WorldWideScience

Sample records for frequency sputter deposition

  1. Reactive radio frequency sputtering deposition and characterization of zinc nitride and oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Nanke; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Wen, Ting; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc nitride films were deposited on glass or silicon substrates by reactive magnetron radio frequency sputtering of zinc in either N 2 –Ar or N 2 –Ar–O 2 ambient. The effects of varying the nitrogen contents and the substrate temperature were investigated. X-ray diffraction data showed that the as-deposited films contain the zinc nitride cubic crystalline phase with a preferred orientation, and Raman scattering measurements revealed Zn-N related modes. According to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the as-deposited films were nitrogen-rich and contained only a small fraction of oxygen. Hall-effect measurements showed that p-type zinc nitride with carrier concentration of ∼ 10 19 cm −3 , mobility of ∼ 10 1 cm 2 /Vs, resistivity of ∼ 10 −2 Ω ∗ cm, was obtained. The photon energy dependence of optical transmittance suggested that the material has an indirect bandgap.

  2. Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 nanowires deposited by radio frequency powder sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Yong; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2018-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 nanowires (NWs) deposited using radio frequency powder sputtering. The growth sequence of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 NWs is similar to that of the undoped β-Ga2O3 NWs. Self-assembled Ga clusters act as seeds for initiating the growth of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 NWs through a vapor-liquid-solid process, while Sn atoms are incorporated into the trunk of NWs uniformly. Different from the straight shape of undoped NWs, the conical shape of NWs is observed, which is attributed to the change in supersaturation conditions and the diffusion of the catalyst tip and reaction species.

  3. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  4. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  5. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  6. Deposition of a conductive near-infrared cutoff filter by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Yoo, Kwang-Lim; Kim, Nam-Young; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a conductive near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filter for display application, i.e., a modified low-emissivity filter based on the three periods of the basic design of [TiO2|Ti|Ag| TiO2] upon a glass substrate and investigated the optical, structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the conductive NIR cutoff filter prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The results show that the average transmittance is 61.1% in the visible, that the transmittance in the NIR is less than 6.6%, and that the sheet resistance and emissivity are 0.9 Ω/□ (where □ stands for a square film) and 0.012, respectively, suggesting that the conductive NIR cutoff filter can be employed as a shield against the hazard of electromagnetic waves as well as to cut off the NIR

  7. Effect of deposition parameters on properties of ITO films prepared by reactive middle frequency pulsed dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, A.I.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    ITO layers with low resistivity and high visible transmittance were produced by means of middle frequency reactive dual magnetron sputtering. The influence of base pressure, Ar/O 2 ratio and magnetron pulse duration on the film composition, structure, electrical, and optical properties has been investigated. The deposition rate is proportional to the magnetron operation power at changing pulse duration and constant Ar and O 2 flows. At enhanced O 2 flows an onset of the magnetron target oxidation is discussed as a reason for the decrease of the deposition rate. The presence of water vapor in the residual gas is determined to be a reason for deterioration of resistivity and optical transmittance observed for ITO films produced at a base pressures higher than 5·10 -4 Pa. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used as a noncontact tool to monitor the resistivity of ITO films

  8. Optimizing electrical conductivity and optical transparency of IZO thin film deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films of In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, and their mixtures have been extensively used in optoelectronic applications such as transparent electrodes in solar photovoltaic devices. In this project I deposited amorphous indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a In2O3-10 wt.% ZnO sintered ceramic target to optimize the RF power, argon gas flowing rate, and the thickness of film to reach the maximum conductivity and transparency in visible spectrum. The results indicated optimized conductivity and transparency of IZO thin film is closer to ITO's conductivity and transparency, and is even better when the film was deposited with one specific tilted angle. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC program at University of Nebraska Lincoln, and was hosted by Professor Jeff Shields lab.

  9. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  10. Relationship between plasma parameters and film microstructure in radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition of barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, B.; Dhar, A.; Nigam, G. D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Ray, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtered Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films have been deposited on silicon and Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrates. The analysis of plasma discharge has been carried out using the Langmuir probe technique. Both the pressure and power have been found to influence the ion density and self-bias of the target. Introduction of oxygen into the discharge effectively decreases the ion density. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy of deposited films and capacitance-voltage, conductance-voltage, and current density-electric field characteristics of fabricated capacitors. The growth and orientation of the films have been found to depend upon the type of substrates and deposition temperatures. The texture in the film is promoted at a pressure 0.25 Torr with a moderately high value of ion density and low ion bombardment energy. Films deposited on Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrate have shown higher dielectric constant (191) and lower leakage current density (2.8×10-6 A/cm2 at 100 kV/cm) compared to that on silicon.

  11. CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings deposited via high power pulsed and middle frequency pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagcivan, N.; Bobzin, K.; Ludwig, A.; Grochla, D.; Brugnara, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanolaminate coatings based on transition metal nitrides such as CrN, AlN and TiN deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) have shown great advantage as protective coatings on tools and components subject to high loads in tribological applications. By varying the individual layer materials and their thicknesses it is possible to optimize the coating properties, e.g. hardness, Young's modulus and thermal stability. One way for further improvement of coating properties is the use of advanced PVD technologies. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is an advancement of pulsed magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of HPPMS allows a better control of the energetic bombardment of the substrate due to the higher ionization degree of metallic species. It provides an opportunity to influence chemical and mechanical properties by varying the process parameters. The present work deals with the development of CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings in an industrial scale unit by using two different PVD technologies. Therefore, HPPMS and mfMS (middle frequency magnetron sputtering) technologies were used. The bilayer period Λ, i.e. the thickness of a CrN/AlN double layer, was varied between 6.2 nm and 47.8 nm by varying the rotational speed of the substrate holders. In a second step the highest rotational speed was chosen and further HPPMS CrN/AlN coatings were deposited applying different HPPMS pulse lengths (40, 80, 200 μs) at the same mean cathode power and frequency. Thickness, morphology, roughness and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The chemical composition was determined using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Detailed characterization of the nanolaminate was conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and the Young's modulus were analyzed by nanoindentation measurements. The residual

  12. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of PbSe film deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wenran, E-mail: fengwenran@bipt.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Wang, Xiaoyang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Fei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Wan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhou, Hai; Wang, Shuo; Li, Haoran [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-03-02

    PbSe films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from PbSe slices target under different substrate temperatures (from room temperature to 300 °C). The effect of substrate temperature on structural properties of PbSe thin film was investigated. The surface morphology and the crystal structure of film were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. It was found that the grain shape changed with substrate temperature. When the substrate temperature was below 250 °C, most of the crystal grains were spherical in shape. For temperatures above 250 °C, the grains transformed to triangle or prismatic ones. Meanwhile, with increasing substrate temperature, the preferential orientation of the film changed from (200) to (220). To figure out the intrinsic mechanisms for this behavior, the texture coefficient, as well as the comparison between surface energy and elastic strain energy was performed. At lower temperature, the film growth was determined by surface energy, which was replaced by strain energy at higher temperature. Therefore, the diversity of crystal structure and morphology of the films at different substrate temperatures occurred. Moreover, the electrical properties of the p-type PbSe films are also quite dependent on substrate temperature. With substrate temperature increased, the electrical resistivity decreased from 1.88 to 0.14 Ω cm, while the carrier concentration increased from 1.74 × 10{sup 18} to 4.08 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as the mobility was enhanced from 0.54 to 2.21 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • PbSe thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Substrate temperature determines crystal structure of PbSe films. • Transformation behaviors of PbSe films were explained by energy calculations.

  13. Structural investigation of ZnO:Al films deposited on the Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Yang, J.R.; Cheng, S.L.; Shiojiri, M.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al films 400 nm thick were prepared on (100) Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that in the initial stage of the deposition, an amorphous silicon oxide layer about 4 nm thick formed from damage to the Si substrate due to sputtered particle bombardment and the incorporation of Si atoms with oxygen. Subsequently, a crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on the silicon oxide layer by co-deposition of Si atoms sputtered away from the substrate with Zn atoms from the target. Finally, a ZnO:Al film with columnar grains was deposited on the Si (Zn) layer. The sputtered particle bombardment greatly influenced the structure of the object films. The (0001) lattice fringes of the ZnO:Al film were observed in high-resolution TEM images, and the forbidden 0001 reflection spots in electron diffraction patterns were attributed to double diffraction. Therefore, the appearance of the forbidden reflection did not imply any ordering of Al atoms and/or O vacancies in the ZnO:Al film. - Highlights: • ZnO:Al films were deposited on (100) Si substrate using magnetron sputtering. • An amorphous silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 4 nm was formed on Si substrate. • Crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on amorphous silicon oxide layer. • ZnO:Al film comprising columnar grains was deposited on the Si(Zn) layer. • Lattice image of the ZnO:Al film has been interpreted

  14. Effects of hydrogen gas on properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Geun; Lee, Sunghun; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Kwon, Sik-Chol

    2007-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited at ∼ 70 deg. C of substrate temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method using an In 2 O 3 -10% SnO 2 target. The effect of hydrogen gas ratio [H 2 / (H 2 + Ar)] on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties was investigated. With increasing the amount of hydrogen gas, the resistivity of the samples showed the lowest value of 3.5 x 10 -4 Ω.cm at the range of 0.8-1.7% of hydrogen gas ratio, while the resistivity increases over than 2.5% of hydrogen gas ratio. Hall effect measurements explained that carrier concentration and its mobility are strongly related with the resistivity of ITO films. The supplement of hydrogen gas also reduced the residual stress of ITO films up to the stress level of 110 MPa. The surface roughness and the crystallinity of the samples were investigated by using atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively

  15. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  16. On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Ottsen, Tobias Sand; Stamate, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    -pressure regime, we find a generalized dependence of the electrical properties, grain size, texture, and Al content on compressive stress, regardless of sputtering pressure or position on the substrate. In a high-pressure regime, a porous microstructure limits the achievable resistivity and causes it to increase......The electrical properties of RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO are often spatially inhomogeneous and strongly dependent on deposition parameters. In this work, we study the mechanisms that limit the minimum resistivity achievable under different deposition regimes. In a low- and intermediate...... over time as well. The primary cause of inhomogeneity in the electrical properties is identified as energetic particle bombardment. Inhomogeneity in oxygen content is also observed, but its effect on the electrical properties is small and limited to the carrier mobility....

  17. Ultraviolet emitting (Y1-xGd x)2O3-δ thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering; structure-property-thin film processing relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowlkes, J.D.; Fitz-Gerald, J.M.; Rack, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects that the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature and annealing temperature have on the cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency of radio frequency magnetron sputter deposited Gd-doped Y 2 O 3 thin films is investigated. Furthermore these sputtering parameters are correlated to the degree of crystallinity, the phases present (cubic (α) versus monoclinic (β) Y 2 O 3 ), and the stoichiometry of the thin films. Films deposited at room temperature (RT) did not CL, however, the films were activated by a post-deposition anneal at 1273 K for 6 h. Films deposited at 873 K had a very low CL efficiency which was significantly enhanced by a post-deposition anneal. For RT deposited films the external CL efficiency increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure for the range studied, however the opposite trend was observed for the 873 K deposited films. Examination of the morphology and grain size of the high temperature deposited films revealed that the average grain size increased with decreasing partial pressure and the observed increase in the external CL efficiency was attributed to enhanced anomalous diffraction. An intrinsic CL efficiency term was determined to circumvent the effects of the enhanced anomalous diffraction, and the CL efficiency was correlated to the integrated intensity of the (222) of the cubic α-Y 2 O 3 phase

  18. Optimal series-parallel connection method of dye-sensitized solar cell for Pt thin film deposition using a radio frequency sputter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hong, Ji-Tae; Seo, Hyunwoong; Kim, Mijeong; Son, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Yoon [Advanced Materials and Application research Laboratory, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1, Seongju-dong, Changwon-city, Kyongnam, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr

    2008-11-28

    The counter electrode widely used in DSC (Dye-sensitized solar cells) is constructed of a conducting glass substrate coated with a Pt film, in which the platinum acts as a catalyst. The characteristics of the platinum electrode depend strongly on the fabrication process and the electrode's surface condition. In this study, Pt counter electrodes were deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering with 6.7 x 10{sup -1} Pa Ar, RF power of 120 W and substrate temperature of 100 deg. C . The surface morphology of Pt electrodes was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Comparison of samples prepared by RF sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering showed that the surface of the RF sputter deposited electrode had a larger surface area resulting in more effective catalytic characteristics. Finally, an open voltage of 4.8 V, a short circuit current of 569 mA and a photoelectric conversion efficiency of approximately 3.6% were achieved for cells composed of 30 DSC units of 6 cm x 4 cm DSC units with 6 cells in series and 5 cells in parallel.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cells with apatite-type lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Xin; Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Wang, Chi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing high-quality apatite-type magnesium doped lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films (LSMO) deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are successfully fabricated. The LSMO film deposited at an Ar:O2 ratio of 6:4 on an anode supported NiO/Sm0.2Ce0·8O2-δ (SDC) substrate followed by post-annealing at 1000 °C reveals a uniform and dense c-axis oriented polycrystalline structure, which is well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite SDC/La0·6Sr0·4Co0·2Fe0·8O3-δ cathode layer is subsequently screen-printed on the LSMO deposited anode substrate and fired. The SOFC fabricated with the LSMO film exhibits good mechanical integrity. The single cell with the LSMO layer of ≈2.8 μm thickness reports a total cell resistance of 1.156 and 0.163 Ωcm2, open circuit voltage of 1.051 and 0.982 V, and maximum power densities of 0.212 and 1.490 Wcm-2 at measurement temperatures of 700 and 850 °C, respectively, which are comparable or superior to those of previously reported SOFCs with yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte films. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of high-quality LSMO films by RF magnetron sputtering on NiO-SDC anode substrates for the fabrication of SOFCs with good cell performance.

  20. Radio frequency magnetron sputter-deposited indium tin oxide for use as a cathode in transparent organic light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Choong-Heui; Ko, Young-Wook; Kim, Yong-Hae; Sohn, Choong-Yong; Hye Yong Chu; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature, for use as a cathode in a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). To minimize damage to the TOLED by the ITO sputtering process, the target-to-substrate distance was increased to 20 cm. An ITO film deposited at the optimum oxygen partial pressure exhibited an electrical resistivity as low as 4.06 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high optical transmittance of 91% in the visible range. The film was used as a transparent cathode for a TOLED with structure of an ITO coated glass substrate / Naphthylphenyldiamide (60 nm) / Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (60 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (2 nm) / Ag (8 nm) / ITO cathode (100 nm). A maximum luminance of 37,000 cd/m 2 was obtained. The device performance was comparable to a conventional OLED

  1. Optimization of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at low temperature by radio-frequency sputtering on flexible substrates for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27 and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance ({proportional_to}80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80{+-}0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. (author)

  2. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susanamaria.fernandez@ciemat.es; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala. Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-31

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 {sup o}C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 {sup o}C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} vs 14,900 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 o C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 o C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10 -3 Ω cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 Ω -1 cm -1 vs 14,900 Ω -1 cm -1 , respectively

  4. Low-Damage Sputter Deposition on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Casu, Emanuele; Gajek, Marcin; Raoux, Simone

    2013-03-01

    Despite its versatility and prevalence in the microelectronics industry, sputter deposition has seen very limited applications for graphene-based electronics. We have systematically investigated the sputtering induced graphene defects and identified the reflected high-energy neutrals of the sputtering gas as the primary cause of damage. In this talk, we introduce a novel sputtering technique that is shown to dramatically reduce bombardment of the fast neutrals and improve the structural integrity of the underlying graphene layer. We also demonstrate that sputter deposition and in-situ oxidation of 1 nm Al film at elevated temperatures yields homogeneous, fully covered oxide films with r.m.s. roughness much less than 1 monolayer, which shows the potential of using such technique for gate oxides, tunnel barriers, and multilayer fabrication in a wide range of graphene devices.

  5. A study of TaxC1-x coatings deposited on biomedical 316L stainless steel by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.H.; Wang, B.L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Ta x C 1-x coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures (T s ) in order to improve its corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility. XRD results indicated that T s could significantly change the microstructure of Ta x C 1-x coatings. When T s was x C 1-x coatings were in amorphous condition, whereas when T s was ≥150 deg. C, TaC phase was formed, exhibiting in the form of particulates with the crystallite sizes of about 15-25 nm (T s = 300 deg. C). Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that with the increase of T s , the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the Ta x C 1-x coatings decreased. The nano-indentation experiments indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coating deposited at 300 deg. C had a higher hardness and modulus. The scratch test results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited above 150 deg. C exhibited good adhesion performance. Tribology tests results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was improved significantly because of the deposited Ta x C 1-x coatings. The platelet adhesion test results indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited at T s of 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C possessed better hemocompatibility than the coating deposited at T s of 25 deg. C. Additionally, the hemocompatibility of the Ta x C 1-x coating on the 316L SS was found to be influenced by its surface roughness, hydrophilicity and the surface energy.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  7. Effect of thickness on structural, corrosion and mechanical properties of a thin ZrN film deposited by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, Ayyalu; Kannan, Raman [Anna Univ., Dindigul (India). Dept. of Physics; Loganathan, Subramani [Titan Industries, Hosur, Tamilnadu (India). Ion Plating Dept.

    2016-07-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (SS) substrates by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering with gas ion source (GIS) by varying the deposition time and obtained thickness (t{sub ZrN}) in the range of 1.25 to 3.24 μm. The effect of thickness on the structural and microstructural properties was studied using XRD and AFM. XRD characterization revealed that the texture of the ZrN thin films changes as a function of thickness. Both, the (111) and (200) peak, appear initially and (111) becomes more intense with increasing t{sub ZrN}. AFM imaging revealed that the ZrN thin film coated with t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm shows larger grains that are uniformly distributed over the surface. An average hardness value of 19.79 GPa was observed for ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm. The ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm exhibits better adhesion strength up to 20 N. The electrochemical polarization studies indicated that the ZrN thin film having larger thickness shows improved corrosion resistance compared to SS in 3.5 % NaCl solution.

  8. High-power sputtering employed for film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V I

    2017-01-01

    The features of high-power magnetron sputtering employed for the films’ deposition are reviewed. The main physical phenomena accompanying high-power sputtering including ion-electron emission, gas rarefaction, ionization of sputtered atoms, self-sputtering, ion sound waves and the impact of the target heating are described. (paper)

  9. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO{sub 2} deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bait, L. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Azzouz, L. [Université de Amar Telidji, Laghouat (Algeria); Madaoui, N. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N., E-mail: nsaoula@cdta.dz [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO{sub 2} coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO{sub 2} films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO{sub 2} films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O{sub 2} gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO{sub 2} films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the

  10. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO 2 coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO 2 films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO 2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO 2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO 2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO 2 films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties

  11. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to -100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = -100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0-50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO2 films deposited at -100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties. Comparison between the corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated samples showed a reduction in corrosion current density for coated samples compared to the uncoated one. The best corrosion current density of the film deposited at -75 V was 5.9 nA/cm2, which is about 11 times less than that of the uncoated steel 68.3 nA/cm2). The

  12. Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanadham, C; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L

    2003-01-01

    Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave copper R.F resonators, have been taken up in our laboratory, An ultra high vacuum system was made for this purpose. Niobium exhibits superconducting properties at liquid Helium temperature. A uniform coating of about 1.5 mu m of niobium on the internal surfaces of the copper resonant cavities is desired. Power dissipation in the resonators can be greatly reduced by making the internal surfaces of the R.F cavity super conducting. (author)

  13. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  14. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  15. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  16. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: pattini@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  17. Deposition and characterization of sputtered hexaboride coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhauser, W.

    1996-06-01

    Hexaborides of the rare-earth elements ReB 6 are potential materials for cathode applications since they combine properties such as low work function, good electrical conductivity, high melting point as well as low volatility at high temperatures. Due to their high hardness and colorations ranging from blue to purple these compounds are also considered for applications to coatings for decoration of consumer products. At present, either rods of sintered LaB 6 or single LaB 6 crystals are indirectly heated to induce emission. In this workboride coatings were deposited onto various substrates employing non-reactive magnetron sputtering from LaB 6 , CeB 6 , SmB 6 and YB 6 targets. Coatings deposited were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis. Vickers microhardness, colorimeter and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Electron emission characteristics of the coatings were studied by the thermionic emission and the contact potential method. After optimization of the sputtering parameters fine-columnar or partially amorphous films with atomic ratios of boron to metal in the order of 5 to 7.5 were obtained. The tendency to form the corresponding hexaboride phase decreases from LaB 6 , CeB 6 and SmB 6 to YB 6 . The work function was measured to be in the range of 2.6 to 3.3 eV. Vickers microhardness values lie between 1500 and 2000 HVO.01. LaB 6 coatings showed the most pronounced visual color impression corresponding to dark violet. The results obtained indicate that sputtered hexaboride films are well suited for decorative and thermionic applications. (author)

  18. Combined effect of oxygen deficient point defects and Ni doping in radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposited ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, B., E-mail: biswajit.physics@gmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 700 032 Kolkata (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania 799046, Tripura (India); Das, N.S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 700 032 Kolkata (India)

    2014-07-01

    Ni doped ZnO thin films with oxygen deficiency have been synthesized on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique using argon plasma. The combined effect of point defects generated due to oxygen vacancies and Ni doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied in this work. Ni doping concentrations were varied and the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of doping concentrations. The films were characterized with X-ray diffractometer, UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. Oxygen deficient point defects (Schottky defects) made the ZnO thin film highly conducting while incorporation of Ni dopant made it more functional regarding their electrical and optical properties. The films were found to have tunable electrical conductivity with Ni doping concentrations. - Highlights: • ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique • Synthesis process was stimulated to introduce Schottky-type point defects. • Point defects and external doping of Ni made ZnO thin films more functional. • Point defect induced high electrical conductivity in ZnO thin film. • Significant shift in optical bandgap observed in ZnO with Ni doping concentrations.

  19. Effect of sputtering power on structure and properties of Bi film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Guo; He Zhibing; Xu Hua; Li Jun; Chen Taihua; Chen Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Bi film was fabricated at different sputtering powers by DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate of Bi film as the function of sputtering power was studied. The surface topography of Bi film was observed by SEM, and the growth mode of Bi film was investigated. The crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The grain size and stress of Bi film were calculated. The SEM images show that all the films are columnar growth. The average grain size firstly increases as the sputtering power increases, then decreases at 60 W. The film becomes loose with the increase of sputtering power, while, the film gets compact when the sputtering power becomes from 45 to 60 W. The XRD results show that films are polycrystalline of hexagonal. And the stress transforms from the tensile stress to compressive stress as the sputtering power increases. (authors)

  20. Sputter deposited gallium doped ZnO for TCO applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Marc; Kronenberger, Achim; Polity, Angelika; Meyer, Bruno [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Blaesing, Juergen; Krost, Alois [FNW/IEP/AHE, Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Transparent conducting oxides to be used for flat panel or display applications should exhibit low electrical resistivity in line with a high optical transmission in the visible spectral range. Today indium-tin-oxide is the material which meets these requirements best. However, the limited availability of indium makes it useful to search for alternatives and ZnO doped with group III elements are promising candidates. While the Al doping in high concentrations causes problems due to the formation of insulating Al-oxides, Gallium related oxides are typically n-type conducting wide band gap semiconductors. Therefore we deposited Gallium doped ZnO thin films on quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering with a ZnO/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3at%) composite target. The substrate temperature and the oxygen flow during the sputtering process were varied to optimise the layer properties. Introducing oxygen to the sputtering gas allowed to vary the resistivity of the films by three orders of magnitude from about 1 {omega}cm down to less than 1 m{omega}cm.

  1. Characteristics of low-resistivity aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at room temperature by off-axis radio-frequency sputtering on flexible plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Min; Wang, Chih-Yi; Jheng, Ciao-Ren; Wu, Syu-Jhan; Sai, Chen-Kai; Lee, Ya-Ju; Chiang, Ching-Yu; Shew, Bor-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The crystalline structure, morphology, composition, electrical transport, and optical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films are studied for applications in transparent electronics and optoelectronic devices. AZO thin films of c-axis-oriented growth and with different thickness were deposited on PET flexible plastic substrates at room temperature by rf magnetron sputtering. A larger grain size with a decreased strain ɛ value is observed in a thicker film, while changes in composition for films with different thicknesses are insignificant. Moreover, the resistivity of film decreases with increasing thickness, and the low-temperature electrical transport properties can be described by the scenario of quantum corrections to conductivity. With the room-temperature growth conditions, the resistivity of 4.5 × 10-4 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 6.4 × 1020 cm-3, and transmittance of 80 % for the 1100-nm-thick film are obtained. In addition, the optical bandgap energy decreases with increasing film thickness, which can be attributed to the bandgap renormalization and crystallite size effects.

  2. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, E; Surmeneva, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A; Scoglund, P

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds. (paper)

  3. High frequency pulse anodising of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Ti Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Bordo, Kirill; Engberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    High frequency pulse anodising of Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings is studied as a surface finishing technique and compared to conventional decorative DC anodising. The Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering and were heat treated after deposition to generate a multiphase mi...

  4. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances.

  5. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances

  6. Stoichiometry and phase purity control of radio frequency magnetron sputter deposited Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 thin films for tunable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Reinholz, Aaron; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2013-11-01

    The systematic study of the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total chamber gas pressure (TGP) effects on the stoichiometry and crystal structure of rf sputtered Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) films and their phase purity allowed identifying close to optimal sputtering parameters for BST single phase polycrystalline film. The film with a Ba/Sr ratio equal to that of the source target and (Ba + Sr)/Ti ratio close to unity demonstrated the enhanced permittivity value of 553 and tunability of 69%. It was confirmed that the increase of TGP enables better match of the film and target stoichiometry. However, using O2/Ar ratio as a parameter should be utilized cautiously since exceeding a threshold OPP (2 mTorr in our case) may facilitate secondary phase formation. Relatively large dielectric losses were observed in both films sputtered at high (30 mTorr) and low (5 mTor) TGPs. The presence of oxygen vacancies was identified as a probable cause of losses, which is indirectly confirmed by the deviation of the film lattice constant from that of the bulk target.

  7. Preparation and characterization of thick metastable sputter deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Dahlgren, S.D.; Merz, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    High-rate dc supported-discharge sputtering techniques were developed and used to prepare 0.1 mm to 5.0 mm-thick deposits of a variety of metastable materials including amorphous alloys representing more than 15 different rare-earth-transition metal systems and a wide range of compositions and deposition conditions. The ability to prepare thick, homogeneous deposits has made it possible for the first time to investigate the structure, properties, and annealing behavior of these unique sputtered alloys using neutron diffraction, ultrasonic, and other experimental techniques that are difficult or impractical for thin films. More importantly, these characterization studies show that the structure and properties of the massive sputter deposits are independent of thickness and can be reproduced from deposit to deposit. Other advantages and applications of this metastable materials preparation technique include the possibility of varying structure and properties by control of the deposition parameters and the ability to deposit even reactive alloys with a very low impurity content

  8. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO3 via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, D.; Henderson, P.B.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Jensen, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO 3 thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO 3 for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF 6 , sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation

  9. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO{sub 3} via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States); Henderson, P.B. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States)]. E-mail: henderpb@airproducts.co; Hollingsworth, R.E. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States); Jensen, D.G. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO{sub 3} thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO{sub 3} for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF{sub 6}, sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation.

  10. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W., E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu

    2016-06-30

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO{sub 2}. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO{sub 2} films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material.

  11. The crystallization and properties of sputter deposited lithium niobite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Brooks Tellekamp, M.; Alan Doolittle, W.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposition of the thin film memristor material, lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) is performed by co-deposition from a lithium oxide (Li_2O) and a niobium target. Crystalline films that are textured about the (101) orientation are produced under room temperature conditions. This material displays memristive hysteresis and exhibits XPS spectra similar to MBE and bulk grown LiNbO_2. Various deposition parameters were investigated resulting in variations in the deposition rate, film crystallinity, oxygen to niobium ratio, and mean niobium oxidation state. The results of this study allow for the routine production of large area LiNbO_2 films at low substrate temperature useful in hybrid-integration of memristor, optical, and energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Room temperature sputter deposition of crystalline lithium niobite (LiNbO_2) • Contrast with previous high temperature corrosive growth methods • Analysis of sputter deposition parameters on the chemical and physical properties of the deposited material

  12. RF Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition of Silicon Sub-Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattum, E.D. van

    2007-01-01

    RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of silicon sub oxide E.D. van Hattum Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University The work described in the thesis has been inspired and stimulated by the use of SiOx layers in the direct inductive printing technology,

  13. Sputter deposition of BSCCO films from a hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Doyle, K.; Kowalski, S.; Miller, D.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    High-T c superconducting thin films were deposited onto MgO single crystal substrates from a hollow cathode onto ceramic targets with the nominal composition of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x . Films similar in composition to those used for the targets were deposited on MgO substrates by rf sputtering. The effects of sputtering time, rf power, and post-annealing on film microstructure and properties were studied in detail. Substrate temperature was found to have a significant influence on the film characteristics. Initial results show that deposition rates from a hollow cathode are an order of magnitude higher than those of a planar magnetron source at equivalent power levels. Large deposition rates allow for the coating of long lengths of wire

  14. Ion-assisted sputter deposition of molybdenum--silicon multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, S.P.; Stearns, D.G.; Rosen, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray multilayer (ML) structures that are fabricated by the use of magnetron-sputter deposition exhibit a degradation in structural quality as the deposition pressure is increased. The observed change in morphology is attributed to a reduced mobility of surface adsorbed atoms, which inhibits the formation of smooth, continuous layers. The application of a negative substrate bias produces ion bombardment of the growing film surface by sputtering gas ions extracted from the plasma and permits direct control of the energy density supplied to the film surface during thin-film growth. The technique supplements the energy lost to thermalization in high-pressure deposition and permits the fabrication of high-quality ML structures at elevated processing pressures. A threefold improvement in the soft-x-ray normal-incidence reflectance at 130 A results for substrate bias voltages of the order of ∼-150 V for Mo--Si ML's deposited at 10-mTorr Ar

  15. Development of an inductively coupled impulse sputtering source for coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Daniel Alexander Llewellyn

    In recent years, highly ionised pulsed plasma processes have had a great impact on improving the coating performance of various applications, such as for cutting tools and ITO coatings, allowing for a longer service life and improved defect densities. These improvements stem from the higher ionisation degree of the sputtered material in these processes and with this the possibility of controlling the flux of sputtered material, allowing the regulation of the hardness and density of coatings and the ability to sputter onto complex contoured substrates. The development of Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS) is aimed at the potential of utilising the advantages of highly ionised plasma for the sputtering of ferromagnetic material. In traditional magnetron based sputter processes ferromagnetic materials would shunt the magnetic field of the magnetron, thus reducing the sputter yield and ionisation efficiency. By generating the plasma within a high power pulsed radio frequency (RF) driven coil in front of the cathode, it is possible to remove the need for a magnetron by applying a high voltage pulsed direct current to the cathode attracting argon ions from the plasma to initiate sputtering. This is the first time that ICIS technology has been deployed in a sputter coating system. To study the characteristics of ICIS, current and voltage waveforms have been measured to examine the effect of increasing RF-power. Plasma analysis has been conducted by optical emission spectroscopy to investigate the excitation mechanisms and the emission intensity. These are correlated to the set RF-power by modelling assumptions based on electron collisions. Mass spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma potential and ion energy distribution function. Pure copper, titanium and nickel coatings have been deposited on silicon with high aspect ratio via to measure the deposition rate and characterise the microstructure. For titanium and nickel the emission modelling results are in

  16. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  17. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  18. Sputter deposited titanium disilicide at high substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, M.; Blackstone, S.; Lajos, R.

    1984-08-01

    Titanium disilicide films were sputter deposited from a composite TiSi2.1 target on bare silicon wafers both at room temperature and at 600 °C. The room temperature as-deposited films require a 900 °C sintering step to reduce their resistivity. On the other hand, the as-deposited 600 °C films are fully reacted, polycrystalline, have no oxygen contamination, large grain sizes, and are oxidation resistant. Further annealing of these films at 900 °C produces no changes in their crystal structure, composition, resistivity, or grain size.

