the optical time domain reflectometry instrument was used. The fact that the loss sequence of optical fibers subjected to loading is different at various locations is found. The relationship of the loading-point displacement vs. optical fiber sliding distance and optical loss were measured. Results show that the maximum initial measurement precision of the newly proposed device is 1 mm, the corresponding sliding distance is 21 mm, and the dynamic range is 0-20 mm. The fourth-generation transducer can measure the movement direction of loadings, thus making this transducer applicable for landslide monitoring.

  10. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  11. LAVA Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Samuel B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload will transport the (LAVA) subsystem to hydrogen-rich locations on the moon supporting NASA's in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) programs. There, the LAVA subsystem will analyze volatiles that evolve from heated regolith samples in order to quantify how much water is present. To do this, the system needs resilient pressure transducers (PTs) to calculate the moles in the gas samples. The PT trade study includes a comparison of newly-procured models to a baseline unit with prior flight history in order to determine the PT model with the best survivability in flight-forward conditions.

  12. Modeling piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers for physiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, E.; Frutos, J. de; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2015-01-01

    Applications of ultrasound are well known in medical and aesthetic skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue mobilization treatments. The basic transducer used consists of a piezoelectric disk adhered to a metal delay line in capsule shape. The capsule design is critical since the two bonded elements have vibration modes which can cause very inefficient designs and vibration distributions very irregular if they are not properly studied and utilized. This must be known to avoid distributions of heat and sound pressure that could be ineffective or harmful. In this paper, using Finite Element Method and laser interferometric vibrational analysis, it has reached a piston-type solution that allows properly implement sound pressure vibration dose. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of a novel therapeutic focused ultrasound transducer based on Fermat’s spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, P.; de Greef, M.; Berriet, R.; Moonen, C. T. W.; Ries, M.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel phased array transducer design rule for therapeutic focused ultrasound applications. This design rule uses the discretized Fermat’s spiral to determine the positioning of the transducer elements for a given number of elements and f-number. Using this principle, three variations of Fermat’s spiral were generated, aimed at (1) grating lobe minimization, (2) side lobe minimization, and (3) an optimized element packing efficiency. For each spiral, sparse layouts using identical circular elements and fully populated layouts based on additional Voronoi tessellation were evaluated numerically. Evaluation criteria included the element size distribution, beam steering capabilities, focal plane pressure distribution, prefocal pressure distribution, and practical considerations. Finally, one Voronoi-tessellated design with a focal length and aperture diameter of 16 cm and a natural frequency of 1.3 MHz was evaluated experimentally through hydrophone measurements. The numerical evaluation showed that while sparse arrays possess superior beam steering capabilities for a given number of elements, the focal point quality and prefocal pressure distribution is substantially more favorable when using the Voronoi-tessellated designs. Beam steering was shown to be feasible with the tessellated designs for lateral deflections up to 10 mm and axial deflections up to 20 mm. The experimental evaluation showed that such a transducer is capable of inducing 40.00 MPa rarefactional and 237.50 MPa compressional peak pressure levels at 800 W instantaneous acoustic output power under free-field conditions, making the system potentially relevant for thermal ablation therapy, histotripsy applications, and shockwave-enhanced heating.

  14. Radio frequency identification and time-driven activity based costing:RFID-TDABC application in warehousing

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Witold; Price, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper extends the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) data for accounting of warehouse costs and services. Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) methodology is enhanced with the real-time collected RFID data about duration of warehouse activities. This allows warehouse managers to have accurate and instant calculations of costs. The RFID enhanced TDABC (RFID-TDABC) is proposed as a novel application of the RFID technology. Research Approach: Application of RFID-TDA...

  15. A New High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer for Continuous Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad Hossein; Sinclair, Anthony N; Coyle, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    A novel design of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is introduced, suitable for operation at temperatures of up to 700 °C-800 °C. Lithium niobate single crystal is chosen as the piezoelectric element primarily due to the high Curie temperature of 1200 °C. A backing element based on a porous ceramic is designed for which the pore volume fraction and average pore diameter in the ceramic matrix can be controlled in the manufacturing process; this enables the acoustic impedance and attenuation to be selected to match their optimal values as predicted by a one-dimensional transducer model of the entire transducer. Porous zirconia is selected as the ceramic matrix material of the backing element to obtain an ultrasonic signal with center frequency of 2.7-3 MHz, and 3-dB bandwidth of 90%-95% at the targeted operating temperature. Acoustic coupling of the piezocrystal to the backing element and matching layer is investigated using commercially available high-temperature adhesives and brazing alloys. The performance of the transducer as a function of temperature is studied. Stable bonding and clear signals were obtained using an aluminum brazing alloy as the bonding agent.

  16. Application of time–frequency wavelet analysis in the reflectometry of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaf’ev, S. B., E-mail: bard@crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Shchedrin, B. M. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics (Russian Federation); Yanusova, L. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The application of time–frequency wavelet analysis for solving the reflectometry inverse problem is considered. It is shown that a simultaneous transform of specular intensity curve, depending on the grazing angle and spatial frequency, allows one to determine not only the thickness but also the alteration order of individual regions (layers) with characteristic behavior of electron density. This information makes it possible to reconstruct the electron density profile in the film cross section as a whole (i.e., to solve the inverse reflectometry problem). The application of the time–frequency transform is illustrated by examples of reconstructing (based on X-ray reflectivity data) the layer alternation order in models of two-layer films with inverted arrangement of layers and a four-layer film on a solid substrate.

  17. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The quest for higher power density has led to research of very high frequency (30-300 MHz) power converters. Magnetic components based on ferrite cores have limited application within this frequency range due to increased core loss. Air-core magnetics is a viable alternative as they do not exhibit...... core loss. The drawback of most air-core magnetics is that the magnetic field is not contained within a closed shape, and it is thus prone to cause electro magnetic interference. A toroidal air-core inductor configuration can be used to contain the magnetic field. This work presents a novel air......-core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...

  18. High-frequency electrodeless plasmatrons and their application in chemistry and material engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowska, A.; Jurewicz, J.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus used to obtain high frequency induction-coupled type plasma was described with regard to the working chamber design, methods employed for stabilization of plasma, types of working gases, operating conditions such as pressure, plasmatron power rating, diameter of plasma stream and its temperature. The methods of high frequency discharge ignition, inductor design as well as the requirements to be satisfied by the generators employed for excitation of high frequency electrodeless plasma were briefly discussed. A number of applications of high frequency electrodeless plasma were mentioned such as monocrystal growing, excitation of spectra in the optical spectroscopy, spheroidization of powders and other processes with particular emphasis on chemical reactions. A review of plasmotron designs was also made. (author)

  19. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce...... such transducer arrays, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is chosen for this project. Properties such as high bandwidth and high design flexibility makes this an attractive transducer technology, which is under continuous development in the research community. A theoretical...... treatment of CMUTs is presented, including investigations of the anisotropic plate behaviour and modal radiation patterns of such devices. Several new CMUT fabrication approaches are developed and investigated in terms of oxide quality and surface protrusions, culminating in a simple four-mask process...

  20. Improvement of Frequency Domain Output Only Modal Identification from the Application of the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of estimating the spectral densities as the Fourier transform of the random decrement functions for the application of frequency domain output-only modal identification methods. The gains in relation to the usual procedure of computing the spectral densities directly...

  1. The application of controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method to prospecting for uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Taiping

    1992-01-01

    The controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method is a new geophysical method which is rapid, effective and economical and can be used for studying the structural pattern of underground strata (rock bodies). This method provides the basis for the determination of the deeper part and structures within the unconformity-related uranium deposit in North China Platform and the result of application is optimal

  2. Construction Project Performance Improvement through Radio Frequency Identification Technology Application on a Project Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Construction project productivity typically lags other industries and it has been the focus of numerous studies in order to improve the project performance. This research investigated the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology on construction projects' supply chain and determined that RFID technology can improve the…

  3. Ferrite Film Loaded Frequency Selective Metamaterials for Sub-GHz Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic metamaterials are constructed with sub-wavelength structures that exhibit particular electromagnetic properties under a certain frequency range. Because the form-factor of the substructures has to be comparable to the wavelength of the operating frequency, few papers have discussed the metamaterials under GHz frequency. In this paper, we developed an innovative method to reduce the resonant frequency of metamaterals. By integrating the meta-structures with ferrite materials of higher permeability, the cell size of the meta-structure can be scaled down. This paper describes the methodology, design, and development of low-profile GHz ferrite loaded metamaterials. A ferrite film with a permeability of 20 could reduce the resonant frequency of metamaterials by up to 50%. A prototype has been fabricated and the measurement data align well with the simulation results. Because of the lowered operational frequency, the proposed ferrite loaded metamaterials offer more flexibility for various sub-GHz microwave applications, such as cloaks, absorbers, and frequency selective surfaces.

  4. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  5. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  6. GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tetsuzo; Ishida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, recent advances of GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications are reviewed. Novel epitaxial structures including superlattice interlayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) relieve the strain and eliminate the cracks in the GaN over large-diameter Si substrates up to 8 in. As a new device structure for high-power switching application, Gate Injection Transistors (GITs) with a p-AlGaN gate over an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure successfully achieve normally-off operations maintaining high drain currents and low on-state resistances. Note that the GITs on Si are free from current collapse up to 600 V, by which the drain current would be markedly reduced after the application of high drain voltages. Highly efficient operations of an inverter and DC-DC converters are presented as promising applications of GITs for power switching. The high efficiencies in an inverter, a resonant LLC converter, and a point-of-load (POL) converter demonstrate the superior potential of the GaN transistors on Si. As for high-frequency transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojuction field-effect transistors (HFETs) on Si designed specifically for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies demonstrate a sufficiently high output power at these frequencies. Output powers of 203 W at 2.5 GHz and 10.7 W at 26.5 GHz are achieved by the fabricated GaN transistors. These devices for switching and high-frequency applications are very promising as future energy-efficient electronics because of their inherent low fabrication cost and superior device performance.

  7. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangtak; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2 ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2 ω a , 4 ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3 ω a , 5 ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation.

  8. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangtak; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2  ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2  ω a , 4  ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3  ω a , 5  ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation. (paper)

  9. Chemical vapor detection using a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo J; Park, Kwan Kyu; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, O; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2011-12-15

    Distributed sensing of gas-phase chemicals using highly sensitive and inexpensive sensors is of great interest for many defense and consumer applications. In this paper we present ppb-level detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common simulant for sarin gas, with a ppt-level resolution using an improved capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) as a resonant chemical sensor. The improved CMUT operates at a higher resonant frequency of 47.7 MHz and offers an improved mass sensitivity of 48.8 zg/Hz/μm(2) by a factor of 2.7 compared to the previous CMUT sensors developed. A low-noise oscillator using the CMUT resonant sensor as the frequency-selective device was developed for real-time sensing, which exhibits an Allan deviation of 1.65 Hz (3σ) in the presence of a gas flow; this translates into a mass resolution of 80.5 zg/μm(2). The CMUT resonant sensor is functionalized with a 50-nm thick DKAP polymer developed at Sandia National Laboratory for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection. To demonstrate ppb-level detection of the improved chemical sensor system, the sensor performance was tested at a certified lab (MIT Lincoln Laboratory), which is equipped with an experimental chemical setup that reliably and accurately delivers a wide range of low concentrations down to 10 ppb. We report a high volume sensitivity of 34.5 ± 0.79 pptv/Hz to DMMP and a good selectivity of the polymer to DMMP with respect to dodecane and 1-octanol.

  10. Design and Functional Validation of a Complex Impedance Measurement Device for Characterization of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cock, Wouter; Cools, Jan; Leroux, Paul

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a complex impedance measurement device capable of characterization of ultrasonic transducers. The device works in the frequency range used by industrial ultrasonic transducers which is below the measurement range of modern high end network analyzers. The device uses the Goertzel algorithm instead of the more common FFT algorithm to calculate the magnitude and phase component of the impedance under test. A theoretical overview is given followed by a practical approach and measurement results. (authors)

  11. Application of transducers to the control of temperatures and of alternating and direct voltages (1962); Application des transducteurs a la regulation des temperatures et des tensions alternatives et continues (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoult, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-11-15

    The temperature regulator and the voltage regulators described have been studied with a view to conferring a high degree of safety to the apparatuses in which they are used. They make use almost exclusively of Transducers which are passive elements acting mainly in these apparatuses as amplifiers and which are entirely satisfactory, ensuring that the regulators studied keep their essential qualities i.e accuracy, reliability, stability and sensitivity. (author) [French] Le regulateur de temperature et les regulateurs de tension decrits ont ete etudies pour donner aux ensembles dans lesquels ils sont inseres une grande securite d'exploitation. Ils utilisent presque exclusivement comme constituants des TRANSDUCTEURS qui sont des elements passifs assurant principalement dans ces appareils une fonction d'amplification ou ils donnent entiere satisfaction en conservant aux regulateurs etudies leurs qualites essentielles qui sont: la precision, la fidelite, la stabilite et la sensibilite. (auteur)

  12. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated front-end electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2D and 3D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a micro-electro-mechanical systems technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications

  13. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Omer

    2011-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  14. Three-dimensional micro electromechanical system piezoelectric ultrasound transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajati, Arman; Latev, Dimitre; Gardner, Deane; Hajati, Azadeh; Imai, Darren; Torrey, Marc; Schoeppler, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Here we present the design and experimental acoustic test data for an ultrasound transducer technology based on a combination of micromachined dome-shaped piezoelectric resonators arranged in a flexible architecture. Our high performance niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate film is implemented in three-dimensional dome-shaped structures, which form the basic resonating cells. Adjustable frequency response is realized by mixing these basic cells and modifying their dimensions by lithography. Improved characteristics such as high sensitivity, adjustable wide-bandwidth frequency response, low transmit voltage compatible with ordinary integrated circuitry, low electrical impedance well matched to coaxial cabling, and intrinsic acoustic impedance match to water are demonstrated.

  15. Fast widely-tunable single-frequency 2-micron laser for remote-sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.

    2017-08-01

    We are developing a family of fast, widely-tunable cw diode-pumped single frequency solid-state lasers, called Swift. The Swift laser architecture is compatible with operation using many different solid-state laser crystals for operation at various emission lines between 1 and 2.1 micron. The initial prototype Swift laser using a Tm,Ho:YLF laser crystal near 2.05 micron wavelength achieved over 100 mW of single frequency cw output power, up to 50 GHz-wide, fast, mode-hop-free piezoelectric tunability, and 100 kHz/ms frequency stability. For the Tm,Ho:YLF laser material, the fast 50 GHz tuning range can be centered at any wavelength from 2047-2059 nm using appropriate intracavity spectral filters. The frequency stability and power are sufficient to serve as the local oscillator (LO) laser in long-range coherent wind-measuring lidar systems, as well as a frequency-agile master oscillator (MO) or injection-seed source for larger pulsed transmitter lasers. The rapid and wide frequency tunablity meets the requirements for integrated-path or range-resolved differential absorption lidar or applications where targets with significantly different line of sight velocities (Doppler shifts) must be tracked. Initial demonstration of an even more compact version of the Swift is also described which requires less prime power and produces less waste heat.

  16. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  17. A Novel Characterization And Application Of PZT Ceramic As A Frequency Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzy, Y.H.A.; Ashry, H.A.; Soliman, F.A.S.; Swidan, A.M.; Abdelmagid, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, ceramic filters have become indispensable components in numerous electronic equipment for military and space applications, as well as, commercial ones. So, the present paper is devoted in a trial to shed further light on such new devices. In this concern, a wide frequency range samples, extends from 400 kHz up to 6.5 MHz, were chosen for studying the frequency response and related terminologies, dynamic characteristics, and equivalent circuits and their relation with the elemental composition of the different samples. Also, the filter circuit elements effect on the operation of such devices was investigated

  18. Frequency-Tunable and Pattern Diversity Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-tunable microstrip antennas, for cognitive radio applications, are proposed herein. The approach is based on tuning the operating frequency of a bandpass filter that is incorporated into a wideband antenna. The integration of an open loop resonator- (OLR- based adjustable bandpass filter into a wideband antenna to transform it into a tunable filter-antenna is presented. The same technique is employed to design a cognitive radio pattern diversity tunable filter-antenna. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results for the fabricated prototypes is obtained. The radiation characteristics of each designed tunable filter-antenna are included herein.