  19. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  20. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics

  1. Krypton-85 storage in sputter-deposited amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; McClanahan, E.D.; Lytle, J.M.; Gordon, N.R.; Knoll, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    After comparing options for storing radioactive krypton gas, the United States Department of Energy selected ion implantation of the gas into a sputter-deposited metal matrix as the reference process. This technique is being developed with pilot-scale testing and further characterization of the deposited product. The process involves implanting krypton atoms into a growing deposit during the sputtering process. An amorphous metal deposit of nominal composition Ni 0 81 La 0 09 Kr 0 10 has been selected for further studies because of the high krypton loading, high sputtering yield, relatively low cost of the metallic components, resistance to corrosion, and stability of the product. The krypton release from this amorphous metal is described as an activated diffusion process which increases linearly with the square root of time. Studies of krypton release rate as a function of temperature were completed and an activation energy for the diffusion of 70 kcal/mole obtained. From these data, we estimated that the krypton release during the first ten years would be 0.5% for a maximum temperature of 350 0 C. The actual release of the krypton during storage was projected to be lower by a factor of 10 7 with the maximum temperature only 220 0 C. Thermal analysis studies show two energy releases occurring with krypton-containing alloys: one associated with recrystallization of the amorphous alloy and a second associated with krypton release. The total energy release between 100 and 800 0 C was less than 50 cal/g. Estimates are given for the cost of operation of the ion implantation process for solidification of the krypton-85 from a 2000-tonne heavy metal/year reprocessing plant. The present value costs, in 1981 dollars including capital and operating costs and assuming a 30-year life, are about $26M for the lifetime of the plant. Annual energy consumption of the process was estimated to be 3.9 M kWh/year

  2. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M.P.; Djani-ait Aissa, H.; Barroy, P.R.J.; Lafane, S.; Tessier, P.Y.; Angleraud, B.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Brohan, L.; Djouadi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi 4-x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT x ) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La) 2 Ti 3 O 12 to (Bi,La) 4.5 Ti 3 O 12 , depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of gold cluster growth during sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. W., E-mail: abraham@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de; Bonitz, M., E-mail: bonitz@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialverbunde, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-05-14

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation scheme that we apply to study the time evolution of the self-organized growth process of metal cluster assemblies formed by sputter-deposited gold atoms on a planar surface. The simulation model incorporates the characteristics of the plasma-assisted deposition process and allows for an investigation over a wide range of deposition parameters. It is used to obtain data for the cluster properties which can directly be compared with recently published experimental data for gold on polystyrene [M. Schwartzkopf et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13547 (2015)]. While good agreement is found between the two, the simulations additionally provide valuable time-dependent real-space data of the surface morphology, some of whose details are hidden in the reciprocal-space scattering images that were used for the experimental analysis.

  4. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Feng, E-mail: feng.feng@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, Hongyuan [Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Rongxia [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  5. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 μm were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper

  6. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöber, Laura, E-mail: laura.stoeber@tuwien.ac.at; Patocka, Florian, E-mail: florian.patocka@tuwien.ac.at; Schneider, Michael, E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Schmid, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.e366.schmid@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Konrath, Jens Peter, E-mail: jenspeter.konrath@infineon.com; Haberl, Verena, E-mail: verena.haberl@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  7. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  8. Process effects on radio frequency diode reactively sputtered ZrO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.M.; Reith, T.M.; Lin, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The ZrO 2 thin film is deposited by means of a reactive radio frequency diode sputtering from an elemental zirconium target in an argon--oxygen mixture gas. The influence of the deposition process parameters on the microinstructure, composition, film stress, and refractive index is investigated. It is noted that the process parameters, in particular substrate bias, have a profound effect on the structure and properties. The possible mechanism, in terms of bombardment of energetic particles and adatom mobility on the film surface, is discussed

  9. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  10. Structure and soft magnetic properties of sputter deposited MnZn-ferrite films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillies, M.F.; Coehoorn, R.; van Zon, J.B.A.D.; Alders, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report the soft magnetic properties of thin films of sputtered MnZn ferrite deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates. A high deposition temperature, 600¿°C, together with the addition of water vapor to the sputtering gas was found to improve the initial ac permeability, µ. The

  11. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-T.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S. [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Casu, E. A. [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Politecnico di Torino, Turin 10129 (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications.

  12. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-T.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S.; Casu, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications

  13. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-T.; Casu, E. A.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications.

  14. Sputter deposition of tantalum-nitride films on copper using an rf-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.C.; Fetherston, R.P.; Sridharan, K.; Chen, A.; Shamim, M.M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A tantalum-nitride film was successfully deposited at ambient temperature on copper with a modified ion-assisted-deposition (IAD) technique. The process uses an argon and nitrogen plasma to sputter deposit from a tantalum rf-cathode and ion implant the deposited film simultaneously. Both argon and nitrogen ions are used for sputtering and ion implantation. Auger spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the resulting film

  15. Effect of residual gas on structural, electrical and mechanical properties of niobium films deposited by magnetron sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanruo; Zhong, Yuan; Li, Jinjin; Cao, Wenhui; Zhong, Qing; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Xu

    2018-04-01

    Magnetron sputtering is an important method in the superconducting thin films deposition. The residual gas inside the vacuum chamber will directly affect the quality of the superconducting films. In this paper, niobium films are deposited by magnetron sputtering under different chamber residual gas conditions. The influence of baking and sputtering process on residual gas are studied as well. Surface morphology, electrical and mechanical properties of the films are analysed. The residual gas analysis result before the sputtering process could be regarded as a reference condition to achieve high quality superconducting thin films.

  16. Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Li, J.Y.; Yen, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using pulse magnetron sputtering (PMS) to deposit transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film onto flexible polyethersulfone (PES) plastic substrates. The thin film microstructure, optoelectronic and residual stress were analyzed using the modulating PMS power, work pressure, pulse frequency, duty cycle and cycle time process parameters. The residual stress of the thin film was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with the Sony equation. The experimental results show that PMS has a lower process temperature, higher deposition rate and lower resistivity compared with the radio frequency process at the same output power. The duty cycle increase produces the optimum optoelectronic characteristics. When the pressure, power, duty cycle and sputter time are increased, the thin film stress will also increase, causing flexural distortion in the PES plastic substrate. When the deposition thickness reaches 1.5 μm, ITO thin film will appear with a distinct split. Under 5 mtorr work pressure, 60 W power, 33 μs duty time and 2 μs pulse reverse time at duty cycle 95%, thin film with an optimized electrical 3.0 x 10 -4 Ω-cm, RMS surface roughness of 0.85 nm and visible region optical transmittance will be achieved with acquisition of over 85%

  17. Comparative study of the characteristics of Ni films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingpeng; Qiu Hong; Chen Xiaobai; Wu Ping; Tian Yue

    2008-01-01

    Ni films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates at 300 K and 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering. The films deposited at 300 K mainly have a [110] crystalline orientation in the growing direction whereas those deposited at 573 K grow with a [111] crystalline orientation in the growing direction. The film prepared only at 300 K by oblique-angle sputtering grows with a weakly preferential orientation along the incidence direction of the sputtered Ni atoms. All the films grow with thin columnar grains perpendicular to the substrate surface. The grain size of the films sputter-deposited obliquely is larger than that of the films sputter-deposited conventionally. The grain size of the Ni film does not change markedly with the deposition temperature. The film deposited at 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering has the highest saturation magnetization. For the conventional sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film deposited at 573 K is larger than that of the film deposited at 300 K. However, for the oblique-angle sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film is independent of the deposition temperature. All the Ni films exhibit an isotropic magnetization characteristic in the film plane

  18. Deposition temperature influence on sputtered nanogranular magnetoresistive composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujika, M.; Arana, S.; Castano, E.

    2007-01-01

    Among different physical principles magnetic sensors for low magnetic field detection can be based on, granular giant magnetoresistances have been studied due to their high sensitivity to small field changes and gradual magnetoresistance change at low fields. Following this aim, nanogranular Ag-Co thin films, deposited by DC co-sputtering from Ag and Co targets at different deposition temperatures have been tested. Samples have been grown at room temperature, 100 and 200 deg. C and annealed in a mixture of N 2 and H 2 at 200 and 300 deg. C for 45 min. The samples that have shown the best performance have been subjected to two sets of measurements where an external field has been applied in-plane and perpendicular to the film plane. The best performance has been shown by the samples deposited at room temperature and annealed at 300 deg. C, reporting a maximum value of magnetoresistance of 16.7% at 1.4 T and a linear sensitivity of 63%/T between 0.04 and 0.07 T within a magnetoresistance range varying from 1.5% to 3% when subjected to an in-plane external field

  19. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Carrera 30 Numero 45-03, Bogota (Colombia); Huerta, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: ser42@iim.unam.mx; Escamilla, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T{sub C}). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T{sub C} values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T{sub C} was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states.

  20. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Huerta, L.; Rodil, S.E.; Escamilla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T C ). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T C values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T C was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states

  1. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  2. Study on the Deposition Rate Depending on Substrate Position by Using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ion beams have been used for over thirty years to modify materials in manufacturing of integrated circuits, and improving the corrosion properties of surfaces. Recently, the requirements for ion beam processes are becoming especially challenging in the following areas : ultra shallow junction formation for LSI fabrication, low damage high rate ion beam sputtering and smoothing, high quality functional surface treatment for electrical and optical properties. Ion beam sputtering is an attractive technology for the deposition of thin film coatings onto a broad variety of polymer, Si-wafer, lightweight substrates. Demand for the decoration metal is increasing. In addition, lightweight of parts is important, because of energy issues in the industries. Although a lot of researches have been done with conventional PVD methods for the deposition of metal or ceramic films on the surface of the polymer, there are still adhesion problems.

  3. Development of AlInN photoconductors deposited by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Cascajero, Arantzazu; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Marco; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Naranjo, Fernando B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Monroy, Eva [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC-PHELIQS, Grenoble (France)

    2017-09-15

    In this work, we have developed photoconductor devices based on Al{sub 0.39}In{sub 0.61}N layers grown on sapphire by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The fabricated devices show a sublinear dependence of the photocurrent as a function of the incident optical power. The above-the-band-gap responsivity reaches 7 W/A for an irradiance of 10 W/m{sup 2} (405 nm wavelength). The response decreases smoothly for below-the-bandgap excitation, dropping by more than an order of magnitude at 633 nm. The devices present persistent photoconductivity effects associated to carrier trapping at grain boundaries. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Dust cloud evolution in sub-stellar atmospheres via plasma deposition and plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. R.; Diver, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In contemporary sub-stellar model atmospheres, dust growth occurs through neutral gas-phase surface chemistry. Recently, there has been a growing body of theoretical and observational evidence suggesting that ionisation processes can also occur. As a result, atmospheres are populated by regions composed of plasma, gas and dust, and the consequent influence of plasma processes on dust evolution is enhanced. Aim. This paper aims to introduce a new model of dust growth and destruction in sub-stellar atmospheres via plasma deposition and plasma sputtering. Methods: Using example sub-stellar atmospheres from DRIFT-PHOENIX, we have compared plasma deposition and sputtering timescales to those from neutral gas-phase surface chemistry to ascertain their regimes of influence. We calculated the plasma sputtering yield and discuss the circumstances where plasma sputtering dominates over deposition. Results: Within the highest dust density cloud regions, plasma deposition and sputtering dominates over neutral gas-phase surface chemistry if the degree of ionisation is ≳10-4. Loosely bound grains with surface binding energies of the order of 0.1-1 eV are susceptible to destruction through plasma sputtering for feasible degrees of ionisation and electron temperatures; whereas, strong crystalline grains with binding energies of the order 10 eV are resistant to sputtering. Conclusions: The mathematical framework outlined sets the foundation for the inclusion of plasma deposition and plasma sputtering in global dust cloud formation models of sub-stellar atmospheres.

  5. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  6. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  7. Properties of nickel films growth by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at elevated substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslim, Noormariah, E-mail: 14h8702@ubd.edu.bn [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Soon, Ying Woan [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Lim, Chee Ming; Voo, Nyuk Yoong [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-08-01

    Pure nickel (Ni) thin films of thicknesses of 100 nm were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at a power of 100 W and at various substrate temperatures i.e., room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topography, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and optical properties of the deposited films were studied. The properties of the Ni films could be controlled by altering the substrate temperature. Specifically, the films featured a face-centered cubic crystalline structure with predominant (111) crystallite orientation at all the substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Films deposited at substrate temperatures greater than 200 °C additionally displayed crystalline (200) and (220) diffraction peaks. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the grain size of the Ni thin films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in the resistivity of the Ni films. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the atomic force microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering is a good alternative method to deposit Ni films. • Properties of Ni films could be controlled simply by tuning substrate temperatures. • Crystallite size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperatures. • Electrical resistivity reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. • Optical properties also changed with substrate temperatures.

  8. Effects of processing parameters on the properties of tantalum nitride thin films deposited by reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazon, J.; Sarradin, J.; Flaud, V.; Tedenac, J.C. [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Frety, N. [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: Nicole.Frety@univ-montp2.fr

    2008-09-22

    The effects of processing parameters on the properties of tantalum nitride thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering have been investigated. The influence of the N{sub 2} partial and (Ar + N{sub 2}) total gas pressures as well as the sputtering power on the microstructure and electrical properties is reported. Rising the N{sub 2} partial pressure, from 2 to 10.7%, induces a change in the composition of the {delta}-TaN phase, from TaN to TaN{sub 1.13}. This composition change is associated with a drastic increase of the electrical resistivity over a 7.3% N{sub 2} partial pressure. The total gas pressure is revealed to strongly affect the film microstructure since a variation in both composition and grain size is observed when the gas pressure rises from 6.8 to 24.6 Pa. When the sputtering power varied between 50 and 110 W, an increase of the grain size related to a decrease of the electrical resistivity is observed.

  9. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  10. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films

  11. Shape memory effect and microstructures of sputter-deposited Cu-Al-Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minemura, T.; Andoh, H.; Kita, Y.; Ikuta, I.

    1985-01-01

    The shape memory effect has been found in many alloy systems which exhibit a thermoelastic martensite transformation. Cu-Al-Ni alloys exhibit an excellent shape memory effect in single crystalline states, but they have not yet been commercially used due to their brittle fracture along the grain boundaries in polycrystalline states. This letter reports the shape memory effect and microstructures of the sputter-deposited Cu-Al-Ni films. Cu-14%Al-4%Ni alloy ingot was prepared. A target for sputter deposition was cut from the ingot. Aluminium foils (20 μm thick) were used for the substrates of sputter deposition. The microstructures and crystal structures of the films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction using CuKα radiation, respectively. The effect of the sputtering conditions such as substrate temperature, partial pressure of argon gas, and the sputtering power on the structures of sputter-deposited Cu-14%Al-4%Ni films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Results are shown and discussed. Photographs demonstrate shape memory behaviour of Cu-14%Al-4%Ni films sputter-deposited on aluminium foils from (a) liquid nitrogen temperature to (d) room temperature. (author)

  12. Applications of ZnO:Al deposited by RF sputtering to InN low-cost technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM y Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    InN/ZnO:Al heterostructures deposited at low temperature on different substrates by radio-frequency sputtering were studied. Using ZnO:Al as buffer layer, an improvement in the InN structural properties was achieved. Evaluating ZnO:Al as contact on InN, an Ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer on InN was achieved. A specific contact resistance of 2 {omega} cm{sup 2} was measured without any post-deposition treatment. These properties could result very promising for optoelectronic device applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  14. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  15. Composition changes in sputter deposition of Y-Ba-Cu-O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Naoe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the mechanism of the composition change in sputter deposition of Y-BA-Cu-O film from YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-chi target investigated by means of a rf planar magnetron sputtering apparatus. Film composition changes significantly with not only substrate temperature Ts and sputtering gas pressure, but also substrate position. Lack of Cu and Ba content is significant in the film deposited at the substrate position just above the erosion area of the sputtering target. Suppression of bombardment of the substrate surface by negative ions emitted from the target and substrate is effective in increasing Cu and Ba content in the film. These results indicate not only that the sticking probability of the sputtered particles changes with Ts and incident particle energy, but also that high energy particle bombardment of the substrate surface plays an important role in the change of the film composition

  16. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  17. Effects of sputtering power on properties of copper oxides thin films deposited on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, P. K.; Ng, S. S.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Copper oxides are deposited by radio frequency sputtering using copper target in the mixture of argon and oxygen gasses. The structural and optical properties of the copper oxides deposited at different sputtering powers have been investigated. All the films are single phase polycrystalline. At low RF power (100 W), the film is monoclinic structure of cupric oxide (CuO). Meanwhile, the films are cubic structure of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) at higher RF power. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images show the films have different morphologies with small grain size and consist of a lot of voids. The analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the ratio of Cu to O is increased as the RF power increased. From the ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, the films have a broad absorption edge in the range of 300–500 nm. The band gap of the films grown at RF power of 100 W, and 120 W and above, were 1.18 eV and 2.16 eV, respectively.

  18. Microstructural variation in titanium oxide thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Natarajan, Gomathi; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microstructural evolution of titanium oxide thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium metal target. By varying the ratio of sputter-gas mixture containing argon, oxygen and nitrogen various phases of titanium oxide, almost pure rutile, rutile-rich and anatase-rich nano-crystalline, were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques the microstructure of the films were revealed. The relationship between the microstructure of the films and the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering is discussed

  19. Deposition of lead-silicate glassy thin coatings by RF magnetron sputtering: Correlation between deposition parameters and electrical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigato, V.; Maggioni, G.; Boscarino, D.; Della Mea, G.; Univ. di Trento, Mesiano

    1996-01-01

    Lead-silicate glassy thin films produced by means of Reactive Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering have found recent application in the development of MicroStrip Gas Chambers radiation detectors. Here, thin films (100--400 nm) of lead silicate glass have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in Ar plasma at different discharge conditions. The interaction of the sputtered species with the gas atoms during the transport process through the discharge region and the kinetics of growth of the films have been investigated as a function of the target composition and of the substrate temperature. This study demonstrates the possibility of controlling the surface electrical resistance of the films in a wide range of values ranging from 10 12 to 10 17 Ω/□ during the film growth

  20. Study on the electrical properties of ITO films deposited by facing target sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J; Jin, Su B; Kim, Sung I; Choi, Yoon S; Choi, In S; Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism for the change in the electrical properties (carrier concentration (n) and mobility (μ)) of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering in a confined facing magnetic field. The relationship between the carrier concentration and the mobility was significantly different from the results reported for ITO films deposited by other magnetron sputtering processes. The lowest resistivity obtained for ITO films deposited in a confined facing magnetic field at low substrate temperatures (approximately 120 0 C) was 4.26 x 10 -4 Ω cm at a power density of 3 W cm -2 . Crystalline ITO films were obtained at a low power density range from 3 to 5 W cm -2 due to the increase in the substrate temperature from 120 to 162 0 C. This contributed to the increased carrier concentration and decreased electrical resistivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an increase in the concentration of the Sn 4+ states. This was attributed to the formation of a crystalline ITO film, which effectively enhanced the carrier concentration and reduced the carrier mobility.

  1. Electrochemical reaction of lithium with orthorhombic bismuth tungstate thin films fabricated by radio-frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Sun Ke; Yu Le; Fu Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 thin films with fast deposition rate have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrodes in rechargeable thin film lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 113 μAh/cm 2 -μm is obtainable for Bi 2 WO 6 film electrode with good capacity reversibility. A multiple-center reactive mechanism associated with both Bi 3+ /Bi 0 and W 6+ /W x+ (x 2 WO 6 electrochemical performance with those of Bi 2 O 3 and WO 3 thin films. A possible explanation about smooth capacity loss of Bi 2 WO 6 after long-term cycling is suggested from the incomplete reaction of Bi component. The advantages of Bi 2 WO 6 thin films over the singer-center Bi 2 O 3 or WO 3 thin films are shown in both the aspects of volumetric capacity and cycling life.

  2. Non-conventional photocathodes based on Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); D’Elia, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Giulio, M.; Maruccio, G. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cola, A. [National Council Research, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Stankova, N.E. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D.G. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Broitman, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler–Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  3. Tailoring the soft magnetic properties of sputtered multilayers by microstructure engineering for high frequency applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V. Falub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic Ni78.5Fe21.5, Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4 and Fe52Co28B20 thin films laminated with SiO2, Al2O3, AlN, and Ta2O5 dielectric interlayers were deposited on 8” Si wafers using DC, pulsed DC and RF cathodes in the industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS-EVO-II magnetron sputtering system. A typical multilayer consists of a bilayer stack up to 50 periods, with alternating (50-100 nm thick magnetic layers and (2-20 nm thick dielectric interlayers. We introduced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in these films during sputtering by a combination of a linear magnetic field, seed layer texturing by means of linear collimators, and the oblique incidence inherent to the geometry of the sputter system. Depending on the magnetic material, the anisotropy field for these films was tuned in the range of ∼(7-120 Oe by choosing the appropriate interlayer thickness, the aspect ratios of the linear collimators in front of the targets, and the sputter process parameters (e.g. pressure, power, DC pulse frequency, while the coercivity was kept low, ∼(0.05-0.9 Oe. The alignment of the easy axis (EA on the 8” wafers was typically between ±1.5° and ±4°. We discuss the interdependence of structure and magnetic properties in these films, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray reflectivity (XRR with reciprocal space mapping (RSM and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE measurements.

  4. Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical stresses and microstructure of sputter-deposited molybdenum and reactively sputter-deposited molybdenum nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.G.

    2003-01-01

    A combined investigation of mechanical stress generation by in situ substrate curvature measurements during the growth of MoN x thin films, with 0≤x≤0.35, and of structural properties by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is reported. It was found that the Mo film stresses strongly depended on the Ar sputtering pressure and changed from highly compressive to highly tensile in a relatively narrow pressure range of 6-12 mTorr. For pressures exceeding ∼40 mTorr, the stress in the film was nearly zero. Cross-sectional TEM measurements indicated that the compressively stressed films contained a dense microstructure without any columns, while the films having tensile stress had a very columnar microstructure. High sputtering-gas pressure conditions yielded dendritic-like film growth, resulting in complete relaxation of the mechanical tensile stresses. It was also found that the properties of the deposited MoN x films depended not only on the nitrogen partial pressure in Ar-N 2 gas mixtures but also on the total sputtering-gas pressure. Cross-sectional TEM studies showed that an average column width for 160 nm-thick films near stoichiometry of Mo 2 N was about ∼15-20 nm. Using the electron scattering data collected from a range of crystalline samples for calculating the pair distribution function (PDF) by Fourier transformation in real space, Mo-N and Mo-Mo bonding in the films was also identified. Once the Mo 2 N phase was formed, the density, microstructure and bonding feature were similar and insensitive to the total sputtering pressure used in this study

  5. Synthesis and biological characterization of zirconium oxynitride thin film growth by radio-frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G.I. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Clavijo, D. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Grupo de materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnológicas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Cardozo, C. [Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia)

    2013-02-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were grown on common glass, silicon substrates (100) and on stainless steel 316L using the reactive RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were analyzed through structural, morphological, and biocompatibility studies. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies were done as a function of growth parameters, such as power applied to the target, substrate temperature, and flow ratios. The studies of biocompatibility were carried out on zirconium oxynitride films deposited on stainless steel 316L through proliferation and cellular adhesion. The XRD analysis showed that films deposited at 623 K, with a flow ratio ΦN{sub 2}/ΦO{sub 2} of 1.25 and a total deposit time of 30 min grew preferentially oriented along the (111) plane of the zirconium oxynitride monoclinic phase. The SEM analyses showed that the films grew homogeneously, and the AFM studies indicated that the average rugosity of the film was 5.9 nm and the average particle size was 150 nm. Finally, through the analysis of the biocompatibility, we established that the films have a better surface than the substrate (stainless steel 316L) in terms of adhesion and proliferation of bone cells. - Highlights: ►ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films were deposited using reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. ►We studied the effect of deposition parameters on ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films microstructure. ►We have been able to grow bone cells on ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} coated stainless steel 316L.

  6. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  7. Highly transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO trilayer films deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI trilayer films were deposited on glass substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. A high optical transmittance over 94.25% at the wavelength of 550 nm and an average transmittance over the visual region of 88.04% were achieved. The calculated value of figure of merit (FOM reaches 80.9 10-3 Ω-1 for IAI films with 15-nm-thick Ag interlayer. From the morphology and structural characterization, IAI films could show an excellent correlated electric and optical performance if Ag grains interconnect with each other on the bottom ITO layer. These results indicate that IAI trilayer films, which also exhibit low surface roughness, will be well used in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Structure and mechanical properties of Ti-Si-C coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutzaki, S.H.; Krzanowski, J.E.; Nainaparampril, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nanostructured coatings consisting of mixed carbide phases can provide a potential means to developing superhard coatings. Heterogeneous nanostructured coatings can be obtained by either deposition of multilayer structures or by depositing film compositions that undergo a natural phase separation due to thermodynamic immiscibility. In the present work, we have taken the latter approach, and deposited films by radio frequency cosputtering from dual carbide targets. We have examined a number of ternary carbide systems, and here we report the results obtained on Ti-Si-C films with a nominal (Ti 1-x Si x )C stoichiometry and with x≤0.31. It was found that the nanoindentation hardness increased with Si content, and the maximum hardness achieved was nearly twice that of sputter-deposited TiC. We further analyzed these films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray diffraction. Since cubic SiC has an x-ray pattern almost identical to that of TiC, the extent of phase separation could not be determined by that method. However, XRD did demonstrate a general disordering of the films with increasing SiC content. In addition, a mottled structure was observed in high-resolution TEM images of the Si-containing films, confirming microstructural effects due to the Si additions

  9. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowell, Michael; Mueller, Joachim; Ruske, Manfred; Lutz, Mark; Linz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxide films are widely used materials for electronic applications such as flat panel displays and solar cells. The superposition of DC and pulsed DC power by a certain fraction of RF power was applied to deposit indium tin oxide films. This technique allows an additional tuning of different parameters relevant to film growth, and yields high quality films even under kinetically limited conditions. A long-term stable RF/DC process could be realized by using different combinations of standard power supply components, which includes a fully reliable arc handling system for both the RF and DC generators. The effectiveness of the arc handling system is illustrated by the current and voltage behavior recorded for actual arcing events. The resistivity of indium tin oxide films is strongly influenced by the respective sputtering mode. The best resistivity values of 145-148 μΩ cm were obtained by RF-superimposed pulsed DC sputtering at a pulse frequency between 100 and 200 kHz and a substrate temperature as low as 140 deg. C. In addition, the films were extremely smooth with a surface roughness of 1-2.5 nm

  11. Sputtering ultra-small Pt on nanographitic flakes deposited by electrophoresis for ethanol electro oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryakenari, Ahmad Ahmadi; Daryakenari, Mohammad Ahmadi; Omidvar, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    To acquire highly efficient and cost-effective fuel cells, numerous research works have been carried out to the development low cost and excellent performance of electrocatalysts. In this paper, a solution-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique for fabrication of Pt-based catalyst layers is studied. Nanographitic flake coatings used as catalyst support for sputtered platinium (Pt) were fabricated via the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of dispersed nanographitic flakes in isopropyl alcohol. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (MNH) was used as an additive binder in the EPD process. Subsequently, the platinium particles were deposited by a direct sputtering on the fabricated nanographitic flake coatings.

  12. Characterization of copper thin films prepared by metal self-ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Amioka, Takao; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1994-01-01

    New deposition technique, 'metal-ion beam self-sputtering' method has been developed. Using metal ions which is the same element with the target material, no contamination with noble gas atoms, which are often used in the conventional sputtering, will occur. In this paper, fundamental measurement of the film purity is reported. As a result of PIXE measurements, it was clarified that only slight amount of iron is incorporated in the films. (author)

  13. Investigation of the optical property and structure of WO3 thin films with different sputtering depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Jan, Der-Jun; Chen, Chien-Han; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the optical properties and structure of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films that was deposited by different sputtering depositions. WO3 thin films deposited by two different depositions of direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and pulsed DC sputtering. A 99.95% WO3 target was used as the starting material for these depositions. These WO3 thin films were deposited on the ITO glass, PET and silicon substrate by different ratios of oxygen and argon. A shadow moiré interferometer would be introduced to measure the residual stress for PET substrate. RF magnetron sputtering had the large residual stress than the other's depositions. A Raman spectrum could exhibit the phase of oxidation of WO3 thin film by different depositions. At the ratio of oxygen and argon was about 1:1, and the WO3 thin films had the best oxidation. However, it was important at the change of the transmittance (ΔT = Tbleached - Tcolored) between the coloring and bleaching for the smart window. Therefore, we also found the WO3 thin films had the large variation of transmittance between the coloring and bleaching at the gas ratios of oxygen and argon of 1:1.

  14. A review of basic phenomena and techniques for sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auciello, O. (Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA) North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.; Lichtenwalner, D.J. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Krauss, A.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The processes involved in plasma and ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films are critically reviewed. Recent advances in the development of these techniques are discussed in relation to basic physical phenomena, specific to each technique, which must be understood before high quality films can be produced. Control of film composition is a major issue in sputter-deposition of multicomponent materials. Low temperature processing of films is a common goal for each technique, particularly in relation to integrating high temperature superconducting films with the current microelectronics technology. It has been understood for some time that for Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} deposition, the most intensely studied high-{Tc} compound, incorporation of sufficient oxygen into the film during deposition is necessary to produce as-deposited superconducting films at relatively substrate temperatures. Recent results have shown that with the use of suitable buffer layers, high quality Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} sputtered films can be obtained on Si substrates without the need for post-deposition anneal processing. This review is mainly focussed on issues related to sputter-deposition of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films, although representative results concerning the bismuth and thallium based compounds are included. 143 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Inhomogeneous strain states in sputter deposited tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, I.C.; Shaw, T.M.; Goldsmith, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an x-ray diffraction study of dc-magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films are reported. It is shown that the phase transformation from the β to α W can cause multilayered single-phase films where the layers have very different stress states even if the films are in the 500 nm thickness range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. High-surface-quality nanocrystalline InN layers deposited on GaN templates by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Naranjo, Fernando B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lahourcade, Lise; Monroy, Eva [Equipe mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fernandez, Susana [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We report a detailed study of the effect of deposition parameters on optical, structural, and morphological properties of InN films grown by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering on GaN-on-sapphire templates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Deposition parameters under study are substrate temperature, RF power, and sputtering pressure. Wurtzite crystallographic structure with c-axis preferred growth orientation is confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. For the optimized deposition conditions, namely at a substrate temperature of 450 C and RF power of 30 W, InN films present a root-mean-square surface roughness as low as {proportional_to}0.4 nm, comparable to the underlying substrate. The apparent optical bandgap is estimated at 720 nm (1.7 eV) in all cases. However, the InN absorption band tail is strongly influenced by the sputtering pressure due to a change in the species of the plasma. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Deposition and characterization of IrOx nanofoils on carbon nanotube templates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2012-01-01

    Large surface area IrO x nanofoils (IrO x NF) were deposited on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates, forming IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites, by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering using Ir metal target. The structural and spectroscopic properties of IrO x NF were characterized. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of foil-like structure for the as-deposited samples. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the contiguous presence of glassy iridium oxide, iridium metal, and iridium dioxide nanocrystals in the foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis provided the information of the oxidation states and the stoichiometry of IrO x NF. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous-like phase of the as-deposited IrO x NF. The nanofoil structure provided ultra-high surface area for electrical charge storage which made the IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites as an attractive candidate for the supercapacitor applications.

  18. Mechanical and shape memory properties of ferromagnetic Ni2MnGa sputter-deposited films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Itagaki, K.

    2003-10-01

    The ternary intermetallic compound Ni2MnGa is an intelligent material, which has a shape memory effect and a ferromagnetic property. Use of shape memory alloy films for an actuator of micro machines is very attractive because of its large recovery force. The data of mechanical and shape memory properties of the films are required to use for the actuator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fabrication conditions and to clarify the relationships between these properties and fabrication conditions of the Ni{2}MnGa films. The Ni{2}MnGa films were deposited with a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering apparatus using a Ni{50}Mn{25}Ga{25} or Ni{52}Mn{24}Ga{24} target. After deposition, the films were annealed at 873sim 1173 K. The asdeposited films were crystalline and had columnar grains. After the heat treatment, the grains widened and the grain boundary became indistinct with increasing heat treatment temperature. MnO and Ni{3} (Mn, Ga) precipitations were observed in the heat-treated films. The mechanical properties of the films were measured by the nanoindentation method. Hardness and elastic modulus of as-deposited films were larger than those of arcmelted bulk alloys. The hardness of the films was affected by the composition, crystal structure, microstructure and precipitation, etc. The elastic modulus of the films was also changed with the heat treatment conditions. The heat-treated films showed a thermal two-way shape memory effect.