  19. Bi-Frequency Modulated Quasi-Resonant Converters: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuefeng

    1995-01-01

    To avoid the variable frequency operation of quasi -resonant converters, many soft-switching PWM converters have been proposed, all of them require an auxiliary switch, which will increase the cost and complexity of the power supply system. In this thesis, a new kind of technique for quasi -resonant converters has been proposed, which is called the bi-frequency modulation technique. By operating the quasi-resonant converters at two switching frequencies, this technique enables quasi-resonant converters to achieve the soft-switching, at fixed switching frequencies, without an auxiliary switch. The steady-state analysis of four commonly used quasi-resonant converters, namely, ZVS buck, ZCS buck, ZVS boost, and ZCS boost converter has been presented. Using the concepts of equivalent sources, equivalent sinks, and resonant tank, the large signal models of these four quasi -resonant converters were developed. Based on these models, the steady-state control characteristics of BFM ZVS buck, BFM ZCS buck, BFM ZVS boost, and BFM ZCS boost converter have been derived. The functional block and design consideration of the bi-frequency controller were presented, and one of the implementations of the bi-frequency controller was given. A complete design example has been presented. Both computer simulations and experimental results have verified that the bi-frequency modulated quasi-resonant converters can achieve soft-switching, at fixed switching frequencies, without an auxiliary switch. One of the application of bi-frequency modulation technique is for EMI reduction. The basic principle of using BFM technique for EMI reduction was introduced. Based on the spectral analysis, the EMI performances of the PWM, variable-frequency, and bi-frequency modulated control signals was evaluated, and the BFM control signals show the lowest EMI emission. The bi-frequency modulated technique has also been applied to the power factor correction. A BFM zero -current switching boost converter has

  20. Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Transducers with Active Polypropylene Foam Matching Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás E. Gómez Alvarez-Arenas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, construction and characterization of air-coupled piezoelectric transducers using 1–3 connectivity piezocomposite disks with a stack of matching layers being the outer one an active quarter wavelength layer made of polypropylene foam ferroelectret film. This kind of material has shown a stable piezoelectric response together with a very low acoustic impedance (<0.1 MRayl. These features make them a suitable candidate for the dual use or function proposed here: impedance matching layer and active material for air-coupled transduction. The transducer centre frequency is determined by the l/4 resonance of the polypropylene foam ferroelectret film (0.35 MHz, then, the rest of the transducer components (piezocomposite disk and passive intermediate matching layers are all tuned to this frequency. The transducer has been tested in several working modes including pulse-echo and pitch-catch as well as wide and narrow band excitation. The performance of the proposed novel transducer is compared with that of a conventional air-coupled transducers operating in a similar frequency range.

  1. Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    nfornation Center Battelle Memoria : :nsz~ftu -e Army Materials and ’Iec.hanics ;05 igAeu Researcl Center Columous, O!H 13201 .iatartown, >A217 A77N...Sylvania epartment of Ceramic Engineering 100 Endicott Street University of m11incis Danvers, YA 01923 Urbana , Illinois 51801 .r. allace A. Smit...Oanvers, MA 01923 Urbana , il1inois 61801 Oi-.. allace A. Smith Professor 3. A. Aul. Ortf American Philips Laboratories Stanford University 3

  2. A new high performance current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijun; Lu Songlin; Li Deming

    2003-01-01

    A DC-100 kHz current transducer is developed using a new technique on zero-flux detecting principle. It was shown that the new current transducer is of high performance, its magnetic core need not be selected very stringently, and it is easy to manufacture

  3. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Real-Time Imaging with Frequency Scanning Array Antenna for Industrial Inspection Applications at W band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larumbe, Belen; Laviada, Jaime; Ibáñez-Loinaz, Asier; Teniente, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    A real-time imaging system based on a frequency scanning antenna for conveyor belt setups is presented in this paper. The frequency scanning antenna together with an inexpensive parabolic reflector operates at the W band enabling the detection of details with dimensions in the order of 2 mm. In addition, a low level of sidelobes is achieved by optimizing unequal dividers to window the power distribution for sidelobe reduction. Furthermore, the quality of the images is enhanced by the radiation pattern properties. The performance of the system is validated by showing simulation as well as experimental results obtained in real time, proving the feasibility of these kinds of frequency scanning antennas for cost-effective imaging applications.

  5. Reliability and applications of statistical methods based on oligonucleotide frequencies in bacterial and archaeal genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, J; Skjerve, E; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    with here are mainly used to examine similarities between archaeal and bacterial DNA from different genomes. These methods compare observed genomic frequencies of fixed-sized oligonucleotides with expected values, which can be determined by genomic nucleotide content, smaller oligonucleotide frequencies......, or be based on specific statistical distributions. Advantages with these statistical methods include measurements of phylogenetic relationship with relatively small pieces of DNA sampled from almost anywhere within genomes, detection of foreign/conserved DNA, and homology searches. Our aim was to explore...... the reliability and best suited applications for some popular methods, which include relative oligonucleotide frequencies (ROF), di- to hexanucleotide zero'th order Markov methods (ZOM) and 2.order Markov chain Method (MCM). Tests were performed on distant homology searches with large DNA sequences, detection...

  6. Optimization of Dimensions of Cylindrical Piezoceramics as Radio-Clean Low Frequency Acoustic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ardid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular piezoelectric transducers with axial polarization are proposed as low frequency acoustic sensors for dark matter bubble chamber detectors. The axial vibration behaviour of the transducer is studied by three different methods: analytical models, FEM simulation, and experimental setup. To optimize disk geometry for this application, the dependence of the vibrational modes in function of the diameter-to-thickness ratio from 0.5 (a tall cylinder to 20.0 (a thin disk has been studied. Resonant and antiresonant frequencies for each of the lowest modes are determined and electromechanical coupling coefficients are calculated. From this analysis, due to the requirements of radiopurity and little volume, optimal diameter-to-thickness ratios for good transducer performance are discussed.

  7. W-Band Circularly Polarized TE11 Mode Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mingzhou; He, Wangdong; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a balanced sidewall exciting approach to realize the circularly polarized TE11 mode transducer. We used a voltage vector transfer matrix to establish the relationship between input and output vectors, then we analyzed amplitude and phase errors to estimate the isolation of degenerate mode. A mode transducer with a sidewall exciter was designed based on the results. In the 88-100 GHz frequency range, the simulated axial ratio is less than 1.05 and the isolation of linearly polarization TE11 mode is higher than 30 dBc. In back-to-back measurements, the return loss is generally greater than 20 dB with a typical insertion loss of 1.2 dB. Back-to-back transmission measurements are in excellent agreement with simulations.

  8. Resonant gravimetric immunosensing based on capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2014-04-08

    High-frequency (40 MHz) and low-frequency (7 MHz) capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) were fabricated and tested for use in gravimetric detection of biomolecules. The low-frequency CMUT sensors have a gold-coated surface, while the high-frequency sensors have a silicon nitride surface. Both surfaces were functionalized with bovine leukemia virus antigen gp51 acting as the antigen. On addition of an a specific antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the antigen/antibody complex is formed on the surface and quantified by HRP-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine. It has been found that a considerably smaller quantity of immuno complex is formed on the high frequency sensor surface. In parallel, the loading of the surface of the CMUT was determined via resonance frequency and electromechanical resistance readings. Following the formation of the immuno complexes, the resonance frequencies of the low-frequency and high-frequency sensors decrease by up to 420 and 440 kHz, respectively. Finite element analysis reveals that the loading of the (gold-coated) low frequency sensors is several times larger than that on high frequency sensors. The formation of the protein film with pronounced elasticity and stress on the gold surface case is discussed. We also discuss the adoption of this method for the detection of DNA using a hybridization assay following polymerase chain reaction.

  9. On the application of frequency selective common mode feedback for multifrequency EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter J; Wu, Yu; Bayford, Richard H; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Common mode voltages are frequently a problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and other bioimpedance applications. To reduce their amplitude common mode feedback is employed. Formalised analyses of both current and voltage feedback is presented in this paper for current drives. Common mode effects due to imbalances caused by the current drives, the electrode connections to the body load and the introduction of the body impedance to ground are considered. Frequency selective narrowband common mode feedback previously proposed to provide feedback stability is examined. As a step towards multifrequency applications the use of narrowband feedback is experimentally demonstrated for two simultaneous current drives. Measured results using standard available components show a reduction of 62 dB for current feedback and 31 dB for voltage feedback. Frequencies ranged from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

  10. The comparison of application of two different frequencies of TENS on excitability of Hoffmann reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to compare the effect of applying two transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS current with different frequencies (2 Hz & 100 Hz on Hoffmann reflex recorded from gastrosoleus muscle of healthy people. Forty female subjects between 20 to 30 years of age were participated in this quasi-experimental design. Twenty of them were exposed to the 100 Hz current and the remaining 20 to 2 Hz current on dermatome S1 root. The excitability of the alpha motoneurone was measured by H-reflex amplitude (peak to peak max/2 before and after the application of the TENS current for 30 minutes. The reflex was recorded and at measured before (TO and after the application of TENS at different times (T1, T% and T10 up to 10 minutes. The mean values were compared by multiple paired T test (alpha=0.00825. The results indicate a considerable decrement in Hoffmann reflex amplitude after application of 100 Hz current in comarison with that of before the application. The effect last for 10 minutes after the TENS application, whereas the application of 2 Hz current results in increment of the Hoffmann reflex amplitude. The 5 and 10 minutes interval test dose not show any significance and the results were attenuated befor 5 minutes. As a conclusion high frequency of TENS (100 Hz has an inhibitory effect on excitability of alpha motor neurone reflex lasting for 10 minutes, while low frequency of TENS (2 Hz has an facilatory effect on the same motoneurone with short lasting effect.

  11. Radio Frequency Underwater Discharge Operation and Its Application to Congo Red Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Liangliang; Zou Shuai; Shen Mingrong; Xin Yu

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) underwater discharge operation was performed for different liquid conductivities driven by different frequencies ranging from 13.56 MHz to 60 MHz, and its application to organic degradation was investigated. The RF underwater discharge was observed to be generated within the bubble at electrode surface formed by RF and plasma heating. It was shown that the sizes of the bubbles and plasmas increased as the driving frequency and the input power went up. The breakdown voltage decreased rapidly with the increase of the water conductivity and driving frequency. Comparative experiments of the UV-VIS absorbance spectra of Congo Red solution before and after discharge suggested effective degradation of the organic dye due to the active species generated during the discharge, such as ·OH, ·O, ·H, etc. revealed by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that higher exciting frequency and lower conductivity of the solution are more effective for organic degradation. With the combination of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) data, one possible degradation process was proposed and the main conceivable components and structures of the products were also presented.

  12. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  13. Critical properties of the double-frequency sine-Gordon model with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Gogolin, A.O.; Nersesyan, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the properties of the double-frequency sine-Gordon model in the vicinity of the Ising quantum phase transition displayed by this model. Using a mapping onto a generalized lattice quantum Ashkin-Teller model, we obtain critical and nearly-off-critical correlation functions of various operators. We discuss applications of the double-sine-Gordon model to one-dimensional physical systems, like spin chains in a staggered external field and interacting electrons in a staggered potential

  14. Application of frequency converters in industry; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, A.; Aguilar Galvan, A. [Ingenieria Energetica Integral, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Some of the applications of the frequency converters will be analyzed, as well as the parameters to be considered for the feasibility of its application evaluation. It is also described how an energy evaluation is accomplished and finally a series of actions are enlisted conducting to the energy savings. [Espanol] Se presentaran algunas de las aplicaciones de los convertidores de frecuencia. Ademas se indicaran los parametros a registrar para evaluar la factibilidad de aplicacion de los mismos, se describe como ejecutar la evaluacion energetica y finalmente se listan una serie de acciones que conducen a lograr ahorros de energia.

  15. A Smartphone Application for Customized Frequency Table Selection in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethanamest, Daniel; Azadpour, Mahan; Zeman, Annette M; Sagi, Elad; Svirsky, Mario A

    2017-09-01

    A novel smartphone-based software application can facilitate self-selection of frequency allocation tables (FAT) in postlingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. CIs use FATs to represent the tonotopic organization of a normal cochlea. Current CI fitting methods typically use a standard FAT for all patients regardless of individual differences in cochlear size and electrode location. In postlingually deaf patients, different amounts of mismatch can result between the frequency-place function they experienced when they had normal hearing and the frequency-place function that results from the standard FAT. For some CI users, an alternative FAT may enhance sound quality or speech perception. Currently, no widely available tools exist to aid real-time selection of different FATs. This study aims to develop a new smartphone tool for this purpose and to evaluate speech perception and sound quality measures in a pilot study of CI subjects using this application. A smartphone application for a widely available mobile platform (iOS) was developed to serve as a preprocessor of auditory input to a clinical CI speech processor and enable interactive real-time selection of FATs. The application's output was validated by measuring electrodograms for various inputs. A pilot study was conducted in six CI subjects. Speech perception was evaluated using word recognition tests. All subjects successfully used the portable application with their clinical speech processors to experience different FATs while listening to running speech. The users were all able to select one table that they judged provided the best sound quality. All subjects chose a FAT different from the standard FAT in their everyday clinical processor. Using the smartphone application, the mean consonant-nucleus-consonant score with the default FAT selection was 28.5% (SD 16.8) and 29.5% (SD 16.4) when using a self-selected FAT. A portable smartphone application enables CI users to self-select frequency allocation

  16. Application of frequency converters in industry; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, A; Aguilar Galvan, A [Ingenieria Energetica Integral, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Some of the applications of the frequency converters will be analyzed, as well as the parameters to be considered for the feasibility of its application evaluation. It is also described how an energy evaluation is accomplished and finally a series of actions are enlisted conducting to the energy savings. [Espanol] Se presentaran algunas de las aplicaciones de los convertidores de frecuencia. Ademas se indicaran los parametros a registrar para evaluar la factibilidad de aplicacion de los mismos, se describe como ejecutar la evaluacion energetica y finalmente se listan una serie de acciones que conducen a lograr ahorros de energia.

  17. Application of modified homotopy perturbation method and amplitude frequency formulation to strongly nonlinear oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd ghasem enayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two powerful analytical methods known as modified homotopy perturbation method and Amplitude Frequency Formulation called respectively MHPM and AFF, are introduced to derive approximate solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations appear in mechanical applications. These methods convert a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The obtained solutions are compared with numerical fourth order runge-kutta method to show the applicability and accuracy of both MHPM and AFF in solving this sample problem. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that MHPM and AFF are powerful mathematical tools and they can be applied to linear and nonlinear problems.

  18. Possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy scavenging transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo Hyung

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a cellulose-based Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) energy scavenging transducer is presented. Cellulose is proven as a smart material, and exhibits piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by coating gold electrodes on both sides of cellulose film. The fabricated specimens were tested by a base excited aluminum cantilever beam at resonant frequency. Different tests were performed with single and multiple parallel connected electrodes coated on the cellulose film. A maximum of 131 mV output voltage was measured, when three electrodes were connected in parallel. It was observed that voltage output increases significantly with the area of electrodes. From these results, it can be concluded that the piezoelectricity of cellulose-based EAPap can be used in energy transduction application.

  19. Development of a High-Temperature Smart Transducer Interface Node and Telemetry System (HSTINTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.A. et al.

    2006-11-03

    Halliburton Energy Services and Oak Ridge National Laboratory established a CRADA to conduct applied research to develop a general purpose, High-Temperature, Smart Transducer Interface Node and Telemetry System (HSTINTS) capable of temporally-coherent multiple-channel, high speed, high-resolution data transuction and acquisition while operating in a hostile thermal, chemical, and pressure environment for extended periods of time over a single coaxial cable. This ambitious, high-risk effort required development of custom dielectric isolated integrated circuits, amplified hybrid couplers for telemetry and an audio-frequency based power supply and distribution system using an engineered application of standing waves to compensate voltage drop along a 2 mile long cable. Several goals were achieved but underestimated challenges and a couple of mistakes hampered progress. When it was determined that an additional year of concerted effort would be required to complete the system demonstration, the sponsor withdrew funding and terminated the effort.

  20. Change detection using landsat time series: A review of frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.

  1. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  2. Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, T.; Simonsen, A.; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency and microwave signals is a ubiquitous challenge, crucial in radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation, and classical and quantum communication. Efficient up-conversion of radio-frequency signals to an optical carrier would...... strong coupling between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane's displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its surface. The radio-frequency signals are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity....... The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude less than that of standard optical modulators. The noise of the transducer--beyond the measured 800 pV Hz-1/2 Johnson noise of the resonant circuit--consists of the quantum noise of light and thermal fluctuations of the membrane...

  3. Frequency-Division Multiplexing for Electrical Impedance Tomography in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Granot

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance tomography (EIT produces an image of the electrical impedance distribution of tissues in the body, using electrodes that are placed on the periphery of the imaged area. These electrodes inject currents and measure voltages and from these data, the impedance can be computed. Traditional EIT systems usually inject current patterns in a serial manner which means that the impedance is computed from data collected at slightly different times. It is usually also a time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a method for collecting data concurrently from all of the current patterns in biomedical applications of EIT. This is achieved by injecting current through all of the current injecting electrodes simultaneously, and measuring all of the resulting voltages at once. The signals from various current injecting electrodes are separated by injecting different frequencies through each electrode. This is called frequency-division multiplexing (FDM. At the voltage measurement electrodes, the voltage related to each current injecting electrode is isolated by using Fourier decomposition. In biomedical applications, using different frequencies has important implications due to dispersions as the tissue's electrical properties change with frequency. Another significant issue arises when we are recording data in a dynamic environment where the properties change very fast. This method allows simultaneous measurements of all the current patterns, which may be important in applications where the tissue changes occur in the same time scale as the measurement. We discuss the FDM EIT method from the biomedical point of view and show results obtained with a simple experimental system.

  4. High-frequency counter-flow plasma synthetic jet actuator and its application in suppression of supersonic flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Li, Jun; Jin, Di; Tang, Mengxiao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Lianghua

    2018-01-01

    We come up with a control strategy for suppression of supersonic flow separation based on high-frequency Counter-flow Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator (CPSJA). The main purpose of this investigation is to verify if its control authority can be enhanced by the jet/shock interaction. We use a blunt nose to generate a bow shock, a step on a flat plate to introduce a massive separation in a Mach 2 wind tunnel, and the CPSJA to generate Plasma Synthetic Jet (PSJ). In this study, pulsed capacitive discharge is provided for an array of CPSJAs, which makes the actuation (discharge) frequency f1 = 1 kHz, f2 = 2 kHz and f3 = 3 kHz. We use the high-speed schlieren imaging and fast response pressure transducers as well as a numerical simulation to investigate the quiescent PSJ properties, the interaction between the jet and bow shock, and its disturbance effect on the downstream separated region. The schlieren images show that PSJ is characterized by a succession of vortex rings; the jet strength weakens with the increase of frequency. A 4.5 mN jet thrust is found for all the frequencies. The simulation results show that jet/shock interaction produces vorticity in the vortex ring of the jet, enhancing turbulent mixing in PSJ so that a great deal of momentum is produced into the flow. We found the downstream flow is significantly disturbed by the enhanced actuation. Actuation with frequency of f2, f3 which is close to the natural frequency fn of the separation bubble suppresses the separation with the upstream laminar boundary layer being periodically attenuated, which has a better control effect than f1. The control effect is sensitive to the position where PSJ interacts with the shear layer, but the amount of energy deposited in one pulse is not crucial in a separation reduction in the experiment.

  5. Research of Steel-dielectric Transition Using Subminiature Eddy-current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.; Ishkov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The research aims to develop a subminiature transducer for electrical steel investigation. The authors determined the capability to study steel characteristics at different depths based on variations of eddy-current transducer amplitude at the steel-dielectric boundary. A subminiature transformer-type transducer was designed, which enables to perform local investigations of ferromagnetic materials using an eddy-current method based on local studies of the steel electrical conductivity. Having the designed transducer as a basis, a hardware-software complex was built to perform experimental studies of steel at the interface boundary. Test results are reported for a specimen with continuous and discrete measurements taken at different frequencies. The article provides the key technical information about the eddy current transformer used and describes the methodology of measurements that makes it possible to control steel to dielectric transition.

  6. Intravascular forward-looking ultrasound transducers for microbubble-mediated sonothrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwook; Lindsey, Brooks D; Chang, Wei-Yi; Dai, Xuming; Stavas, Joseph M; Dayton, Paul A; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2017-06-14

    Effective removal or dissolution of large blood clots remains a challenge in clinical treatment of acute thrombo-occlusive diseases. Here we report the development of an intravascular microbubble-mediated sonothrombolysis device for improving thrombolytic rate and thus minimizing the required dose of thrombolytic drugs. We hypothesize that a sub-megahertz, forward-looking ultrasound transducer with an integrated microbubble injection tube is more advantageous for efficient thrombolysis by enhancing cavitation-induced microstreaming than the conventional high-frequency, side-looking, catheter-mounted transducers. We developed custom miniaturized transducers and demonstrated that these transducers are able to generate sufficient pressure to induce cavitation of lipid-shelled microbubble contrast agents. Our technology demonstrates a thrombolysis rate of 0.7 ± 0.15 percent mass loss/min in vitro without any use of thrombolytic drugs.

  7. The comparison between the acquisition vibration data obtained by different types of transducers for hydraulic turbine head cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youping; Lu, Jinsong; Cheng, Jian; Yin, Yongzhen; Wang, Jianlan

    2017-04-01

    Based on the summaries of the rules about the vibration measurement for hydro-generator sets with respect to relevant standards, the key issues of the vibration measurement, such as measurement modes, the transducer selection are illustrated. In addition, the problems existing in vibration measurement are pointed out. The actual acquisition data of head cover vertical vibration respectively obtained by seismic transducer and eddy current transducer in site hydraulic turbine performance tests during the rising of the reservoir upstream level in a certain hydraulic power plant are compared. The difference of the data obtained by the two types of transducers and the potential reasons are presented. The application conditions of seismic transducer and eddy current transducer for hydro-generator set vibration measurement are given based on the analysis. Research subjects that should be focused on about the topic discussed in this paper are suggested.

  8. High-frequency applications of high-temperature superconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N.

    2002-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting thin films offer unique properties which can be utilized for a variety of high-frequency device applications in many areas related to the strongly progressing market of information technology. One important property is an exceptionally low level of microwave absorption at temperatures attainable with low power cryocoolers. This unique property has initiated the development of various novel type of microwave devices and commercialized subsystems with special emphasis on application in advanced microwave communication systems. The second important achievement related to efforts in oxide thin and multilayer technology was the reproducible fabrication of low-noise Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconducting thin films. As a consequence of this achievement, several novel nonlinear high-frequency devices, most of them exploiting the unique features of the ac Josephson effect, have been developed and found to exhibit challenging properties to be utilized in basic metrology and Terahertz technology. On the longer timescale, the achievements in integrated high-temperature superconductor circuit technology may offer a strong potential for the development of digital devices with possible clock frequencies in the range of 100 GHz.

  9. High-frequency applications of high-temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, N.

    2002-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting thin films offer unique properties which can be utilized for a variety of high-frequency device applications in many areas related to the strongly progressing market of information technology. One important property is an exceptionally low level of microwave absorption at temperatures attainable with low power cryocoolers. This unique property has initiated the development of various novel type of microwave devices and commercialized subsystems with special emphasis on application in advanced microwave communication systems. The second important achievement related to efforts in oxide thin and multilayer technology was the reproducible fabrication of low-noise Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconducting thin films. As a consequence of this achievement, several novel nonlinear high-frequency devices, most of them exploiting the unique features of the ac Josephson effect, have been developed and found to exhibit challenging properties to be utilized in basic metrology and Terahertz technology. On the longer timescale, the achievements in integrated high-temperature superconductor circuit technology may offer a strong potential for the development of digital devices with possible clock frequencies in the range of 100 GHz. (author)

  10. Successful application of frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic system with a grounded electric source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L.; Lin, J.; Liu, C.; Zhou, H.; Ren, T.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A new frequency-domain AEM system with a grounded electric source, which was called ground-airborne frequency-domain electromagnetic (GAFEM) system, was proposed to extend penetration depth without compromising the resolution and detection efficiency. In GAFEM system, an electric source was placed on the ground to enlarge the strength of response signals. UVA was chosen as aircraft to reduce interaction noise and improve its ability to adapt to complex terrain. Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method has been researched and applied to improve the efficiency of GAFEM system. 2n pseudorandom sequence was introduced as transmitting waveform, to ensure resolution and detection efficiency. Inversion-procedure based on full-space apparent resistivity formula was built to realize GAFEM method and extend the survey area to non-far field. Based on GAFEM system, two application was conducted in Changchun, China, to map the deep conductive structure. As shown in the results of this exploration, GAFEM system shows its effectiveness to conductive structure, obtaining a depth of about 1km with a source-receiver distance of over 6km. And it shows the same level of resolution with CSAMT method with an over 10 times of efficiency. This extended a range of important applications where the terrain is too complex to be accessed or large penetration depth is required in a large survey area.

  11. Geometrical Feature Extraction from Ultrasonic Time Frequency Responses: An Application to Nondestructive Testing of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Valery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing is an essential tool in nondestructive material characterization. Pulse-echo inspection with ultrasonic energy provides signals (A-scans that can be processed in order to obtain parameters which are related to physical properties of inspected materials. Conventional techniques are based on the use of a short-term frequency analysis of the A-scan, obtaining a time-frequency response (TFR, to isolate the evolution of the different frequency-dependent parameters. The application of geometrical estimators to TFRs provides an innovative way to complement conventional techniques based on the one-dimensional evolution of an A-scan extracted parameter (central or centroid frequency, bandwidth, etc.. This technique also provides an alternative method of obtaining similar meaning and less variance estimators. A comparative study of conventional versus new proposed techniques is presented in this paper. The comparative study shows that working with binarized TFRs and the use of shape descriptors provide estimates with lower bias and variance than conventional techniques. Real scattering materials, with different scatterer sizes, have been measured in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed estimators to distinguish among scattering soft tissues. Superior results, using the proposed estimators in real measures, were obtained when classifying according to mean scatterer size.

  12. A Method for Dynamically Selecting the Best Frequency Hopping Technique in Industrial Wireless Sensor Network Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Gorostiza, Erlantz; Berzosa, Jorge; Mabe, Jon; Cortiñas, Roberto

    2018-02-23

    Industrial wireless applications often share the communication channel with other wireless technologies and communication protocols. This coexistence produces interferences and transmission errors which require appropriate mechanisms to manage retransmissions. Nevertheless, these mechanisms increase the network latency and overhead due to the retransmissions. Thus, the loss of data packets and the measures to handle them produce an undesirable drop in the QoS and hinder the overall robustness and energy efficiency of the network. Interference avoidance mechanisms, such as frequency hopping techniques, reduce the need for retransmissions due to interferences but they are often tailored to specific scenarios and are not easily adapted to other use cases. On the other hand, the total absence of interference avoidance mechanisms introduces a security risk because the communication channel may be intentionally attacked and interfered with to hinder or totally block it. In this paper we propose a method for supporting the design of communication solutions under dynamic channel interference conditions and we implement dynamic management policies for frequency hopping technique and channel selection at runtime. The method considers several standard frequency hopping techniques and quality metrics, and the quality and status of the available frequency channels to propose the best combined solution to minimize the side effects of interferences. A simulation tool has been developed and used in this work to validate the method.

  13. Frequency-controlled wireless shape memory polymer microactuator for drug delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, M A; Ahmad, A; Mohamed Ali, M S

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the wireless Shape-Memory-Polymer actuator operated by external radio frequency magnetic fields and its application in a drug delivery device. The actuator is driven by a frequency-sensitive wireless resonant heater which is bonded directly to the Shape-Memory-Polymer and is activated only when the field frequency is tuned to the resonant frequency of heater. The heater is fabricated using a double-sided Cu-clad Polyimide with much simpler fabrication steps compared to previously reported methods. The actuation range of 140 μm as the tip opening distance is achieved at device temperature 44 °C in 30 s using 0.05 W RF power. A repeatability test shows that the actuator's average maximum displacement is 110 μm and standard deviation of 12 μm. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate drug release with 5 μL of an acidic solution loaded in the reservoir and the device is immersed in DI water. The actuator is successfully operated in water through wireless activation. The acidic solution is released and diffused in water with an average release rate of 0.172 μL/min.

  14. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Taghaddos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials have been vastly used in ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging. In this paper, firstly, the most promising lead-free compositions with perovskite structure for medical imaging applications have been reviewed. The electromechanical properties of various lead-free ceramics, composites, and single crystals based on barium titanate, bismuth sodium titanate, potassium sodium niobate, and lithium niobate are presented. Then, fundamental principles and design considerations of ultrasonic transducers are briefly described. Finally, recent developments in lead-free ultrasonic probes are discussed and their acoustic performance is compared to lead-based transducers. Focused transducers with different beam focusing methods such as lens focusing and mechanical shaping are explained. Additionally, acoustic characteristics of lead-free probes including the pulse-echo results as well as their imaging capabilities for various applications such as phantom imaging, in vitro intravascular ultrasound imaging of swine aorta, and in vivo or ex vivo imaging of human eyes and skin are reviewed.

  15. Non-Invasive Airway Cleansing with Application of Expulsion Effect of HFJV (High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hermely

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of expulsion and impulsion nozzle high frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing respiratory system during long-term mechanical ventilation. Material and methods. Retrospective study. In the group of 198 patients presenting its own procedures and the application of inpulsive and expulsive effect of the nozzle frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing and maintaining a patent airway. They used high frequency jet ventilation with the possibility of expulsion and epulsion programming and assessed a total of over 8000 expulsion procedures. Changes in lung mechanics, hemodynamics, effectiveness of expulsion and the need for suction beforeexpulsion and in regular application of VFDV were monitored. Results. We statistically compared and evaluated the effectiveness of expulsion in the VFDV group of 198 patients on long-term UVP, which was effective in average of 94.9% of patients. The impact of expulsion regime on circulatory, ventilation systems and gas exchange in the lungs, including lung mechanics, were analyzed. The authors found that the application of VFDV had a substantial and statistically significant effect on hemodynamics. Application of expulsion and lavage (a technique is described statistically significantly reduced airway resistance Raw (p<0.01 and improved the levels of lung static compliance (p<0.01 compared with the prior expulsion. Changes in blood gases during the expulsion itself did not have a major impact on gas exchange in the lungs or on the pH in this group, but there was a statistically significant increase in PaO2 (p<0.05. A key finding was that when comparing the number of manipulations in the airways (suction, a radical reduction in the number of pumping was observed, if expulsion was used regularly. A statistically significant difference in the application of expulsion was detected when compared to most groups of patients (p<0.01. The number of

  16. Applications of hybrid time-frequency methods in nonlinear structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politopoulos, I.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L.; Antunes, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on methods which may be used to compute the nonlinear response of systems whose linear properties are determined in the frequency or Laplace domain. Typically, this kind of situation may arise in soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction problems. In particular three methods are investigated: (a) the hybrid time-frequency method, (b) the computation of the convolution integral which requires an inverse Fourier or Laplace transform of the system's transfer function, and (c) the identification of an equivalent system defined in the time domain which may be solved with classical time integration methods. These methods are illustrated by their application to some simple, one degree of freedom, non-linear systems and their advantages and drawbacks are highlighted. (authors)

  17. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a controllable resistor, which is formed by a MOS-resistor working in the deep triangle region and an auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit can generate the gate-source voltage which is proportional to the output current of an low dropout regulator for the MOS-resistor. Thus, the equivalent output resistance of the MOS-resistor is inversely proportional to the output current, which is a suitable feature for pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods. By switching the type of the MOS-resistor and current direction through the auxiliary circuit, the controllable resistor can be suitable for different applications. Three pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods based on a single Miller capacitor with nulling resistor, unit-gain compensation cell and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor. Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  18. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali, E-mail: wangyi@vlsi.zju.edu.c [Institute of VLSI Design, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents a controllable resistor, which is formed by a MOS-resistor working in the deep triangle region and an auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit can generate the gate-source voltage which is proportional to the output current of an low dropout regulator for the MOS-resistor. Thus, the equivalent output resistance of the MOS-resistor is inversely proportional to the output current, which is a suitable feature for pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods. By switching the type of the MOS-resistor and current direction through the auxiliary circuit, the controllable resistor can be suitable for different applications. Three pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods based on a single Miller capacitor with nulling resistor, unit-gain compensation cell and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor. Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  19. Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Deca-Band 5 G/LTE/WWAN Mobile Terminal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Cheng, Biyu; Jia, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable antenna for 5 G/LTE/WWAN mobile terminal applications is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a radiation element which is folded on a dielectric cuboid. Four PIN diodes located on the antenna element are used for frequency reconfigration. By controlling the states of four PIN diodes with an 8-bit microcontroller, a broad band which can cover deca-band as LTE700/2300/2500, GSM850/900/1800/1900, UMTS 2100, WLAN2400 and the future 5 G or LTE3600 is obtained with a compacted size of 40×8×5mm3. The antenna gain, efficiency and radiation characteristics are also shown.