  19. One-dimensional analysis of the rate of plasma-assisted sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, A.; Rudolph, H.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article a recently developed model [A. Palmero, H. Rudolph, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211501 (2006)] is applied to analyze the transport of sputtered material from the cathode toward the growing film when using a plasma-assisted sputtering deposition technique. The argon pressure dependence of the deposition rate of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, chromium, germanium, tantalum, and tungsten under several different experimental conditions has been analyzed by fitting experimental results from the literature to the above-mentioned theory. Good fits are obtained. Three quantities are deduced from the fit: the temperature of the cathode and of the growing film, and the value of the effective cross section for thermalization due to elastic scattering of a sputtered particle on background gas atoms. The values derived from the fits for the growing film and cathode temperature are very similar to those experimentally determined and reported in the literature. The effective cross sections have been found to be approximately the corresponding geometrical cross section divided by the average number of collisions required for the thermalization, implying that the real and effective thermalization lengths have a similar value. Finally, the values of the throw distance appearing in the Keller-Simmons model, as well as its dependence on the deposition conditions have been understood invoking the values of the cathode and film temperature, as well as of the value of the effective cross section. The analysis shows the overall validity of this model for the transport of sputtered particles in sputter deposition

  20. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-08-29

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.

  1. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  2. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hänninen, Tuomas, E-mail: tuoha@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  3. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purandare, Yashodhan, E-mail: Y.Purandare@shu.ac.uk; Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Santana, Antonio [Ionbond AG Olten, Industriestrasse 211, CH-4600 Olten (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  4. Ge Nanoislands Grown by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Comprehensive Investigation of Surface Morphology and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive investigation of the effect of growth parameters on structural and optical properties of Si-based single layer Ge nanoislands grown via Stranski-Krastanov mechanism employing radio frequency magnetron sputtering due to its high deposition rate, easy procedure, economical cost, and safety is carried out. The estimated width and height of Ge nanoislands produced by this technique are in the range of ∼8 to ∼30 and ∼2 to 8 nm, respectively. Varieties parameters are manipulated to optimize the surface morphology and structural and optical behavior of Ge nanoislands. The resulted nanoislands are analyzed using various analytical techniques including atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for growing high quality samples having high number density and homogenous and small size distribution are found to be 400°C for substrate temperature, 300 sec for deposition time, 10 sccm for Ar flow, and 100 W for radio frequency power. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic investigation on the organized growth factors and their effects on surface parameters and photoluminescence emission energy may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge nanoislands (100 nanoislands suitable in nanophotonics.

  5. Determination of the sputter rate variation pattern of a silicon carbide target for radio frequency magnetron sputtering using optical transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez de la Puente, G.; Guerra Torres, J.A.; Erlenbach, O.; Steidl, M.; Weingaertner, R.; De Zela, F.; Winnacker, A.

    2010-01-01

    We produce amorphous silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from SiC bulk target. We present the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target as a function of process parameters, like target sample distance, rf power, sputtering rate and process gas pressure. The emission pattern is determined by means of thickness distribution of the deposited a-SiC films obtained from optical transmission measurements using a slightly improved method of Swanepoel concerning the determination of construction of the envelopes in the interference pattern of the transmission spectra. A calibration curve is presented which allows the conversion of integrated transmission to film thickness. Holding constant a set of process parameters and only varying the target sample distance the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target was determined, which allowed us to predict the deposition rate distribution for a wide range of process parameters and target geometry. In addition, we have found that the transmission spectra of the a-SiC films change with time and saturate after approximately 10 days. Within this process no change in thickness is involved, so that the determination of thickness using transmission data is justified.

  6. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  7. Advanced TiC/a-C : H nanocomposite coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Strondl, C.

    2006-01-01

    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron Sputtering. They consist of 2-5 nm TiC nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. A transition from a Columnar to a glassy microstructure has been observed in the nanocomposite coatings with increasing

  8. Control of the optical properties of silicon and chromium mixed oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, L.; Galindo, R. Escobar; Martinez, R.; Sanchez, O.; Palacio, C.; Albella, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of mixed-oxide thin films allows obtaining materials with better properties than those of the different binary oxides, which makes them suitable for a great number of applications in different fields, such as tribology, optics or microelectronics. In this paper we investigate the deposition of mixed chromium and silicon oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a view to use them as optical coatings with an adjustable refractive index. These films have been characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry so as to determine how the deposition conditions influence the characteristics of the material. We have found that the deposition parameter whose influence determines the properties of the films to a greater extent is the amount of oxygen in the reactive sputtering gas.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of porous crystalline SiC thin films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Afzaal, E-mail: afzaalqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sarwar, Tuba; Ahmed, Nadeem [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Hexagonal SiC thin films have been deposited using radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique by varying the substrate temperature and other deposition conditions. Prior to deposition surface modification of the substrate Si(1 0 0) played an important role in deposition of the hexagonal SiC structure. The effect of substrate temperature during deposition on structure, composition and surface morphology of the SiC films has been analyzed using atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction in conventional {theta}-2{theta} mode and omega scan mode revealed that the deposited films were crystalline having 8H-SiC structure and crystallinity improved with increase of deposition temperature. The bonding order and Si-C composition within the films showed improvement with the increase of deposition temperature. The surface of thin films grew in the shape of globes and columns depending upon deposition temperature. The optical properties also showed improvement with increase of deposition temperature and the results obtained by ellipsometry reinforced the results of other techniques.

  10. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  11. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  12. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Gułkowski, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  13. Entrapment of krypton in sputter deposited metals: a storage medium for radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.; Moss, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Sputter deposition of metals with a negative substrate bias results in a deposit containing relatively large concentrations of the sputtering gas. This phenomenon has been applied as a technique for storage of the radioactive gas, 85 Kr, which is generated in nuclear fuels for power production. Alloys which sputter to yield an amorphous product have been shown to contain up to 12 atom % Kr [42 cm 3 of Kr(STP)/g of deposit; concentration equivalent to a gas at 4380 psi pressure]. Release from these metals occurs at so low a rate that extrapolation to long times yields a 85 Kr release at 300 0 C of about 0.06% in 100 years. A preliminary evaluation of the engineering feasibility and economics of the sputtering process indicates that 85 Kr can be effectively trapped in a solid matrix with currently available techniques on a scale required for handling DOE-generated waste or commercial reprocessed fuels and that the cost should not be a limiting factor

  14. Composition, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annadurai, A.; Nandakumar, A.K.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Manivel Raja, M.; Bysak, S. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India); Gopalan, R. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India)], E-mail: rg_gopy@yahoo.com; Chandrasekaran, V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 058 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were deposited by the d.c. magnetron sputtering on well-cleaned substrates of Si(1 0 0) and glass at a constant sputtering power of 36 W. We report the influence of sputtering pressure on the composition, structure and magnetic properties of the sputtered thin films. These films display ferromagnetic behaviour only after annealing at an elevated temperature and a maximum saturation magnetization of 335 emu/cc was obtained for the films investigated. Evolution of martensitic microstructure was observed in the annealed thin films with the increase of sputtering pressure. The thermo-magnetic curves exhibited only magnetic transition in the temperature range of 339-374 K. The thin film deposited at high sputtering pressure of 0.025 mbar was found to be ordered L2{sub 1} austenitic phase.

  15. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  16. Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1994-11-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual ion beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. Optical properties ie refractive index and extinction coefficient of IBS films were determined in the 250 - 1100 nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n equals 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS ie deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 - 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 - 40 (mu) A/cm2) showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy while composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target while assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals 35 (mu) A/cm2. All

  17. Ion-beam and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1995-02-01

    Ion-beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. The optical properties, i.e., refractive index and extinction coefficient, of IBS films were determined in the 250- to 1100-nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS, i.e., deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 to 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 to 40 (mu) A/cm2), showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy, whereas composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target whereas assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS-deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS-deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals

  18. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  19. Mechanical properties of TiN films deposited by changed-pressure r.f. sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Hashimoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    TiN was deposited onto glass, stainless steel and cemented carbide by r.f. magnetron sputtering. The mechanical properties of TiN such as hardness, internal stress and adhesion were assessed by the Vickers microhardness test, the bending method and the modified scratch test. It was found that the operating pressure during sputtering deposition strongly affects these mechanical properties. As the operating pressure is increased beyond 0.6-0.7 Pa, the adhesion of TiN films onto the substrate increases enormously, but the hardness decreases owing to the release of the high compressive stress in the film. Therefore changing the pressure from high to low during deposition could be a good way of optimizing both hardness and adhesion. The effectiveness of this changed-pressure process was experimentally verified by cutting tests using TiN-coated cemented carbide tools. This process will be applicable to any other hard coating materials having high compressive stresses. (orig.)

  20. Formation of metal nanoparticles by short-distance sputter deposition in a reactive ion etching chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Min; Meng, Dennis Desheng; Sun Kai

    2009-01-01

    A new method is reported to form metal nanoparticles by sputter deposition inside a reactive ion etching chamber with a very short target-substrate distance. The distribution and morphology of nanoparticles are found to be affected by the distance, the ion concentration, and the sputtering time. Densely distributed nanoparticles of various compositions were fabricated on the substrates that were kept at a distance of 130 μm or smaller from the target. When the distance was increased to 510 μm, island structures were formed, indicating the tendency to form continuous thin film with longer distance. The observed trend for nanoparticle formation is opposite to the previously reported mechanism for the formation of nanoparticles by sputtering. A new mechanism based on the seeding effect of the substrate is proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  1. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  2. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  3. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.M.; Liu, C.Y.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • a-IGZO nanolayer has been presented for alignment of liquid crystals in LCD. • RF sputtering deposition at an oblique angle has been performed to grow the films. • High transparency over 90% was obtained in the visible wavelength range. • The OCB cells exhibited fast on-off and short response time of 5.04 ms. • V–T characteristics proved high contrast ratio for LCD display applications. - Abstract: In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage–transmittance (V–T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V–T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  4. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.M., E-mail: wu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Liu, C.Y.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • a-IGZO nanolayer has been presented for alignment of liquid crystals in LCD. • RF sputtering deposition at an oblique angle has been performed to grow the films. • High transparency over 90% was obtained in the visible wavelength range. • The OCB cells exhibited fast on-off and short response time of 5.04 ms. • V–T characteristics proved high contrast ratio for LCD display applications. - Abstract: In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage–transmittance (V–T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V–T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  5. Stability of sputter deposited cuprous oxide (Cu2O) subjected to ageing conditions for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Espinosa, E.; Rimmaudo, I.; Riech, I.; Mis-Fernández, R.; Peña, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    Among various metal oxide p-type semiconductors, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) stands out as a nontoxic and abundant material, which also makes it a suitable candidate as a low-cost absorber for photovoltaic applications. However, the chemical stability of the absorber layer is critical for the solar cell lifetime, in particular, for Cu-based materials, concerning to its oxidation state changes. In this paper, we addressed the Cu2O stability depositing films of 170 nm by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently ageing them in conditions similar to the typical accelerated life test for the solar module, in a period of time from one to five weeks. The stability of the optical, electrical, and structural properties of the Cu2O thin films was investigated using UV-VIS-near infrared transmittance, 4-probes electrical resistance characterization, high precision profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Finally, we demonstrated that the aging tests affected only the surface of the films, while the bulk remained unaltered, making Cu2O a promising candidate for production of stable devices, including solar cells.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2009-07-01

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH2/C value of 18% was observed in the N2/H2 discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption.

  7. Structural and optical properties of titanium dioxide films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in pure oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanuma, T.; Matsutani, T.; Liu, C.; Mihara, T.; Kiuchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were deposited on unheated quartz (SiO 2 ) substrates in 'pure oxygen' plasma by reactive radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of deposited films were systematically studied by changing the deposition parameters, and it was very recently found that crystalline TiO 2 films grew effectively in pure O 2 atmosphere. For TiO 2 films deposited at a rf power P rf of 200 W, x-ray diffraction patterns show the following features: (a) no diffraction peak was observed at a total sputtering pressure p tot of 1.3 Pa; (b) rutile (110) diffraction was observed at 4.0 Pa, (c) the dominant diffraction was from anatase (101) planes, with additional diffraction from (200), under p tot between 6.7 and 13 Pa. For the deposition at 140 W, however, crystalline films with mixed phases were observed only between 4.0 and 6.7 Pa. The peaks of both the deposition rate and the anatase weight ratio for the films produced at 140 W were found at p tot of approximately 6.7 Pa. This suggests that the nucleation and growth of TiO 2 films were affected by the composition, density, and kinetic energy of the particles impinging on the substrate surface. The optical absorption edge analysis showed that the optical band gap E g and the constant B could sensitively detect the film growth behavior, and determine the film structure and optical absorption. The change in the shape of the fundamental absorption edge is considered to reflect the variation of density and the short-range structural modifications

  8. Deposition of nanostructured fluorocarbon plasma polymer films by RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Drabik, Martin; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Cechvala, Juraj; Artemenko, Anna; Gordeev, Ivan; Choukourov, Andrei; Matolinova, Iva; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2011-07-29

    The RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene target is studied with the aim to find out conditions leading to the deposition of super-hydrophobic thin films. It is shown that such coatings can be prepared at elevated pressures and a longer distance between the sputtered target and the substrate. This is explained by an increase in the density of longer C{sub x}F{sub y} molecules that reach the substrate and a lower flux of ions and CF{sub 2} radicals on the surface of growing film under such deposition conditions, as observed by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Such changes in plasma composition result in a deposition of rough films having F/C ratio close to 2 as observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. These findings clearly distinguish our results from the previous investigations of polytetrafluoroethylene sputtering performed at shorter distances from the target, where either low F/C ratio or low roughness of the deposited films did not allow reaching super-hydrophobic character of the coatings.

  9. Control of composition and crystallinity in hydroxyapatite films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering under a simultaneous flow of H2O vapor gas. Crystallization during sputter-deposition at elevated temperatures and solid-phase crystallization of amorphous films were compared in terms of film properties. When HAp films were deposited with Ar sputtering gas at temperatures above 460 °C, CaO byproducts precipitated with HAp crystallites. Using Xe instead of Ar resolved the compositional problem, yielding a single HAp phase. Preferentially c-axis-oriented HAp films were obtained at substrate temperatures between 460 and 500 °C and H2O pressures higher than 1×10-2 Pa. The absorption signal of the asymmetric stretching mode of the PO43- unit (ν3) in the Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra was the narrowest for films as-crystallized during deposition with Xe, but widest for solid-phase crystallized films. While the symmetric stretching mode of PO43- (ν1) is theoretically IR-inactive, this signal emerged in the FT-IR spectra of solid-phase crystallized films, but was absent for as-crystallized films, indicating superior crystallinity for the latter. The Raman scattering signal corresponding to ν1 PO43- sensitively reflected this crystallinity. The surface hardness of as-crystallized films evaluated by a pencil hardness test was higher than that of solid-phase crystallized films.

  10. Electrical, optical and etching properties of Zn-Sn-O thin films deposited by combinatorial sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Park, J. K.; Baik, Y. J.; Kim, W. M.; Jeong, J.; Seong, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Zn-Sn-O (ZTO) films are known to be able to form an amorphous phase, which provides a smooth surface morphology as well as etched side wall, when deposited by using the conventional sputtering technique and, therefore, to have a potential to be applied as transparent thin film transistors. In this study, ZTO thin films were prepared by using combined sputtering of ZnO and SnO 2 targets, and the dependences of their electrical and optical properties on the composition and the deposition parameters were examined. The Sn content in the films was varied in the range of 35 ∼ 85 at .%. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, 150 and 300 .deg. C, and the oxygen content in sputtering gas was varied from 0 to 1 vol.%. Sn-rich films had better electrical properties, but showed large oxygen deficiency when deposited at low oxygen partial pressures. ZTO films with Sn contents lower than 55 at.% had good optical transmission, but the electrical properties were poor due to very low carrier concentrations. A high Hall mobility of larger than 10 cm 2 /Vs could be obtained in the carrier density range 10 17 ∼ 10 20 cm -3 , and the etching rate was measurable for films with Sn content up to 70 at.% when using a dilute HCl solution, indicating a good possibility of utilizing ZTO films for device applications.

  11. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  12. High-speed deposition of protective films of aluminium oxide by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Zakhrov, A.N.; Ladyzhenskii, O.P.; Sochugov, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The high optical characteristics of aluminium films made them attractive for different functional and decorative applications. It is well-known that the corrosion resistance of alloying is determined by the presence of the oxide film on its surface, but on the aluminium films, deposited by vacuum methods, the resistance is extremely low resulting in the relatively rapid failure of the coating. At present, there is a large number of methods of depositing the films of aluminium oxide. In most cases, it is recommended to use reactive magnetron sputtering of an aluminium target in a magnetron spraying system (MSS) using direct current, on dispersion of the target of aluminium oxide in a high-frequency MSS

  13. Influence of Continuous and Discontinuous Depositions on Properties of Ito Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, K.; Rakkwamsuk, P.; Dumrongrattana, S.

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrate without external heating by DC magnetron sputtering with continuous deposition of 800 s (S1) and discontinuous depositions of 400 s × 2 times (S2), 200 s × 4 times (S3) and 100 s × 8 times (S4). The structural, surface morphology, optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of ITO films were measured by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, spectrophotometer and four-point probe, respectively. The deposition process of the S1 condition shows the highest target voltage due to more target poisoning occurrence. The substrate temperature of the S1 condition increases with the saturation curve of the RC charging circuit while other conditions increase and decrease due to deposition steps as DC power turns on and off. Target voltage and substrate temperature of ITO films decrease when changing the deposition conditions from S1 to S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The preferential orientation of ITO films were changed from dominate (222) plane to (400) plane with the increasing number of deposition steps. The ITO film for the S4 condition shows the lowest electrical resistivity of 1.44 × 10-3 Ω·cm with the highest energy gap of 4.09 eV and the highest surface roughness of 3.43 nm. These results were discussed from the point of different oxygen occurring on the surface ITO target between the sputtering processes which affected the properties of ITO films.

  14. Co-deposition of silver nanoclusters and sputtered alumina for sensor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultes, Guenter; Schmidt, Michael; Truar, Marcel; Goettel, Dirk; Freitag-Weber, Olivia; Werner, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous thin films may be beneficial for sensoring devices. The electrical conductivity of nanoscale metallic particles being embedded in a matrix of non conducting material should exhibit higher sensitivity to mechanical stress and strain compared to homogeneous films. The production of heterogeneous films may follow different routes. This paper describes the attempt to embed Ag nanoclusters emitted from a gas aggregation cluster source into a growing matrix of alumina originating from sputter sources. The characteristics of the cluster source are first resumed, with their mean masses ranging from approx. 1000 to 100,000 atoms per cluster. The expelled and soft landed clusters are extensively examined by transmission electron microscopy verifying their crystalline form. Yet the use of a radio frequency driven sputter source for the embed material destroys and annihilates the Ag clusters even at very low sputter power. If a reactive direct current sputter process is performed within an oxidising sputter gas instead, the Ag clusters are oxidised to different oxides, but they survive as crystalline entities as verified by X-ray diffraction investigations. A simple subsequent heat treatment reduces the Ag oxides to metallic Ag clusters

  15. Synthesis and characterization of boron carbon nitride films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.F.; Bello, I.; Lei, M.K.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Li, K.Y. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2000-06-01

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were deposited on silicon substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) (13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphite targets in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture of a constant pressure of 1.0 Pa. During deposition, the substrates were maintained at a temperature of 400 C and negatively biased using a pulsed voltage with a frequency of 330 kHz. Different analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM) were used for characterization. In addition, the mechanical and tribological properties of the films were investigated by nano-indentation and micro-scratching. The carbon concentration in the films could be adjusted by the coverage area of a graphite sheet on the h-BN target, and decreased with increasing bias voltage. It was found that the ternary compound films within the B-C-N composition triangle possessed a less ordered structure. B--N, B--C and C--N chemical bonds were established in the films, and no phase separation of graphite and h-BN occurred. At zero bias voltage, amorphous BC{sub 2}N films with atomically smooth surface could be obtained, and the microfriction coefficient was 0.11 under a normal load of 1000 {mu}N. Hardness as determined by nano-indentation was usually in the range of 10-30 GPa, whereas the Young's modulus was within 100-200 GPa. (orig.)

  16. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  17. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide deposited on metallic substrates by DC magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating in the anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium AA1050 alloy and stainless steel S316L substrates were investigated. The coating was prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and surface morphology of the c......The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating in the anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium AA1050 alloy and stainless steel S316L substrates were investigated. The coating was prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and surface morphology...... sweep voltammetry, impedance measurements. The microstructure and surface morphology of the coating were similar irrespective of the nature of the substrate, while the photocatalytic behaviour was found to vary depending on the substrate type. In general the TiO2 coating on stainless steel was shown...

  18. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering on different polyester substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and different polyester substrates; namely polyarylate (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The influence of the substrate on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of the ITO layers was investigated. The sputtered films exhibited crystallization in the (2 2 2) orientation, with higher mean crystallite size and lower structural distortion onto PET than onto PA, PC or glass substrates. ITO films deposited onto PET showed also higher band gap energy, higher carrier concentration and lower resistivity than the ITO layers onto the other tested substrates. These optical and electrical characteristics have been related to the structural distortion that was found dependent on the specific polyester substrate

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  20. Growing LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces by sputter deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Dildar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sputter deposition of oxide materials in a high-pressure oxygen atmosphere is a well-known technique to produce thin films of perovskite oxides in particular. Also interfaces can be fabricated, which we demonstrated recently by growing LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 substrates and showing that the interface showed the same high degree of epitaxy and atomic order as is made by pulsed laser deposition. However, the high pressure sputtering of oxides is not trivial and number of parameters are needed to be optimized for epitaxial growth. Here we elaborate on the earlier work to show that only a relatively small parameter window exists with respect to oxygen pressure, growth temperature, radiofrequency power supply and target to substrate distance. In particular the sensitivity to oxygen pressure makes it more difficult to vary the oxygen stoichiometry at the interface, yielding it insulating rather than conducting.

  1. Progress on sputter-deposited thermotractive titanium-nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Hou Li; Zhao, Z.; Pence, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now well established that titanium-nickel alloys fabricated as thin films by physical vapor deposition can display the same transformation and shape-memory effects as their ingot-metallurgy counterparts. As such they may find important application to microelectromechanical and biomechanical systems. Furthermore, we show here that titanium-nickel films may be directly processed so as to possess extremely fine austenite grain size and very high strength. These films display classical transformational superelasticity, including high elastic energy storage capacity, the expected dependence of martensite-start temperature on transformation enthalpy, and large, fully recoverable anelastic strains at temperatures above A f . Processing depends on elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, which may be manipulated within a certain range to control both grain size and crystallographic texture. It is also possible to deposit crystalline titanium-nickel films onto polymeric substrates, making them amenable to lithographic patterning into actuator elements that are well-suited to electrical excitation of the martensite reversion transformation. Finally, isothermal annealing of nickel-rich films, under conditions of controlled extrinsic residual stress, leads to topotaxial orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 -type precipitates, and the associated possibility of two-way memory effects. Much work remains to be done, especially with respect to precise control of composition. (orig.)

  2. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-07-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was {approximately}1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in {ge}1 GPa tensile increase in film stress.

  3. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was approximately1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in ge1 GPa tensile increase in film stress

  4. Influence of reactive oxygen species during deposition of iron oxide films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranak, V.; Hubicka, Z.; Cada, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C. A.; Hippler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Iron oxide films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of an iron cathode in an argon/oxygen gas mixture at different gas pressures (0.5 Pa, 1.5 Pa, and 5.0 Pa). The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f  =  100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. A main goal is a comparison of film growth during conventional and electron cyclotron wave resonance-assisted HiPIMS. The deposition plasma was investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy and energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Active oxygen species were detected and their kinetic energy was found to depend on the gas pressure. Deposited films were characterized by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Optical properties and crystallinity of as-deposited films were found to depend on the deposition conditions. Deposition of hematite iron oxide films with the HiPIMS-ECWR discharge is attributed to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species.

  5. Microstructure evolution in nanoporous gold thin films made from sputter-deposited precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Eun-Ji; Kang, Na-Ri; Baek, Un Bong; Lee, Hae Moo; Nahm, Seung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Young

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate almost crack-free 1.5 μm thick nanoporous gold thin films using free-corrosion dealloying and transfer processes from sputter-deposited precursors. By controlling the temperature and the concentration of the nitric acid solution during free-corrosion dealloying, we obtain ligament sizes in nanoporous gold between 22 and 155 nm. We investigate the effects of dissolution rate of Ag atoms, surface diffusivity of Au atoms and formation of Ag oxide on nanoporosity evolution

  6. Fabrication of black-gold coatings by glancing angle deposition with sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vitrey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of black-gold coatings using sputtering is reported here. Glancing angle deposition with a rotating substrate is needed to obtain vertical nanostructures. Enhanced light absorption is obtained in the samples prepared in the ballistic regime with high tilt angles. Under these conditions the diameter distribution of the nanostructures is centered at about 60 nm and the standard deviation is large enough to obtain black-metal behavior in the visible range.

  7. Advanced TiC/a-C: H nanocomposite coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Strondl, C.

    2006-01-01

    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron Sputtering. They consist of 2-5 nm TiC nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. A transition from a Columnar to a glassy microstructure has been observed in the nanocomposite coatings with increasing substrate bias or carbon content. Micro-cracks induced by nanoindentation or wear tests readily propagate through the column boundaries whereas the coatings without a columnar inicrostructure exhibit s...

  8. Methods of optimization of reactive sputtering conditions of Al target during AlN films deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by recent studies and considering the well-documented problems occurring during AlN synthesis, we have chosen two diagnostic methods which would enable us to fully control the process of synthesis and characterize the synthesized aluminum nitride films. In our experiment we have compared the results coming from OES measurements of plasma and circulating power characteristics of the power supply with basic features of the deposited layers. The dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in our studies. Processes of aluminum target sputtering were carried out in an atmosphere of a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The plasma emission spectra were measured with the use of a monochromator device. Analyses were made by comparing the positions and intensities of spectral lines of the plasma components. The results obtained allowed us to characterize the sputtering process under various conditions of gas mixture compositions as well as power distribution more precisely, which is reported in this work. The measured spectra were related to the deposition rate, the structure morphology of the films and chemical composition. Our work proved that the use of plasma OES and circulating power measurements make possible to control the process of sputtering and synthesis of deposited films in situ.

  9. Molecular dynamics and experimental studies on deposition mechanisms of ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, C.-M.; Lien, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental methods are used to study the deposition mechanism of ionic beam sputtering (IBS), including the effects of incident energy, incident angle and deposition temperature on the growth process of nickel nanofilms. According to the simulation, the results showed that increasing the temperature of substrate decreases the surface roughness, average grain size and density. Increasing the incident angle increases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while decreasing its density. In addition, increasing the incident energy decreases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while increasing its density. For the cases of simulation, with the substrate temperature of 500 K, normal incident angle and 14.6 x 10 -17 J are appropriate, in order to obtain a smoother surface, a small grain size and a higher density of thin film. From the experimental results, the surface roughness of thin film deposited on the substrates of Si(1 0 0) and indium tin oxide (ITO) decreases with the increasing sputtering power, while the thickness of thin film shows an approximately linear increase with the increase of sputtering power

  10. HF treatment effect for carbon deposition on silicon (111) by DC sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Darma, Y., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Surface modifications of Si (111) substrate by HF solution for thin film carbon deposition have been systematically studied. Thin film carbon on Si (111) has been deposited using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pellet doped by 5% Fe as the target. EDAX characterization confirmed that the carbon fraction on Si substrate much higher by dipping a clean Si substrate by HF solution before sputtering process in comparison with carbon fraction on Si substrate just after conventional RCA. Moreover, SEM and AFM images show the uniform thin film carbon on Si with HF treatment, in contrast to the Si without HF solution treatment. These experimental results suggest that HF treatment of Si surface provide Si-H bonds on top Si surface that useful to enhance the carbon deposition during sputtering process. Furthermore, we investigate the thermal stability of thin film carbon on Si by thermal annealing process up to 900 °C. Atomic arrangements during annealing process were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra indicate that thin film carbon on Si is remaining unchanged until 600 °C and carbon atoms start to diffuse toward Si substrate after annealing at 900 °C.

  11. Epitaxial crystal growth by sputter deposition: Applications to semiconductors. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of the physics of ion-surface interactions has progressed sufficiently to allow sputter depositinn to be used as a crystal growth technique for depositing a wide variety of single crystal elemental, compound, alloy, and superlattice semiconductors. In many cases, films with essentially bulk values of carrier concentrations and mobilities have been obtained. The controlled use of low energy particle bombardment of the growing film during sputter deposition has been shown to affect all stages of crystal growth ranging from adatom mobilities and nucleation kinetics to elemental incorporation probabilities. Such effects provide inherent advantages for sputter deposition over other vapor phase techniques for the low temperature growth of compound and alloy semiconductors and are essential in allowing the growth of new and unique single crystal metastable semiconductors. Part 1 of this review includes sections on experimental techniques, the physics of ion-surface interactions, and ion bombardment effects on film nucleation and growth, while Part 2 presents a discussion of recent results in the growth of elemental, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, metastable, and other compound semiconductors

  12. Large-area few-layer MoS 2 deposited by sputtering

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jyun-Hong

    2016-06-06

    Direct magnetron sputtering of transition metal dichalcogenide targets is proposed as a new approach for depositing large-area two-dimensional layered materials. Bilayer to few-layer MoS2 deposited by magnetron sputtering followed by post-deposition annealing shows superior area scalability over 20 cm(2) and layer-by-layer controllability. High crystallinity of layered MoS2 was confirmed by Raman, photo-luminescence, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The sputtering temperature and annealing ambience were found to play an important role in the film quality. The top-gate field-effect transistor by using the layered MoS2 channel shows typical n-type characteristics with a current on/off ratio of approximately 10(4). The relatively low mobility is attributed to the small grain size of 0.1-1 mu m with a trap charge density in grain boundaries of the order of 10(13) cm(-2).

  13. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  14. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  15. Films deposited from reactive sputtering of aluminum acetylacetonate under low energy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglin, Felipe Augusto Darriba; Prado, Eduardo Silva; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano, E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Caseli, Luciano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Silva, Tiago Fiorini da; Tabacniks, Manfredo Harri [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Films were deposited from aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3 ) using a methodology involving reactive sputtering and low energy ion bombardment. The plasma was generated by the application of radiofrequency power to the powder containing electrode and simultaneously, negative pulses were supplied to the electrode where the substrates were attached. It was investigated the effect of the duty cycle of the pulses (Δ) on the properties of the coatings. Association of ion bombardment to the deposition process increased film thickness, structure reticulation and organic content. Ions from the deposition environment were implanted at the film-air interface or underneath it. Morphology and topography were altered depending on Δ. Considering the enhancement of Δ, it affected the flux of ions reaching the depositing interface and then the deposition rate, H content, crosslinking degree and surface microstructure. Alumina groups were detected in the infrared spectra, whereas the precipitation of amorphous alumina was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  16. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Priya; McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed

  17. Hydrogen ion sensors based on indium tin oxide thin film using radio frequency sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Jung-Lung; Jhan, Syun-Sheng; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Huang, An-Li

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto Si and SiO 2 /Si substrates using a radio frequency sputtering system with a grain size of 30-50 nm and thickness of 270-280 nm. ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures were achieved and connected to a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as an ITO pH extended-gate field-effect transistor (ITO pH-EGFET). The semiconductor parameter analysis measurement (Keithley 4200) was utilized to measure the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics curves and study the sensing properties of the ITO pH-EGFET. The linear pH voltage sensitivities were about 41.43 and 43.04 mV/pH for the ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures, respectively. At the same time, both pH current sensitivities were about 49.86 and 51.73 μA/pH, respectively. Consequently, both sensing structures can be applied as extended-gate sensing heads. The separative structure is suitable for application as a disposable pH sensor.

  18. Field emission from ZnS nanorods synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Maiti, U. N.; Jana, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    The field emission property of zinc sulphides nanorods synthesized in the thin film form on Si substrates has been studied. It is seen that ZnS nanorod thin films showed good field emission properties with a low-macroscopic turn-on field (2.9-6.3 V/μm). ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a polycrystalline prefabricated ZnS target at a relatively higher pressure (10 -1 mbar) and at a lower substrate temperature (233-273 K) without using any catalyst. Transmission electron microscopic image showed the formation of ZnS nanorods with high aspect ratio (>60). The field emission data were analysed using Fowler-Nordhiem theory and the nearly straight-line nature of the F-N plots confirmed cold field emission of electrons. It was also found that the turn-on field decreased with the decrease of nanorod's diameters. The optical properties of the ZnS nanorods were also studied. From the measurements of transmittance of the films deposited on glass substrates, the direct allowed bandgap values have been calculated and they were in the range 3.83-4.03 eV. The thickness of the films was ˜600 nm.

  19. Low resistivity of Ni–Al co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at low sputtering power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, JongWoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R., E-mail: yescho@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Ni–Al co-doped ZnO (NiAl:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering in Ar using a single ceramic, spark-plasma-sintered target with 2 wt% Al and 5 wt% Ni. The effects of the sputtering power and gas pressure on the NiAl:ZnO films were studied. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements and UV–vis transmission spectroscopy. As the sputtering power and gas pressure increased, the crystallinity, electrical properties and optical band gap of the films were improved. The NiAl:ZnO film deposited at 40 W at 6.0 mTorr had the strongest (0 0 2) XRD peak and the lowest resistivity of approximately 2.19 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%.

  20. Sputter deposition and characterisation of hard wear-resistant Ti/TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmonds, M.C.; Swygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Multilayered Ti/TiN thin films have been synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition. Alternating layers of Ti and TiN with layer thickness in the 5-50 nm range are sequentially deposited. The structure of the films have been characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and reflection and Auger depth profiling. The mechanical properties have been investigated using pin-on-disc wear rate testing, nanoindentation determination of hardness and micro scratch testing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  1. Ga-doped ZnO films deposited with varying sputtering powers and substrate temperatures by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering and their property improvement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghun; Cheon, Dongkeun; Kim, Won-Jeong; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with varying sputtering power and substrate temperature while fixing the Ga concentration in the sputtering target. The application of higher sputtering power by pulsed DC magnetrons sputtering at a moderate temperature of 423 K results in increased carrier concentration and mobility which accompanied improved doping efficiency and crystalline quality. Substrate temperature was found to be the more dominant parameter in controlling the electrical properties and crystallinity, while the sputtering power played synergistic auxiliary roles. Electrical and optical properties of the GZO TCO films fulfilled requirements for transparent electrodes, despite relatively low substrate temperature (423 K) and small thickness (100 nm). In an attempt to improve the electrical properties of the GZO films by hydrogen-treatment, it was observed that the substitutional Ga plays the complex role of carrier generator as donor and carrier suppressor deactivating the oxygen vacancy simultaneously, which would complicate the property improvement by increasing doping efficiency.

  2. Electrical properties of ZnO-based bottom-gate thin film transistors fabricated by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navamathavan, R. [Nano Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: n_mathavan@yahoo.com; Choi, Chi Kyu [Nano Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Ju [Nanophotonic Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-05

    We report on enhancement-mode thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at 300 deg. C. The TFT structure consisted of ZnO as a channel, SiN{sub x} as a gate insulator and indium tin oxide (ITO) as a gate which were deposited onto a Corning glass substrate. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that dense columnar structure of closely packed ZnO nano grains along the c-axis. The transfer characteristics of a typical ZnO TFT exhibited a field effect mobility of 31 cm{sup 2}/V s, a drain current on/off ratio of 10{sup 4}, the low off-current value in the order of 10{sup -10} A, and a threshold voltage of 1.7 V. The transparent ZnO TFT exhibited n-channel enhancement mode behavior.

  3. Magnetic field effects on coating deposition rate and surface morphology coatings using magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Chromium nitride coatings exhibit superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance, and are widely applied in the die and mold industries. The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic field effects on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. Four types of magnetic field configurations, including the magnetron sputtering system, SNSN, SNNN, and intermediate magnetron modification, are discussed in this paper. SKD11 cold work die steel and a silicon (100) chip were used as substrates in the chromium nitride depositions. The process parameters, such as target current, substrate bias, and the distance between the substrate and target, are at fixed conditions, except for the magnetic arrangement type. The experimental results showed that the deposition rates of the four types of magnetic field configurations were 1.06, 1.38, 1.67 and 1.26 µm h −1 , respectively. In these cases, the SNNN type performs more than 58% faster than the unbalanced magnetron configuration does for the deposition rate. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by SEM and is discussed in this paper

  4. Turbostratic-like carbon nitride coatings deposited by industrial-scale direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louring, S.; Madsen, N.D.; Berthelsen, A.N.; Christensen, B.H.; Almtoft, K.P.; Nielsen, L.P.; Bøttiger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nitride thin films were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale equipment at different deposition temperatures and substrate bias voltages. The films had N/(N + C) atomic fractions between 0.2 and 0.3 as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectroscopy provided insight into the ordering and extension of the graphite-like clusters, whereas nanoindentation revealed information on the mechanical properties of the films. The internal compressive film stress was evaluated from the substrate bending method. At low deposition temperatures the films were amorphous, whereas the film deposited at approximately 380 °C had a turbostratic-like structure as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The turbostratic-like film had a highly elastic response when subjected to nanoindentation. When a CrN interlayer was deposited between the film and the substrate, XPS and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the turbostratic-like structure was maintained. However, it was inconclusive whether the film still exhibited an extraordinary elastic recovery. An increased substrate bias voltage, without additional heating and without deposition of an interlayer, resulted in a structural ordering, although not to the extent of a turbostratic-like structure. - Highlights: • Carbon nitride films were deposited by industrial-scale magnetron sputtering. • The deposition temperature and the substrate bias voltage were varied. • A turbostratic-like structure was obtained at an elevated deposition temperature. • The turbostratic-like film exhibited a very high elastic recovery. • The influence of a CrN interlayer on the film properties was investigated

  5. Deuterium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by deuterium plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, V.Kh.; Roth, J.; Shu, W.M.; Komarov, D.A.; Isobe, K.; Yamanishi, T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of the deposition conditions on the surface morphology and deuterium (D) concentration in tungsten (W) deposition layers formed by magnetron sputtering and in the linear plasma generator has been carried out. Thick W layers (≥0.4 μm) deposited onto copper substrates demonstrate areas of pilling and, after post-deposition heating to 1300 K, flaking-off and fracturing. For thin W layers (≤80 nm) deposited onto stainless steel (SS) and W substrates, no areas of flaking-off and fracturing exist both after deposition and after post-deposition heating to 673 K for the SS substrate and to 1300 K for the W substrate. The concentration of deuterium in the W layers was found to decrease with increasing substrate temperature and with increasing tungsten deposition rate. For layers with relatively high concentration of oxygen (0.20-0.60 O/W), a decrease of the D concentration with increasing substrate temperature is more pronounced than that for layers deposited in good vacuum conditions. To describe the evolution of the D/W ratio with the substrate temperature and the tungsten deposition rate, an empirical equation proposed by De Temmerman and Doerner [J. Nucl. Mater. 389 (2009) 479] but with alternative parameters has been used.

  6. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  7. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  8. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L.J.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf 2+ and Hf 4+ . The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO 2 , HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO 2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO 2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  9. Thermoelectric properties of cobalt–antimonide thin films prepared by radio frequency co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz; Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr

    2015-07-31

    Co–Sb thin films with an Sb content in the range 65–76 at.%, were deposited on a thermally oxidized Si (100) substrate preheated at 200 °C using radio-frequency co-sputtering. Evaluation using scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction reveals that the films were polycrystalline, with a grain size in the range 100–250 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicates single-phase CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} films, as well as multiphase thin films with either CoSb{sub 2} or CoSb{sub 3} as the dominant phase. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured and found to be strongly dependent on the observed phases and the defect concentrations. The CoSb{sub 2} thin films were found to exhibit a significant n-type thermoelectric effect, which, coupled with the very low electrical resistivity, resulted in a larger power factor than that of the CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We find power factors of 0.73 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} and 0.67 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} for the CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} thin films, respectively. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Co–Sb thin films were obtained by present deposition strategy. • CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} have semimetal and semiconductor characteristics respectively. • The Seebeck coefficient depends heavily on defect concentration and impurity phases. • Film properties in the second heating cycle were different from the first. • CoSb{sub 2} is found to possess significant n-type thermopower.

  10. Vacuum Pumping Performance Comparison of Non-Evaporable Getter Thin Films Deposited Using Argon and Krypton as Sputtering Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xianghong; He, Yun; Li, Yulin

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the outstanding vacuum performance and the low secondary electron yield, non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film deposited onto interior walls has gained widespread acceptance and has been incorporated into many accelerator vacuum system designs. The titanium-zirconium-vanadium (T-Zr-V) NEG thin films were deposited onto the interior wall of stainless steel pipes via DC magnetron sputtering method using either argon or krypton gas as sputtering gas. Vacuum pumping evaluation tests were carried out to compare vacuum pumping performances of the Ti-Zr-V NEG thin films deposited using argon or krypton. The results showed much higher initial pumping speed for the Kr-sputtered NEG film than the Ar-sputtered film, though both films have similar activation behavior. The compositions and textures of both thin films were measured to correlate to the pumping performances.

  11. Effect of Target Composition and Sputtering Deposition Parameters on the Functional Properties of Nitrogenized Ag-Permalloy Flexible Thin Films Deposited on Polymer Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Khan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of functional properties of nitrogenized silver-permalloy thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalic ester {PETE (C10H8O4n} flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering. These new soft magnetic thin films have magnetization that is comparable to pure Ni81Fe19 permalloy films. Two target compositions (Ni76Fe19Ag5 and Ni72Fe18Ag10 were used to study the effect of compositional variation and sputtering parameters, including nitrogen flow rate on the phase evolution and surface properties. Aggregate flow rate and total pressure of Ar+N2 mixture was 60 sccm and 0.55 Pa, respectively. The distance between target and the substrate was kept at 100 mm, while using sputtering power from 100–130 W. Average film deposition rate was confirmed at around 2.05 nm/min for argon atmosphere and was reduced to 1.8 nm/min in reactive nitrogen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the functional properties. Nano sized character of films was confirmed by XRD and SEM. It is found that the grain size was reduced by the formation of nitride phase, which in turns enhanced the magnetization and lowers the coercivity. Magnetic field coupling efficiency limit was determined from 1.6–2 GHz frequency limit. The results of comparable magnetic performance, lowest magnetic loss, and highest surface free energy, confirming that 15 sccm nitrogen flow rate at 115 W is optimal for producing Ag-doped permalloy flexible thin films having excellent magnetic field coupling efficiency.

  12. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  13. Shape memory characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Ishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were deposited using an RF magnetron sputtering apparatus. The as-sputtered films were heat-treated in order to crystallize and memorize. After the heat treatment, the shape memory characteristics have been investigated using DSC and thermomechanical tests. Upon cooling the thin films, the solution-treated films showed a single peak in the DSC curve indicating a single stage transformation occurring from B2 to the martensitic phase, while the age-treated films showed double peaks indicating a two-stage transformation, i.e., from B2 to the R-phase, then to the martensitic phase. A perfect shape memory effect was achieved in these sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films in association both with the R-phase and martensitic transformations. Transformation temperatures increased linearly with increasing applied stress. The transformation strain also increased with increasing stress. The shape memory characteristics were strongly affected by heat-treatment conditions. (author)

  14. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Wang, Meihan; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  15. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hao, E-mail: haolei@imr.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Division of Surface Engineering of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Meihan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka [Center for Hyper Media Research, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  16. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  17. Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N; Huo, C; Raadu, M A; Lundin, D; Helmersson, U; Vitelaru, C; Stancu, G D; Minea, T

    2012-01-01

    The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a ‘sweet spot’ in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Π Townsend is proposed. A parametric analysis of Π Townsend shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength. (paper)

  18. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  19. Microstructure of thin film platinum electrodes on yttrium stabilized zirconia prepared by sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toghan, Arafat, E-mail: arafat.toghan@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Khodari, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, 83523 (Egypt); Steinbach, F.; Imbihl, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    (111) oriented thin film Pt electrodes were prepared on single crystals of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by sputter deposition of platinum. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by profilometry. SEM images of the as-sputtered platinum film show a compact amorphous Pt film covering uniformly the substrate. Upon annealing at 1123 K, gaps and pores at the interface develop leading to a partial dewetting of the Pt film. Increasing the annealing temperature to 1373 K transforms the polycrystalline Pt film into single crystalline grains exhibiting a (111) orientation towards the substrate.

  20. Zn Thin Film Deposition for Fe Layer Shielding Use the Sputtering Technique on Cylindrical Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunanto; Tjipto Sujitno, BA; Suprapto; Simbolon, Sahat

    2002-01-01

    Deposition of thin film on Fe substrate use sputtering technique on cylindrical form was carried out. The purpose of this research is to protect Fe due to the corrosion with Zn thin film. Sputtering method was proposed to protect a component of complex form. Substrate has functioned as anode, meanwhile target in cylindrical form as a cathode. Argon ion from anode bombard Zn with enough energy for releasing Zn. Zn atom would scatter and some of then was focused on the anode. For testing Zn atom on Fe by using XRF and corrosion rate with potentiostat. It was found that corrosion rate was decreased from 0.051 mpy to 0.031 mpy on 0.63 % of Fe substrate. (author)

  1. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetedjo, Hariyadi; Siswanto, Bambang; Aziz, Ihwanul; Sudjatmoko

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm-3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) occurs during deposition.

  2. Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M. A.; Vazquez, L.; Sanchez, O.; Cuerno, R.; Castro, M.; Jergel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We study surface kinetic roughening of TiN films grown on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive sputtering. The surface morphology of films deposited for different growth times under the same experimental conditions were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The TiN films exhibit intrinsic anomalous scaling and multiscaling. The film kinetic roughening is characterized by a set of local exponent values α loc =1.0 and β loc =0.39, and global exponent values α=1.7 and β=0.67, with a coarsening exponent of 1/z=0.39. These properties are correlated to the local height-difference distribution function obeying power-law statistics. We associate this intrinsic anomalous scaling with the instability due to nonlocal shadowing effects that take place during thin-film growth by sputtering

  3. ZnO film deposition by DC magnetron sputtering: Effect of target configuration on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakelova, E.; Khachatryan, A.; Kteyan, A.; Avjyan, K.; Grigoryan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ballistic transport model for target-to-substrate atom transfer during magnetron sputter deposition was used to develop zinc target (cathode) configuration that enabled growth of uniform zinc oxide films on extensive surfaces and provided reproducibility of films characteristics irrespective of the cathode wear-out. The advantage of the developed target configuration for high-quality ZnO film deposition was observed in the sputtering pressure range of 5− 50 mTorr, and in the range of cathode-to-substrate distances 7–20 cm. Characteristics of the deposited films were demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as optical and electrical measurements. - Highlights: • Change of target configuration for optimization of magnetron sputtering deposition is proposed. • Improvement of ZnO film properties due to use of this target is demonstrated. • This configuration provided reproducibility of the deposited films properties.

  4. Growth of amorphous TeOx (2≤x≤3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of Tellurium oxide TeO x over a wide range of x (2 to 3) were prepared by radio frequency diode sputtering at room temperature on corning glass and quartz substrate. The deposited films are amorphous in nature and IR spectroscopy reveals the formation of Te-O bond. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the variation in the stoichiometry of TeO x film from x=2 to 3 with an increase in oxygen percentage (25 to 100%) in processing sputtering gas composition. Raman spectroscopy depicts the formation of TeO 3 trigonal pyramid besides TeO 4 disphenoid in the amorphous TeO x film with increase in the value of x. The varying stoichiometry of TeO x thin film (x=2 to 3) was found to influence the optical, electrical, and elastic properties. The optical band gap of film increases from 3.8 to 4.2 eV with increasing x and is attributed to the decrease in density. The elastic constants (C 11 and C 44 ) of the deposited films are lower than the corresponding value reported for TeO 2 single crystal

  5. Deposition of Al/Cu Multilayer By Double Targets Cylindrical DC Magnetron Sputtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balashabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A cylindrical direct current magnetron sputtering coater with two targets for deposition of multilayer thin films and cermet solar selective surfaces has been constructed. The substrate holder was able to rotate around the target for obtaining the uniform layer and separated multilayer phases. The Al/ Cu multilayer film was deposited on the glass substrate at the following conditions: Working gas = Pure argon, Working pressure = 1 Pa, Cathode current = 8 A and cathode voltage = -600 V .Microstructure of the film was investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy analyses. The elements profile was determined by glow discharge–optical emission spectroscopy analysis. During deposition, both targets with magnetron configuration were sputtered simultaneously by argon ions. A Plasma column on the targets surface was generated by a 290 G permanent magnet unit. Two DC power supply units with three phases input and maximum output of 12 A/1000V were used to deposit the multilayer thin films. A control phase system was used to adjust output voltage.

  6. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A [Universite de Nantes - Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssiniere BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France); Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W [Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique, UPRES-EA 1770, IREENA, Universite de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marie-Paule.Besland@cnrs-imn.fr

    2008-01-15

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}(BLT{sub 0,75}), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed.

  7. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A; Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W

    2008-01-01

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT 0,75 ), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 . After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed

  8. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y. [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  9. In situ crystallization of sputter-deposited TiNi by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, Noriaki; Kishi, Yoichi; Yajima, Zenjiro; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a sputtering deposition process equipped with an ion irradiation system. ► Ion irradiation enables crystallization at lower substrate temperature. ► Ion fluence has an effective range for low-temperature crystallization. ► Crystallized films made on polyimide by the process show the shape memory effect. -- Abstract: TiNi is well known as a typical shape-memory alloy, and the shape-memory property appears only when the structure is crystalline. Until recently, the material has been formed as amorphous film by single-target sputtering deposition at first and then crystallized by being annealed at high temperature over 500 °C. Therefore, it has been difficult to make crystalline TiNi film directly on a substrate of polymer-based material because of the low heat resistance of substrate. In order to realize an actuator from the crystallized TiNi film on polymer substrates, the substrate temperature should be kept below 200 °C throughout the whole process. In our previous studies we have found that deposited film can be crystallized at very low temperature without annealing but with simultaneous irradiation of Ar ions during sputter-deposition. And we have also demonstrated the shape-memory effect with the TiNi film made by the new process. In order to investigate what parameters of the process contribute to the low-temperature crystallization, we have focused to the ion fluence of the ion irradiation. Resultantly, it was found that the transition from amorphous structure to crystal one has a threshold range of ion fluence

  10. Hydrogen gas driven permeation through tungsten deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Keiichiro; Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki; Fukada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H permeation tests for W layer formed by H plasma sputtering are performed. • H permeation flux through W layer is larger than that through W bulk. • H diffusivity in W layer is smaller than that in W bulk. • The equilibrium H concentration in W layer is larger than that in W bulk. - Abstract: It is important to evaluate the influence of deposition layers formed on plasma facing wall on tritium permeation and tritium retention in the vessel of a fusion reactor from a viewpoint of safety. In this work, tungsten deposition layers having different thickness and porosity were formed on circular nickel plates by hydrogen RF plasma sputtering. Hydrogen permeation experiment was carried out at the temperature range from 250 °C to 500 °C and at hydrogen pressure range from 1013 Pa to 101,300 Pa. The hydrogen permeation flux through the nickel plate with tungsten deposition layer was significantly smaller than that through a bare nickel plate. This indicates that a rate-controlling step in hydrogen permeation was not permeation through the nickel plate but permeation though the deposition layer. The pressure dependence on the permeation flux differed by temperature. Hydrogen permeation flux through tungsten deposition layer is larger than that through tungsten bulk. From analysis of the permeation curves, it was indicated that hydrogen diffusivity in tungsten deposition layer is smaller than that in tungsten bulk and the equilibrium hydrogen concentration in tungsten deposition layer is enormously larger than that in tungsten bulk at same hydrogen pressure.

  11. Heating of polymer substrate by discharge plasma in radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The substrate used for the thin film deposition in a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition system is heated by the deposition plasma. This may change drastically the surface properties of the polymer substrates. Deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on polymethyl methacrylate and polycarbonate substrates resulted in buckling of the substrate surfaces. This effect was evaluated by analysis of atomic force microscopy topography images of the deposited films. The amount of energy received by the substrate surface during the film deposition was determined by a thermal probe. Then, the results of the thermal probe measurements were used to compute the surface temperature of the polymer substrate. The computation revealed that the substrate surface temperature depends on the substrate thickness, discharge power and substrate holder temperature. For the case of the TiO 2 film depositions in the radiofrequency magnetron plasma, the computation indicated substrate surface temperature values under the polymer melting temperature. Therefore, the buckling of polymer substrate surface in the deposition plasma may not be regarded as a temperature driven surface instability, but more as an effect of argon ion bombardment

  12. Effect of deposition time of sputtering Ag-Cu thin film on mechanical and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purniawan, A.; Hermastuti, R.; Purwaningsih, H.; Atmono, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    Metallic implants are important components in biomedical treatment. However, post-surgery infection often occurs after installation of implant. The infections are usually treated by antibiotics, but it still causes several secondary problems. As a prevention treatment, the surgical instruments and implants must be in a sterile condition. This action is still not optimal too because the material still can attract the bacteria. From material science point of view, it can be anticipated by developing a type of material which has antibacterial properties or called antimicrobial material. Silver (Ag) and Copper (Cu) have antimicrobial properties to prevent the infection. In this research, the influence of deposition time of Ag-Cu thin film deposition process as antimicrobial material with Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) RF Sputtering method was analyzed. Deposition time used were for 10, 15 and 20 minutes in Argon gas pressure around 3 x 10-2 mbar in during deposition process. The morphology and surface roughness of Ag-Cu thin film were characterized using SEM and AFM. Based on the results, the deposition time influences the quality morphology that the thin films have good homogeneity and complete structure for longer deposition time. In addition, from roughness measurement results show that increase deposition time decrease the roughness of thin film. Antimicrobial performance was analyzed using Kirby Bauer Test. The results show that all of sample have good antimicrobial inhibition. Adhesion quality was evaluated using Rockwell C Indentation Test. However, the results indicate that the Ag-Cu thin film has low adhesion strength.

  13. Influence of the deposition geometry on the microstructure of sputter-deposited V-Al-C-N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darma, Susan; Krause, Baerbel; Doyle, Stephen; Mangold, Stefan; Baumbach, Tilo [ISS, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Ulrich, Sven; Stueber, Michael [IAM-AWP, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Multi-element hard coating materials such as V-Al-C-N are of great interest for many technological applications. Their mechanical properties depend on the composition and microstructure of the coating. In order to determine the optimum composition and deposition conditions of these complex materials, many samples are required. One powerful tool for reducing the number of experiments is based on the so-called combinatorial approach for thin film deposition: many different thin film samples can be realized simultaneously, exploiting the deposition gradient resulting from codeposition of several materials. We will present an X-ray diffraction study of the influence of the deposition geometry on the microstructure of V-Al-C-N coatings. The films were deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering from a segmented target composed of AlN and VC. Synchrotron radiation measurements where performed at the beamline PDIFF at ANKA. Significant texture changes were observed which can be attributed to the deposition geometry, as verified by calculations of the flux distribution. We conclude that codeposition can accelerate significantly the screening of new materials, under the condition that the desired property is not significantly influenced by the microstructural changes due to the deposition geometry.

  14. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoori, Muntaser; Al-Shaibani, Sahar; Al-Jaeedi, Ahlam; Lee, Jisung; Choi, Daniel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2017-12-01

    Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2). The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF)-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2) layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  15. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Al-Mansoori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2. The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2 layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  16. Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, O; Hanus, J; Choukourov, A; Kousal, J; SlavInska, D; Biederman, H, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.co [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-21

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH{sub 2}/C value of 18% was observed in the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption. (fast track communication)

  17. Sputter Deposited TiOx Thin-Films as Electron Transport Layers in Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Bomholt Jensen, Pia; Lakhotiya, Harish

    transparency and favorable energy-level alignment with many commonly used electron-acceptor materials. There are several methods available for fabricating compact TiOx thin-films for use in organic solar cells, including sol-gel solution processing, spray pyrolysis and atomic-layer deposition; however...... of around 7%, by incorporating sputter deposited TiOx thin-films as electron-transport and exciton-blocking layers. In the work, we report on the effect of different TiOx deposition temperatures and thicknesses on the organic-solar-cell device performance. Besides optical characterization, AFM and XRD...... analyses are performed to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the films, and external quantum efficiency measurements are employed to shed further light on the device performance. Our study presents a novel method for implementation of TiOx thin-films as electron-transport layer in organic...

  18. DC diode sputtering of titanium: determination of optimal deposition conditions by electrical and spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, J.M.; Lemperiere, G.; Fourrier, C.

    1976-01-01

    An argon DC glow discharge in a diode sputtering system fitted with a titanium cathode is investigated. The first results fix the boundaries of good working conditions for the discharge; mathematical relations are established for the pressure range 40 to 120 mTorr, anode-cathode lengths from 15 to 60 mm and current densities from 0.6 to 2 mA cm -2 . The deposition rate is found to be proportional to the electrical power if the product pd is kept constant, but the ratio of the deposition rate to discharge power exhibits a maximum for d approximately equal 1.5 lsub(e). Spectroscopic studies of the discharge close to the substrate surface show that the intensity of some arc and spark lines of titanium is also proportional to the deposition rate. Emission spectroscopy shows that hydrogen is produced and quickly pumped during the presputtering stage; its evacuation is necessary to obtain good metallic films. (author)

  19. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  20. Hollow cathode discharges with gas flow: numerical modelling for the effect on the sputtered atoms and the deposition flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Okhrimovskyy, Andriy; Baguer, Neyda; Gijbels, Renaat

    2005-01-01

    A model is developed for a cylindrical hollow cathode discharge (HCD), with an axial gas flow (entering through a hole in the cathode bottom). The model combines a commercial computational fluid dynamics program 'FLUENT' to compute the gas flow, with home-developed Monte Carlo and fluid models for the plasma behaviour. In this paper, we focus on the behaviour of the sputtered atoms, and we investigate how the gas flow affects the sputtered atom density profiles and the fluxes, which is important for sputter deposition. The sputtered atom density profiles are not much affected by the gas flow. The flux, on the other hand, is found to be significantly enhanced by the gas flow, but in the present set-up it is far from uniform in the radial direction at the open end of the HCD, where a substrate for deposition could be located

  1. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); CICATA—Altamira, IPN. Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Domínguez-Crespo, M.A., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Andraca Adame, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Nanociencias Micro y Nanotecnologías, Departamento de DRX, C. P. 07300, Mexico, DF, México (Mexico); Dorantes-Rosales, H. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Metalurgia, C. P. 07300 Mexico, DF, México (Mexico)

    2014-05-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.

  2. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-01-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO 2 + 8% Y 2 O 3 ) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure

  3. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yu; Gao, Fangyuan; Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong; Ye, Di; Diao, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10 −4 Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n −0.127 , which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested

  4. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yu [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Fangyuan, E-mail: gaofangyuan@buaa.edu.cn [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Di [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China); Diao, Xungang [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n{sup −0.127}, which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested.

  5. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  6. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  7. Electric and Magnetic Properties of Sputter Deposited BiFeO3 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Siadou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline BiFeO3 films have been magnetron sputter deposited at room temperature and subsequently heat-treated ex situ at temperatures between 400 and 700°C. The deposition was done in pure Ar atmosphere, as the use of oxygen-argon mixture was found to lead to nonstoichiometric films due to resputtering effects. At a target-to-substrate distance d=2′′ the BiFeO3 structure can be obtained in larger range process gas pressures (2–7 mTorr but the films do not show a specific texture. At d=6′′ codeposition from BiFeO3 and Bi2O3 has been used. Films sputtered at low rate tend to grow with the (001 texture of the pseudo-cubic BiFeO3 structure. As the film structure does not depend on epitaxy similar results are obtained on different substrates. A result of the volatility of Bi, Bi rich oxide phases occur after heat treatment at high temperatures. A Bi2SiO5 impurity phase forms on the substrate side, and does not affect the properties of the main phase. Despite the deposition on amorphous silicon oxide substrate weak ferromagnetism phenomena and displaced loops have been observed at low temperatures showing that their origin is not strain. Ba, La, Ca, and Sr doping suppress the formation of impurity phases and leakage currents.

  8. Sputter-deposited Mg-Al-O thin films: linking molecular dynamics simulations to experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Bogaerts, A; Saraiva, M; Depla, D; Jehanathan, N; Lebelev, O I

    2009-01-01

    Using a molecular dynamics model the crystallinity of Mg x Al y O z thin films with a variation in the stoichiometry of the thin film is studied at operating conditions similar to the experimental operating conditions of a dual magnetron sputter deposition system. The films are deposited on a crystalline or amorphous substrate. The Mg metal content in the film ranged from 100% (i.e. MgO film) to 0% (i.e. Al 2 O 3 film). The radial distribution function and density of the films are calculated. The results are compared with x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses of experimentally deposited thin films by the dual magnetron reactive sputtering process. Both simulation and experimental results show that the structure of the Mg-Al-O film varies from crystalline to amorphous when the Mg concentration decreases. It seems that the crystalline Mg-Al-O films have a MgO structure with Al atoms in between.

  9. Study on helium-charged titanium films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liqun; Jin Qinhua; Liu Chaozhuo; Xu Shilin; Zhou Zhuying

    2005-01-01

    Helium trapping in the Ti films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering with a He/Ar mixture was studied. He atoms with a surprisingly high concentration (He/Ti atomic ratio is as high as 56%) incorporate evenly in deposited film. The trapped amount of He can be controlled by the helium partial amount. The introduction of the helium with no extra damage (or very low damage) can be realized by choosing suitable deposition conditions. It was also found that because of the formation of nanophase Ti film a relative high He flux for bubble formation is needed and the amount of the retaining He in sputtering Ti films is much higher than that in the coarse-grain Ti films. The nanophase Ti film can accommodate larger concentration of trapped sites to He, which results in a high density and small size of the He bubbles. With increasing He irradiation flux, the grain size of Ti film decreases and the lattice spacing and width of the X-ray diffraction peak increase due to the He introduction, and the film tends to amorphous phase. (authors)

  10. TiOx deposited by magnetron sputtering: a joint modelling and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, R.; Moskovkin, P.; Pflug, A.; Lucas, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a 3D multiscale simulation approach to model magnetron reactive sputter deposition of TiOx⩽2 at various O2 inlets and its validation against experimental results. The simulation first involves the transport of sputtered material in a vacuum chamber by means of a three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. Second, the film growth at different positions on a 3D substrate is simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. When simulating the transport of species in the chamber, wall chemistry reactions are taken into account in order to get the proper content of the reactive species in the volume. Angular and energy distributions of particles are extracted from DSMC and used for film growth modelling by kMC. Along with the simulation, experimental deposition of TiOx coatings on silicon samples placed at different positions on a curved sample holder was performed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulated ones. For a given coater, the plasma phase hysteresis behaviour, film composition and film morphology are predicted. The used methodology can be applied to any coater and any films. This paves the way to the elaboration of a virtual coater allowing a user to predict composition and morphology of films deposited in silico.

  11. Evaluation of target power supplies for krypton storage in sputter-deposited metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, E.N.; McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.