  20. Subminiature eddy-current transducers designed to study welded joints of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, V. N.; Dmitriev, S. F.; Katasonov, A. O.; Sagalakov, A. M.; Ishkov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Eddy current transducers (ECT) are used to construct a sensor for investigating titanium sheets connected by a welded joint. The paper provides key technical information about the eddy current transducer used and describes the procedure of measurements that makes it possible to control defects in welded joints of titanium alloys. It is capable of automatically changing the filtering cutoff frequency and operating frequency of the device. Experiments were conducted on welded VT1-0 titanium plates. The paper contains the results of these measurements. The dependence data facilitates the assessment of the quality of the welded joints and helps make an educated conclusion about welding quality.

  1. Application of frequency converters in industry; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmar Saavedra, Alejandro [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Next an analysis methodology for the application of a frequency converter in equipment that handles flows, as they can be pumps, fans, blowers and extractors is presented. Measurements of some practical cases that we have had in the industry are shown. Some of the types of applications in which the control of speed with the frequency converter is used, are the following ones: pumps, fans, mills, crushing machines, extruders, Banbury mixers, spinning machines, conveyors, mixers, electrical vehicles, lime furnaces, injection machines, blowers and extractors. The purpose of a frequency converter is of controlling the speed and/or torque of an electrical motor. The reasons for which a frequency converter is used can be classified, in two large fields: the necessary and those that provide energy saving. [Spanish] A continuacion se presenta una metodologia de analisis para la aplicacion de un convertidor de frecuencia en equipos que manejan flujos, como pueden ser bombas, ventiladores, sopladores y extractores. Se muestran mediciones de algunos casos practicos que hemos tenido en la industria. Algunos de los tipos de aplicaciones en donde se usa el control de velocidad con el convertidor de frecuencia, son los siguientes: bombas, ventiladores, molinos, trituradoras, extrusoras, mezcladoras banbury, maquinas de hilado, transportadoras, mezcladoras, vehiculos electricos, horno de cal, maquinas de inyeccion, sopladores y extractores. El proposito de un convertidor de frecuencia es el de controlar la velocidad y/o par en un motor electrico. Se pueden, clasificar las razones por las que se usa un convertidor de frecuencia, en dos grandes campos: las necesarias y las que proporcionan ahorros de energia.

  2. Electromechanical modelling of tapered ionic polymer metal composites transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesha Chandra Dash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs are relatively new smart materials that exhibit a bidirectional electromechanical coupling. IPMCs have large number of important engineering applications such as micro robotics, biomedical devices, biomimetic robotics etc. This paper presents a comparison between tapered and uniform cantilevered Nafion based IPMCs transducer. Electromechanical modelling is done for the tapered beam. Thickness can be varied according to the requirement of force and deflection. Numerical results pertaining to the force and deflection characteristics of both type IPMCs transducer are obtained. It is shown that the desired amount of force and deflections for tapered IPMCs can be achieved for a given voltage. Different fixed end (t0 and free end (t1 thickness values have been taken to justify the results using MATLAB.

  3. Performance of Honeywell silicon pressure transducers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.; Damodaran, V.

    pressure. The precision pressure transducer – ruggedized (PPTR) manufactured by Honeywell is provided with a special “Hastelloy” material isolation-diaphragm to protect the transducer port against corrosive effects during its prolonged exposure...-scale output (an intelligent technique anufacturers to hide the non-linearity of the product at all data points below ore realistic estimate of linearity is obtained by ean of a few samples) based on the corresponding true ethod employed by performance...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Ionomers for Performance in Ionic Liquid â Swollen Ionic Polymer Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Andrew Jay

    2009-01-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPT) are a class of electroactive polymer devices that exhibit electromechanical coupling through charge transport in ionomeric membranes that contain a charge mobilizing diluent and are interfaced with conducting electrodes. Applications of these active materials have been broadly developed in the field of actuators and sensors. Advances in fundamental understanding of IPT performance mechanisms and tuning of the device components has primarily focused on transduce...

  5. RESEARCH INTO VALVE-ENGINE TRANSDUCERS OF BRUSHLESS SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONIZED MACHINES IN A CIRCUIT SIMULATION SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Galynovskiy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Designing features for valve-engine transducers of brushless synchronous and asynchronized machines are described. Global analysis of research results on the transducer models in a MicroCap circuit simulation system is made, recommendations on the simulation system application in both scientific research and educational process given.

  6. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  7. Selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming-Liang; Deng Ming-Xi; Gao Guang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a modal expansion approach for the analysis of the selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). With the modal expansion approach for waveguide excitation, an analytical expression of the Lamb wave’s mode expansion coefficient is deduced, which is related to the driving frequency and the geometrical parameters of the EMAT’s meander coil, and lays a theoretical foundation for exactly analyzing the selective generation of Lamb waves with EMATs. The influences of the driving frequency on the mode expansion coefficient of ultrasonic Lamb waves are analyzed when the EMAT’s geometrical parameters are given. The numerical simulations and experimental examinations show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave modes can be effectively regulated (strengthened or restrained) by choosing an appropriate driving frequency of EMAT, with the geometrical parameters given. This result provides a theoretical and experimental basis for selectively generating a single and pure Lamb wave mode with EMATs. (special topic)

  8. Underwater characterizations of monolithic piezoceramic and 1-3 composite using a self-designed transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem Mirza, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq; Ikram, Masroor; Altaf, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Zahir; Nasir Khan, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Underwater characterizations of (Pb0.94Sr0.04)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) and PZT/araldite-F 1-3 composite were carried out through a self-designed transducer. Disc-shaped samples of bulk PZT and PZT/araldite-F composite were first characterized in air and then were assembled in the transducer individually. The transducer's underwater voltage receiving sensitivity (Sh) and transmitting voltage response (Sv) were investigated in the frequency range of 10-200 kHz (well below thickness mode resonance) using a calibrated projector and receiver method with pulse technique. Results revealed that the transducer made with composite sample exhibited better (Sh) values (-214 dB ref 1 V/µPa) due to ~295% higher piezoelectric voltage coefficient gh (30 × 10-3 Vm/N) of the composite compared to PZT. In addition, the transducer with the PZT sample showed better Sv values (80 dB ref 1 µPa/1 V at 1 m) due to the presence of planar mode peaks in the frequency range of 10-200 kHz. These results indicate that the monolithic piezoceramic can exhibit underwater Sv response in both planar and thickness resonance modes owing to the admittance peaks in these frequency regions.

  9. Initial Design and Quick Analysis of SAW Ultra–Wideband HFM Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janeliauskas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents techniques for initial design and quick fundamental and harmonic operation analysis of surface acoustic waves ultra–wideband hyperbolically frequency modulated (HFM interdigital transducer (IDT. The primary analysis is based on the quasi–static method. Quasi–electrostatic charge's density distribution was approximated by Chebyshev polynomials and the method of Green’s function. It assesses the non uniform charge distribution of electrodes, electric field interaction and the end effects of a whole transducer. It was found that numerical integration (e.g. Romberg, Gauss–Chebyshev requires a lot of machine time for calculation of the Chebyshev polynomial and the Green’s function convolution when integration includes coordinates of a large number of neighboring electrodes. In order to accelerate the charge density calculation, the analytic expressions are derived. Evaluation of HFM transducer fundamental and harmonics' operation amplitude response with simulation single–dispersive interdigital chirp filter structure is presented. Elapsed time of HFM IDT with 589 electrodes simulations and 2000 frequency response point is only 54 seconds (0.027 s/point on PC with CPU Intel Core I7–4770S. Amplitude response is compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM IDT response. It was determined that the HFM transducer characteristic is less distorted in comparison with LFM transducer.

  10. Calculation and applications of the frequency dependent neutron detector response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, H.; Van Hagen, T.H.J.J. der; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Keijzer, J.

    1994-01-01

    The theoretical basis is presented for the evaluation of the frequency dependent function that enables to calculate the response of a neutron detector to parametric fluctuations ('noise') or oscillations in reactor core. This function describes the 'field view' of a detector and can be calculated with a static transport code under certain conditions which are discussed. Two applications are presented: the response of an ex-core detector to void fraction fluctuations in a BWR and of both in and ex-core detectors to a rotating neutron absorber near or inside a research reactor core. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  12. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WCDMA/Bluetooth/ZigBee applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyuan, Zhou; Guolin, Li; Chun, Zhang; Baoyong, Chi; Dongmei, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2009-07-01

    A triple-mode fractional-N frequency synthesizer with a noise-filter voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) for WCDMA/Bluetooth/ZigBee applications has been implemented in 0.18-μm RF-CMOS technology. The proposed synthesizer achieves a good phase noise lower than -80 dBc/Hz in band and -115 dBc/Hz@1 MHz for the three modes, and only draws 21 mA from a 1.8 V supply. It has a high hardware sharing and a small size, only 1.5 × 1.4 mm2. The system architecture, circuit design, and measured results are also presented.

  13. An MR-compliant phased-array HIFU transducer with augmented steering range, dedicated to abdominal thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboiroux, Vincent [Inserm, U556, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Dumont, Erik [Image Guided Therapy, Pessac, Bordeaux (France); Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares [Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie, E-mail: vincent.auboiroux@unige.ch [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-06-21

    A novel architecture for a phased-array high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was investigated, aiming to increase the capabilities of electronic steering without reducing the size of the elementary emitters. The principal medical application expected to benefit from these developments is the time-effective sonication of large tumours in moving organs. The underlying principle consists of dividing the full array of transducers into multiple sub-arrays of different resonance frequencies, with the reorientation of these individual emitters, such that each sub-array can focus within a given spatial zone. To enable magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of the device and the number of output channels from the RF generator to be halved, a passive spectral multiplexing technique was used, consisting of parallel wiring of frequency-shifted paired piezoceramic emitters with intrinsic narrow-band response. Two families of 64 emitters (circular, 5 mm diameter) were mounted, with optimum efficiency at 0.96 and 1.03 MHz, respectively. Two different prototypes of the HIFU device were built and tested, each incorporating the same two families of emitters, but differing in the shape of the rapid prototyping plastic support that accommodated the transducers (spherical cap with radius of curvature/aperture of 130 mm/150 mm and, respectively, 80 mm/110 mm). Acoustic measurements, MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (ex vivo) and MR-thermometry (ex vivo and in vivo) were used for the characterization of the prototypes. Experimental results demonstrated an augmentation of the steering range by 80% along one preferentially chosen axis, compared to a classic spherical array of the same total number of elements. The electric power density provided to the piezoceramic transducers exceeded 50 W cm{sup -2} CW, without circulation of coolant water. Another important advantage of the current approach is the versatility of reshaping the array at low cost.

  14. An MR-compliant phased-array HIFU transducer with augmented steering range, dedicated to abdominal thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auboiroux, Vincent; Dumont, Erik; Petrusca, Lorena; Viallon, Magalie; Salomir, Rares

    2011-06-01

    A novel architecture for a phased-array high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was investigated, aiming to increase the capabilities of electronic steering without reducing the size of the elementary emitters. The principal medical application expected to benefit from these developments is the time-effective sonication of large tumours in moving organs. The underlying principle consists of dividing the full array of transducers into multiple sub-arrays of different resonance frequencies, with the reorientation of these individual emitters, such that each sub-array can focus within a given spatial zone. To enable magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of the device and the number of output channels from the RF generator to be halved, a passive spectral multiplexing technique was used, consisting of parallel wiring of frequency-shifted paired piezoceramic emitters with intrinsic narrow-band response. Two families of 64 emitters (circular, 5 mm diameter) were mounted, with optimum efficiency at 0.96 and 1.03 MHz, respectively. Two different prototypes of the HIFU device were built and tested, each incorporating the same two families of emitters, but differing in the shape of the rapid prototyping plastic support that accommodated the transducers (spherical cap with radius of curvature/aperture of 130 mm/150 mm and, respectively, 80 mm/110 mm). Acoustic measurements, MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (ex vivo) and MR-thermometry (ex vivo and in vivo) were used for the characterization of the prototypes. Experimental results demonstrated an augmentation of the steering range by 80% along one preferentially chosen axis, compared to a classic spherical array of the same total number of elements. The electric power density provided to the piezoceramic transducers exceeded 50 W cm-2 CW, without circulation of coolant water. Another important advantage of the current approach is the versatility of reshaping the array at low cost.

  15. Application of low frequency and medium frequency currents in the management of acute and chronic pain-A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Rajan Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and interferential therapy (IFT have been a regular line of treatment for various types of acute and chronic pain. This review aims to compile the latest literature in pain management using these modalities which use low-frequency and medium-frequency currents. The Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were searched and studies were examined from their inception till October 2013. After title and abstract screening the relevant studies were included for this review. We found through this review that even though TENS and IFT are used in management of pain, there is limited amount of high quality research available in this area. Most of the studies lack methodological quality and have a low sample size.

  16. Characterization of piezoelectric materials for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing for ultra-low frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad Nouroz; Seethaler, Rudolf; Alam, M Shahria

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used extensively in a number of sensing applications ranging from aerospace industries to medical diagnostics. Piezoelectric materials generate charge when they are subjected to strain. However, since measuring charge is difficult at low frequencies, traditional piezoelectric sensors are limited to dynamic applications. In this research an alternative technique is proposed to determine static strain that relies upon the measurement of piezoelectric capacitance and resistance using piezoelectric sensors. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the capacitance and resistance of a piezoelectric patch sensor was characterized for a wide range of strain and temperature. The study shows that the piezoelectric capacitance is sensitive to both strain and temperature while the resistance is mostly dependent on the temperature variation. The findings can be implemented to obtain thermally compensated static strain from piezoelectric sensors, which does not require an additional temperature sensor. (paper)

  17. The application of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Zhuo-hua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the application value of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and electrophysiological research. Methods Fifty-six PD patients treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital from September 2010 to September 2012 were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A (N = 28 and group B (N = 28. Patients in group A were given conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training, while patients in group B were given low frequency rTMS on the basis of conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training. After 3 weeks, the scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, resting threshold (RT, cortical latent period, nerve root latent period, central motor conduction time (CMCT and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between 2 groups. Results After intervention, the emotion, ability of daily living and motor function of patients in group B was obviously improved, and the scores of UPDRS in group B were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05. Conclusion The effect of low frequency rTMS in the treatment for PD is evident, safe and reliable, and with less adverse reaction. It can be used as a noninvasive physical treatment measure for PD.

  18. Josephson admittance spectroscopy application for frequency analysis of broadband THz antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, O Yu; Divin, Yu Yu; Gubankov, V N; Gundareva, I I; Pavlovskiy, V V

    2010-01-01

    Application of Josephson admittance spectroscopy for the spectral analysis of a broad-band log-periodic superconducting antenna was demonstrated at the frequency range from 50 to 700 GHz. The [001]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x bicrystal Josephson junctions, integrated with sinuous log-periodic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x antennas, were fabricated on NdGaO 3 bicrystal substrates. A real part of the antenna admittance ReY(f) as a function of the frequency f was reconstructed from the modification of the dc current-voltage characteristic of the junction, induced by the antenna. Resonance features were observed in the recovered ReY(f)-spectra with a periodicity in the logarithmic frequency scale, corresponding to log-periodic geometry of the antenna. The ReY(f)-spectra, recovered by Josephson spectroscopy, were compared with the ReY(f)-spectra, obtained by CAD simulation, and both spectra were shown to be similar in their main features. A value of 23 was obtained for an effective permittivity of the NdGaO3 bicrystal substrates by fitting simulated data to those obtained from Josephson spectroscopy.

  19. Analysis of the analytic formulae application area for free oscillation frequency calculation in isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, I.N.; Taraszkiewicz, R.

    2005-01-01

    Selection of optimal analytic formulae for calculation of free oscillation frequencies of the particles in isochronous cyclotrons, ν r (r) and ν z (r), and their application area are described. The selected formulae are used in the program BORP SR - Betatron Oscillation Research Program Second Release - written in C++ with the help of MS Visual C++ .NET. The free oscillation frequencies, calculated by using the program, are used for the evaluation of the modeled regimes of the work of the AIC144 isochronous cyclotron. The analytic formulae were selected by comparing the results of the calculations performed by using formulae adduced by T.Stammbach, Y.Jongen - S.Zaremba, V.V.Kolga with the results of the calculations performed by using the CYCLOPS iterative program, developed by M.M.Gordon. The least difference in the calculation results was obtained for the analytic formulae adduced by V.V.Kolga. The ν r (r) calculation difference ranged from -0.5 to 1.5% and the ν z (r) calculation difference ranged from -5 to 4% for the working radii of the isochronous cyclotron. As the beam was obtained, the selected analytic formulae can be successfully used in the program BORP SR for free oscillation frequency calculation during the evaluation of the modeled regimes of the work of different isochronous cyclotrons

  20. A reconfigurable frequency-selective surface for dual-mode multi-band filtering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh, Maryam; Ghobadi, Changiz; Nourinia, Javad

    2017-03-01

    A reconfigurable single-layer frequency-selective surface (FSS) with dual-mode multi-band modes of operation is presented. The proposed structure is printed on a compact 10 × 10 mm2 FR4 substrate with the thickness of 1.6 mm. A simple square loop is printed on the front side while another one along with two defected vertical arms is deployed on the backside. To realise the reconfiguration, two pin diodes are embedded on the backside square loop. Suitable insertion of conductive elements along with pin diodes yields in dual-mode multi-band rejection of applicable in service frequency ranges. The first operating mode due to diodes' 'ON' state provides rejection of 2.4 GHz WLAN in 2-3 GHz, 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and X band in 5-12 GHz, and a part of Ku band in 13.9-16 GHz. In diodes 'OFF' state, the FSS blocks WLAN in 4-7.3 GHz, X band in 8-12.7 GHz as well as part of Ku band in 13.7-16.7 GHz. As well, high attenuation of incident waves is observed by a high shielding effectiveness (SE) in the blocked frequency bands. Also, a stable behaviour against different polarisations and angles of incidence is obtained. Comprehensive studies are conducted on a fabricated prototype to assess its performance from which encouraging results are obtained.

  1. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Howard M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  2. Wideband piezoelectric energy harvester for low-frequency application with plucking mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Arata; Ikeda, Naoto; Katsumura, Hidenori; Kagata, Hiroshi; Okumura, Hidenori

    2015-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks need energy harvesting from vibrational environment for their power supply. The conventional resonance type vibration energy harvesters, however, are not always effective for low frequency application. The purpose of this paper is to propose a high efficiency energy harvester for low frequency application by utilizing plucking and SSHI techniques, and to investigate the effects of applying those techniques in terms of the energy harvesting efficiency. First, we derived an approximate formulation of energy harvesting efficiency of the plucking device by theoretical analysis. Next, it was confirmed that the improved efficiency agreed with numerical and experimental results. Also, a parallel SSHI, a switching circuit technique to improve the performance of the harvester was introduced and examined by numerical simulations and experiments. Contrary to the simulated results in which the efficiency was improved from 13.1% to 22.6% by introducing the SSHI circuit, the efficiency obtained in the experiment was only 7.43%. This would due to the internal resistance of the inductors and photo MOS relays on the switching circuit and the simulation including this factor revealed large negative influence of it. This result suggested that the reduction of the switching resistance was significantly important to the implementation of SSHI.

  3. A CURRENT MIRROR BASED TWO STAGE CMOS CASCODE OP-AMP FOR HIGH FREQUENCY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMKRISHNA KUNDU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power, high slew rate, high gain, ultra wide band two stage CMOS cascode operational amplifier for radio frequency application. Current mirror based cascoding technique and pole zero cancelation technique is used to ameliorate the gain and enhance the unity gain bandwidth respectively, which is the novelty of the circuit. In cascading technique a common source transistor drive a common gate transistor. The cascoding is used to enhance the output resistance and hence improve the overall gain of the operational amplifier with less complexity and less power dissipation. To bias the common gate transistor, a current mirror is used in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated using Cadence analog and digital system design tools of 45 nanometer CMOS technology. The simulated results of the circuit show DC gain of 63.62 dB, unity gain bandwidth of 2.70 GHz, slew rate of 1816 V/µs, phase margin of 59.53º, power supply of the proposed operational amplifier is 1.4 V (rail-to-rail ±700 mV, and power consumption is 0.71 mW. This circuit specification has encountered the requirements of radio frequency application.

  4. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  5. Ergonomic design and evaluation of a diagnostic ultrasound transducer holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohamad Sadegh; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Zamani, Farhad; Ahmadpoor, Hossein; Dehghan, Naser

    2017-12-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the body's movement and musculoskeletal system. Awkward postures represent one of the major ergonomic risk factors that cause WMSDs among sonographers while working with an ultrasound transducer. This study aimed to design and evaluate a new holder for the ultrasound transducer. In the first phase a new holder was designed for the transducer, considering design principles. Evaluation of the new holder was then carried out by electrogoniometry and a locally perceived discomfort (LPD) scale. The application of design principles to the new holder resulted in an improvement of wrist posture and comfort. Wrist angles in extension, flexion, radial deviation and ulnar deviation were lower with utilization of the new holder. The severity of discomfort based on the LPD method in the two modes of work with and without the new holder was reported with values of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively (p ergonomics design principles was effective in minimizing wrist deviation and increasing comfort while working with the new holder.

  6. Dynamic Mode Tuning of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Using an Array Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung J.; Park, Joon S.; Kim, Jae H.; Eom, Heung S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. There are numerous modes with different wave velocities, and the appropriate mode selection is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, phase tuning by an array transducer was applied to generate ultrasonic guided waves. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. Eight transducers were fabricated in order to generate guided waves by using an array transducer. The selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the interval between elements of an array transducer

  7. Improving the Design of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Aided with Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis performed to search for feasible design improvements for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. Carried out search has been aided with the sensitivity analysis and the application of Response Surface Method. The multiphysics approach has been taken into account in elaborated finite element model of one cell of described transducer in order to include significant physical phenomena present in modelled microdevice. The set of twelve input uncertain and design parameters consists of geometric, material and control properties. The amplitude of dynamic membrane deformation of the transducer has been chosen as studied parameter. The objective of performed study has been defined as the task of finding robust design configurations of the transducer, i.e. characterizing maximal value of deformation amplitude with its minimal variation.

  8. Measuring systolic arterial blood pressure. Possible errors from extension tubes or disposable transducer domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, C F; Kim, K C

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of possible error in the measurement of systolic blood pressure if disposable, built-in diaphragm, transducer domes or long extension tubes between the patient and pressure transducer are used. Sinusoidal or arterial pressure patterns were generated with specially designed equipment. With a long extension tube or trapped air bubbles, the resonant frequency of the catheter system was reduced so that the arterial pulse was amplified as it acted on the transducer and, thus, gave an erroneously high systolic pressure measurement. The authors found this error to be as much as 20 mm Hg. Trapped air bubbles, not stopcocks or connections, per se, lead to poor fidelity. The utility of a continuous catheter flush system (Sorenson, Intraflow) to estimate the resonant frequency and degree of damping of a catheter-transducer system is described, as are possibly erroneous conclusions. Given a rough estimate of the resonant frequency of a catheter-transducer system and the magnitude of overshoot in response to a pulse, the authors present a table to predict the magnitude of probable error. These studies confirm the variability and unreliability of static calibration that may occur using some safety diaphragm domes and show that the system frequency response is decreased if air bubbles are trapped between the diaphragms. The authors conclude that regular procedures should be established to evaluate the accuracy of the pressure measuring systems in use, the transducer should be placed as close to the patient as possible, the air bubbles should be assiduously eliminated from the system.

  9. Silicon pressure transducers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves M, M.; Sandoval I, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present a review of the pressure sensors, which use the silicon piezo resistive effect and micro machining technique. Typical pressure sensors, applications, design and other different structures are presented. (Author)

  10. Potential applications of high-frequency dielectric heating in mechanical forest industry in Finland. Suurtaajuuskuivauksen kaeyttoemahdollisuudet mekaanisessa metsaeteollisuudessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siimes, H.; Tarvainen, V.; Peraeniitty, M.

    1986-10-01

    The present study of potential applications of dielectric technology in wood drying was made by using availaable literature and contacting experts and equipment manufacturers. The report gives an account of drying results and equipment applications. It also includes an overview of the principles of high-frequency drying, the equipment required for high-frequency energy production and the dielectric properties of wood. In conclusion, the economy of high-frequency drying and factors which influence it are evaluated and the most economic applications are defined. In high-frequency drying, wood warms up the most in interior sections with a high moisture content. The risk for overdrying of the surface is thus small, and the wood dries much faster than in convective drying. To be economic, the high capital and energy costs of high-frequency drying should be compensated by fewer drying defects, a higher yield in the final use of the wood, higher storehouse throughput, speedier deliveries and lower total energy consumption. Other characteristic features of economic high-frequency drying are that only a small amount of moisture is removed and the wood is thick, difficult to dry and expensive. High-frequency applications which merit further study in Finland are drying of thick joinery-quality sawn goods and redrying of veneers and chips.

  11. Development of an omni-directional shear horizontal mode magnetostrictive patch transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghua; Hu, Yanan; Xie, Muwen; Fan, Junwei; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal wave, SH0 mode, has great potential in defect detection and on-line monitoring with large scale and high efficiency in plate-like structures because of its non-dispersive characteristics. Aiming at consistently exciting single SH0 mode in plate-like structures, an omni-directional shear horizontal mode magnetostrictive patch transducer (OSHM-MPT) is developed on the basis of magnetostrictive effect. It consists of four fan-shaped array elements and corresponding plane solenoid array (PSA) coils, four fan-shaped permanent magnets and a circular nickel patch. The experimental results verify that the developed transducer can effectively produce the single SH0 mode in an aluminum plate. The frequency response characteristics of this developed transducer are tested. The results demonstrate that the proposed OSHM-MPT has a center frequency of 300kHz related to the distance between adjacent arc-shaped steps of the PSA coils. Furthermore, omni-directivity of this developed transducer is tested. The results demonstrate that the developed transducer has a high omnidirectional consistency.

  12. Piezoelectric transducer parameter selection for exciting a single mode from multiple modes of Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Yu Jian-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of Lamb waves by using rectangular and circular piezoelectric transducers surface-bonded to an isotropic plate are investigated in this work. Analytical stain wave solutions are derived for the two transducer shapes, giving the responses of these transducers in Lamb wave fields. The analytical study is supported by a numerical simulation using the finite element method. Symmetric and antisymmetric components in the wave propagation responses are inspected in detail with respect to test parameters such as the transducer geometry, the length and the excitation frequency. By placing only one piezoelectric transducer on the top or the bottom surface of the plate and weakening the strength of one mode while enhancing the strength of the other modes to find the centre frequency, with which the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S0 and A0 modes is maximum, a single mode excitation from the multiple modes of the Lamb waves can be achieved approximately. Experimental data are presented to show the validity of the analyses. The results are used to optimize the Lamb wave detection system. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Lamb wave tuning curve calibration for surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN FREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Batura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image, extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases

  15. Radio frequency linear accelerators for NDT applications: Basic overview of RF linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    High energy X-ray radiography can be an important part of a quality control program. In this article the author will present an overview of the technology found in a typical high energy X-ray source, the radio frequency (RF) linear accelerator. In NDT, linacs are used primarily for the inspection of thick sections of materials. Linacs are also used in applications such as high energy computed tomography of specimens greater than 1 m thick and cargo container inspection. Recent developments in reliable portable linacs are opening up other applications such as field inspection of pipelines, ships, bridges, and other civil infrastructure. The replacement of isotopes (such as Co-60) by the linac is an area for growth in the future. The shorter exposure times, improved image capabilities, and greatly reduced regulatory requirements of the linac make a persuasive argument for the replacement of isotopes with a portable linac. The linacs discussed here are those with X-ray energies from 1 to 20 MeV intended for use in NDT applications. The discussion will be in very broad terms; it will be impossible to discuss every variation in linac design. In addition, some topics have been necessarily simplified to increase the comprehensibility for a wider audience

  16. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  17. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok

    2008-01-01

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  18. Percent relative cumulative frequency analysis in indirect calorimetry: application to studies of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, Marc; Himms-Hagen, Jean; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2004-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess characteristics of energy expenditure. Respiration chambers in indirect calorimetry allow measurements over long periods of time (e.g., hours to days) and thus the collection of large sets of data. Current methods of data analysis usually involve the extraction of only a selected small proportion of data, most commonly the data that reflects resting metabolic rate. Here, we describe a simple quantitative approach for the analysis of large data sets that is capable of detecting small differences in energy metabolism. We refer to it as the percent relative cumulative frequency (PRCF) approach and have applied it to the study of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) deficient and control mice. The approach involves sorting data in ascending order, calculating their cumulative frequency, and expressing the frequencies in the form of percentile curves. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the PRCF approach for analyses of oxygen consumption (.VO2) as well as respiratory exchange ratio data. Statistical comparisons of PRCF curves are based on the 50th percentile values and curve slopes (H values). The application of the PRCF approach revealed that energy expenditure in UCP1-deficient mice housed and studied at room temperature (24 degrees C) is on average 10% lower (p lower environmental temperature, there were no differences in .VO2 between groups. The latter is likely due to augmented shivering thermogenesis in UCP1-deficient mice compared with controls. With the increased availability of murine models of metabolic disease, indirect calorimetry is increasingly used, and the PRCF approach provides a novel and powerful means for data analysis.

  19. A Dual Band Frequency Reconfigurable Origami Magic Cube Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Imran Hussain; Lim, Sungjoon

    2017-11-20

    In this paper, a novel dual band frequency reconfigurable antenna using an origami magic cube is proposed for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The proposed origami antenna consists of a meandered monopole folded onto three sides of the magic cube. A microstrip open-ended stub is loaded on the meandered monopole. The proposed origami magic cube can be mechanically folded and unfolded. The proposed antenna operates at 1.57 GHZ and 2.4 GHz in the folded state. In the unfolded state, the proposed antenna operates at 900 MHz and 2.3 GHz. The resonant frequency of the second band can be tunable by varying the length and position of the open stub. The origami magic cube is built on paper. Its performance is numerically and experimentally demonstrated from S-parameters and radiation patterns. The measured 10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed origami antenna is 18% (900-1120 MHz) and 15% (2.1-2.45 GHz) for the unfolded state and 20% (1.3-1.6 GHz) and 14% (2.3-2.5 GHz) for the folded state. The measured peak gain at 900 MHz and 2.3 GHz are 1.1 dBi and 2.32 dBi, respectively, in the unfolded state. The measured peak gain at 1.5 GHz and 2.4 GHz are 3.28 dBi and 1.98 dBi, respectively, in the folded state.

  20. Thin-film piezoelectric-on-silicon resonators for high-frequency reference oscillator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolvand, Reza; Lavasani, Hossein M; Ho, Gavin K; Ayazi, Farrokh

    2008-12-01

    This paper studies the application of lateral bulk acoustic thin-film piezoelectric-on-substrate (TPoS) resonators in high-frequency reference oscillators. Low-motional-impedance TPoS resonators are designed and fabricated in 2 classes--high-order and coupled-array. Devices of each class are used to assemble reference oscillators and the performance characteristics of the oscillators are measured and discussed. Since the motional impedance of these devices is small, the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) in the oscillator loop can be reduced to a single transistor and 3 resistors, a format that is very power-efficient. The lowest reported power consumption is approximately 350 microW for an oscillator operating at approximately 106 MHz. A passive temperature compensation method is also utilized by including the buried oxide layer of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate in the structural resonant body of the device, and a very small (-2.4 ppm/ degrees C) temperature coefficient of frequency is obtained for an 82-MHz oscillator.