    1986-04-01

    Implantation of 85 Kr in a growing sputtered metal deposit has been studied for the containment of 85 Kr recovered from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. PNL, as part of DOE's research program for 85 Kr storage, has developed krypton trapping storage devices (KTSDs) in a range of sizes for ''cold'' and radioactive testing. The KTSD is a stainless steel canister that contains a sputtering target for depositing an amorphous rare-earth transition metal on the inner wall and simultaneously implanting low-energy krypton ions in the growing deposit. This report covers the design requirements for the target power supply and the description, testing and evaluation of three basic designs. The designs chosen for evaluation were: (1) a standard commercial power supply with an external PNL-designed current interrupter, (2) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral series-type interrupter, and (3) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral shunt-type interrupter. The units were compared on the basis of performance, reliability, and life-cycle cost. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Deposition of thin films by magnetron sputtering molybdenum in samples of pure copper; Deposicao de filmes finos de molibdenio por magnetron sputtering em amostra de cobre puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.M.; Almeida, E.O. de; Alves Junior, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario Lagoa Nova, PPGCEM - Natal, RN (Brazil); Lourenco, J.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencias e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The deposition surface is a process of thermochemical treatment, which involves the deposition of a thin film usually about one to two microns on a metallic substrate, which constitutes one of the most important surface engineering techniques. The plasma deposition process with the configuration of magnetron sputtering it is removing material from a solid surface (target) through the impact of energetic particles from plasma. The aim of this study is to characterize the microstructure of the material under study using the techniques of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  13. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyadi Soetedjo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm−3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1 and (2 0 0 occurs during deposition. Keywords: Thin films, Lead sulfide, Sputtering, Resistivity, Semiconductor, Infrared

  14. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  15. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  16. Stress evolution during and after sputter deposition of thin Cu Al alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletea, M.; Wendrock, H.; Kaltofen, R.; Schmidt, O. G.; Koch, R.

    2008-06-01

    The stress evolution during and after sputter deposition of thin Cu-Al alloy films containing 1 and 2 at.% Al onto oxidized Si(100) substrates has been studied up to thicknesses of 300 nm by means of in situ substrate curvature measurements. In order to correlate stress and morphology, the microstructure was investigated by focused ion beam microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The evolution of the stress and microstructure of the Cu-Al alloy films is similar to that for sputtered pure Cu films. Film growth proceeds in the Volmer-Weber mode, typical for high mobility metals. It is characterized by nucleation, island, percolation, and channel stages before the films become continuous, as well as lateral grain growth in the compact films. With increasing Al content the overall atom mobility and, thus, the average grain size of the alloy films are reduced. Increase of the sputter pressure from 0.5 to 2 Pa leads to films with larger grain size, rougher surface morphology and higher electrical resistivity.

  17. Hard coatings on magnesium alloys by sputter deposition using a pulsed d.c. bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Griepentrog, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An increasing use of magnesium-based light-metal alloys for various industrial applications was predicted in different technological studies. Companies in different branches have developed machine parts made of magnesium alloys (e.g. cars, car engines, sewing and knitting machines). Hence, this work was started to evaluate the ability of hard coatings obtained by physical vapour deposition (PVD) in combination with coatings obtained by electrochemical deposition to protect magnesium alloys against wear and corrosion. TiN hard coatings were deposited onto magnesium alloys by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. A bipolar pulsed d.c. bias voltage was used to limit substrate temperatures to 180 C during deposition without considerable loss of microhardness and adhesion. Adhesion, hardness and load-carrying capacity of TiN coatings deposited directly onto magnesium alloys are compared with the corresponding values of TiN coatings deposited onto substrates which had been coated electroless with an Ni-P alloy interlayer prior to the PVD. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction of sputter deposited mixed metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.C.; Holzheuter, I.B.; Nucara, M.C.; Dignam, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Sputter-deposited films of silver with lead, manganese and nickel have been studied as possible oxygen reduction electrocatalysts using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disc studies, steady-state polarization and Auger analysis. In general, the Ag-Pb and Ag-Mn films display superior electrocatalytic activity for O 2 reduction, while the Ag-Ni films' performance is inferior to that of pure Ag. For the Ag-Pb films, which show the highest electrocatalytic activity, the mixed metal films display oxidation-reduction behavior which is not simply a superposition of that of the separate metals, and suggests a mechanism for the improved behavior

  19. Fe3O4 thin films sputter deposited from iron oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yingguo; Park, Chandro; Laughlin, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 thin films have been directly sputter deposited from a target consisting of a mixture of Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 onto Si and glass substrates. The magnetic properties and microstructures of the films have been characterized and correlated. The columnar growth of the Fe 3 O 4 grains was found to be initialized from the substrate surface without any critical thickness. Substrate bias was found to be a very effective means of improving the crystal quality and magnetic properties of the thin films. The crystallographic defects revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy seem to be a characteristic of the films prepared by this method

  20. Post-deposition annealing effects in RF reactive magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-05-01

    Indium tin oxide films have been grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films has been investigated and optimized, obtaining a value for the figure of merit of 6700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. As-grown indium tin oxide films were annealed in vacuum and O{sub 2} atmosphere. After these heat treatments the electro-optical properties were improved, with values for the resistivity of 1.9x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and the figure of merit of 26700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. (orig.).

  1. Study of deposition rae coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanati, M.; Zendehnam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Exact knowledge about deposition rate and its distribution and variation of them with respect to coating parameters (Gas pressure, Distance, discharge current,..) is very vital. In this experimental research coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering have been carried out over Ar pressure range of 10 -2 -10 -1 mbar, and discharge current up to 1000 m.A, and distance between glass substrates to silver target (Cathode) was changed from 5 to 15 cm. The obtained results have been investigated by help of computer curve fitting, and these studies show a very good agreement for the conditions used in this work

  2. Anodisation of sputter deposited aluminium–titanium coatings: Effect of microstructure on optical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Junker-Holst, Andreas; Vestergaard Nielsen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Magnetron sputtered coatings of aluminium containing up to 18 wt.% titanium were deposited on aluminium substrates to study the effect of microstructure on the optical appearance of the anodised layer. The microstructure and morphology were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X......-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), while the optical appearance was investigated using photospectrometry. The microstructure of the coatings was varied by heat treatment, resulting in the precipitation of Al3Ti phases. The reflectance of the anodised surfaces...

  3. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  4. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  5. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  6. Memory and Electrical Properties of (100-Oriented AlN Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maw-Shung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The (100-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN thin films were well deposited onto p-type Si substrate by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The optimal deposition parameters were the RF power of 350 W, chamber pressure of 9 mTorr, and nitrogen concentration of 50%. Regarding the physical properties, the microstructure of as-deposited (002- and (100-oriented AlN thin films were obtained and compared by XRD patterns and TEM images. For electrical properties analysis, we found that the memory windows of (100-oriented AlN thin films are better than those of (002-oriented thin films. Besides, the interface and interaction between the silicon and (100-oriented AlN thin films was serious important problem. Finally, the current transport models of the as-deposited and annealed (100-oriented AlN thin films were also discussed. From the results, we suggested and investigated that large memory window of the annealed (100-oriented AlN thin films was induced by many dipoles and large electric field applied.

  7. Physical characterization of sputter-deposited amorphous tungsten oxynitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, O.R.; Moreno Tarango, A.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Murphy, N.R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Phinney, L.C.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, OK 73401 (United States); Ramana, C.V., E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxynitride (W–O–N) thin films were deposited onto silicon (100) and quartz substrates using direct current (DC) sputtering. Composition variations in the W–O–N films were obtained by varying the nitrogen gas flow rate from 0 to 20 sccm, while keeping the total gas flow constant at 40 sccm using 20 sccm of argon with the balance comprised of oxygen. The resulting crystallinity, optical properties, and chemical composition of the DC sputtered W–O–N films were evaluated. All the W–O–N films measured were shown to be amorphous using X-ray diffraction. Spectrophotometry results indicate that the optical parameters, namely, the transmission magnitude and band gap (E{sub g}), are highly dependent on the nitrogen content in the reactive gas mixture. Within the W–O–N system, E{sub g} was able to be precisely tailored between 2.9 eV and 1.9 eV, corresponding to fully stoichiometric WO{sub 3} and highly nitrided W–O–N, respectively. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) coupled with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate that the composition of the films varies from WO{sub 3} to W–O–N composite oxynitride films. - Highlights: • W–O–N films of ~ 100 nm thick were sputter-deposited by varying nitrogen gas flow rate. • Nitrogen incorporation into W-oxide is effective at or after 9 sccm flow rate of nitrogen. • The band gap significantly decreases from ~ 3.0 eV to ~ 2.1 eV with progressive increase in nitrogen content. • A composite oxide-semiconductor of W–O–N is proposed to explain the optical properties.

  8. Deposition and characterization of sputtered hexaboride coatings; Abscheidung und Charakterisierung aufgestaeubter Hexaboridschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhauser, W

    1996-06-01

    Hexaborides of the rare-earth elements ReB{sub 6} are potential materials for cathode applications since they combine properties such as low work function, good electrical conductivity, high melting point as well as low volatility at high temperatures. Due to their high hardness and colorations ranging from blue to purple these compounds are also considered for applications to coatings for decoration of consumer products. At present, either rods of sintered LaB{sub 6} or single LaB{sub 6} crystals are indirectly heated to induce emission. In this workboride coatings were deposited onto various substrates employing non-reactive magnetron sputtering from LaB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6}, SmB{sub 6} and YB{sub 6} targets. Coatings deposited were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis. Vickers microhardness, colorimeter and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Electron emission characteristics of the coatings were studied by the thermionic emission and the contact potential method. After optimization of the sputtering parameters fine-columnar or partially amorphous films with atomic ratios of boron to metal in the order of 5 to 7.5 were obtained. The tendency to form the corresponding hexaboride phase decreases from LaB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} to YB{sub 6}. The work function was measured to be in the range of 2.6 to 3.3 eV. Vickers microhardness values lie between 1500 and 2000 HVO.01. LaB{sub 6} coatings showed the most pronounced visual color impression corresponding to dark violet. The results obtained indicate that sputtered hexaboride films are well suited for decorative and thermionic applications. (author)

  9. Deuterium trapping in the carbon-silicon co-deposition layers prepared by RF sputtering in D2 atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Weiyuan; Su, Ranran; Tu, Hanjun; Shi, Liqun; Hu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Deuterated carbon-silicon layers co-deposited on graphite and silicon substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in pure D2 plasma were produced to study deuterium trapping and characteristics of the C-Si layers. The C-Si co-deposited layers were examined by ion beam analysis (IBA), Raman spectroscopy (RS), infrared absorption (IR) spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the growth rate of the C-Si co-deposition layer decreased with increasing temperature from 350 K to 800 K, the D concentration and C/Si ratios increased differently on graphite and silicon substrates. TDS shows that D desorption is mainly as D2, HD, HDO, CD4, and C2D4 and release peaks occurred at temperatures of less than 900 K. RS and IR analysis reveal that the structure of the C-Si layers became more disordered with increasing temperatures. Rounded areas of peeling with 1-2 μm diameters were observed on the surface.

  10. Preparation of single-crystal TiC (111) by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Zhang, W.Z.; Shi, L.Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized at room temperature on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a compound Ti–C target. The substrate temperature and bias were varied to explore the influence of deposition parameters on the crystal structure. Both Al 2 O 3 (0001) and Si (100) substrates were used for epitaxial growth of TiC films. A series of characterizations of TiC films were carried out, including Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Single-crystal films of TiC (111) on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) were demonstrated. - Highlights: ► Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ► Both temperature and bias affect greatly the TiC crystal structure. ► Al 2 O 3 substrate is much better than Si substrate for TiC epitaxial growth. ► TiC (111) epitaxial film can be grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) at room temperature.

  11. Sputter deposition of indium tin oxide onto zinc pthalocyanine: Chemical and electronic properties of the interface studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Jürgen; Brötz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The interface chemistry and the energy band alignment at the interface formed during sputter deposition of transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) onto the organic semiconductor zinc phtalocyanine (ZnPc), which is important for inverted, transparent, and stacked organic light emitting diodes, is studied by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). ITO was sputtered at room temperature and a low power density with a face to face arrangement of the target and substrate. With these deposition conditions, no chemical reaction and a low barrier height for charge injection at this interface are observed. The barrier height is comparable to those observed for the reverse deposition sequence, which also confirms the absence of sputter damage.

  12. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited using High Target Utilisation Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Upadhyaya, H.M.; Thwaites, M.J.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on soda lime glass and polyimide substrates using an innovative process known as High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS). The influence of the oxygen flow rate, substrate temperature and sputtering pressure, on the electrical, optical and thermal stability properties of the films was investigated. High substrate temperature, medium oxygen flow rate and moderate pressure gave the best compromise of low resistivity and high transmittance. The lowest resistivity was 1.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass while that on the polyimide was 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Substrate temperatures above 100 deg. C were required to obtain visible light transmittance exceeding 85% for ITO films on glass. The thermal stability of the films was mainly influenced by the oxygen flow rate and thus the initial degree of oxidation. The film resistivity was either unaffected or reduced after heating in vacuum but generally increased for oxygen deficient films when heated in air. The greatest increase in transmittance of oxygen deficient films occurred for heat treatment in air while that of the highly oxidised films was largely unaffected by heating in both media. This study has demonstrated the potential of HiTUS as a favourable deposition method for high quality ITO suitable for use in thin film solar cells

  13. Helium-Charged La-Ni-Al Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liqun; Chen Deming; Xu Shilin; Liu Chaozhu; Hao Wanli; Zhou Zhuyin

    2005-01-01

    An advanced implantation of low energy helium-4 atoms during the La-Ni-Al film growth by adopting magnetron sputtering with Ar/He mixture gases is discussed. Both proton backscattering spectroscopy (PBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) analyses were adopted to measure helium concentration of the films and distribution in the near-surface region. Helium atoms with a high concentration incorporate evenly in deposited film. The introduction of the helium with no extra irradiation damage is expected by choosing suitable deposition conditions. It was found that amorphous and crystalline LaNi 5 -type structures can be achieved when sputtered with pure Ar and Ar/He mixture gases at room temperature, respectively. Thermal desorption experiments proposes that a part of hydrogen atoms are bound to trapped helium at crystal and releases together with helium. Only a small fraction of helium is released from the helium-vacancy clusters in lower temperature range and most of helium is released from small size helium bubbles in the high temperature range

  14. Composition and optical properties tunability of hydrogenated silicon carbonitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, A.; Bousquet, A.; Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Thomas, L.; Belmahi, M.; Goullet, A.; Sauvage, T.; Tomasella, E.

    2018-06-01

    Radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCxNy:H) at 400 °C by sputtering a silicon target under CH4 and N2 reactive gas mixture. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry revealed that the change of reactive gases flow rate (the ratio R = FN2/(FN2+FCH4)) induced a smooth chemical composition tunability from a silicon carbide-like film for R = 0 to a silicon nitride-like one at R = 1 with a large area of silicon carbonitrides between the two regions. The deconvolution of Fourier Transform InfraRed and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum highlighted a shift of the chemical environment of the deposited films corresponding to the changes seen by RBS. The consequence of these observations is that a control of refractive index in the range of [1.9-2.5] at λ = 633 nm and optical bandgap in the range [2 eV-3.8 eV] have been obtained which induces that these coatings can be used as antireflective coatings in silicon photovoltaic cells.

  15. Sputter deposition of wear-resistant coatings within the system Zr-B-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterer, C; Uebleis, A; Ebner, R [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung, Montanuniv., Leoben (Austria)

    1991-07-07

    Wear-resistant coatings of zirconium boride and zirconium boron nitride were deposited on steel and molybdenum substrates employing non-reactive as well as reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering using zirconium diboride targets. The characterization of the coatings was done by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results are discussed in connection with measured mechanical coating properties such as microhardness and adhesion. The optical properties of the coatings were determined using a CIE-L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} colorimeter and specialized corrosion and abrasion tests. Non-reactive sputtering using ZrB{sub 2} targets results in the formation of coatings with a columnar structure and predominantly (001)-orientated ZrB{sub 2} crystals. Coatings deposited at low nitrogen flow rates exhibit very fine-grained or even fracture amorphous structures with a hexagonal Zr-B-N phase derived from the ZrB{sub 2} lattice. A further increase of the nitrogen flow leads to an amorphous film growth. The maximum Vickers microhardness of the coatings was found to be approximately 2300 HV 0.02. Zr-B and Zr-B-N coatings offer a wide range of interesting colours as well as good corrosion and wear resistance. (orig.).

  16. Rhodium-coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; Temmermann, G. de; Oelhafen, P.; Mathys, D.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for plasma diagnostics that will be used in ITER. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular its reflectivity, will influence the quality and reliability of detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium may be a good candidate material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 μm were produced on different relevant substrates (Mo, Stainless Steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness, crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch test results demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with the substrate hardness. The detailed optical characterizations of Rh coated mirrors as well as the results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in TEXTOR will be presented in this paper. (orig.)

  17. The origin of stress in sputter-deposited tungsten films for x-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hori, M.; Nadahara, S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism for the cause of stress in a sputter-deposited tungsten (W) film has been clarified. The tensile stress of the film was calculated using the interatomic forces acting on the grain boundary. The average distance of the grain boundary gaps was determined from the measured film density assuming the film had homogeneous size rectangular grains. The calculated and measured stress values were in good agreement in the high working gas pressure region. The difference between these values in the low working gas pressure region has been able to be explained by the compressive stress due to the peening effect of Ar. The low stress in the high pressure region was obtained by large opened grain boundaries which produced low film density. A low film density causes a low x-ray stopping power. The film deposited in the low pressure region is suitable as an x-ray absorber because of its high film density

  18. Vanadium oxide thin films deposited on silicon dioxide buffer layers by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sihai; Ma Hong; Wang Shuangbao; Shen Nan; Xiao Jing; Zhou Hao; Zhao Xiaomei; Li Yi; Yi Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Thin films made by vanadium oxide have been obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering method on SiO 2 buffer layers. A detailed electrical and structural characterization has been performed on the deposited films by four-point probe method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, the four-point probe measurement result presents the resistance of the film to be 25 kU/sheet. The temperature coefficient of resistance is - 2.0%/K. SEM image indicates that the vanadium oxide exhibits a submicrostructure with lamella size ranging from 60 nm to 300 nm. A 32 x 32-element test microbolometer was fabricated based on the deposited thin film. The infrared response testing showed that the response was 200 mV. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the vanadium oxide thin films on SiO 2 buffer layers is suitable for uncooled focal plane arrays applications

  19. Development of a new foil compounded from carbon nanotubes and sputter-deposition carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Hasebe; Hironori Kuboki; Hiroki Okuno; Isao Yamane; Hiroshi Imao; Nobuhisa Fukunishi; Masayuki Kase; Osamu Kamigaito

    2014-01-01

    New carbon-nanotube-sputter-deposition-carbon (CNT-SDC) foils were developed and used in the U beam time at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) from October to December 2011. The lifetimes of these new foils were drastically extended, and stable, high-intensity U beams were successfully provided to users. The lifetime of the CNT-SDC foils was 2-5 C, which was 100 times longer than those of static C-foils previously used. The qualitative analysis of the CNT-SDC foils clearly showed that the CNT structure and bundles were broken by beam irradiation. In addition, it was found that CNT bundles in the CNT-SDC foil were grown after the carbon deposition procedure. This structure was considered to be the reason that the CNT-SDC foils maintain advantages of both CNT and SDC foils. (author)

  20. Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy ( + on the low temperature ( + ions to silicon neutrals (J + /J 0 ) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO 2 coated Si at temperatures below 400 degree sign C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects

  1. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  2. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, 1 Daxue Road, Jinning Township, Kinmen 89250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zhao, Yu-Xiang [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi [Department of Applied English, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng, E-mail: shenghan@nutc.edu.tw [Center for General Education, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129 San-min Road, Section 3, Taichung 40401, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} films were fabricated by a bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering apparatus. • Titanium oxide being sputtered tungsten enhanced the highly oriented of TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. • The mechanism WO{sub 3}(h{sup +}, e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}, e{sup −}) → WO{sub 3}(e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}) shows the higher hydrophilicity and lower contact angle. - Abstract: Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWO{sub x} films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole–electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  3. Bioactivity response of Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Alves, C.F.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O_2 atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta oxide surface

  4. Electrochromic properties of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited tungsten–molybdenum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Nan [Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yi Han; Lee, Chin Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng [Center of General Education, National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC (China); Weng, Ko-Wei, E-mail: kowei@nqu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-01

    There are great interests in electrochromic technology for smart windows and displays over past decades. In this study, the WMoO{sub x} thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass and silicon substrates by pulsed magnetron sputter system with W and Mo targets. The films were deposited with fixed W target power while the variant parameter of Mo target power in the range 50, 100, 150 and 200 W was investigated. The working pressure was fixed at 1.33 Pa with a gas mixture of Ar (30 sccm) and O{sub 2} (15 sccm). The film thickness increased with the Mo target power. Higher plasma power resulted in a crystalline structure which would reduce the electrochromic property of the film. The influence of plasma powers applied to Mo target on the structural, optical and electrochromic properties of the WMoO{sub x} thin films has been investigated. WMoO{sub x} films grown at Mo target powers less than 100 W were found to be amorphous. The films deposited at 150 W, which is the optimal fabrication condition, exhibit better electrochromic properties with high optical modulation, high coloration efficiency and less color memory effect at wavelength 400, 550 and 800 nm. The improvement resulted from the effect of doping Mo has been tested. The maximum ΔT (%) values are 36.6% at 400 nm, 65.6% at 550 nm, and 66.6% at 800 nm for pure WO{sub 3} film. The addition of Mo content in the WMoO{sub x} films provides better resistance to the short wavelength light source and can be used in the concerned application. - Highlights: • WMoO{sub x} films are deposited by pulsed magnetron sputter with pure W and Mo targets. • Mo addition in WMoO{sub x} provides better resistance to short wavelength light source. • WMoO{sub x} films exhibit electrochemical stability in the cycling test.

  5. Microstructure and phase composition of sputter-deposited zirconia-yttria films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R.W.; Bradley, E.R.

    1983-11-01

    Thin ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 coatings ranging in composition from 3 to 15 mole % Y 2 O 3 were produced by rf sputter deposition. This composition range spanned the region on the equilibrium ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 phase diagram corresponding to partially stabilized zirconia (a mixture of tetragonal ZrO 2 and cubic solid solution). Microstructural characteristics and crystalline phase composition of as-deposited and heat treated films (1100 0 C and 1500 0 C) were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of substrate bias (0 approx. 250 volts), which induced ion bombardment of the film during growth, were also studied. The as-deposited ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 films were single phase over the composition range studied, and XRD data indicated considerable local atomic disorder in the lattice. Films produced at low bias contained intergranular voids, pronounced columnar growth, and porosity between columns. At high bias, the microstructure was denser, and films contained high compressive stress. After heat treatment, all deposits remained single phase, therefore a microstructure and precipitate distribution characteristic of toughened, partially stabilized zirconia appear to be difficult to achieve in vapor deposited zirconia coatings

  6. Sputter deposition on gas diffusion electrodes of Pt-Au nanoclusters for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, L.; Giorgi, R.; Gagliardi, S.; Serra, E. [ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Rome (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials; Alvisi, M.; Signore, M.A. [ENEA Brindisi Research Center, Brindisi (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials

    2008-07-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are suited for use in commercial electrical vehicle and electric power applications. The gas diffusion electrodes of PEFCs are catalyzed by the deposition of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on carbon powder. The particles must be localized on the electrode surface in order to achieve high electrocatalyst utilization. This study discussed a method of preparing PEFC electrodes using sputter deposition of a Pt-gold (Au) alloy nanoparticles on carbon powders. The method was designed to improve electrode performance and catalyst utilization. The nano-sized alloy clusters were deposited on a gas diffusion electrode at room temperature. The deposits were then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to examine the effect of the deposition technique on the nano-morphology and electrocatalytic performance of the electrode. Results of the study showed that the technique can be used in the large-scale manufacture of fuel cell electrodes. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on deposition of Cu film on Si by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin

    2018-06-01

    The temperature effects on the growth of Cu thin film on Si (0 0 1) in the context of magnetron sputtering deposition were systematically studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. To improve the comparability of simulation results at varying temperatures, the initial status data of incident Cu atoms used in all simulations were read from an identical file via LAMMPS-Python interface. In particular, crystalline microstructure, interface mixing and internal stress of Cu thin film deposited at different temperatures were investigated in detail. With raising the substrate temperature, the interspecies mixed volume and the proportion of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure in the deposited film both increased, while the internal compressive stress decreased. It was found that the fcc structure in the deposited Cu thin films was 〈1 1 1〉 oriented, which was reasonably explained by surface energy minimization and the selectivity of bombardment energy to the crystalline planes. The quantified analysis of interface mixing revealed that the diffusion of Cu atoms dominated the interface mixing, and the injection of incident Cu atoms resulted in the densification of phase near the film-substrate interface. More important, the distribution of atomic stress indicated that the compressive stress was mainly originated from the film-substrate interface, which might be attributed to the densification of interfacial phase at the initial stage of film deposition.

  9. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN x films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N 2 ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV 0.025 . While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV 0.025 . The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics

  10. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia (Colombia); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: muhl@servidor.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN{sub x} films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N{sub 2} ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV{sub 0.025}. While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV{sub 0.025}. The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics.

  11. Fabrication of highly oriented β-FeSi2 by ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanoya, Takamitsu; Sasase, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takeru; Hojou, Kiichi

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared the 'environmentally friendly' semiconductor, β-FeSi 2 thin films by ion beam sputter deposition method. The temperature of Si (100) substrate during the deposition and total amount of deposited Fe have been changed in order to find the optimum condition of the film formation. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the formed silicides were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It is understood that the domain of the epitaxially grown β-FeSi 2 increases with the substrate temperature up to 700degC at the fixed amount of deposited Fe (33 nm) by XRD spectra. On the other hand, α-FeSi 2 is appeared and increased with the temperature above 700degC. Granulation of the surface is also observed by SEM images at this temperature region. At the fixed temperature condition (700degC), formation of α phase, which is obtained at the higher temperature compared with β phase, is observed for the fewer deposited samples. These results suggest the possibility of the epitaxially grown β-FeSi 2 formation at the lower (< 700degC) temperature region. (author)

  12. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  13. Carbon and tungsten effect on characteristics of sputtered and re-deposited beryllium target layers under deuteron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danelyan, L.S.; Gureev, V.M.; Elistratov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma facing Be-elements in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER will be affected by the re-deposition of other eroded plasma facing materials. The effect of carbon- and tungsten-additions on the microstructure, chemical composition and hydrogen isotope accumulation in the sputtered and re-deposited layers of beryllium TGP-56 at its interaction with 200 - 300 eV hydrogen isotope ions was studied in the MAGRAS facility equipped with a magnetron sputtering system. (author)

  14. High-rate deposition of high-quality Sn-doped In2O3 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using alloy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Nobuto; Kawase, Yukari; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) films were deposited on heated (200 °C) fused silica glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering with mid-frequency pulsing (50 kHz) and a plasma control unit combined with a feedback system of the optical emission intensity for the atomic O* line at 777 nm. A planar In–Sn alloy target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in the unipolar pulse mode. The power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The feedback system precisely controlled the oxidation of the target surface in “the transition region.” The ITO film with lowest resistivity (3.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm) was obtained with a deposition rate of 310 nm min −1 and transmittance in the visible region of approximately 80%. The deposition rate was about 6 times higher than that of ITO films deposited by conventional sputtering using an oxide target.

  15. Comprehensive perspective on the mechanism of preferred orientation in reactive-sputter-deposited nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Yuya; Noda, Suguru; Komiyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Texture control of sputter-deposited nitride films has provoked a great deal of interest due to its technological importance. Despite extensive research, however, the reported results are scattered and discussions about the origin of preferred orientation (PO) are sometimes conflicting, and therefore controversial. The aim of this study is to acquire a clear perspective in order to discuss the origin of PO of sputter-deposited nitrides. Among nitrides, we focus on titanium nitride (TiN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and tantalum nitride (TaN), which are three commonly used nitrides. First, we collected reported experimental results about the relation between operating conditions and PO, because PO is considered to be determined by film formation processes, such as surface diffusion or grain growth, which is affected by operating conditions. We also collected reported results about such PO-determining processes. Then, we categorized the PO-determining processes into an initial stage and a growth stage of film deposition, and further categorized each stage into a vapor-solid interface and a solid-solid interface. Then, we related each stage and interface to film morphology and to PO-determining processes. Finally, based on existing results, previous models, and proposed schema, we discuss the origin of PO. Based on previous experimental results on film morphology, PO of nitride films occurred in the growth stage at the vapor-solid interface, where the sticking process of the precursor and the surface diffusion process determine PO, rather than in the initial stage and in the growth stage at the solid-solid interface. TiN (002) PO, however, seems to be caused in the initial stage at the solid-solid interface

  16. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  17. The characteristics and residual stress of aluminum nitride films grown by two-stage sputtering of mid-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Cheng, H.-E.; Tang, S.-H.; Liu, W.-C.; Lee, Antony H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The [0 0 2] oriented aluminum nitride has a high surface acoustic wave speed and high mechanic-electron couple coefficient. It is a potential material for manufacturing piezoelectric devices in high frequency application. The AlN films deposited onto silicon substrates were fabricated by two-stage sputtering process with mid-frequency generator. The results showed that the film did not have well [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 1.0 and 1.5 kW, and exhibited a [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 2.0 kW. The adhesion was poor when the film had a high preferred orientation because the substrate was damaged by high energetic atoms bombardment. A two-stage growth method was investigated in order to get high [0 0 2] preferred orientation and good adhesion. A good performance was obtained at the first stage power of 1.5 kW and the second stage power of 2.0 kW. The film showed a tensile stress state when the film was deposited at 1.0 kW. In contrast, the stress state was changed to compressive when the films were grown at 2.0 kW. The two-stage growth could succeed not only to get a high [0 0 2] preferred orientation but also to develop a reducing global stress film

  18. Stress anisotropy and stress gradient in magnetron sputtered films with different deposition geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Mo films were deposited via magnetron sputtering with two different deposition geometries: dynamic deposition (moving substrate) and static deposition (fixed substrate). The residual stress and structural morphologies of these films were investigated, with particular focus on in-plane anisotropy of the biaxial stress and stress gradient across the film thickness. The results revealed that the Mo films developed distinct states of residual stress, which depended on both deposition geometry and film thickness. With the dynamic geometry, the Mo films generally exhibited anisotropic stress. Both the degree of anisotropy and the magnitude of stress varied as functions of film thickness. The variation of stress was linked to the evolution of anisotropic microstructures in the films. The Mo films from the static geometry developed isotropic residual stress, which was more compressive and noticeably larger in magnitude than that of the Mo films from the dynamic geometry. Aside from these disparities, the two types of Mo films (i.e., anisotropic and isotropic) exhibited notably similar trends of stress variation with film thickness. Depth profiling indicated the presence of large stress gradients for the Mo films, irrespective of the deposition geometries. This observation seems to be consistent with the premise that Mo films develop a zone T structure, which is inherently inhomogeneous along the film thickness. Moreover, the largest stress gradient for both types of deposition geometries arises at roughly the same film depth (∼240 nm from substrate), where the stresses sharply transits from highly compressive to less compressive or even tensile. This appears to correspond to the boundary region that separates two distinct stages of microstructural evolution, a feature unique to zone T-type structure

  19. Growth, structure and stability of sputter-deposited MoS2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kaindl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 thin films have received increasing interest as device-active layers in low-dimensional electronics and also as novel catalysts in electrochemical processes such as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER in electrochemical water splitting. For both types of applications, industrially scalable fabrication methods with good control over the MoS2 film properties are crucial. Here, we investigate scalable physical vapour deposition (PVD of MoS2 films by magnetron sputtering. MoS2 films with thicknesses from ≈10 to ≈1000 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC substrates. Samples deposited at room temperature (RT and at 400 °C were compared. The deposited MoS2 was characterized by macro- and microscopic X-ray, electron beam and light scattering, scanning and spectroscopic methods as well as electrical device characterization. We find that room-temperature-deposited MoS2 films are amorphous, of smooth surface morphology and easily degraded upon moderate laser-induced annealing in ambient conditions. In contrast, films deposited at 400 °C are nano-crystalline, show a nano-grained surface morphology and are comparatively stable against laser-induced degradation. Interestingly, results from electrical transport measurements indicate an unexpected metallic-like conduction character of the studied PVD MoS2 films, independent of deposition temperature. Possible reasons for these unusual electrical properties of our PVD MoS2 thin films are discussed. A potential application for such conductive nanostructured MoS2 films could be as catalytically active electrodes in (photo-electrocatalysis and initial electrochemical measurements suggest directions for future work on our PVD MoS2 films.