  1. Joint Time-Frequency-Space Classification of EEG in a Brain-Computer Interface Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Gary N Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface is a growing field of interest in human-computer interaction with diverse applications ranging from medicine to entertainment. In this paper, we present a system which allows for classification of mental tasks based on a joint time-frequency-space decorrelation, in which mental tasks are measured via electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The efficiency of this approach was evaluated by means of real-time experimentations on two subjects performing three different mental tasks. To do so, a number of protocols for visualization, as well as training with and without feedback, were also developed. Obtained results show that it is possible to obtain good classification of simple mental tasks, in view of command and control, after a relatively small amount of training, with accuracies around 80%, and in real time.

  2. Applicability of ultralow-frequency global resonances for investigating lightning activity on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, A.P.; Rabinovich, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The application to experiments on Venus of methods of investigating global lightning activity that are used on earth in the ultralow-frequency range is discussed. Calculations of the electromagnetic fields in the range from a few Hertz to tens of Hertz are carried out in the framework of the model of the lower ionosphere of Venus, which generalizes the information about the planet's atmosphere which is presently available. The calculations showed that observations of global resonances on Venus must, as on the earth, allow one to obtain data about the global distribution of lightning in space and time, and to make the values of the parameters of the lower ionosphere model more precise

  3. A Comparison Between Jerusalem Cross and Square Patch Frequency Selective Surfaces for Low Profile Antenna Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas; Miranda, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison between Jerusalem Cross (JC) and Square Patch (SP) based Frequency Selected Surfaces (FSS) for low profile antenna applications is presented. The comparison is aimed at understanding the performance of low profile antennas backed by high impedance surfaces. In particular, an end loaded planar open sleeve dipole (ELPOSD) antenna is examined due to the various parameters within its configuration, offering significant design flexibility and a wide operating bandwidth. Measured data of the antennas demonstrate that increasing the number of unit cells improves the fractional bandwidth. The antenna bandwidth increased from 0.8% to 1.8% and from 0.8% to 2.7% for the JC and SP structures, respectively. The number of unit cells was increased from 48 to 80 for the JC-FSS and from 24 to 48 for the SP-FSS.

  4. Real-time determination of fringe pattern frequencies: An application to pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Piroozan, Parham

    2007-05-01

    Retrieving information in real time from fringe patterns is a topic of a great deal of interest in scientific and engineering applications of optical methods. This paper presents a method for fringe frequency determination based on the capability of neural networks to recognize signals that are similar but not identical to signals used to train the neural network. Sampled patterns are generated by calibration and stored in memory. Incoming patterns are analyzed by a back-propagation neural network at the speed of the recording device, a CCD camera. This method of information retrieval is utilized to measure pressures on a boundary layer flow. The sensor combines optics and electronics to analyze dynamic pressure distributions and to feed information to a control system that is capable to preserve the stability of the flow.

  5. Investigations and Applications of Field- and Photo-emitted Electron Beams from a Radio Frequency Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panuganti, SriHarsha [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Production of quality electron bunches using e cient ways of generation is a crucial aspect of accelerator technology. Radio frequency electron guns are widely used to generate and rapidly accelerate electron beams to relativistic energies. In the current work, we primarily study the charge generation processes of photoemission and eld emission inside an RF gun installed at Fermilab's High Brightness Electron Source Laboratory (HBESL). Speci cally, we study and characterize second-order nonlinear photoemission from a Cesium Telluride (Cs2Te) semiconductor photocathode, and eld emission from carbon based cathodes including diamond eld emission array (DFEA) and carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes located in the RF gun's cavity. Finally, we discuss the application experiments conducted at the facility to produce soft x-rays via inverse Compton scattering (ICS), and to generate uniformly lled ellipsoidal bunches and temporally shaped electron beams from the Cs2Te photocathode.

  6. High frequency titration in non-aqueous solvents. Application to HF and UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, Claude

    1965-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first presents the main theoretical notions regarding high frequency titration, notably by studying characteristic curves, i.e. the titration meter indication with respect to conductibility. He reports the use of this method for the study of various reactions in non-aqueous medium: reaction of AlCl 3 with pyridine in acetonitrile, of AlCl 3 with HCl in tetrachloroethane and in nitromethane. He also reports the attempt of application of this method to the titration of HF in presence of UF 6 in CCl 4 as solvent, or by using F acceptors like BF 3 , PF 5 or ClF 3 as reactants [fr

  7. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WCDMA/Bluetooth/ZigBee applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyongi; Wang Zhihua [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Guolin; Li Dongmei, E-mail: zhoucy06@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A triple-mode fractional-N frequency synthesizer with a noise-filter voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) for WCDMA/Bluetooth/ZigBee applications has been implemented in 0.18-{mu}m RF-CMOS technology. The proposed synthesizer achieves a good phase noise lower than -80 dBc/Hz in band and -115 dBc/Hz-1 MHz for the three modes, and only draws 21 mA from a 1.8 V supply. It has a high hardware sharing and a small size, only 1.5 x 1.4 mm{sup 2}. The system architecture, circuit design, and measured results are also presented.

  8. Stepped frequency imaging for flaw monitoring: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of research into the usefulness of stepped frequency imaging (SFI) to nuclear power plant inspection. SFI is a method for producing ultrasonic holographic images without the need to sweep a two-dimensional aperture with the transducer. Instead, the transducer may be translated along a line. At each position of the transducer the frequency is stepped over a finite preselected bandwidth. The frequency stepped data is then processed to synthesize the second dimension. In this way it is possible to generate images in regions that are relatively inaccessible to two-dimensional scanners. This report reviews the theory and experimental work verifying the technique, and then explores its possible applications in the nuclear power industry. It also outlines how this new capability can be incorporated into the SDL-1000 Imaging System previously developed for EPRI. The report concludes with five suggestions for uses for the SFI method. These are: monitoring suspect or repaired regions of feedwater nozzles; monitoring pipe cracks repaired by weld overlay; monitoring crack depth during test block production; imaging flaws where access is difficult; and imaging flaws through cladding without distortion

  9. Elliptical metasurfaces for cloaking and antenna applications at microwave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpourbernety, Hossein

    One of the interesting applications of metamaterials is the phenomenon of electromagnetic invisibility and cloaking, which implies the suppression of bistatic scattering width of a given object, independent of incident and observation angles. In this regard, diverse techniques have been proposed to analyze and design electromagnetic cloak structures, including transformation optics, anomalous resonance methods, transmission-line networks, and plasmonic cloaking, among others. A common drawback of all these methods is that they rely on bulk materials, which are difficult to realize in practice. To overcome this issue, the mantle cloaking method has been proposed, which utilizes an ultrathin metasurface that provides anti-phase surface currents to reduce the scattering dominant mode of a given object. Recently, an analytical model has been proposed to cloak dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects realized with printed and slotted arrays at microwave frequencies. At low-terahertz (THz) frequencies, one of the promising materials to realize the required metasurface is graphene. In this regard, a graphene monolayer, characterized by inductive reactance, has been proposed to cloak dielectric planar and cylindrical objects. Then, it has been shown that a metasurface made of graphene nanopatches owns dual capacitive/inductive inductance and can be used to cloak both dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects at low-THz frequencies. So far, planar and cylindrical dielectric and conducting structures have been studied. In our study, we have extended the concept and presented an accurate analytical approach to investigate the cloaking of two-dimensional (2-D) elliptical objects including infinite dielectric elliptical cylinders using graphene monolayer; metallic elliptical cylinders, and also, as a special case, 2-D metallic strips using a nanostructured graphene patch array at low-THz frequencies. We have also obtained the results for cloaking of ellipses at

  10. Mechano-electric optoisolator transducer with hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurus, I M; Dimian, M; Graur, A

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and experimental study of designing a mechano-electric optoisolator transducer with hysteresis. Our research is centred upon designing transducers on the basis of optical sensors, as photoelectric conversions eliminate the influence of electromagnetic disturbances. Conversion of the rotation/translation motions into electric signals is performed with the help of a LED-photoresistor Polaroid optocoupler. The driver of the optocoupler's transmitter module is an independent current source. The signal conditioning circuit is a Schmitt trigger circuit. The device is designed to be applied in the field of automation and mechatronics.

  11. Immune Algorithm Complex Method for Transducer Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jiangming

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a key link in engineering test tasks, the transducer calibration has significant influence on accuracy and reliability of test results. Because of unknown and complex nonlinear characteristics, conventional method can’t achieve satisfactory accuracy. An Immune algorithm complex modeling approach is proposed, and the simulated studies on the calibration of third multiple output transducers is made respectively by use of the developed complex modeling. The simulated and experimental results show that the Immune algorithm complex modeling approach can improve significantly calibration precision comparison with traditional calibration methods.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Pressure Fluctuations in the Thermo-acoustic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Uglanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of numerical simulation of acoustic oscillation excitation in the resonators with a foam insert (regenerator to study the excitation of thermo-acoustic oscillations in the circuit of small-sized engine model on the pulse tube.The aim of this work is the numerical simulation of the emerging oscillations in thermoacoustic engine resonator at the standing wave. As a basis, the work takes a thermo-acoustic resonator model with the open end (without piston developed in DeltaEC software. The precalculated operation frequency of the given resonator model, as a quarter of the wave resonator, is ν = 560 Hz.The paper offers a simplified finite element resonator model and defines the harmonic law of the temperature distribution on regenerator. The time dependences of the speed and pressure amplitude for the open end of the resonator are given; the calculated value of the process operating frequency is approximately equal to the value of the frequency for a given length of the resonator. Key findings, as a result of study, are as follows:1. The paper shows a potential for using this ESI-CFD Advanced software to simulate the processes of thermal excitation of acoustic oscillations.2. Visualization of turbulent flow fluctuations in the regenerator zone extends the analysis capability of gas-dynamic processes.3. Difference between operating frequency of the process simulated by ESI-CFD Advanced and frequency value obtained by analytical methods is about 4%, which is evidence of the model applicability to study the acoustic parameters of thermo-acoustic transducers. Experimental results have proved these data.

  13. Energy harvesting for wireless sensors by using piezoelectric transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerager, Christian [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Wireless sensor technology, which integrates transducers, measurement electronics and wireless communication, has become increasingly vital in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Compared to traditional wired systems, wireless solutions reduce the installation time and costs and are not subjected to breakage caused by harsh weather conditions or other extreme events. Because of the low installation costs, wireless sensor networks allow the deployment of a big number of wireless sensor nodes on the structures. Moreover, the nodes can be placed on particularly critical components of the structure difficult to reach by wires. In most of the cases the power supply are conventional batteries, which could be a problem because of their finite life span. Furthermore, in the case of wireless sensor nodes located on structures, it is often advantageous to embed them, which makes an access impossible. Therefore, if a method of obtaining the untapped energy surrounding these sensors was implemented, significant life could be added to the power supply. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. In this paper we first discuss the research that has been performed in the area of energy harvesting for wireless sensor technologies by using the ambient vibration energy. In many cases the energy produced by the ambient vibrations is far too small to directly power a wireless sensor node. Therefore, in a second step we discuss the development process for an electronic energy harvesting circuit optimized for piezoelectric transducers. In the last part of this paper an experiment with different piezoelectric transducers and their applicability for energy harvesting applications on vibrating structures will be discussed. (orig.)

  14. An Application of Reassigned Time-Frequency Representations for Seismic Noise/Signal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Langston, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic data recorded by surface arrays are often strongly contaminated by unwanted noise. This background noise makes the detection of small magnitude events difficult. An automatic method for seismic noise/signal decomposition is presented based upon an enhanced time-frequency representation. Synchrosqueezing is a time-frequency reassignment method aimed at sharpening a time-frequency picture. Noise can be distinguished from the signal and suppressed more easily in this reassigned domain. The threshold level is estimated using a general cross validation approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge about the noise level. Efficiency of thresholding has been improved by adding a pre-processing step based on higher order statistics and a post-processing step based on adaptive hard-thresholding. In doing so, both accuracy and speed of the denoising have been improved compared to our previous algorithms (Mousavi and Langston, 2016a, 2016b; Mousavi et al., 2016). The proposed algorithm can either kill the noise (either white or colored) and keep the signal or kill the signal and keep the noise. Hence, It can be used in either normal denoising applications or in ambient noise studies. Application of the proposed method on synthetic and real seismic data shows the effectiveness of the method for denoising/designaling of local microseismic, and ocean bottom seismic data. References: Mousavi, S.M., C. A. Langston., and S. P. Horton (2016), Automatic Microseismic Denoising and Onset Detection Using the Synchrosqueezed-Continuous Wavelet Transform. Geophysics. 81, V341-V355, doi: 10.1190/GEO2015-0598.1. Mousavi, S.M., and C. A. Langston (2016a), Hybrid Seismic Denoising Using Higher-Order Statistics and Improved Wavelet Block Thresholding. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 106, doi: 10.1785/0120150345. Mousavi, S.M., and C.A. Langston (2016b), Adaptive noise estimation and suppression for improving microseismic event detection, Journal of Applied Geophysics., doi: http

  15. Application of mid-frequency ventilation in an animal model of lung injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Chatburn, Robert L; Thurman, Tracy L; Zabala, Luis M; Holt, Shirley J; Swearingen, Christopher J; Heulitt, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Mid-frequency ventilation (MFV) is a mode of pressure control ventilation based on an optimal targeting scheme that maximizes alveolar ventilation and minimizes tidal volume (VT). This study was designed to compare the effects of conventional mechanical ventilation using a lung-protective strategy with MFV in a porcine model of lung injury. Our hypothesis was that MFV can maximize ventilation at higher frequencies without adverse consequences. We compared ventilation and hemodynamic outcomes between conventional ventilation and MFV. This was a prospective study of 6 live Yorkshire pigs (10 ± 0.5 kg). The animals were subjected to lung injury induced by saline lavage and injurious conventional mechanical ventilation. Baseline conventional pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation was applied with V(T) = 6 mL/kg and PEEP determined using a decremental PEEP trial. A manual decision support algorithm was used to implement MFV using the same conventional ventilator. We measured P(aCO2), P(aO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac output, arterial and venous blood oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic vascular pressures, and lactic acid. The MFV algorithm produced the same minute ventilation as conventional ventilation but with lower V(T) (-1 ± 0.7 mL/kg) and higher frequency (32.1 ± 6.8 vs 55.7 ± 15.8 breaths/min, P ventilation and MFV for mean airway pressures (16.1 ± 1.3 vs 16.4 ± 2 cm H2O, P = .75) even when auto-PEEP was higher (0.6 ± 0.9 vs 2.4 ± 1.1 cm H2O, P = .02). There were no significant differences in any hemodynamic measurements, although heart rate was higher during MFV. In this pilot study, we demonstrate that MFV allows the use of higher breathing frequencies and lower V(T) than conventional ventilation to maximize alveolar ventilation. We describe the ventilatory or hemodynamic effects of MFV. We also demonstrate that the application of a decision support algorithm to manage MFV is feasible. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Application of frequency domain line edge roughness characterization methodology in lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Beique, Genevieve; Wood, Obert; Kim, Ryoung-Han

    2015-03-01

    A frequency domain 3 sigma LER characterization methodology combining the standard deviation and power spectral density (PSD) methods is proposed. In the new method, the standard deviation is calculated in the frequency domain instead of the spatial domain as in the conventional method. The power spectrum of the LER is divided into three regions: low frequency (LF), middle frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) regions. The frequency region definition is based on process visual comparisons. Three standard deviation numbers are used to characterize the LER in the three frequency regions. Pattern wiggling can be detected quantitatively with a wiggling factor which is also proposed in this paper.