  20. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  1. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  2. Indium oxide-based transparent conductive films deposited by reactive sputtering using alloy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Maruyama, Eri; Jia, Junjun; Machinaga, Hironobu; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-04-01

    High-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and In2O3-ZnO (IZO), were successfully deposited on either synthetic silica or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in the “transition region” by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using In-Zn and In-Sn alloy targets, respectively, with a specially designed plasma emission feedback system. The composition, crystallinity, surface morphology, and electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed. All of the IZO films were amorphous, whereas the ITO films were polycrystalline over a wide range of deposition conditions. The minimum resistivities of the IZO and ITO films deposited on the heated PET substrates at 150 °C were 3.3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, respectively. By applying rf bias to unheated PET substrates, ITO films with a resistivity of 4.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm were deposited at a dc self-bias voltage of -60 V.

  3. Low temperature rf sputtering deposition of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film with crystallization enhancement by rf power supplied to the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimaru, Masaki; Takehiro, Shinobu; Abe, Kazuhide; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 thin film deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering requires a high deposition temperature near 500 deg. C to realize a high relative dielectric constant over of 300. For example, the film deposited at 330 deg. C contains an amorphous phase and shows a low relative dielectric constant of less than 100. We found that rf power supplied not only to the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 sputtering target, but also to the substrate during the initial step of film deposition, enhanced the crystallization of the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film drastically and realized a high dielectric constant of the film even at low deposition temperatures near 300 deg. C. The 50-nm-thick film with only a 10 nm initial layer deposited with the substrate rf biasing is crystallized completely and shows a high relative dielectric constant of 380 at the deposition temperature of 330 deg. C. The (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film deposited at higher temperatures (upwards of 400 deg. C) shows preferred orientation, while the film deposited at 330 deg. C with the 10 nm initial layer shows a preferred orientation on a -oriented ruthenium electrode. The unit cell of (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 (111) plane is similar to that of ruthenium (001) plane. We conclude that the rf power supplied to the substrate causes ion bombardments on the (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film surface, which assists the quasiepitaxial growth of (Ba, Sr) TiO 3 film on the ruthenium electrode at low temperatures of less than 400 deg. C

  4. Low temperature rf sputtering deposition of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film with crystallization enhancement by rf power supplied to the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimaru, Masaki; Takehiro, Shinobu; Abe, Kazuhide; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    The (Ba, Sr) TiO3 thin film deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering requires a high deposition temperature near 500 °C to realize a high relative dielectric constant over of 300. For example, the film deposited at 330 °C contains an amorphous phase and shows a low relative dielectric constant of less than 100. We found that rf power supplied not only to the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 sputtering target, but also to the substrate during the initial step of film deposition, enhanced the crystallization of the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film drastically and realized a high dielectric constant of the film even at low deposition temperatures near 300 °C. The 50-nm-thick film with only a 10 nm initial layer deposited with the substrate rf biasing is crystallized completely and shows a high relative dielectric constant of 380 at the deposition temperature of 330 °C. The (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film deposited at higher temperatures (upwards of 400 °C) shows preferred orientation, while the film deposited at 330 °C with the 10 nm initial layer shows a preferred orientation on a -oriented ruthenium electrode. The unit cell of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 (111) plane is similar to that of ruthenium (001) plane. We conclude that the rf power supplied to the substrate causes ion bombardments on the (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film surface, which assists the quasiepitaxial growth of (Ba, Sr) TiO3 film on the ruthenium electrode at low temperatures of less than 400 °C.

  5. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10 11 to -2 x 10 8 dyne/cm 2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  6. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Tan, H. H.; Sreenivas, K.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O2) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 × 1011 to -2 × 108 dyne/cm2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  7. Characterization of sputter deposited thin film scandate cathodes for miniaturized thermionic converter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadil, Kevin R.; Ruffner, Judith H.; King, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed a method for fabricating scandate-based thermionic emitters in thin film form. The primary goal of our effort is to develop thin film emitters that exhibit low work function, high intrinsic electron emissivity, minimum thermal activation properties and that can be readily incorporated into a microgap converter. Our approach has been to incorporate BaSrO into a Sc2O3 matrix using rf sputtering to produce thin films. Diode testing has shown the resulting films to be electron emissive at temperatures as low as 900 K with current densities of 0.1 mA.cm-2 at 1100 K and saturation voltages. We calculate an approximate maximum work function of 1.8 eV and an apparent emission constant (Richardson's constant, A*) of 36 mA.cm-2.K-2. Film compositional and structural analysis shows that a significant surface and subsurface alkaline earth hydroxide phase can form and probably explains the limited utilization and stability of Ba and its surface complexes. The flexibility inherent in sputter deposition suggests alternate strategies for eliminating undesirable phases and optimizing thin film emitter properties.

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  9. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  10. Evaluation of resonating Si cantilevers sputter-deposited with AlN piezoelectric thin films for mass sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ü.; Stranz, A.; Waag, A.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.; Peiner, E.

    2010-06-01

    We report on a micro-machined resonator for mass sensing applications which is based on a silicon cantilever excited with a sputter-deposited piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN) thin film actuator. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching process was applied for the micro-machining of the silicon substrate. A shift in resonance frequency was observed, which was proportional to a mass deposited in an e-beam evaporation process on top. We had a mass sensing limit of 5.2 ng. The measurements from the cantilevers of the two arrays revealed a quality factor of 155-298 and a mass sensitivity of 120.34 ng Hz-1 for the first array, and a quality factor of 130-137 and a mass sensitivity of 104.38 ng Hz-1 for the second array. Furthermore, we managed to fabricate silicon cantilevers, which can be improved for the detection in the picogram range due to a reduction of the geometrical dimensions.

  11. Optical characterization of hydrogen-free CeO2 doped DLC films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Zhou Hongxiu; Guo Dongming; Gao Hang; Kang Renke

    2008-01-01

    A novel kind of hydrogen-free CeO 2 doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thickness of 180-200 nm were deposited on silicon by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Reduced reflectance and increased lifetime are expected with respect to pure DLC films, making these coatings good candidates as optical protective coatings for IR windows and solar cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that CeO 2 is formed within the DLC films. Auger electron spectroscopy exhibits that the C, O, and Ce elements distribute uniformly across the film thickness, and C element diffuses into the Si substrate at the interface between the substrate and film. AFM shows that nanoparticles with diameter of around 50 nm are formed on the surface of deposited films, whose surface roughness is in the range of 1.3-2.3 nm. Raman spectra show the CeO 2 doped DLC films are amorphous DLC films, and both the G frequency and relative intensity ratio I D /I G are higher than those of pure DLC films. The photoluminescence of CeO 2 doped DLC films is obviously more intense than that of a pure DLC film, which indicates a promising potential as optical protective films for solar cells and IR window

  12. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ibáñez, J.; Monroy, E.; González-Herráez, M.; Artús, L.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of ∼ 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at ∼ 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: ► Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. ► Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. ► Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. ► InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  13. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, S., E-mail: sirona.valdueza@depeca.uah.es [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Artus, L. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-31

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of {approx} 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at {approx} 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  14. Properties of reactively radio frequency-magnetron sputtered (Zr,Sn)TiO4 dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium tin titanium oxide doped 1 wt % ZnO thin films on n-type Si substrate were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at a fixed rf power of 350 W with various argon-oxygen (Ar/O 2 ) mixture and different substrate temperatures. Electrical properties and microstructures of ZnO-doped (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on n-type Si(100) substrates at different Ar/O 2 ratios and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope were sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as Ar/O 2 ratio (100/0-80/20) and substrate temperature (350 deg. C-450 deg. C). The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited ZST (111) orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size as well as the deposition rate of the films increased with the increase of both the Ar partial pressure and the substrate temperature. At a Ar/O 2 ratio of 100/0, rf power level of 350 W and substrate temperature of 450 deg. C, the Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 TiO 4 films with 6.44 μm thickness possess a dielectric constant of 42 (at 10 MHz), a dissipation factor of 0.065 (at 10 MHz), and a leakage current density of 2x10 -7 A/cm 2 at an electrical field of 1 kV/cm

  15. Computer simulation of scattered ion and sputtered species effects in ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1992-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposition is a technique currently used by many groups to produce single and multicomponent thin films. This technique provides several advantages over other deposition methods, which include the capability for yielding higher film density, accurate stoichiometry control, and smooth surfaces. However, the relatively high kinetic energies associated with ion beam sputtering also lead to difficulties if the process is not properly controlled. Computer simulations have been performed to determine net deposition rates, as well as the secondary erosion, lattice damage, and gas implantation in the films, associated with primary ions scattered from elemental Y, Ba and Cu targets used to produce high temperature superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films. The simulations were performed using the TRIM code for different ion masses and kinetic energies, and different deposition geometries. Results are presented for primary beams of Ar + , Kr + and Xe + incident on Ba and Cu targets at 0 degrees and 45 degrees with respect to the surface normal, with the substrate positioned at 0 degrees and 45 degrees. The calculations indicate that the target composition, mass and kinetic energy of the primary beam, angle of incidence on the target, and position and orientation of the substrate affect the film damage and trapped primary beam gas by up to 5 orders of magnitude

  16. Hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on PMMA substrates for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Macovei, A.M.; Miroiu, F.; Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrescu, S.M.; Stan, G.E.; Marcov, D.A.; Chiriac, A.; Poeata, I.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized implants represent an advanced approaching in implantology, aiming to improve the biointegration and the long-term success of surgical procedures. We report on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) substrates - used as cranio-spinal implant-type structures - by two alternative methods: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (MS). The deposition parameters were optimized in order to avoid the substrate overheating. Stoichiometric HA structures were obtained by PLD with incident laser fluences of 1.4-2.75 J/cm 2 , pressures of 30-46.66 Pa and 10 Hz pulses repetition rate. The MS depositions were performed at constant pressure of 0.3 Pa in inert and reactive atmospheres. SEM-EDS, XRD, FTIR and pull-out measurements were performed assessing the apatitic-type structure of the prepared films along with their satisfactory mechanical adhesion. Cell viability, proliferation and adhesion tests in osteosarcoma SaOs2 cell cultures were performed to validate the bioactive behaviour of the structures and to select the most favourable deposition regimes. For PLD, this requires a low fluence of 1.4 J/cm 2 , reduced pressure of water vapours and a 100 o C/4 h thermal treatment. For MS, the best results were obtained for 80% Ar + 20% O 2 reactive atmosphere at low RF power (∼75 W). Cells grown on these coatings exhibit behaviour similar to those grown on the standard borosilicate glass control: increased viability, good proliferation, and optimal cell adhesion. In vitro tests proved that HA/PMMA neurosurgical structures prepared by PLD and MS are compatible for the interaction with human bone cells.

  17. Effect of oxygen flow rate on ITO thin films deposited by facing targets sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J.; Jin, Su B.; Kim, Sung I.; Choi, Yoon S.; Choi, In S.; Han, Jeon G.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at various oxygen flow rates using a planar magnetron sputtering system with facing targets. In this system, the strong internal magnets inside the target holders confine the plasma between the targets. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a combination of amorphous and crystalline phases on the glass substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the decrease in carrier concentration and increase in mobility were caused by a decrease in the concentration of Sn 4+ states. The electrical and optical properties of the ITO films were examined by Hall measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed a film resistivity and transmittance of 4.26 x l0 -4 Ω cm, and > 80% in the visible region, respectively.

  18. Effect of gas ratio on tribological properties of sputter deposited TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mahesh R., E-mail: maheshchavda1990@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology, Mogar-388340 (India); Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Rawal, Sushant K., E-mail: sushantrawal.me@charusat.ac.in [CHAMOS Matrusanstha Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on Si, corning glass, pins of mild steel (MS, ϕ3mm), aluminium (Al, ϕ4mm) and brass (ϕ6mm) substratesby DC magnetron sputtering. The argon and nitrogen (Ar:N{sub 2})gas ratio was precisely controlled by Mass Flow Controller (MFC) and was varied systematically at diffract values of 10:10,12:08, 16:04 and 18:02sccm. The structural properties of TiN coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its surface topography was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The tribological properties of TiN coatings were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer.

  19. Stability of sputter deposited ZnO:Cr films against acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Makoto; Nishide, Toshikazu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hosaka, Masato; Matsumoto, Toshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    ZnO:Cr films were deposited on water-cooled soda-lime glass substrates at room temperature in an Ar atmosphere by rf magnetron sputtering of a ZnO target on which Cr chips were placed. The films exhibited extraordinary stability against acids such as HCl or HNO 3 , and also high resistivities similar to those of ZnO films. The addition of Cr suppressed the growth of ZnO grains which resulted in the formation of a dense film with a smooth surface. The stability and high resistivity displayed by the ZnO:Cr films can be attributed to the formation of a chromium-oxide-rich grain boundary. (author)

  20. Characterization of aluminum/aluminum nitride coatings sputter deposited using the pulsed-gas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, R.W.; Hosford, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A dc triode magnetron has been used to produce freestanding Al/Al + AlN lamellar foils by sputter deposition. The 5-μm-thick foils produced on both flat substrates as well as curved substrates exhibited good specularity as well as excellent mechanical properties. The pulse spacing was varied from none to 100-nm spacing. The yield strength of the material was found to obey the Hall-Petch relation sigma/sub ys/ = 230 + .07/d/sup 1/2/, where sigma/sub ys/ is in MPa. Auger electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy indicate that the large flow stress of 230 MPa must be due to grain refinement of the extended source and not an impurity effect. The result is that limitations of masking found in uniaxial flux sources for curved surfaces can be removed allowing the high quality coating of more general shapes

  1. Electronic properties of single Ge/Si quantum dot grown by ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ke, S Y; Yang, J; Hu, W D; Qiu, F; Wang, R F; Yang, Y

    2015-03-13

    The dependence of the electronic properties of a single Ge/Si quantum dot (QD) grown by the ion-beam sputtering deposition technique on growth temperature and QD diameter is investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The Si-Ge intermixing effect is demonstrated to be important for the current distribution of single QDs. The current staircase induced by the Coulomb blockade effect is observed at higher growth temperatures (>700 °C) due to the formation of an additional barrier between dislocated QDs and Si substrate for the resonant tunneling of holes. According to the proposed single-hole-tunneling model, the fact that the intermixing effect is observed to increase as the incoherent QD size decreases may explain the increase in the starting voltage of the current staircase and the decrease in the current step width.

  2. Reversible superhydrophilicity and hydrophobicity switching of V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunzi; Peng, Zhiguang; Cui, Xiaoyu; Neil, Eric; Li, Yuanshi; Kasap, Safa; Yang, Qiaoqin

    2018-03-01

    V2O5 thin films are well-known "smart" materials due to their reversible wettability under UV irradiation and dark storage. Their surfaces are usually hydrophobic and turn into hydrophilic under UV irradiation. However, the V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in present work are superhydrophilic and turned into hydrophobic after days' of storage in air. This change can be recovered by heating. The effects of many factors including surface roughness, irradiation from visible light, UV, & X-ray, and storage in air & vacuum on the reversible switching of wettability were investigated. The results show that air absorption is the main factor causing the film surface change from superhydrophilicity to hydrophobicity.

  3. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-10-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  4. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10 −3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  5. Deposition and characterization of ZrMoN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes Junir, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Oliveira, G.B. de; Fernandez, D.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of ZrMoN were deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering technique in order to study the molybdenum influence on the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of these coatings. Three thin films with molybdenum concentrations from 25 to 40 at.% were selected. The displacement of characteristic peaks of ZrN where identified by GIXRD results of films with larger Mo content. This result is indicative of the Mo accommodation in the lattice structure. Hardness tests revealed favorable results with values up to 33 GPa. Oxidation tests showed that ZrN oxidized at 500 °C with a monoclinic ZrO 2 and tetragonal formation; whereas the thin films with Mo addition impeded the formation of the monoclinic ZrO 2 phase at partial oxidation. (author)

  6. Structural and superconducting properties of sputter-deposited niobium films for applications in RF accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, M A

    2000-01-01

    The present work presents the results of a systematic study of superconducting and structural properties of niobium films sputter deposited onto the inner walls of radiofrequency copper resonators. The measured superconducting quantities include the surface resistance, the critical temperature, the penetration depth and the upper and lower critical fields. In addition to films grown with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne and Ar-Ne mixtures) and to films grown on substrates prepared under different conditions, the study also includes massive niobium cavities. The surface resistance is analysed in terms of its dependence on the temperature and on the rf field amplitude and, when possible, compared to theoretical predictions. In general, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. All experimental results are presented in the form of a simple, but adequate parameterisation. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially uncorrelated with the other variables, but strongly dependent on the macroscop...

  7. Structure of anodized Al–Zr sputter deposited coatings and effect on optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of light with the microstructure of anodized layer giving specific optical appearance is investigated using Al–Zr sputter deposited coating as a model system on an AA6060 substrate. Differences in the oxidative nature of various microstructural components result...... in the evolution of typical features in the anodized layer, which are investigated as a function of microstructure and correlated with its optical appearance. The Zr concentration in the coating was varied from 6 wt.% to 23 wt.%. Heat treatment of the coated samples was carried out at 550°C for 4 h in order...... parameters and their influence on the interaction of light is investigated and the results in general are applicable to discolouration of anodized layer on recycled aluminium alloys due to intermetallics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Design of tunable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance by controlling the Agsbnd Al co-sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Jinghai; Choi, Hyun Chul; Jung, Young Mee

    2018-05-01

    Changing the structure and composition of a material can alter its properties; hence, the controlled fabrication of metal nanostructures plays a key role in a wide range of applications. In this study, the structure of Agsbnd Al ordered arrays fabricated by co-sputtering deposition onto a monolayer colloidal crystal significantly increased its ultraviolet (UV) absorbance owing to a tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. By increasing the spacing between two nanospheres and the content of aluminum, absorbance in the UV region could be changed from UVA (320-400 nm) to UVC (200-275 nm), and the LSPR peak in the visible region gradually shifted to the UV region. This provides the potential for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in both the UV and visible regions.

  9. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T. [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth tungstate coatings were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Oscillating bowl was introduced to the system to enable coating of nanopartulates. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} enhanced visible light activity of titania nanoparticles. • The best results were obtained for coating with Bi:W ratio of approximately 2:1. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} onto TiO{sub 2} resulted in more efficient electron-hole separation. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide − bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these

  10. Thermal conductivity of nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2015-01-01

    Nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering from metal targets in argon and nitrogen plasma. TiN films with (200) orientation were achieved on silicon (100) at the substrate temperature of 500 and 600 °C. The films were polycrystalline at lower temperature. An amorphous interface layer was observed between the TiN film and Si wafer deposited at 600 °C. TiN film deposited at 600 °C showed the nitrogen to Ti ratio to be near unity, but films deposited at lower temperature were nitrogen deficient. CrN film with (200) orientation and good stoichiometry was achieved at 600 °C on Si(111) wafer but the film deposited at 500 °C showed cubic CrN and hexagonal Cr 2 N phases with smaller grain size and amorphous back ground in the x-ray diffraction pattern. An amorphous interface layer was not observed in the cubic CrN film on Si(111) deposited at 600 °C. Nitride film of tungsten deposited at 600 °C on Si(100) wafer was nitrogen deficient, contained both cubic W 2 N and hexagonal WN phases with smaller grain size. Nitride films of tungsten deposited at 500 °C were nonstoichiometric and contained cubic W 2 N and unreacted W phases. There was no amorphous phase formed along the interface for the tungsten nitride film deposited at 600 °C on the Si wafer. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of all the nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were determined by transient thermoreflectance technique. The thermal conductivity of the films as function of deposition temperature, microstructure, nitrogen stoichiometry and amorphous interaction layer at the interface was determined. Tungsten nitride film containing both cubic and hexagonal phases was found to exhibit much higher thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The amorphous interface layer was found to reduce effective thermal conductivity of TiN and CrN films

  11. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  12. Sputtered catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyerman, W.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a supported catalyst by a sputtering process. A material that is catalytic, or which is a component of a catalytic system, is sputtered on to the surface of refractory oxide particles that are compatible with the sputtered material and the sputtered particles are consolidated into aggregate form. The oxide particles before sputtering should have a diameter in the range 1000A to 50μ and a porosity less than 0.4 ml/g, and may comprise MgO, Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 or mixtures of these oxides, including hydraulic cement. The particles may possess catalytic activity by themselves or in combination with the catalytic material deposited on them. Sputtering may be effected epitaxially and consolidation may be effected by compaction pelleting, extrusion or spray drying of a slurry. Examples of the use of such catalysts are given. (U.K.)

  13. Influence of post-hydrogenation upon electrical, optical and structural properties of hydrogen-less sputter-deposited amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, S., E-mail: sebastian.gerke@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Becker, H.-W.; Rogalla, D. [RUBION — Central Unit for Ion Beams and Radioisotopes, University of Bochum, Bochum, 44780 (Germany); Singer, F.; Brinkmann, N.; Fritz, S.; Hammud, A.; Keller, P.; Skorka, D.; Sommer, D. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Weiß, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Flege, S. [Department of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt 64287 (Germany); Hahn, G. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany); Job, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Münster University of Applied Sciences, Steinfurt 48565 (Germany); Terheiden, B. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 78457 (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is common in the production of technical devices and can be deposited by several techniques. In this study intrinsic and doped, hydrogen-less amorphous silicon films are RF magnetron sputter deposited and post-hydrogenated in a remote hydrogen plasma reactor at a temperature of 370 °C. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of a boron doped (p) a-Si layer shows that the concentration of dopants in the sputtered layer becomes the same as present in the sputter-target. Improved surface passivation of phosphorous doped 5 Ω cm, FZ, (n) c-Si can be achieved by post-hydrogenation yielding a minority carrier lifetime of ~ 360 μs finding an optimum for ~ 40 nm thin films, deposited at 325 °C. This relatively low minority carrier lifetime indicates high disorder of the hydrogen-less sputter deposited amorphous network. Post-hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the number of localized states within the band gap. Optical band gaps (Taucs gab as well as E{sub 04}) can be determined to ~ 1.88 eV after post-hydrogenation. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and optical Raman investigations show that the sputtered layers are amorphous and stay like this during post-hydrogenation. As a consequence of the missing hydrogen during deposition, sputtered a-Si forms a rough surface compared to CVD a-Si. Atomic force microscopy points out that the roughness decreases by up to 25% during post-hydrogenation. Nuclear resonant reaction analysis permits the investigation of hydrogen depth profiles and allows determining the diffusion coefficients of several post-hydrogenated samples from of a model developed within this work. A dependency of diffusion coefficients on the duration of post-hydrogenation indicates trapping diffusion as the main diffusion mechanism. Additional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements show that hardly any interstitial hydrogen exists in the post-hydrogenated a-Si layers. The results of this study open the way for

  14. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  15. Microstructure of ZnO thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, A.N., E-mail: amber.reed.5@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Shamberger, P.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Hu, J.J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Bultman, J.E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Voevodin, A.A., E-mail: andrey.voevodin@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~ 100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates heated to 150 °C. The resulting films had strong crystallinity, highly aligned (002) texture and low surface roughness (root mean square roughness less than 10 nm), as determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy measurements. Deposition pressure and target–substrate distance had the greatest effect on film microstructure. The degree of alignment in the films was strongly dependent on the gas pressure. Deposition at pressures less than 0.93 Pa resulted in a bimodal distribution of grain sizes. An initial growth layer with preferred orientations (101) and (002) parallel to the interface was observed at the film–substrate interface under all conditions examined here; the extent of that competitive region was dependent on growth conditions. Time-resolved current measurements of the target and ion energy distributions, determined using energy resolved mass spectrometry, were correlated to film microstructure in order to investigate the effect of plasma conditions on film nucleation and growth. - Highlights: • Low temperature growth of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. • ZnO films had a highly (002) textured, smooth, dense microstructure. • Dominant (002) orientation of films was pressure dependent. • Interfacial (101)/(002) mixed orientation layer controlled by substrate location.

  16. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  17. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  18. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  19. Comparison of the surfaces and interfaces formed for sputter and electroless deposited gold contacts on CdZnTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Steven J.; Baker, Mark A.; Duarte, Diana D.; Schneider, Andreas; Seller, Paul; Sellin, Paul J.; Veale, Matthew C.; Wilson, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) is a leading sensor material for spectroscopic X/γ-ray imaging in the fields of homeland security, medical imaging, industrial analysis and astrophysics. The metal-semiconductor interface formed during contact deposition is of fundamental importance to the spectroscopic performance of the detector and is primarily determined by the deposition method. A multi-technique analysis of the metal-semiconductor interface formed by sputter and electroless deposition of gold onto (111) aligned CdZnTe is presented. Focused ion beam (FIB) cross section imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and current-voltage (IV) analysis have been applied to determine the structural, chemical and electronic properties of the gold contacts. In a novel approach, principal component analysis has been employed on the XPS depth profiles to extract detailed chemical state information from different depths within the profile. It was found that electroless deposition forms a complicated, graded interface comprised of tellurium oxide, gold/gold telluride particulates, and cadmium chloride. This compared with a sharp transition from surface gold to bulk CdZnTe observed for the interface formed by sputter deposition. The electronic (IV) response for the detector with electroless deposited contacts was symmetric, but was asymmetric for the detector with sputtered gold contacts. This is due to the electroless deposition degrading the difference between the Cd- and Te-faces of the CdZnTe (111) crystal, whilst these differences are maintained for the sputter deposited gold contacts. This work represents an important step in the optimisation of the metal-semiconductor interface which currently is a limiting factor in the development of high resolution CdZnTe detectors.

  20. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering; Deposicao e caracterizacao de filmes finos de TaAIN depositados por magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Hubler, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), RS (Brazil); Silva Junior, A.H. da, E-mail: brito-g@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  1. Deposition and characterization of titania-silica optical multilayers by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc sputtering of oxide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeo, P R; Shinde, D D; Misal, J S [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam -530012 (India); Kamble, N M; Tokas, R B; Biswas, A; Poswal, A K; Thakur, S; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K; Sabharwal, S C, E-mail: nksahoo@barc.gov.i, E-mail: sahoonk@gmail.co [Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-03

    Titania-silica (TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) optical multilayer structures have been conventionally deposited by reactive sputtering of metallic targets. In order to overcome the problems of arcing, target poisoning and low deposition rates encountered there, the application of oxide targets was investigated in this work with asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this deposition methodology, an electric field optimized Fabry Perot mirror for He-Cd laser ({lambda} = 441.6 nm) spectroscopy was deposited and characterized. For comparison, this mirror was also deposited by the reactive electron beam (EB) evaporation technique. The mirrors developed by the two complementary techniques were investigated for their microstructural and optical reflection properties invoking atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, grazing incidence reflectometry and spectrophotometry. From these measurements the layer geometry, optical constants, mass density, topography, surface and interface roughness and disorder parameters were evaluated. The microstructural properties and spectral functional characteristics of the pulsed dc sputtered multilayer mirror were found to be distinctively superior to the EB deposited mirror. The knowledge gathered during this study has been utilized to develop a 21-layer high-pass edge filter for radio photoluminescence dosimetry.

  2. Deposition and characterization of titania-silica optical multilayers by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc sputtering of oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeo, P R; Shinde, D D; Misal, J S; Kamble, N M; Tokas, R B; Biswas, A; Poswal, A K; Thakur, S; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K; Sabharwal, S C

    2010-01-01

    Titania-silica (TiO 2 /SiO 2 ) optical multilayer structures have been conventionally deposited by reactive sputtering of metallic targets. In order to overcome the problems of arcing, target poisoning and low deposition rates encountered there, the application of oxide targets was investigated in this work with asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this deposition methodology, an electric field optimized Fabry Perot mirror for He-Cd laser (λ = 441.6 nm) spectroscopy was deposited and characterized. For comparison, this mirror was also deposited by the reactive electron beam (EB) evaporation technique. The mirrors developed by the two complementary techniques were investigated for their microstructural and optical reflection properties invoking atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, grazing incidence reflectometry and spectrophotometry. From these measurements the layer geometry, optical constants, mass density, topography, surface and interface roughness and disorder parameters were evaluated. The microstructural properties and spectral functional characteristics of the pulsed dc sputtered multilayer mirror were found to be distinctively superior to the EB deposited mirror. The knowledge gathered during this study has been utilized to develop a 21-layer high-pass edge filter for radio photoluminescence dosimetry.

  3. Impurity incorporation, deposition kinetics, and microstructural evolution in sputtered Ta films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay Fredric

    There is an increasing need to control the microstructure in thin sputtered Ta films for application as high-temperature coatings or diffusion barriers in microelectronic interconnect structures. To this end, the relationship between impurity incorporation, deposition kinetics, and microstructural evolution was examined for room-temperature low growth rate DC magnetron sputtered Ta films. Impurity levels present during deposition were controlled by pumping the chamber to various base pressures before growth. Ar pressures ranging from 2 to 20 mTorr were used to create contrasting kinetic environments in the sputter gas. This affected both the distribution of adatom kinetic energies at the substrate as well as the rate of impurity desorption from the chamber walls: at higher Ar pressures adatoms has lower kinetic energies, and there was an increase in impurity concentration. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron. spectroscopy (XPS) were used to examine film crystallography, microstructure, and composition. A novel laboratory-based in-situ x-ray diffractometer was constructed. This new set-up allowed for the direct observation of microstructural evolution during growth. Films deposited at increasingly higher Ar pressures displayed a systematic decrease in grain size and degree of texturing, while surface morphology was found to vary from a nearly flat surface to a rough surface with several length scales of organization. In-situ x-ray results showed that the rate of texture evolution was found to be much higher in films grown using lower Ar pressures. These effects were studied in films less than 200 A thick using high resolution x-ray diffraction in conjunction with a synchrotron light source (SSRL B.L. 7-2). Films grown using higher Ar pressures (above 10 mTorr) with a pre-growth base

  4. Impact of deposition rate on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpuz, Ali [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Colmekci, Salih; Kockar, Hakan; Kuru, Hilal; Uckun, Mehmet [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The structural and corresponding magnetic properties of Ni/Cu films sputtered at low and high deposition rates were investigated as there is a limited number of related studies in this field. 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] multilayer thin films were deposited using two DC sputtering sources at low (0.02 nm/s) and high (0.10 nm/s) deposition rates of Ni layers. A face centered cubic phase was detected for both films. The surface of the film sputtered at the low deposition rate has a lot of micro-grains distributed uniformly and with sizes from 0.1 to 0.4 μm. Also, it has a vertical acicular morphology. At high deposition rate, the number of micro-grains considerably decreased, and some of their sizes increased up to 1 μm. The surface of the Ni/Cu multilayer deposited at the low rate has a relatively more grainy and rugged structure, whereas the surface of the film deposited at the high rate has a relatively larger lateral size of surface grains with a relatively fine morphology. Saturation magnetisation, M{sub s}, values were 90 and 138 emu/cm{sup 3} for deposition rates of 0.02 and 0.10 nm/s, respectively. Remanence, M{sub r}, values were also found to be 48 and 71 emu/cm{sup 3} for the low and high deposition rates, respectively. The coercivity, H{sub c}, values were 46 and 65 Oe for the low and high Ni deposition rates, respectively. The changes in the film surfaces provoked the changes in the H{sub c} values. The M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and H{sub c} values of the 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] films can be adjusted considering the surface morphologies and film contents caused by the different Ni deposition rates.

  5. Electrical properties of radio-frequency sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin films for advanced CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam, India Phone: +91-3842-224879 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) high-k thin films have been deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering technique on p-type Si (100) substrate. The thickness, composition and phases of films in relation to annealing temperatures have been investigated by using cross sectional FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), respectively. GI-XRD analysis revealed that at annealing temperatures of 350°C, films phases change to crystalline from amorphous. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the annealed HfO{sub 2} film have been studied employing Al/HfO{sub 2}/p-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density have been also extracted from C-V and I-V Measurements. The value of dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density of annealed HfO{sub 2} film is obtained as 23,7.57×1011eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 2.7×10{sup −5} Acm{sup −2}, respectively. In this work we also reported the influence of post deposition annealing onto the trapping properties of hafnium oxide and optimized conditions under which no charge trapping is observed into the dielectric stack.