  17. Development of an SH Wave Magnetostrictive Transducer Module for Guided Wave Testing of Plate Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Jae Ha; Kwon Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok

    2009-01-01

    Recently much attention has been paid to a guided wave due to its effective applicability to long range and fast inspection of structures. In guided wave based NDE, the appropriate selection of wave modes is one of important factors since the test performance is highly dependent on which mode of guided waves is employed. As far as plate-like structures are concerned, so far, SH guided wave has not been frequently applied compared to Lamb waves, which is mostly caused by the lack of proper and convenient transducers to generate and measure the SH waves. In this investigation, a new small-sized SH guided wave transducer based on magnetostriction is proposed. The present transducer was designed to be modular and be used with shear couplant to avoid the inconvenience of the existing magnetostrictive patch transducers, which comprises the ferromagnetic patch tightly bonded to a structure. The wave transduction mechanism and the detailed configuration of the present transducer are presented. Experimental verification is also conducted on test specimens and the results confirm the good performance of the present transducer module

  18. Development of an SH Wave Magnetostrictive Transducer Module for Guided Wave Testing of Plate Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Jae Ha; Kwon Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Recently much attention has been paid to a guided wave due to its effective applicability to long range and fast inspection of structures. In guided wave based NDE, the appropriate selection of wave modes is one of important factors since the test performance is highly dependent on which mode of guided waves is employed. As far as plate-like structures are concerned, so far, SH guided wave has not been frequently applied compared to Lamb waves, which is mostly caused by the lack of proper and convenient transducers to generate and measure the SH waves. In this investigation, a new small-sized SH guided wave transducer based on magnetostriction is proposed. The present transducer was designed to be modular and be used with shear couplant to avoid the inconvenience of the existing magnetostrictive patch transducers, which comprises the ferromagnetic patch tightly bonded to a structure. The wave transduction mechanism and the detailed configuration of the present transducer are presented. Experimental verification is also conducted on test specimens and the results confirm the good performance of the present transducer module

  19. Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

  20. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known

  1. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  2. High temperature ultrasonic immersion measurements using a BS-PT based piezoelectric transducer without a delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is a key enabling technology required for in-service inspection of advanced sodium fast reactors at the hot stand-by operating mode (˜250C). Current work presents development of a single element, 2.4MHz, planar, ultrasonic immersion transducer for a potential application in ranging, inspection and imaging of the reactor components. The prototype immersion transducer is first tested in water for three thermal cycles up to 92C. The transducer is further evaluated for four thermal cycles in silicone oil, with total seven thermal cycles that exceeded operation period of 21 hours. Moreover, the preliminary data acquired for speed of sound in silicone oil indicates 24% reduction from 22C to 142C. Sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer is also measured as a function of temperature and demonstrates the effect of multiple thermal cycles on the transducer components.

  3. Interaction of a parametric transducer with a resonant bar gravitational radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthorne, N.P.; Veitch, P.J.; Blair, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a microwave parametric transducer for a resonant bar gravitational radiation antenna can achieve high electromechanical coupling without degrading the acoustic Q of the antenna. The reactive coupling of the transducer to the antenna leads to both cold-damping and modification of the antenna's resonant frequency. These effects are examined in a 1.5 tonne niobium resonant bar antenna. At low coupling the observed behaviour is found to be in good agreement with theory. At higher coupling, the behaviour is complicated by other effects. We discuss how these parametric effects may be used to advantage when suitably controlled. (author)

  4. Fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, C.R.; Wingate, F.P.; Ballard, E.O.

    1979-01-01

    A fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer was developed for measurement of pressure transients produced by fast electrical discharges in laser cavities. A detailed description of the design and performance will be given. Shock tube performance and measurements in direct electrical discharge regions will be presented

  5. Eliminating transducer distortion in acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the in uence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducer, and presents a method for eliminating the in uence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated on simulated as well as experimental data, and is shown...

  6. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2007), s. 737-743 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrets * polymers * ultrasonic transducers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2007

  7. A weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice as a harmonic hypersonic-electrical transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyser, C L; Akimov, A V; Campion, R P; Kent, A J; Balanov, A G

    2015-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the effects of high-frequency strain pulse trains on the charge transport in a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice. In a frequency range of the order of 100 GHz such excitation may be considered as single harmonic hypersonic excitation. While travelling along the axis of the SL, the hypersonic acoustic wavepacket affects the electron tunnelling, and thus governs the electrical current through the device. We reveal how the change of current depends on the parameters of the hypersonic excitation and on the bias applied to the superlattice. We have found that the changes in the transport properties of the superlattices caused by the acoustic excitation can be largely explained using the current–voltage relation of the unperturbed system. Our experimental measurements show multiple peaks in the dependence of the transferred charge on the repetition rate of the strain pulses in the train. We demonstrate that these resonances can be understood in terms of the spectrum of the applied acoustic perturbation after taking into account the multiple reflections in the metal film serving as a generator of hypersonic excitation. Our findings suggest an application of the semiconductor superlattice as a hypersonic-electrical transducer, which can be used in various microwave devices. (paper)

  8. The Effect of Electrical Impedance Matching on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving the power maximum transmission, the electrical impedance matching (EIM for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers is highly required. In this paper, the effect of EIM networks on the electromechanical characteristics of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers is investigated in time and frequency domains, based on the PSpice model of single sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The above-mentioned EIM networks include, series capacitance and parallel inductance (I type and series inductance and parallel capacitance (II type. It is shown that when I and II type EIM networks are used, the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and the received signal tailing are decreased; II type makes the electro-acoustic power ratio and the signal tailing smaller whereas it makes the electro-acoustic gain ratio larger at resonance frequency. In addition, I type makes the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient increase and II type makes it decrease; II type make the power spectral density at resonance frequency more dramatically increased. Specially, the electro-acoustic power ratio has maximum value near anti-resonance frequency, while the electro-acoustic gain ratio has maximum value near resonance frequency. It can be found that the theoretically analyzed results have good consistency with the measured ones.

  9. A Dual Band Frequency Reconfigurable Origami Magic Cube Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran Hussain Shah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel dual band frequency reconfigurable antenna using an origami magic cube is proposed for wireless sensor network (WSN applications. The proposed origami antenna consists of a meandered monopole folded onto three sides of the magic cube. A microstrip open-ended stub is loaded on the meandered monopole. The proposed origami magic cube can be mechanically folded and unfolded. The proposed antenna operates at 1.57 GHZ and 2.4 GHz in the folded state. In the unfolded state, the proposed antenna operates at 900 MHz and 2.3 GHz. The resonant frequency of the second band can be tunable by varying the length and position of the open stub. The origami magic cube is built on paper. Its performance is numerically and experimentally demonstrated from S-parameters and radiation patterns. The measured 10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed origami antenna is 18% (900–1120 MHz and 15% (2.1–2.45 GHz for the unfolded state and 20% (1.3–1.6 GHz and 14% (2.3–2.5 GHz for the folded state. The measured peak gain at 900 MHz and 2.3 GHz are 1.1 dBi and 2.32 dBi, respectively, in the unfolded state. The measured peak gain at 1.5 GHz and 2.4 GHz are 3.28 dBi and 1.98 dBi, respectively, in the folded state.

  10. Three-dimensional temperature effect modelling of piezoceramic transducers used for Lamb wave based damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J; Zhu, Xuan; Di Scalea, Francesco Lanza

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional temperature-dependent model of surface-bonded, low-profile piezoceramic transducers (PZT) used for Lamb wave propagation. The effect of temperature on Lamb wave actuation, propagation and sensing is investigated. The major focus is on the study of actuation and sensing properties of PZT for various temperature levels. These properties are investigated through the electric field analysis of transducers. The temperature effect on transducer bond layers is also investigated. Numerically simulated amplitude responses are analysed for various temperatures and excitation frequencies. Numerical simulations are validated experimentally. The results demonstrate that temperature-dependent physical properties of PZT, bond layers and particularly host structures significantly affect the amplitude and phase of Lamb wave responses. (paper)

  11. Parameter sensitivity study of a Field II multilayer transducer model on a convex transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A multilayer transducer model for predicting a transducer impulse response has in earlier works been developed and combined with the Field II software. This development was tested on current, voltage, and intensity measurements on piezoceramics discs (Bæk et al. IUS 2008) and a convex 128 element...... ultrasound imaging transducer (Bæk et al. ICU 2009). The model benefits from its 1D simplicity and hasshown to give an amplitude error around 1.7‐2 dB. However, any prediction of amplitude, phase, and attenuation of pulses relies on the accuracy of manufacturer supplied material characteristics, which may...... is a quantitative calibrated model for a complete ultrasound system. This includes a sensitivity study aspresented here.Statement of Contribution/MethodsThe study alters 35 different model parameters which describe a 128 element convex transducer from BK Medical Aps. The changes are within ±20 % of the values...

  12. Capacitive pressure transducer using flexible films. Junan film wo mochiita seiden yoryoshiki atsukaku transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Tsuchida, N.; Imai, K. (Toyota Technological Institute, Aichi (Japan)); Fujita, K. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)): Tsuboi, O. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    This paper describes the design, manufacture, and evaluation of a capacitive pressure transducer made of polyimide films. The structure of a pressure transducer cell was first determined, and then, the deflection-stress and capacitance-load characteristics of the surface film were analyzed using finite element methods. For the practical stage of manufacture, a polyimide film was emboss processed and electrodes were deposited on the film to construct a pressure transducer cell to which a Schmidt-trigger detecting circuit was connected. As a consequence of the examination of operational characteristics of the cell, it was found that the actual relation between the deflection and load approximately agreed with the linear analyses, and that the capacitance depended with little hysteresis on the gap regardless of the native visco-elasticity of the film. Furthermore, small stick-slip vibration of a contact rubber surface was detected by the transducer to verify its high sensitivity. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  13. Application of at-site peak-streamflow frequency analyses for very low annual exceedance probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Kiang, Julie E.; Cohn, Timothy A.

    2017-07-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, has investigated statistical methods for probabilistic flood hazard assessment to provide guidance on very low annual exceedance probability (AEP) estimation of peak-streamflow frequency and the quantification of corresponding uncertainties using streamgage-specific data. The term “very low AEP” implies exceptionally rare events defined as those having AEPs less than about 0.001 (or 1 × 10–3 in scientific notation or for brevity 10–3). Such low AEPs are of great interest to those involved with peak-streamflow frequency analyses for critical infrastructure, such as nuclear power plants. Flood frequency analyses at streamgages are most commonly based on annual instantaneous peak streamflow data and a probability distribution fit to these data. The fitted distribution provides a means to extrapolate to very low AEPs. Within the United States, the Pearson type III probability distribution, when fit to the base-10 logarithms of streamflow, is widely used, but other distribution choices exist. The USGS-PeakFQ software, implementing the Pearson type III within the Federal agency guidelines of Bulletin 17B (method of moments) and updates to the expected moments algorithm (EMA), was specially adapted for an “Extended Output” user option to provide estimates at selected AEPs from 10–3 to 10–6. Parameter estimation methods, in addition to product moments and EMA, include L-moments, maximum likelihood, and maximum product of spacings (maximum spacing estimation). This study comprehensively investigates multiple distributions and parameter estimation methods for two USGS streamgages (01400500 Raritan River at Manville, New Jersey, and 01638500 Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Maryland). The results of this study specifically involve the four methods for parameter estimation and up to nine probability distributions, including the generalized extreme value, generalized

  14. Sensitivity-Bandwidth Limit in a Multimode Optoelectromechanical Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel Haghighi, I.; Malossi, N.; Natali, R.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2018-03-01

    An optoelectromechanical system formed by a nanomembrane capacitively coupled to an L C resonator and to an optical interferometer has recently been employed for the highly sensitive optical readout of rf signals [T. Bagci et al., Nature (London) 507, 81 (2013), 10.1038/nature13029]. We propose and experimentally demonstrate how the bandwidth of such a transducer can be increased by controlling the interference between two electromechanical interaction pathways of a two-mode mechanical system. With a proof-of-principle device operating at room temperature, we achieve a sensitivity of 300 nV /√{Hz } over a bandwidth of 15 kHz in the presence of radio-frequency noise, and an optimal shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 10 nV /√{Hz } over a bandwidth of 5 kHz. We discuss strategies for improving the performance of the device, showing that, for the same given sensitivity, a mechanical multimode transducer can achieve a bandwidth significantly larger than that for a single-mode one.

  15. Two high accuracy digital integrators for Rogowski current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan-dian; Li, Hong-bin; Li, Zhen-hua

    2014-01-01

    The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions. The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset. This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators. Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.

  16. Application on technique of joint time-frequency analysis of seismic signal's first arrival estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chaoyang; Liu Junmin; Fan Yanfang; Ji Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Joint time-frequency analysis is conducted to construct one joint density function of time and frequency. It can open out one signal's frequency components and their evolvements. It is the new evolvement of Fourier analysis. In this paper, according to the characteristic of seismic signal's noise, one estimation method of seismic signal's first arrival based on triple correlation of joint time-frequency spectrum is introduced, and the results of experiment and conclusion are presented. (authors)

  17. Radial frequency diagram (sunflower) for the analysis of diurnal cycle parameters: Solar energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božnar, Marija Zlata; Grašič, Boštjan; Mlakar, Primož; Soares, Jacyra; Pereira de Oliveira, Amauri; Costa, Tássio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new type of graphical presentation showing diurnal cycle of solar energy forecast. The application is possible for other parameters related to weather and green energy production. - Highlights: • The diurnal cycle of solar energy is important for the management of the electrical grid. • A solar plant’s average production depends on the statistical features of solar radiation. • The new tool – the “sunflower”, is proposed for solar energy availability representation. • The sunflower identifies and quantifies information with a clear diurnal cycle. • The sunflower diagram has been developed from the “wind rose” diagram. - Abstract: Many meteorological parameters present a natural diurnal cycle because they are directly or indirectly dependent on sunshine exposure. The solar radiation diurnal pattern is important to energy production, agriculture, prognostic models, health and general climatology. This article aims at introducing a new type of radial frequency diagram – hereafter called sunflower – for the analysis of solar radiation data in connection with energy production and also for climatological studies. The diagram is based on two-dimensional data sorting. Firstly data are sorted into classes representing hours in a day. Then the data in each hourly class is sorted into classes of the observed variable values. The relative frequencies of the value classes are shown as sections on each hour’s segment in a radial diagram. The radial diagram forms a unique pattern for each analysed dataset. Therefore it enables the quick detection of features and the comparison of several such patterns belonging to the different datasets being analysed. The sunflower diagram enables a quick and comprehensive understanding of the information about diurnal cycle of the solar radiation data. It enables in a graphical form, quick screening and long-term statistics of huge data quantities when searching for their diurnal features and

  18. Measurement of flaw size in a weld sample by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L. Jr.; Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-05-01

    An ultrasonic frequency analysis technique has been developed and applied to the measurement of flaws in an 8-in.-thick heavy-section steel specimen belonging to the Pressure Vessel Research Committee program. Using the technique the flaws occurring in the weld area were characterized in quantitative terms of both dimension and orientation. Several modifications of the technique were made during the study to include the application of several transducers and to consider ultrasonic mode conversion. (U.S.)

  19. Modal analysis and nonlinear characterization of an airborne power ultrasonic transducer with rectangular plate radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R R; Acosta, V M; Lucas, M; Riera, E

    2018-01-01

    Some industrial processes like particle agglomeration or food dehydration among others can be enhanced by the use of power ultrasonic technologies. These technologies are based on an airborne power ultrasonic transducer (APUT) constituted by a pre-stressed Langevin-type transducer, a mechanical amplifier and an extensive plate radiator. In order to produce the desired effects in industrial processing, the transducer has to vibrate in an extensional mode driving an extensive radiator in the desired flexural mode with high amplitude displacements. Due to the generation of these high amplitude displacements in the radiator surfaces, non-linear effects like frequency shifts, hysteresis or modal interactions, among others, may be produced in the transducer behavior. When any nonlinear effect appears, when applying power, the stability and efficiency of this ultrasonic technology decreases, and the transducer may be damaged depending on the excitation power level and the nature of the nonlinearity. In this paper, an APUT with flat rectangular radiator is presented, as the active part of an innovative system with stepped reflectors. The nonlinear behavior of the APUT has been characterized numerically and experimentally in case of the modal analysis and experimentally in the case of dynamic analysis. According to the results obtained after the experiments, no modal interactions are expected, nor do other nonlinear effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High power Co3O4/ZnO p–n type piezoelectric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuh-Chung; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chang, Pei-Zen; Su, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the output power of piezoelectric transducer is essential in order to supply sufficient and sustainable power to wireless sensor nodes or electronic devices. In this work, a Co 3 O 4 /ZnO p–n type power piezoelectric transducer which can be operated at low frequencies has been developed by utilizing n-type semiconducting zinc oxide (ZnO) and p-type semiconducting tricobalt tetroxide (Co 3 O 4 ). We utilize ZnO to be the piezoelectric transducer and build a multi-layer (Au/Co 3 O 4 /ZnO/Ti) thin film structure. The ZnO thin film with preferred orientation along the (002) plane was deposited under optimized deposition conditions on the flexible titanium (Ti) foil with thickness of 80 μm. The Co 3 O 4 /ZnO interface forms a p–n junction and increases the difference in Fermi levels between the two electrodes, resulting in the great enhancement of output power. The measured output power of the p–n type piezoelectric transducer with optimal resistance of 100 kΩ is 10.4 μW at low operating frequency of 37 Hz, which is 10.9 times of output power of ZnO piezoelectric transducers. - Highlights: • Deposited zinc oxide performed good piezoelectric coefficient. • ZnO thin film with preferred orientation along the (002) plane was deposited. • A p–n type piezoelectric transducer with enhanced output power was fabricated. • 10.9 times increment in output power was obtained. • Increase of difference in Fermi level and p–n junction formation was explained

  1. Degree of dispersion monitoring by ultrasonic transmission technique and excitation of the transducer's harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, G.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    The degree of dispersion of filled polymer compounds is an important quality parameter for various applications. For instance, there is an influence on the chroma in pigment colored plastics or on the mechanical properties of filled or reinforced compounds. Most of the commonly used offline methods are work-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, they do not allow an all-over process monitoring. In contrast, the ultrasonic technique represents a suitable robust and process-capable inline method. Here, we present inline ultrasonic measurements on polymer melts with a fundamental frequency of 1 MHz during compounding. In order to extend the frequency range we additionally excite the fundamental and the odd harmonics vibrations at 3 and 5 MHz. The measurements were carried out on a compound consisting of polypropylene and calcium carbonate. For the simulation of agglomerates calcium carbonate with a larger particle size was added with various rates. The total filler content was kept constant. The frequency selective analysis shows a linear correlation between the normalized extinction and the rate of agglomerates simulated by the coarser filler. Further experiments with different types of glass beads with a well-defined particle size verify these results. A clear correlation between the normalized extinction and the glass bead size as well as a higher damping with increasing frequency corresponds to the theoretical assumption. In summary the dispersion quality can be monitored inline by the ultrasonic technique. The excitation of the ultrasonic transducer's harmonics generates more information about the material as the usage of the pure harmonic vibration.

  2. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  3. The application effects of the dual-frequency IP method in the geological work of uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Minghai.

    1991-01-01

    The dual-frequency IP method has obtained preliminary application in prospecting for uranium and gold in the central south region of China and has got certain geological effects in the application to deposits and prospects in Yaogou, Langquan and Deposit No.320 and its surrounding area. The fundamental advantages of the dual-frequency IP method are that the equipment system is portable, its anti-interference capability is strong and the observed accuracy is high, high speed in observation and suitable for the operation in the mine and its environs

  4. Application of high Tc superconductors as frequency selective surfaces: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawei Zhang; Yahya Rahmat-Samii; Fetterman, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O 8 high temperature superconducting thin films were utilized to fabricate frequency selective surfaces (FSS) at millimeter-wave frequencies (75--110 GHz). An analytical/numerical model was applied, using a Floquet expansion and the Method of Moments, to analyze bandstop superconducting frequency selective surfaces. Experimental results were compared with the model, and showed a good agreement with resonant frequency prediction with an accuracy of better than 1%. The use of the superconducting frequency selective surfaces as quasi-optical millimeter-wave bandpass filters was also demonstrated

  5. Stable optical frequency comb generation and applications in arbitrary waveform generation, signal processing and optical data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozharar, Sarper

    This thesis focuses on the generation and applications of stable optical frequency combs. Optical frequency combs are defined as equally spaced optical frequencies with a fixed phase relation among themselves. The conventional source of optical frequency combs is the optical spectrum of the modelocked lasers. In this work, we investigated alternative methods for optical comb generation, such as dual sine wave phase modulation, which is more practical and cost effective compared to modelocked lasers stabilized to a reference. Incorporating these comblines, we have generated tunable RF tones using the serrodyne technique. The tuning range was +/-1 MHz, limited by the electronic waveform generator, and the RF carrier frequency is limited by the bandwidth of the photodetector. Similarly, using parabolic phase modulation together with time division multiplexing, RF chirp extension has been realized. Another application of the optical frequency combs studied in this thesis is real time data mining in a bit stream. A novel optoelectronic logic gate has been developed for this application and used to detect an 8 bit long target pattern. Also another approach based on orthogonal Hadamard codes have been proposed and explained in detail. Also novel intracavity modulation schemes have been investigated and applied for various applications such as (a) improving rational harmonic modelocking for repetition rate multiplication and pulse to pulse amplitude equalization, (b) frequency skewed pulse generation for ranging and (c) intracavity active phase modulation in amplitude modulated modelocked lasers for supermode noise spur suppression and integrated jitter reduction. The thesis concludes with comments on the future work and next steps to improve some of the results presented in this work.

  6. Analysis and Implementation of Nonlinear Transducer Response over a Wider Response Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s automation systems transducers are making core elements in the instruments and the circuits used for measurement, control and industrial applications. The task of a transducer is to reproduce a physical quantity as an electrical signal which with the help of conditioning circuits, is transformed into a form that suits a corresponding ADC requirement before a digital equivalent output of the required physical quantity is produced. In the most ideal cases a digital quantity is a true replica of the physical quantity when the transducer has got a linear response. However, in most of the cases the transducers characteristics are nonlinear, and hence at very points along the whole range of the transducer characteristics, the corresponding digital output is an exact replica of the concerned physical parameter. This work is about how a physical read more accurately in the case of nonlinear sensor characteristics, and then a microcontroller is programmed with the same technique while reading from an input over the entire range. The data of the microcontroller reading shows very closely matched with the actual sensors response. Further, the reading error is considerably reduced to within 10 % of the actual physical which shows the utility of the technique in very sensitive applications.

  7. Transport accident frequency data, their sources and their application in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.

    1988-08-01

    Base transport accident frequency data and sources of these data are presented. Both generic information and rates specific to particular routes or packages are included. Strong packages, such as those containing significant quantities of radioactive materials, will survive most of the accidents represented by these base frequencies without a containment breach. The association of severity probability distributions with a base frequency, and package and contents response, leading to the quantification of release frequency and magnitude, are often more important in risk assessment than the base frequency itself. This paper therefore also includes brief comments on techniques adopted to utilize the base frequencies. This paper reports an accident frequency data survey undertaken at the end of 1986. It has not been updated to take account of work published between January 1987 and the Report publication date. (author)

  8. Comparison of pulse characteristic of low frequency ultrasonic probes for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Suhairy Sani; Muhammad Pauzi Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing of concrete or large volume of composites usually is done in low frequency range. To obtain low frequency pulse, a low frequency pulser/receiver is used attached to a low frequency probe as transmitter/receiver. Concrete is highly attenuative and a high energy pulse is essential to ensure good penetration of test samples. High energy pulse can be obtained by producing low frequency ultrasonic waves.To achieve high penetration in concrete, a low frequency probe is fabricated with the centre frequency lying at around 100 kHz. The probe is fabricated with single crystal of 18 mm thickness without any backing material to obtain wider pulse and higher pulse power. Then, comparison of pulse characteristic is done between the fabricated probe and a commercially available probe to determine the quality of the probe fabricated. (Author)

  9. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  10. Applications for radio-frequency identification technology in the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiyu; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zeng, Lili; Xia, Shuyan; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Li, Xiuyun

    2014-06-01

    We implemented a two-year project to develop a security-gated management system for the perioperative setting using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology to enhance the management efficiency of the OR. We installed RFID readers beside the entrances to the OR and changing areas to receive and process signals from the RFID tags that we sewed into surgical scrub attire and shoes. The system also required integrating automatic access control panels, computerized lockers, light-emitting diode (LED) information screens, wireless networks, and an information system. By doing this, we are able to control the flow of personnel and materials more effectively, reduce OR costs, optimize the registration and attire-changing process for personnel, and improve management efficiency. We also anticipate this system will improve patient safety by reducing the risk of surgical site infection. Application of security-gated management systems is an important and effective way to help ensure a clean, convenient, and safe management process to manage costs in the perioperative area and promote patient safety. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun, E-mail: Z.Hu@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin [BGT Materials Limited, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, Andre K. [Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Novoselov, Kostya S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10{sup 4 }S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  12. Directly Printable Frequency Signature Chipless RFID Tag for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Anam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Paper proposes a low-cost, compact, flexible passive chipless RFID tag that has been designed and analyzed. The tag is a bowtie-shaped resonator based structure with 36 slots; where each patch is loaded with 18 slots. The tag is set in a way that each slot in a patch corresponds to a metal gap in the other patch. Hence there is no mutual interference, and high data capacity of 36 bits is achieved in such compact size. Each slot corresponds to a resonance frequency in the RCS curve, and each resonance corresponds to a bit. The tag has been realized for Taconic TLX-0, PET, and Kapton®HN (DuPontTM substrates with copper, aluminum, and silver nanoparticle-based ink (Cabot CCI-300 as conducting materials. The tag exhibits flexibility and well optimized while remaining in a compact size. The proposed tag yields 36 bits in a tag dimension of 24.5 x 25.5 mm^2. These 36 bits can tag 2^36 number of objects/items. The ultimate high capacity, compact size, flexible passive chipless RFID tag can be arrayed in various industrial and IoT-based applications.

  13. Realization of stable and homogenous carbon nanotubes dispersion as ink for radio frequency identification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougot, M Nicolas; Dung Dang, Thi My; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Dang, Mau Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications offers a very large range of possibilities to exploit the incredible properties of CNTs. However, due to their entanglement state, their size and the different interacting forces between nanotubes bundles present at nanometric scale, CNTs debundling is very hard to achieve, requiring specific equipment and chemicals. Our purpose was to reduce as small as possible CNTs bundles, in order to realize ink to print on an RFID antenna. The size of the head printer nozzles required very small particles, about a few micrometers, in order to be able to print on the sensitive position of the antenna. To reduce the size of the bundles and stabilize the solution, an ultrasonic horn with an ultrasonic bath were combined as mechanical stress for CNT dispersion, and some chemicals such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)—a surfactant, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)—a solvent, or chitosan were used to meet our requirements. (paper)

  14. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10 4  S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks

  15. Around and about an application of the GAMLSS package to non-stationary flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debele, S. E.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Strupczewski, W. G.

    2017-08-01

    The non-stationarity of hydrologic processes due to climate change or human activities is challenging for the researchers and practitioners. However, the practical requirements for taking into account non-stationarity as a support in decision-making procedures exceed the up-to-date development of the theory and the of software. Currently, the most popular and freely available software package that allows for non-stationary statistical analysis is the GAMLSS (generalized additive models for location, scale and shape) package. GAMLSS has been used in a variety of fields. There are also several papers recommending GAMLSS in hydrological problems; however, there are still important issues which have not previously been discussed concerning mainly GAMLSS applicability not only for research and academic purposes, but also in a design practice. In this paper, we present a summary of our experiences in the implementation of GAMLSS to non-stationary flood frequency analysis, highlighting its advantages and pointing out weaknesses with regard to methodological and practical topics.

  16. A study of ultra-stable optical clocks, frequency sources and standards for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.A.; Knight, D.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Optical or laser-based communication systems are expected to supplement microwave based systems for satellite-to-satellite and spacecraft-to-satellite communications early in the next millennium. Optical systems can carry far more traffic than microwave and address the need to increase communication bandwidths to meet the demands of commerce and the entertainment industry. There is already significant research and commercial interest in this area (now driven particularly by the multi-media and Internet services delivery sector) and there is a strong need to establish which are the best choices of optical sources to develop for space based optical communications. In addition to communication requirements there are strong arguments for developing ultra-stable optical frequency sources and detectors in space for at least two other purposes. At present the microwave radiation that is used for communications is also used for other purposes, for example navigation or tracking, and 'space science' experiments. With the switch from the microwave to the optical for communications it may well be convenient to switch to the optical for these and other functions. This study has examined the potential stable laser requirements for a range of space applications. An interim report was presented in the form of a conference paper summarising our initial findings (see Appendix 5). This final report gives our conclusions in more detail and recommends areas for further study

  17. Heterostructure-based high-speed/high-frequency electronic circuit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampardi, P. J.; Runge, K.; Pierson, R. L.; Higgins, J. A.; Yu, R.; McDermott, B. T.; Pan, N.

    1999-08-01

    With the growth of wireless and lightwave technologies, heterostructure electronic devices are commodity items in the commercial marketplace [Browne J. Power-amplifier MMICs drive commercial circuits. Microwaves & RF, 1998. p. 116-24.]. In particular, HBTs are an attractive device for handset power amplifiers at 900 MHz and 1.9 GHz for CDMA applications [Lum E. GaAs technology rides the wireless wave. Proceedings of the 1997 GaAs IC Symposium, 1997. p. 11-13; "Rockwell Ramps Up". Compound Semiconductor, May/June 1997.]. At higher frequencies, both HBTs and p-HEMTs are expected to dominate the marketplace. For high-speed lightwave circuit applications, heterostructure based products on the market for OC-48 (2.5 Gb/s) and OC-192 (10 Gb/s) are emerging [http://www.nb.rockwell.com/platforms/network_access/nahome.html#5.; http://www.nortel.com/technology/opto/receivers/ptav2.html.]. Chips that operate at 40 Gb/ have been demonstrated in a number of research laboratories [Zampardi PJ, Pierson RL, Runge K, Yu R, Beccue SM, Yu J, Wang KC. hybrid digital/microwave HBTs for >30 Gb/s optical communications. IEDM Technical Digest, 1995. p. 803-6; Swahn T, Lewin T, Mokhtari M, Tenhunen H, Walden R, Stanchina W. 40 Gb/s 3 Volt InP HBT ICs for a fiber optic demonstrator system. Proceedings of the 1996 GaAs IC Symposium, 1996. p. 125-8; Suzuki H, Watanabe K, Ishikawa K, Masuda H, Ouchi K, Tanoue T, Takeyari R. InP/InGaAs HBT ICs for 40 Gbit/s optical transmission systems. Proceedings of the 1997 GaAs IC Symposium, 1997. p. 215-8]. In addition to these two markets, another area where heterostructure devices are having significant impact is for data conversion [Walden RH. Analog-to digital convertor technology comparison. Proceedings of the 1994 GaAs IC Symposium, 1994. p. 217-9; Poulton K, Knudsen K, Corcoran J, Wang KC, Nubling RB, Chang M-CF, Asbeck PM, Huang RT. A 6-b, 4 GSa/s GaAs HBT ADC. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 1995;30:1109-18; Nary K, Nubling R, Beccue S, Colleran W

  18. Time-frequency analysis of band-limited EEG with BMFLC and Kalman filter for BCI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Time-Frequency analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) during different mental tasks received significant attention. As EEG is non-stationary, time-frequency analysis is essential to analyze brain states during different mental tasks. Further, the time-frequency information of EEG signal can be used as a feature for classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Methods To accurately model the EEG, band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC), a linear combination of truncated multiple Fourier series models is employed. A state-space model for BMFLC in combination with Kalman filter/smoother is developed to obtain accurate adaptive estimation. By virtue of construction, BMFLC with Kalman filter/smoother provides accurate time-frequency decomposition of the bandlimited signal. Results The proposed method is computationally fast and is suitable for real-time BCI applications. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a comparison with short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for both synthesized and real EEG data is performed in this paper. The proposed method is applied to BCI Competition data IV for ERD detection in comparison with existing methods. Conclusions Results show that the proposed algorithm can provide optimal time-frequency resolution as compared to STFT and CWT. For ERD detection, BMFLC-KF outperforms STFT and BMFLC-KS in real-time applicability with low computational requirement. PMID:24274109

  19. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuying; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device

  20. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuying, E-mail: shuying-cao@hebut.edu.cn; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei [Province-Ministry Joint Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-05-07

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.