  6. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  7. Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Ryohji; Katayama, Masao; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    Two vacuum methods, reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and arc plasma deposition, were used to prepare niobium-based catalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as non-noble metal cathodes for polymer electrode fuel cells (PEFCs). Thin films with various N and O contents, denoted as NbO x and Nb-O-N, were prepared on glassy carbon plates by RF magnetron sputtering with controlled partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the introduction of the nitrogen species into the thin film resulted in improved ORR activity compared to the oxide-only film. Using an arc plasma method, niobium was deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, and the sub-nanoscale surface morphology of the deposited particles was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). To prepare practical cathode catalysts, niobium was deposited on carbon black (CB) powders by arc plasma method. STM and transmission electron microscopy observations of samples on HOPG and CB indicated that the prepared catalysts were highly dispersed at the atomic level. The onset potential of oxygen reduction on Nb-O-N/CB was 0.86 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode, and the apparent current density was drastically improved by the introduction of nitrogen.

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ajaib [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Schipmann, Susanne [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Sengupta, Amartya [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Klemradt, Uwe [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iiti.ac.in [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Centre for Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnO films grown on confined polymeric (polystyrene, PS) template. • XRR and GISAXS explore the surface/interfaces structure and morphology of ZnO/PS. • Insights into the growth mechanism of magnetron sputtered ZnO thin film on PS template. • Nucleated disk-like cylindrical particles are the basis of the formation of ZnO layers. • Effect of ZnO film thickness on room temperature PL spectra in ZnO/PS systems. - Abstract: The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2R{sub g} film thickness, where R{sub g} ∼ 20 nm (R{sub g} is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by R{sub g} = 0.272 √M{sub 0}, and M{sub 0} is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2–7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  9. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loger, K.; Engel, A.; Haupt, J.; Li, Q.; Lima de Miranda, R.; Quandt, E.; Lutter, G.; Selhuber-Unkel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) thin film meshes were produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition. Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm 2 and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133 +) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm 2 and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applications in cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves. - Highlights: • Freestanding NiTi thin film scaffolds were fabricated with magnetron sputtering process. • Effective mechanical properties of NiTi scaffolds can be adapted by the mesh structure parameters. • Cell adhesion on the NiTi thin film scaffold is controlled by the structure parameters of the mesh. • Cells strongly adhere after seven days and form a confluent layer on the mesh.

  10. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loger, K. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Engel, A.; Haupt, J. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Li, Q. [Biocompatible Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Lima de Miranda, R. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); ACQUANDAS GmbH, Kiel (Germany); Quandt, E. [Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany); Lutter, G. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Selhuber-Unkel, C. [Biocompatible Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) thin film meshes were produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition. Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm{sup 2} and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133 +) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm{sup 2} and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applications in cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves. - Highlights: • Freestanding NiTi thin film scaffolds were fabricated with magnetron sputtering process. • Effective mechanical properties of NiTi scaffolds can be adapted by the mesh structure parameters. • Cell adhesion on the NiTi thin film scaffold is controlled by the structure parameters of the mesh. • Cells strongly adhere after seven days and form a confluent layer on the mesh.

  11. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 deg. C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density

  12. Properties of Ce-doped ITO films deposited on polymer substrate by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.M.; Kwon, S.H.; Choi, J.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Song, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ce-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) films were deposited on flexible polyimide substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using ITO targets containing various CeO 2 contents (CeO 2 : 0, 0.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 wt.%) at room temperature and post-annealed at 200 o C. The crystallinity of the ITO films decreased with increasing Ce content, and it led to a decrease in surface roughness. In addition, a relatively small change in resistance in dynamic stress mode was obtained for ITO:Ce films even after the annealing at high temperature (200 o C). The minimum resistivity of the amorphous ITO:Ce films was 3.96 x 10 -4 Ωcm, which was deposited using a 3.0 wt.% CeO 2 doped ITO target. The amorphous ITO:Ce films not only have comparable electrical properties to the polycrystalline films but also have a crystallization temperature > 200 o C. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ce film showed stable mechanical properties in the bended state.

  13. High-rate sputter deposition of NiAl on sapphire fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, K.; Martinez, C.; Cremer, R.; Neuschuetz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Once the fiber-matrix bonding has been optimized to meet the different requirements during fabrication and operation of the later composite component, sapphire fiber reinforced NiAl will be a potential candidate to substitute conventional superalloys as structural material for gas turbine blades. To improve the composite fabrication process, a direct deposition of the intermetallic matrix material onto hBN coated sapphire fibers prior to the consolidation of the fiber-matrix composite is proposed. It is believed that this will simplify the fabrication process and prevent pore formation during the diffusion bonding. In addition, the fiber volume fraction can be quite easily adjusted by varying the NiAl coating thickness. For this, a high-rate deposition of NiAl is in any case necessary. It has been achieved by a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of combined Al-Ni targets with the fibers rotating between the two facing cathodes. The obtained nickel aluminide coatings were analyzed as to structure and composition by means of X-ray (GIXRD) as well as electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The morphology of the NiAl coatings was examined by SEM. (orig.)

  14. The effect of energy and momentum transfer during magnetron sputter deposition of yttrium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinjiao; Liang, Wenping; Miao, Qiang; Depla, Diederik

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the ratio between the energy and the deposition flux, or the energy per arriving atom, on the growth of Y2O3 sputter deposited thin films has been studied. The energy per arriving atom has been varied by the adjustment of the discharge power, and/or the target-to-substrate distance. The relationship between the energy per arriving atom and the phase evolution, grain size, microstructure, packing density and residual stress was investigated in detail. At low energy per arriving atom, the films consist of the monoclinic B phase with a preferential (1 1 1) orientation. A minority cubic C phase appears at higher energy per arriving atom. A study of the thin film cross sections showed for all films straight columns throughout the thickness, typically for a zone II microstructure. The intrinsic stress is compressive, and increases with increasing energy per atom. The same trend is observed for the film density. Simulations show that the momentum transfer per arriving atom also scales with the energy per arriving atom. Hence, the interpretation of the observed trends as a function of the energy per arriving atom must be treated with care.

  15. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryanto, Didik, E-mail: didi027@lipi.go.id [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Marwoto, Putut; Sugianto [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Sudiro, Toto [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Birowosuto, Muhammad D. [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); CINTRA UMI CNRS/NTU/THALES 3288 Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, level 6, 637553 (Singapore); Sulhadi [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtained at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.

  16. Characteristics of a-IGZO/ITO hybrid layer deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon-Ho; Park, Hee-Woo; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Song, Pung-Keun

    2012-04-01

    Transparent a-IGZO (In-Ga-Zn-O) films have been actively studied for use in the fabrication of high-quality TFTs. In this study, a-IGZO films and a-IGZO/ITO double layers were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering under various oxygen flow rates. The a-IGZO films showed an amorphous structure up to 500 degrees C. The deposition rate of these films decreased with an increase in the amount of oxygen gas. The amount of indium atoms in the film was confirmed to be 11.4% higher than the target. The resistivity of double layer follows the rules for parallel DC circuits The maximum Hall mobility of the a-IGZO/ITO double layers was found to be 37.42 cm2/V x N s. The electrical properties of the double layers were strongly dependent on their thickness ratio. The IGZO/ITO double layer was subjected to compressive stress, while the ITO/IGZO double layer was subjected to tensile stress. The bending tolerance was found to depend on the a-IGZO thickness.

  17. Deposition and characterization of NbAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.G.; Felix, L.C.; Fernandez, D.A.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Oliveira, G.B.; Tentardini, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study NbAlN thin films and the influence of variation in the concentration of aluminum in the crystal structure and oxidation resistance of these coatings. The thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and oxidation tests at high temperatures. NbAlN thin films were deposited and present at concentration of 10, 20 and 42 at% Al. The NbAlN crystalline phase obtained was the δ-NbN, however it was observed a shift of the peaks in the patterns obtained GIXRD of regions for larger angles for these samples, indicating the formation of a solid solution. The higher oxidation resistance temperature was 700° C for the sample with 42 in at% Al. From the SEM analysis it was possible to observe the surface of the film after oxidation, all films showed defects, however the amount of such defects was lower in samples with higher aluminum concentrations. (author)

  18. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hard ternary AlMgB composite films prepared by sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Ce [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhou, Z.F. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management and Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chong, Y.M.; Liu, C.P.; Liu, Z.T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, K.Y., E-mail: mekyli@cityu.edu.h [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management and Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Bello, I., E-mail: apibello@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kutsay, O.; Zapien, J.A.; Zhang, W.J. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-07-30

    Hard and superlight thin films laminated with boron carbide have been proposed as candidates for strategic use such as armor materials in military and space applications. Aluminum magnesium boride (AlMgB) films are excellent candidates for these purposes. We prepared AlMgB films by sputter deposition using multiple unbalanced planar magnetrons equipped with two boron and one AlMg targets. The film morphology changed and the film's root mean square (rms) roughness varied from 1.0 to 18 nm as the power density of the AlMg target increased from 0.2 to 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} while the power density of each boron target was maintained at 2 W/cm{sup 2}. Chemical analyses show dominating Al, Mg, B and trace elements of oxygen, carbon and argon. The film composition also varies with altering the power density supplied to the AlMg target. The film with an atomic ratio of Al:Mg:B = 1.38:0.64:1 exhibits the highest hardness ({approx} 30 GPa). This value surpasses the hardness of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films (24-28 GPa) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hard ternary AlMgB composite films prepared by sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ce; Zhou, Z.F.; Chong, Y.M.; Liu, C.P.; Liu, Z.T.; Li, K.Y.; Bello, I.; Kutsay, O.; Zapien, J.A.; Zhang, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hard and superlight thin films laminated with boron carbide have been proposed as candidates for strategic use such as armor materials in military and space applications. Aluminum magnesium boride (AlMgB) films are excellent candidates for these purposes. We prepared AlMgB films by sputter deposition using multiple unbalanced planar magnetrons equipped with two boron and one AlMg targets. The film morphology changed and the film's root mean square (rms) roughness varied from 1.0 to 18 nm as the power density of the AlMg target increased from 0.2 to 1.0 W/cm 2 while the power density of each boron target was maintained at 2 W/cm 2 . Chemical analyses show dominating Al, Mg, B and trace elements of oxygen, carbon and argon. The film composition also varies with altering the power density supplied to the AlMg target. The film with an atomic ratio of Al:Mg:B = 1.38:0.64:1 exhibits the highest hardness (∼ 30 GPa). This value surpasses the hardness of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films (24-28 GPa) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  1. Scaling of surface roughness in sputter-deposited ZnO:Al thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Choi, Hong-Rak; Cho, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    We have studied surface roughness scaling of ZnO:Al thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering of a compound target within framework of the dynamic scaling theory using atomic force microscopy. We have observed a crossover in scaling behavior of surface roughness at a deposition time of 25 min. Both the regimes are characterized by power-law dependence of local surface width w(r,t) on deposition time for small r, typical of anomalous scaling. The scaling exponents for the first regime indicate the existence of a new dynamics. For t≥25 min, the films follow super-rough scaling behavior with global exponents α=1.5±0.2 and β=1.03±0.01, and local exponents α local =1 and β local =0.67±0.05. The anomaly in the scaling behavior of the films is discussed in terms of the shadowing instability and bombardment of energetic particles during growth of the films.

  2. Zinc sulfide thin films deposited by RF reactive sputtering for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lexi; Chang, K.-H.; Hwang, H.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films with nano-scale grains of about 50 nm were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C via RF reactive sputtering by using zinc plate target and hydrogen sulfide gas. The structure, compositions, electrical and optical characteristics of the deposited films were investigated for the photovoltaic device applications. All films showed a near stoichiometric composition as indicated in their AES data. Distinct single crystalline phase with preferential orientation along the (0 0 0 1) plane of wurtzite or the (1 1 1) plane of zinc blende (ZB) was revealed in their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and the spacing of the planes are well matched to those of (1 1 2) plane of the chalcopyrite CuInS 2 (CIS). UV-Vis measurement showed that the films had more than 65% transmittance in the wavelength larger than 350 nm, and the fundamental absorption edge shifted to shorter wavelength with the increase of sulfur incorporated in the films, which corresponds to an increase in the energy band gap ranging from 3.59 to 3.72 eV. It was found that ZnS films are suitable for use as the buffer layer of the CIS solar cells, and it is the viable alternative for replacing CdS in the photovoltaic cell structure

  3. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on unheated substrates by d.c. reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, T.; Miyata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been deposited by d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering by using metal In-Sn alloy target in an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The study demonstrates that the deposition on unheated substrates achieved sheet resistance of as low as about 50-60 Ω/□ (or a resistivity of about 7 x 10 -4 Ω cm), and visible transmission of about 90% for a wavelength of 420 nm. The effects of heat treatment at 450 C in air depends on the deposition conditions of the as-deposited ITO films. Although annealing improves the properties of as-deposited ITO films which were deposited with non-optimum conditions, the optimized condition for the formation of the film in the as-deposited state is essential to obtain a high quality transparent conducting coating. (orig.)

  4. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  5. Epitaxial ZnO gate dielectrics deposited by RF sputter for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seonno; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Cha, Ho-Young; Lee, Hi-Deok; Oh, Jungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF)-sputtered ZnO gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) were investigated with varying O2/Ar ratios. The ZnO deposited with a low oxygen content of 4.5% showed a high dielectric constant and low interface trap density due to the compensation of oxygen vacancies during the sputtering process. The good capacitance-voltage characteristics of ZnO-on-AlGaN/GaN capacitors resulted from the high crystallinity of oxide at the interface, as investigated by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The MOS-HEMTs demonstrated comparable output electrical characteristics with conventional Ni/Au HEMTs but a lower gate leakage current. At a gate voltage of -20 V, the typical gate leakage current for a MOS-HEMT with a gate length of 6 μm and width of 100 μm was found to be as low as 8.2 × 10-7 mA mm-1, which was three orders lower than that of the Ni/Au Schottky gate HEMT. The reduction of the gate leakage current improved the on/off current ratio by three orders of magnitude. These results indicate that RF-sputtered ZnO with a low O2/Ar ratio is a good gate dielectric for high-performance AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs.

  6. Characterization and properties Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by middle frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C. W.; Zhang, J.; Xie, W.; Shao, L. X.; Guo, L. P.; Fu, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    TiN-containing amorphous Ti-Al-Si-N (nc-TiN/a-Si 3N 4 or a-AlN) nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using a modified closed field twin unbalanced magnetron sputtering system which is arc assisted and consists of two circles of targets, at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. XRD, XPS and High-resolution TEM experiments showed that the coatings contain TiN nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous Si 3N 4 or AlN matrix. The coatings exhibit good mechanical properties that are greatly influenced by the Si contents. The hardness of the Ti-Al-Si-N coatings deposited at Si targets currents of 5, 8, 10, and 12 A were 45, 47, 54 and 46 GPa, respectively. The high hardness of the deposited Ti-Al-Si-N coatings may be own to the plastic distortion and dislocation blocking by the nanocrystalline structure. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing Si contents. This result would be caused by tribo-chemical reactions, which often take place in many ceramics, e.g. Si 3N 4 reacts with H 2O to produce SiO 2 or Si(OH) 2 tribolay-layer.

  7. Residual stress and bending strength of ZnO films deposited on polyimide sheet by RF sputtering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaka, Kazuya, E-mail: kusaka@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1, Minamijosanjima, Tokushima, Tokushima 7708506 (Japan); Maruoka, Yutaka, E-mail: ymaruoka1116@gmail.com [Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1, Minamijosanjima, Tokushima, Tokushima 7708506 (Japan); Matsue, Tatsuya, E-mail: tmatsue@mat.niihama-nct.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology, NIIHAMA College, 7-1, Yakumo-cho, Niihama, Ehime 7928580 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on a soft polyimide sheet substrate by radio frequency sputtering with a ZnO powder target, and the films' crystal orientations and residual stress were investigated using x-ray diffraction as a function of substrate temperature. C-axis oriented ZnO films were achieved using this ZnO powder target method. The ZnO films exhibited high compressive residual stresses between −0.7 and −1.4 GPa. Finally, the authors examined the strength of the obtained film by applying tensile bending loads. No cracks were observed on the surfaces of the ZnO films after a bending test using cylinders with diameters >25 mm. After a bending test using a cylinder with a diameter of 19 mm, large cracks were formed on the films. Therefore, the authors concluded that the tensile bending strength of the obtained films was greater than ∼420 MPa.

  8. Characterization and device applications of ZnO films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J. G.; Mayes, E. L. H.; McDougall, N. L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.

    2013-04-01

    ZnO films have been reactively deposited on sapphire substrates at 300 °C using a high impulse power magnetron sputtering deposition system and characterized structurally, optically and electronically. The unintentionally doped n-type ZnO films exhibit high transparency, moderate carrier concentration (˜5 × 1018 cm-3) and a Hall mobility of 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, making them suitable for electronic device applications. Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes formed on the HiPIMS deposited ZnO exhibited rectification ratios up to 104 at ±2 V and sensitivity to UV light.

  9. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm"−"2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm"−"2 improved the orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm"−"2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  10. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianliang, E-mail: Jianliang.lin@swri.org [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Chistyakov, Roman [Zpulser LLC, Mansfield, MA 02048 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Highly <0001> orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the <0001> texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm{sup −2}) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm{sup −2} improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm{sup −2} showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  11. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malau, Viktor, E-mail: malau@ugm.ac.id; Ilman, Mochammad Noer, E-mail: noer-ilman@yahoo.com; Iswanto, Priyo Tri, E-mail: priyatri@yahoo.com; Jatisukamto, Gaguk, E-mail: gagukjtsk@yahoo.co.id [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10{sup −2} torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10{sup −6} mbar, a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  12. Antibacterial effects of silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films sputter deposited on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, Nathan A.; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Since many orthopedic implants fail as a result of loosening, wear, and inflammation caused by repeated loading on the joints, coatings such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) on titanium with a unique topography have been shown to improve the interface between the implant and the natural tissue. Another serious problem with long-term or ideally permanent implants is infection. It is important to prevent initial bacterial colonization as existing colonies have the potential to become encased in an extracellular matrix polymer (biofilm) that is resistant to antibacterial agents. In this study, plasma-based ion implantation was used to examine the effects of pre-etching on plain titanium. Topographical changes to the titanium samples were examined and compared via scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films were then sputter deposited on titanium substrates etched at − 700 eV. For silver-doped films, two concentrations of silver (∼ 0.5 wt.% and ∼ 1.5 wt.%) were used. Silver concentrations in the film were determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Hydroxyapatite film thicknesses were determined by measuring the surface profile using contact profilometry. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion studies were performed on plain titanium, titanium coated with hydroxyapatite, titanium coated with ∼ 0.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium coated with ∼ 1.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite. Results indicate that less bacteria adhered to surfaces containing hydroxyapatite and silver; further, as the hydroxyapatite films delaminated, silver ions were released which killed bacteria in suspension. - Highlights: ► We have developed a combination of plasma-based ion implantation and ion beam sputter deposition technique. ► Silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium were developed. ► The thin films showed the ability to control the concentration of silver that is doped within the

  13. From atoms to layers: in situ gold cluster growth kinetics during sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Buffet, Adeline; Körstgens, Volker; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Schlage, Kai; Benecke, Gunthard; Perlich, Jan; Rawolle, Monika; Rothkirch, André; Heidmann, Berit; Herzog, Gerd; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Gehrke, Rainer; Stribeck, Norbert; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-05-01

    The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction of morphological real space parameters, such as cluster size and shape, correlation distance, layer porosity and surface coverage, directly from reciprocal space scattering data. This approach enables a large variety of future investigations of the influence of different process parameters on the thin metal film morphology. Furthermore, our study allows for deducing the wetting behavior of gold cluster films on solid substrates and provides a better understanding of the growth kinetics in general, which is essential for optimization of manufacturing parameters, saving energy and resources.The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction

  14. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    -mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The concept of UBM co-sputtering for fabricating nanoalloy embedded carbon films. HRTEM images of the NiNP and Ni32Cu68 nanoalloy embedded carbon films. The experimental conditions for sputter deposition, HRTEM, HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDS measurements and continuous flow injection analysis. XPS analysis of the nanoalloy embedded carbon film. Repeated CVs of both the nanoalloy embedded carbon film and the alloy film. Amperometric detection of d-mannitol in the presence of chloride ions. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02287a

  15. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic PTFE – Titania coatings deposited by reactive pDC magnetron sputtering from a blended powder target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.

    2017-04-01

    The production of photocatalytic coatings with superhydrophobic properties, as opposed to the conventional hydrophilic properties, is desirable for the prevention of adhesion of contaminants to photocatalytic surfaces with subsequent deterioration of photocatalytic properties. In this work polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) – TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited using a novel method of reactive pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering of a blended PTFE – titanium oxide powder target. The surface characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the deposited composite coatings were studied. The as-deposited coatings were annealed at 523 K in air and analysed with Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrophobicity was assessed though measurements of water contact angles, and photocatalytic properties were studied via methylene blue dye degradation under UV irradiation. It was found that variations of gas flow and, hence, process pressures allowed deposition of samples combining superhydrophobicity with stable photocatalytic efficiency under UV light irradiation. Reversible wettability behaviour was observed with the alternation of light-dark cycles. - Highlights: • PTFE-TiO{sub 2} coatings were deposited by pDC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Blended powder target was used for coatings deposition. • Deposited coatings combined superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties. • Under UV irradiation coatings exhibited reversible wettability.

  16. Composition and structure variation for magnetron sputtered tantalum oxynitride thin films, as function of deposition parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D.; Pătru, M.; Crisan, A.; Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crăciun, D. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR 5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Moura, C. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cunha, L., E-mail: lcunha@fisica.uminho.pt [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Structural evolution from β-Ta, to fcc-Ta(O,N), to amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} with increasing P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}). • The substrate bias influences the N content, but does not influence the O content of the films. • The structural features of the films appear at lower P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}) when produced with grounded substrate. - Abstract: Tantalum oxynitride thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited using a pure Ta target and a working atmosphere with a constant N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratio. The choice of this constant ratio limits the study concerning the influence of each reactive gas, but allows a deeper understanding of the aspects related to the affinity of Ta to the non-metallic elements and it is economically advantageous. This work begins by analysing the data obtained directly from the film deposition stage, followed by the analysis of the morphology, composition and structure. For a better understanding regarding the influence of the deposition parameters, the analyses are presented by using the following criterion: the films were divided into two sets, one of them produced with grounded substrate holder and the other with a polarization of −50 V. Each one of these sets was produced with different partial pressure of the reactive gases P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}). All the films exhibited a O/N ratio higher than the N/O ratio in the deposition chamber atmosphere. In the case of the films produced with grounded substrate holder, a strong increase of the O content is observed, associated to the strong decrease of the N content, when P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}) is higher than 0.13 Pa. The higher Ta affinity for O strongly influences the structural evolution of the films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that the lower partial pressure films were crystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out that the density of the films depended on the deposition conditions: the higher the gas pressure, the

  17. Microstructural characterization of chemical bath deposited and sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, E.; Buffière, M.; Harel, S.; Assmann, L.; Arzel, L.; Brohan, L.; Kessler, J.; Barreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims at investigating the microstructure of Zn(O,S) buffer layers relative to their deposition route, namely either chemical bath deposition (CBD) or RF co-sputtering process (PVD) under pure Ar. The core of the study consists of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the differently grown Zn(O,S) thin films on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorbers. It shows that the morphology of Zn(O,S) layer deposited on CIGSe using CBD process is made of a thin layer of well oriented ZnS sphalerite-(111) and/or ZnS wurtzite-(0002) planes parallel to CIGSe chalcopyrite-(112) planes at the interface with CIGSe followed by misoriented nanometer-sized ZnS crystallites in an amorphous phase. As far as (PVD)Zn(O,S) is concerned, the TEM analyses reveal two different microstructures depending on the S-content in the films: for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, the buffer layer is made of ZnO zincite and ZnS wurtzite crystallites grown nearly coherently to each other, with (0002) planes nearly parallel with CIGSe-(112) planes, while for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, it is made of ZnO zincite type crystals with O atoms substituted by S atoms, with (0002) planes perfectly aligned with CIGSe-(112) planes. Such microstructural differences can explain why photovoltaic performances are dependent on the Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition route. - Highlights: ► Zn(O,S) layers were grown by chemical bath (CBD) or physical vapor (PVD) deposition. ► For CBD, a 3 nm ZnS layer is followed by ZnS nano-crystallites in an amorphous phase. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, the layer has a Zn(O,S) zincite structure. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, ZnS wurtzite and ZnO zincite phases are mixed

  18. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.

    2009-01-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ∼400 deg. C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ∼6x10 17 cm -3 and ∼6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  19. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.

    2009-10-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ˜400 °C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ˜6×1017 cm-3 and ˜6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the AsZn-2VZn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  20. Silicon transport in sputter-deposited tantalum layers grown under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Hantzpergue, J.J.; Remy, J.C.; Roptin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tantalum was sputter deposited on (111) Si substrate under low-energy ion bombardment in order to study the effects of the ion energy on the silicon transport into the Ta layer. The Si substrate was heated up to 500 0 C during growth. For ion energies up to 180 eV silicon is not transported into tantalum and the growth temperature has no effect. An ion bombardment energy of 280 eV enhances the transport of silicon throughout the tantalum layer. Growth temperatures up to 300 0 C have no effect on the silicon transport which is mainly enhanced by the ion bombardment. For growth temperatures between 300 and 500 0 C, the silicon transport is also enhanced by the thermal diffusion. The experimental depth distribution of silicon is similar to the theoretical depth distribution calculated for the case of an interdiffusion. The ion-enhanced process of silicon transport is characterized by an activation energy of 0.4 eV. Silicon into the layers as-grown at 500 0 C is in both states, amorphous silicide and microcrystalline cubic silicon

  1. Characteristics of Iron-Palladium alloy thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.-J.; Shen, C.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Jian, S.-R.

    2018-06-01

    The microstructural features, magnetic, nanomechanical properties and wettability behaviors of Iron-Palladium (FePd) alloy thin films are investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) techniques, respectively. The FePd alloy thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. The post-annealing processes of FePd alloy thin films were carried out at 400 °C and 750 °C and resulted in a significant increase of both the average grain size and surface roughness. The XRD analysis showed that FePd alloy thin films exhibited a predominant (1 1 1) orientation. The magnetic field dependence of magnetization of all FePd thin films are measured at room temperature showed the ferromagnetic characteristics. The nanoindentation with continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) is used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus of present films. The contact angle (θCA) increased with increasing surface roughness. The maximum θCA of 75° was achieved for the FePd alloy thin film after annealing at 750 °C and a surface roughness of 4.2 nm.

  2. Turnover of texture in low rate sputter-deposited nanocrystalline molybdenum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druesedau, T.P.; Klabunde, F.; Loehmann, M.; Hempel, T.; Blaesing, J.

    1997-01-01

    The crystallite size and orientation in molybdenum films prepared by magnetron sputtering at a low rate of typical 1 (angstrom)s and a pressure of 0.45 Pa was investigated by X-ray diffraction and texture analysis. The surface topography was studied using atomic force microscopy. Increasing the film thickness from 20 nm to 3 microm, the films show a turnover from a (110) fiber texture to a (211) mosaic-like texture. In the early state of growth (20 nm thickness) the development of dome-like structures on the surface is observed. The number of these structures increases with film thickness, whereas their size is weakly influenced. The effect of texture turnover is reduced by increasing the deposition rate by a factor of six, and it is absent for samples mounted above the center of the magnetron source. The effect of texture turnover is related to the bombardment of the films with high energetic argon neutrals resulting from backscattering at the target under oblique angle and causing resputtering. Due to the narrow angular distribution of the reflected argon, bombardment of the substrate plane is inhomogeneous and only significant for regions close to the erosion zone of the magnetron

  3. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Borgmann, Anna; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Köller, Manfred; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S; Ludwig, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography. (papers)

  4. Growth dynamics of reactive-sputtering-deposited AlN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Vazquez, L.; Sanchez, O.; Jergel, M.; Cuerno, R.; Castro, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the surface kinetic roughening of AlN films grown on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive sputtering within the framework of the dynamic scaling theory. Films deposited under the same experimental conditions for different growth times were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The AlN films display a (002) preferred orientation. We have found two growth regimes with a crossover time of 36 min. In the first regime, the growth dynamics is unstable and the films present two types of textured domains, well textured and randomly oriented, respectively. In contrast, in the second regime the films are homogeneous and well textured, leading to a relative stabilization of the surface roughness characterized by a growth exponent β=0.37±0.03. In this regime a superrough scaling behavior is found with the following exponents: (i) Global exponents: roughness exponent α=1.2±0.2 and β=0.37±0.03 and coarsening exponent 1/z=0.32±0.05; (ii) local exponents: α loc =1, β loc =0.32±0.01. The differences between the growth modes are found to be related to the different main growth mechanisms dominating their growth dynamics: sticking anisotropy and shadowing, respectively

  5. Features of copper coatings growth at high-rate deposition using magnetron sputtering systems with a liquid metal target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bleykher, G.A.; Borduleva, A.O.; Yuryeva, A.V.; Krivobokov, V.P.; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří; Drahokoupil, Jan; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 324, Sep (2017), s. 111-120 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * evaporation * high-rate coating deposition * coating properties * Cu coatings Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  6. Differences in the calcification of preosteoblast cultured on sputter-deposited titanium, zirconium, and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Nagai, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Ashida, Maki; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, osteogenic differentiation and calcification of preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cultured on sputter-deposited titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), and gold (Au) on cover glasses were evaluated to understand the differences in bone formation ability among these three metals; these metals show the same high corrosion resistance, but Ti and Zr are covered by surface passive oxide film while Au is not covered by the oxide film. Ti and Zr promoted cellular proliferation without osteogenic differentiation. Cells cultured on Ti and Zr expressed higher levels of Runx2, Col1α1, and Akp2 at an earlier stage, which indicated faster promotion of osteogenic differentiation, as compared to those cultured on Au. Moreover, after 21 days of culture, the Bglap1 and Ifitm5 expression peaks in cells cultured on Ti and Zr were higher than those in cells cultured on Au, which indicated faster promotion of calcification. Cells cultured on Ti showed an advantage in osteogenic differentiation at an early stage, while cells on Zr showed better calcification promotion with a long-term culture. The amount of extracellular calcified deposits was in good agreement with the gene expression results. On the other hand, the intracellular calcium content of cells on Au specimens was higher than that of cells on Ti and Zr specimens. The results indicate that preosteoblasts on Ti and Zr showed faster osteogenic differentiation and calcification than those on Au, whereas Au improved the intracellular calcium content. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 639-651, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  8. Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüpkes J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sputtered and wet-chemically texture etched zinc oxide (ZnO films on glass substrates are regularly applied as transparent front contact in silicon based thin film solar cells. In this study, chemical wet etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl on aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al films deposited by magnetron sputtering from ceramic tube targets at high discharge power (~10 kW/m target length is investigated. Films with thickness of around 800 nm were etched in diluted HCl acid and HF acid to achieve rough surface textures. It is found that the etching of the films in both etchants leads to different surface textures. A two steps etching process, which is especially favorable for films prepared at high deposition rate, was systematically studied. By etching first in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl these films are furnished with a surface texture which is characterized by craters with typical diameter of around 500 − 1000 nm. The resulting surface structure is comparable to etched films sputtered at low deposition rate, which had been demonstrated to be able to achieve high efficiencies in silicon thin film solar cells.

  9. Alloying process of sputter-deposited Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Kim, H.Y.; Miyazaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alloying process of a Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was prepared by depositing Ti and Ni layers alternately on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The number of each metal layer was 100, and the total thickness was 3 μm. The alloy composition was determined as Ti-51 at.%Ni by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). The DSC curve exhibited three exothermic peaks at 621, 680 and 701 K during heating the as-sputtered multilayer thin film. In order to investigate the alloying process, XRD and TEM observation was carried out for the specimens heated up to various temperatures with the heating rate same as the DSC measurement. The XRD profile of the as-sputtered film revealed only diffraction peaks of Ti and Ni. But reaction layers of 3 nm in thickness were observed at the interfaces of Ti and Ni layers in cross-sectional TEM images. The reaction layer was confirmed as an amorphous phase by the nano beam diffraction analysis. The XRD profiles exhibited that the intensity of Ti diffraction peak decreased in the specimen heat-treated above 600 K. The peak from Ni became broad and shifted to lower diffraction angle. The amorphous layer thickened up to 6 nm in the specimen heated up to 640 K. The diffraction peak corresponding to Ti-Ni B2 phase appeared and the peak from Ni disappeared for the specimen heated up to 675 K. The Ti-Ni B2 crystallized from the amorphous reaction layer. After further heating above the third exothermic peak, the intensity of the peak from the Ti-Ni B2 phase increased, the peak from Ti disappeared and the peaks corresponding to Ti 2 Ni appeared. The Ti 2 Ni phase was formed by the reaction of the Ti-Ni B2 and Ti

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingli; Li Yuanxun; Zhang Huaiwu; Chen Daming; Mu Chunhong

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline NiZn-ferrite thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrate by rf magnetron sputtering, using targets with a nominal composition of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 . The effects of substrate condition, sputtering pressure, and postannealing on the structure and magnetic properties of thin films have been investigated. Our results show that the preferred orientation of the NiZn spinel film changed from (311) to (400) with increasing the Ar pressure from 0.8 to 1.6 Pa, meanwhile, the grain size also increased. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicates that perfect surface morphology of the film can be obtained at a relatively lower sputtering pressure of 1.0 Pa. The relative percentage of residual oxygen increases significantly on a condition of lower sputtering pressure, and plays an important role in film structure due to the strong molecular adsorption tendency of oxygen on the film surface during the deposition process. A thin film with a typical thickness of 1 μm, a saturation magnetization of 150 emu/cm 3 , and a coercivity of 8.8 kA/m has been obtained after annealing at 800 deg. C, which has the potential application in magnetic integrated circuits.

  11. Stress analysis, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annadurai, A. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Manivel Raja, M., E-mail: mraja@dmrl.drdo.in [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabahar, K.; Kumar, Atul [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Kannan, M.D.; Jayakumar, S. [Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The residual stress instituted in Ni-Mn-Ga thin films during deposition is a key parameter influencing their shape memory applications by affecting its structural and magnetic properties. A series of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates at four different sputtering powers of 25, 45, 75 and 100 W for systematic investigation of the residual stress and its effect on structure and magnetic properties. The residual stresses in thin films were characterized by a laser scanning technique. The as-deposited films were annealed at 600 deg. C for 1 h in vacuum for structural and magnetic ordering. The compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. The annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. It was found that the increase of sputtering power induced coarsening in thin films. Typical saturation magnetization and coercivity values were found to be 330 emu/cm{sup 3} and 215 Oe, respectively. The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature. - Highlights: > Compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. > Annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. > The highest Curie transition in the films was observed at 365 K. > The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature.

  12. Investigation of CaTiO3:Pr3+ thin films deposited by radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering for electroluminescence application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakha, L; Bousquet, A; Tomasella, E; Boutinaud, P; Mahiou, R

    2010-01-01

    In this report we successfully deposited thin films of CaTiO 3 :Pr 3+ by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. The films were studied and we tried to understand the evolution of their optical and electrical properties. We noticed that the annealing temperature and the deposition pressures have an important influence on these properties. Thin films with good optical and electrical properties have been obtained. These films are transparent and are characterized by an intense red photoluminescence and a low fixed charge density. They are well dedicated for electroluminescence purposes.

  13. Structural and optical properties of zirconia thin films deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Jin, Jie [Tianjin University, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Cheng, Jui-Ching, E-mail: juiching@ntut.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Ming Chi University of Technology, College of Materials Engineering, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hong [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Ruey [Asia University, Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kou-Chen, E-mail: jacobliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology on glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. Preparation, microstructure and optical characteristics of the films have been studied. During deposition, the influence of the target power and duty cycle on the peak current–voltage and power density has been observed in oxide mode. Transparent thin films under different oxygen proportions are obtained on the two substrates. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the surface roughness of the films was lower by reactive HiPIMS than DC sputtering for all oxygen contents. The transmission and reflectance properties of differently grown zirconia films were also investigated using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The optical transmittance of films grown on glass substrates by HiPIMS reached maximum values above 90%, which exceeded that by DC sputtering. The band edge near 5.86 eV shifted to a lower wavelength for zirconia films prepared with oxygen flow rates lower than 4.5 sccm. For the films prepared on ITO/glass substrates, the transmittance and the band gap of zirconia films were limited by ITO films; a maximum average transmittance of 84% was obtained at 4.5 sccm O{sub 2} and the energy band gap was in the range of 3.7–3.8 eV for oxygen flow rates ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 sccm. Finally, the electrical properties of zirconia films have also been discussed. - Highlights: • Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • Low roughness films are obtained. • Films show a high transmittance (> 90%). • Films prepared on glass have a band gap of 5.9 eV.

  14. Composition-control of magnetron-sputter-deposited (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z thin films for voltage tunable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jaemo; Auciello, O.; Baumann, P. K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kaufman, D. Y.; Krauss, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    Precise control of composition and microstructure is critical for the production of (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z (BST) dielectric thin films with the large dependence of permittivity on electric field, low losses, and high electrical breakdown fields that are required for successful integration of BST into tunable high-frequency devices. Here, we present results on composition-microstructure-electrical property relationships for polycrystalline BST films produced by magnetron-sputter deposition, that are appropriate for microwave and millimeter-wave applications such as varactors and frequency triplers. Films with controlled compositions were grown from a stoichiometric Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 target by control of the background processing gas pressure. It was determined that the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratios of these BST films could be adjusted from 0.73 to 0.98 by changing the total (Ar+O2) process pressure, while the O2/Ar ratio did not strongly affect the metal ion composition. Film crystalline structure and dielectric properties as a function of the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio are discussed. Optimized BST films yielded capacitors with low dielectric losses (0.0047), among the best reported for sputtered BST, while still maintaining tunabilities suitable for device applications.

  15. Composition-control of magnetron-sputter-deposited (BaxSr1-x)Ti1+yO3+z thin films for voltage tunable devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jaemo; Auciello, O.; Baumann, P. K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kaufman, D. Y.; Krauss, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    Precise control of composition and microstructure is critical for the production of (Ba x Sr 1-x )Ti 1+y O 3+z (BST) dielectric thin films with the large dependence of permittivity on electric field, low losses, and high electrical breakdown fields that are required for successful integration of BST into tunable high-frequency devices. Here, we present results on composition-microstructure-electrical property relationships for polycrystalline BST films produced by magnetron-sputter deposition, that are appropriate for microwave and millimeter-wave applications such as varactors and frequency triplers. Films with controlled compositions were grown from a stoichiometric Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 target by control of the background processing gas pressure. It was determined that the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratios of these BST films could be adjusted from 0.73 to 0.98 by changing the total (Ar+O 2 ) process pressure, while the O 2 /Ar ratio did not strongly affect the metal ion composition. Film crystalline structure and dielectric properties as a function of the (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio are discussed. Optimized BST films yielded capacitors with low dielectric losses (0.0047), among the best reported for sputtered BST, while still maintaining tunabilities suitable for device applications. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Mobility Optimization in LaxBa1-xSnO3 Thin Films Deposited via High Pressure Oxygen Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, William Michael

    BaSnO3 (BSO) is one of the most promising semiconducting oxides currently being explored for use in future electronic applications. BSO possesses a unique combination of high room temperature mobility (even at very high carrier concentrations, > 1019 cm-3), wide band gap, and high temperature stability, making it a potentially useful material for myriad applications. Significant challenges remain however in optimizing the properties and processing of epitaxial BSO, a critical step towards industrial applications. In this study we investigate the viability of using high pressure oxygen sputtering to produce high mobility La-doped BSO thin films. In the first part of our investigation we synthesized, using solid state reaction, phase-pure stoichiometric polycrystalline 2% La-doped BaSnO 3 for use as a target material in our sputtering system. We verified the experimental bulk lattice constant, 4.117 A, to be in good agreement with literature values. Next, we set out to optimize the growth conditions for DC sputtering of La doped BaSnO3. We found that mobility for all our films increased monotonically with deposition temperature, suggesting the optimum temperature for deposition is > 900 °C and implicating a likely improvement in transport properties with post-growth thermal anneal. We then preformed systematic studies aimed at probing the effects of varying thickness and deposition rate to optimize the structural and electronic transport properties in unbuffered BSO films. In this report we demonstrate the ability to grow 2% La BSO thin films with an effective dopant activation of essentially 100%. Our films showed fully relaxed (bulk), out-of-plane lattice parameter values when deposited on LaAlO3, MgO, and (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2 TaAlO6)0.7 substrates, and slightly expanded out-of-plane lattice parameters for films deposited on SrTiO3, GdScO3, and PrScO3 substrates. The surface roughness's of our films were measured via AFM, and determined to be on the nm scale or better

  17. Comparison of the Al back contact deposited by sputtering, e-beam, or thermal evaporation for inverted perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tina; Hanisch, Jonas; Ahlswede, Erik

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present inverted perovskite solar cells with Al top electrodes, which were deposited by three different methods. Besides the widely used thermal evaporation of Al, we also used the industrially important high deposition rate processes sputtering and electron beam evaporation for aluminium electrodes and examined the influence of the deposition method on the solar cell performance. The current-voltage characteristics of as grown solar cells with sputtered and e-beam Al electrode show an s-shape due to damage done to the organic electronic transport layers (ETL) during Al deposition. It can be cured by a short annealing step at a moderate temperature so that fill factors  >60% and power conversion efficiencies of almost 12% with negligible hysteresis can be achieved. While solar cells with thermally evaporated Al electrode do not show an s-shape, they also exhibit a clear improvement after a short annealing step. In addition, we varied the thickness of the ETL consisting of a double layer ([6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and bathocuproine) and investigated the influence on the solar cell parameters for the three different Al deposition methods, which showed distinct dependencies on ETL thickness.

  18. Influence of annealing temperature on the structural, mechanical and wetting property of TiO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Swati S.; Sahoo, Sambita; Pradhan, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films have been deposited on silicon substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure Ti target in Ar/O 2 plasma. The TiO 2 films deposited at room temperature were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 400 o C to 800 o C. The structural, morphological, mechanical properties and the wetting behavior of the as deposited and annealed films were obtained using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) measurements. The as deposited films were amorphous, and the Raman results showed that anatase phase crystallization was initiated at annealing temperature close to 400 o C. The film annealed at 400 o C showed higher hardness than the film annealed at 600 o C. In addition, the wettability of film surface was enhanced with an increase in annealing temperature from 400 o C to 800 o C, as revealed by a decrease in water CA from 87 o to 50 o . Moreover, the water CA of the films obtained before and after UV light irradiation revealed that the annealed films remained more hydrophilic than the as deposited film after irradiation.

  19. Characteristics of Bilayer Molybdenum Films Deposited Using RF Sputtering for Back Contact of Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea-Fue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mo films prepared under a single deposition condition seldom simultaneously obtain a low resistivity and a good adhesion necessary for use in solar cells. In order to surmount the obstacle, bilayer Mo films using DC sputtering at a higher working pressure and a lower working pressure have been attempted as reported in the literature. In this study, RF sputtering with different powers in conjunction with different working pressures was explored to prepare bilayer Mo film. The first bottom layer was grown at a RF sputtering power of 30 W and a working pressure of 12 mTorr, and the second top layer was deposited at 100 W and 4.5 mTorr. The films revealed a columnar growth with a preferred orientation along the (110 plane. The bilayer Mo films reported an electrical resistivity of 6.35 × 10−5 Ω-cm and passed the Scotch tape test for adhesion to the soda-lime glass substrate, thereby qualifying the bilayer Mo films for use as back metal contacts for CIGS substrates.

  20. Preparation of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum thin films by sputtering deposition using powder and pressed powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Tanaka, Rei; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) thin films, for use in organic electroluminescence displays, were prepared by a sputtering deposition method using powder and pressed powder targets. Experimental results suggest that Alq3 thin films can be prepared using powder and pressed powder targets, although the films were amorphous. The surface color of the target after deposition became dark brown, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum changed when using a pressed powder target. The deposition rate of the film using a powder target was higher than that using a pressed powder target. That may be because the electron and ion densities of the plasma generated using the powder target are higher than those when using pressed powder targets under the same deposition conditions. The properties of a thin film prepared using a powder target were almost the same as those of a film prepared using a pressed powder target.

  1. Laser damage resistance of hafnia thin films deposited by electron beam deposition, reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, Laurent; Capoulade, Jeremie; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille; Cathelinaud, Michel; Koc, Cian; Lequime, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study is made of the laser damage resistance of hafnia coatings deposited on fused silica substrates with different technologies: electron beam deposition (from Hf or HfO2 starting material), reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering.The laser damage thresholds of these coatings are determined at 1064 and 355 nm using a nanosecond pulsed YAG laser and a one-on-one test procedure. The results are associated with a complete characterization of the samples: refractive index n measured by spectrophotometry, extinction coefficient k measured by photothermal deflection, and roughness measured by atomic force microscopy

  2. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjan, P., E-mail: peter.panjan@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-09-30

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  3. Photocatalytic efficiency of reusable ZnO thin films deposited by sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahumada-Lazo, R.; Torres-Martínez, L.M. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450, México (Mexico); Ruíz-Gómez, M.A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450, México (Mexico); Departmento de Física Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Antigua Carretera a Progreso km 6, Mérida, Yucatán 97310, México (Mexico); Vega-Becerra, O.E. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C, Alianza norte 202, Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, C.P. 66600 Apodaca Nuevo León, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decolorization of Orange G dye using highly c-axis-oriented ZnO thin films. • The flake-shaped film shows superior and stable photoactivity at a wide range of pH. • The highest photodecolorization was achieved at pH of 7. • The exposure of (101) and (100) facets enhanced the photoactivity. • ZnO thin films exhibit a promising performance as recyclable photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films with different physicochemical characteristics deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrate was tested for the decolorization of orange G dye aqueous solution (OG). The crystalline phase, surface morphology, surface roughness and the optical properties of these ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), respectively. The dye photodecolorization process was studied at acid, neutral and basic pH media under UV irradiation of 365 nm. Results showed that ZnO films grow with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a (002) preferential crystalline orientation. A clear relationship between surface morphology and photocatalytic activity was observed for ZnO films. Additionally, the recycling photocatalytic abilities of the films were also evaluated. A promising photocatalytic performance has been found with a very low variation of the decolorization degree after five consecutive cycles at a wide range of pH media.

  4. Photocatalytic efficiency of reusable ZnO thin films deposited by sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahumada-Lazo, R.; Torres-Martínez, L.M.; Ruíz-Gómez, M.A.; Vega-Becerra, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decolorization of Orange G dye using highly c-axis-oriented ZnO thin films. • The flake-shaped film shows superior and stable photoactivity at a wide range of pH. • The highest photodecolorization was achieved at pH of 7. • The exposure of (101) and (100) facets enhanced the photoactivity. • ZnO thin films exhibit a promising performance as recyclable photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films with different physicochemical characteristics deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrate was tested for the decolorization of orange G dye aqueous solution (OG). The crystalline phase, surface morphology, surface roughness and the optical properties of these ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), respectively. The dye photodecolorization process was studied at acid, neutral and basic pH media under UV irradiation of 365 nm. Results showed that ZnO films grow with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a (002) preferential crystalline orientation. A clear relationship between surface morphology and photocatalytic activity was observed for ZnO films. Additionally, the recycling photocatalytic abilities of the films were also evaluated. A promising photocatalytic performance has been found with a very low variation of the decolorization degree after five consecutive cycles at a wide range of pH media

  5. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjan, P.; Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P.; Bončina, T.; Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V_2O_5 phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  6. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigany, Zs.; Twesten, R.D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (E ion ) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (J ion /J C ). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at E ion ∼85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ε), and elastic recovery (R) increased with E ion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ε=250 GPa, and R=68% at E ion =85 eV and J ion /J C =4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 content of the films does not change with E ion or J ion /J C . The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp 2 /sp 3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV ≤E ion ≤85 eV and 1.1 ≤J ion /J C ≤6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films

  7. Influence of plasma pressure on the growth characteristics and ferroelectric properties of sputter-deposited PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Maity, T.; Bysakh, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    PZT thin films of thickness (320-1040) nm were synthesized on Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt multilayered substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of plasma pressure in the range of (0.24-4.9) Pa, during deposition, on the structural, electrical and ferroelectric properties of the PZT films was systematically studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were employed for structural study. Nano-probe Energy Dispersive (EDX) line scanning was employed to investigate the elemental distribution across the film-bottom electrode interface. I-V characteristics and polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop of the films were measured. The study reveals that the plasma pressure has a strong influence on the evolution and texture of the ferroelectric perovskite phase and microstructure of the films. At an optimum plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, PZT films are grown with 93% perovskite phase with (1 1 1) preferred orientation and uniform granular microstructure. These films show a saturation polarization of 67 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 30 μC/cm 2 and coercive field of 28 kV/cm which, according to the literature, seem to be suitable for device applications. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study shows that at a plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, the PZT/bottom Pt interface is sharp and no amorphous interlayer is formed at the interface. At a higher plasma pressure of 4.9 Pa, poor I-V and P-E hysteresis loop are observed which are interpreted as due to an amorphous interlayer at the film-bottom electrode interface which is possibly enriched in Pb, Zr, O and Pt.

  8. Properties of Erbium Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Layers Fabricated by Sputtering and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about properties of carbon layers doped with Er3+ ions fabricated by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD and by sputtering on silicon or glass substrates. The structure of the samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and their composition was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The Absorbance spectrum was taken in the spectral range from 400 nm to 600 nm. Photoluminescence spectra were obtained using two types of Ar laser (λex=514.5 nm, lex=488 nm and also using a semiconductor laser (λex=980 nm. Samples fabricated by magnetron sputtering exhibited typical emission at 1530 nm when pumped at 514.5 nm. 

  9. Optical emission studies of atomic and ionic species in the ionized sputter-deposition process of magnesium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Iwaya, M.; Shinohara, M.; Fujiyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Planar magnetron (PM) power and ICP-RF power dependences of the optical emission intensities of excited atomic and ionic species in the reactive ionized sputter-deposition of magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films were investigated. With the increase in PM power at constant ICP-RF power, Mg I emission intensity increased and Ar I emission intensity gradually decreased. With the increase in ICP-RF power at constant PM power, the Mg I emission intensity increased at lower ICP-RF power and then gradually decreased at higher ICP-RF power; on the contrary, Ar I emission intensity monotonically increased. Emission intensity of atomic oxygen was negligibly small compared with those of Mg I and Ar I under the metallic sputtering mode condition

  10. Adhesion Improvement and Characterization of Magnetron Sputter Deposited Bilayer Molybdenum Thin Films for Rear Contact Application in CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo thin films are widely used as rear electrodes in copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS solar cells. The challenge in Mo deposition by magnetron sputtering lies in simultaneously achieving good adhesion to the substrates while retaining the electrical and optical properties. Bilayer Mo films, comprising five different thickness ratios of a high pressure (HP deposited bottom layer and a low pressure (LP deposited top layer, were deposited on 40 cm × 30 cm soda-lime glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We focus on understanding the effects of the individual layer properties on the resulting bilayer Mo films, such as microstructure, surface morphology, and surface oxidation. We show that the thickness of the bottom HP Mo layer plays a major role in determining the micromechanical and physical properties of the bilayer Mo stack. Our studies reveal that a thicker HP Mo bottom layer not only improves the adhesion of the bilayer Mo, but also helps to improve the film crystallinity along the preferred [110] direction. However, the surface roughness and the porosity of the bilayer Mo films are found to increase with increasing bottom layer thickness, which leads to lower optical reflectance and a higher probability for oxidation at the Mo surface.

  11. Nano-laminate vs. direct deposition of high permittivity gadolinium scandate on silicon by high pressure sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. de CC. Físicas. Av/Complutense S/N, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pampillón, M.A.; San Andrés, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. de CC. Físicas. Av/Complutense S/N, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, C/Marie Curie 2, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)

    2015-10-30

    In this work we use the high pressure sputtering technique to deposit the high permittivity dielectric gadolinium scandate on silicon substrates. This nonconventional deposition technique prevents substrate damage and allows for growth of ternary compounds with controlled composition. Two different approaches were assessed: the first one consists of depositing the material directly from a stoichiometric GdScO{sub 3} target; in the second one, we anneal a nano-laminate of < 0.5 nm thick Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} films in order to control the composition of the scandate. Metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors were fabricated with platinum gates for electrical characterization. Accordingly, we grew a Gd-rich Gd{sub 2−x}Sc{sub x}O{sub 3} film that, in spite of higher leakage currents, presents a better effective relative permittivity of 21 and lower density of defects. - Highlights: • GdScO is deposited on Si as a high permittivity dielectric by two procedures. • Films sputtered from GdScO{sub 3} target are Sc-rich and present thick interface SiO{sub x}. • Gd-rich GdScO is obtained from a nano-laminate sputtered from Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Gd{sub 1.8}Sc{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} shows good effective permittivity and electrical properties.

  12. Research of the surface properties of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene modified with radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverdokhlebov, S.I.; Bolbasov, E.N.; Shesterikov, E.V.; Malchikhina, A.I.; Novikov, V.A.; Anissimov, Y.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for surface modification of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of hydroxyapatite target is proposed. ► It is demonstrated that the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene surface becomes hydrophilic as the result of the modification. ► It is shown, using atomic force microscopy that the surface potential biases into positive value field and the surface roughness parameters increase as the result of the modification. ► In vitro testing has not found bio-toxicity of investigated surfaces - Abstract: The properties of thin calcium-phosphate coatings formed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a solid target made from hydroxyapatite on the surface of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene (VDF–TeFE) were investigated. Atomic force microscopy energy dispersive analysis and optical goniometry showed that deposited calcium-phosphate coatings change significantly the morphological, electrical, chemical, and contact properties of the surface of the initial polymeric substrates. These modified surfaces widen the scope of medical application of the thermoplastic copolymer.

  13. Visible-light active thin-film WO3 photocatalyst with controlled high-rate deposition by low-damage reactive-gas-flow sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Oka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A process based on reactive gas flow sputtering (GFS for depositing visible-light active photocatalytic WO3 films at high deposition rates and with high film quality was successfully demonstrated. The deposition rate for this process was over 10 times higher than that achieved by the conventional sputtering process and the process was highly stable. Furthermore, Pt nanoparticle-loaded WO3 films deposited by the GFS process exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than those deposited by conventional sputtering, where the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the extent of decomposition of CH3CHO under visible light irradiation. The decomposition time for 60 ppm of CH3CHO was 7.5 times more rapid on the films deposited by the GFS process than on the films deposited by the conventional process. During GFS deposition, there are no high-energy particles bombarding the growing film surface, whereas the bombardment of the surface with high-energy particles is a key feature of conventional sputtering. Hence, the WO3 films deposited by GFS should be of higher quality, with fewer structural defects, which would lead to a decrease in the number of centers for electron-hole recombination and to the efficient use of photogenerated holes for the decomposition of CH3CHO.

  14. Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and wet thermal oxidation of ZnO thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.; Gong, H.; Xiang, N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the growth and wet thermal oxidation (WTO) of ZnO thin films using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction reveals a preferred orientation of [1010]ZnO(0002)//[1120]Al 2 O 3 (0002) coexisted with a small amount of ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate. The ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals, as well as the in-plane preferred orientation, are absent from the growth of ZnO on the GaAs(001) substrate. WTO at 550 deg. C improves the crystalline and the photoluminescence more significantly than annealing in air, N 2 and O 2 ambient; it also tends to convert the crystal from ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) to ZnO (0002). The evolution of the photoluminescence upon WTO and annealing reveals that the green and orange emissions, centered at 520 and 650 nm, are likely originated from oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials, respectively; while the 420 nm emission, which is very sensitive to the postgrowth thermal processing regardless of the substrate and the ambient gas, is likely originated from the surface-state related defects

  15. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Z.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of ∼ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO 2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 10 11 cm −2) ). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (∼0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmeneva, Maria A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Surmenev, Roman A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142292 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Anna A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Putlyaev, Valery I. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Vorobievi Gory, 1, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed. • Interplanar spacing distances measured using HRTEM were 0.82 and 0.28 nm, corresponding to the (0 0 1) and (2 1 1) lattice planes of hexagonal HA. • Grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. • Nanometer-thick low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules. - Abstract: A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  17. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Paven, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Lu, Y. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Nguyen, H.V. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); CEA LETI, Minatec Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Rioual, S. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Brest (EA CNRS 4522), Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29000 Brest (France); Benzegoutta, D. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP, UMR CNRS 7588), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (ISCR, UMR-CNRS 6226), Equipe Verres et Céramiques, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti{sup 4+} ions, with no trace of Ti{sup 3+}, and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2{sub 1} space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing.

  18. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Paven, C.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.; Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L.; Rioual, S.; Benzegoutta, D.; Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F.

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO 3 and Pt(111)/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti 4+ ions, with no trace of Ti 3+ , and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La 2 Ti 2 O 7 ) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2 1 space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO 3 substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La 2 Ti 2 O 7 orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La 2 Ti 2 O 7 chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing

  19. Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic CoPd–CaF{sub 2} nanogranular soft magnetic films prepared by tandem-sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Masayuki, E-mail: naoe@denjiken.ne.jp [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobukiyo [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Ohnuma, Shigehiro [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Masumoto, Hiroshi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF{sub 2} matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co{sub 0.69}Pd{sub 0.31}){sub 52}–(Ca{sub 0.31}F{sub 0.69}){sub 48} exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF{sub 2}-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • We fabricated high-resistive and anisotropic granular films by tandem-sputtering. • CaF{sub 2}-based films exhibit a hundredfold higher resistivity than conventional films. • Uniaxial field annealing improved the magnetic properties dramatically. • High uniaxial anisotropy extended ferromagnetic resonance frequency to 4 GHz. • Annealed samples can be regarded as a ferromagnetic homogenized material.

  20. Identification and roles of nonstoichiometric oxygen in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by electron beam and sputtering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannequin, Cedric, E-mail: MANNEQUIN.Cedricromuald@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Tsuruoka, Tohru [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Aono, Masakazu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A detail study of the composition and morphology of amorphous tantalum oxide films obtained by electron-beam evaporation and radio-frequency sputtering is carried out. • The mechanisms for moisture absorption by tantalum oxides are proposed. • Deposition-dependent high oxygen stoichiometry of the films is revealed. • Formations of dangling bonds, hydroxyls groups and bidendate water bridges are identified to support the moisture absorption. - Abstract: The morphology and composition of tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films prepared by electron-beam (EB) evaporation and radio-frequency sputtering (SP) were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), atomic force microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). GIXRD revealed an amorphous nature for both films, and XRR showed that the density of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-EB films was lower than that of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SP films; both films have lower density than the bulk value. A larger amount of molecular water and peroxo species were detected for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-EB films by FTIR performed in ambient atmosphere. XPS analyses performed in vacuum confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups, but no trace of chemisorbed molecular water was detected. In addition, a higher oxygen nonstoichiometry (higher O/Ta ratio) was found for the EB films. From these results, we conclude that the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the EB film accounted for its lower density and higher amount of absorbed molecular water. The results also suggest the importance of understanding the dependence of the structural and chemical properties of thin amorphous oxide films on the deposition process.

  1. DC sputter deposition of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) films with H2O introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Takafumi; Oka, Nobuto; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Ryo; Kumomi, Hideya; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering with H 2 O introduction and how the H 2 O partial pressure (P H 2 O ) during the deposition affects the electrical properties of the films was investigated in detail. Resistivity of the a-IGZO films increased dramatically to over 2 x 10 5 Ωcm with increasing P H 2 O to 2.7 x 10 -2 Pa while the hydrogen concentration in the films increased to 2.0 x 10 21 cm -3 . TFTs using a-IGZO channels deposited under P H 2 O at 1.6-8.6 x 10 -2 Pa exhibited a field-effect mobility of 1.4-3.0 cm 2 /Vs, subthreshold swing of 1.0-1.6 V/decade and on-off current ratio of 3.9 x 10 7 -1.0 x 10 8 .

  2. Effects of negative bias on structure and surface topography of titanium films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Linglong

    2008-01-01

    Pure Ti films were fabricated by bias sputtering. The deposition rate, the density and the surface topography of the Ti films at different negative bias were studied. The results show that the deposition rate is weakly affected when the bias power is low. As the bias voltage increases, the deposition rate decreases strongly due to the increase of the layer density and the resputtering phenomena. The film density increased and saturated to nearly bulk value at a bias voltage of -119.1 V. SEM view indicates that the columnar-type structure of Ti films can be destroyed by applying negative bias. The experiments demonstrated that a dense Ti film with more smooth surface can be produced by applying negative bias. (authors)

  3. Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larciprete, M.C.; Passeri, D.; Michelotti, F.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Belardini, A.; Sarto, F.; Somma, F.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated second order optical nonlinearity of zinc oxide thin films, grown on glass substrates by the dual ion beam sputtering technique under different deposition conditions. Linear optical characterization of the films was carried out by spectrophotometric optical transmittance and reflectance measurements, giving the complex refractive index dispersion. Resistivity of the films was determined using the four-point probe sheet resistance method. Second harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the Maker fringes technique where the fundamental beam was originated by nanosecond laser at λ=1064 nm. We found a relatively high nonlinear optical response, and evidence of a dependence of the nonlinear coefficient on the deposition parameters for each sample. Moreover, the crystalline properties of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements and correlation with second order nonlinearity were analyzed. Finally, we investigated the influence of the oxygen flow rate during the deposition process on both the second order nonlinearity and the structural properties of the samples

  4. Thin films of thermoelectric compound Mg2Sn deposited by co-sputtering assisted by multi-dipolar microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Quoc, H.; Lacoste, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Bes, A.; Vinh, T. Tan; Fruchart, D.; Skryabina, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mg 2 Sn thin films deposited by plasma co-sputtering, on silicon and glass substrates. → Formation of nano-grained polycrystalline films on substrates at room temperature. → Structural properties vary with target biasing and target-substrate distance. → Formation of the hexagonal phase of Mg 2 Sn in certain deposition conditions. → Power factor ∼5.0 x 10 -3 W K -2 m -1 for stoichiometric Mg 2 Sn films doped with ∼1 at.% Ag. - Abstract: Magnesium stannide (Mg 2 Sn) thin films doped with Ag intended for thermoelectric applications are deposited on both silicon and glass substrates at room temperature by plasma assisted co-sputtering. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of fine-grained polycrystalline thin films with thickness of 1-3 μm. Stoichiometry, microstructure and crystal structure of thin films are found to vary with target biasing and the distance from targets to substrate. Measurements of electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient at room temperature show the maximum power factor of ∼5.0 x 10 -3 W K -2 m -1 for stoichiometric Mg 2 Sn thin films doped with ∼1 at.% Ag.

  5. Deposition of PZT thin film onto copper-coated polymer films by mean of pulsed-DC and RF-reactive sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Labitzke, R.; Adolphi, B.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adámek, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kiselev, D.A.; Kholkin, A. L.; Gerlach, G.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2011), S241-S244 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : pulsed DC reactive sputtering * RF reactive sputtering * complex oxide film deposition * polymer substrate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  6. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  7. Low-temperature deposition of ZnO thin films on PET and glass substrates by DC-sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.N.; Ghosh, C.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.; Minoura, Hideki; Sarkar, Ajay K.; Akiba, Atsuya; Kamiya, Atsushi; Endo, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films (260 - 490 nm thick) deposited by direct-current sputtering technique, at a relatively low-substrate temperature (363 K), onto polyethylene terephthalate and glass substrates have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the proper phase formation of the material. Optical transmittance data show high transparency (80% to more than 98%) of the films in the visible portion of solar radiation. Slight variation in the transparency of the films is observed with a variation in the deposition time. Electrical characterizations show the room-temperature conductivity of the films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates for 4 and 5 h around 0.05 and 0.25 S cm -1 , respectively. On the other hand, for the films deposited on glass substrates, these values are 8.5 and 9.6 S cm -1 for similar variation in the deposition time. Room-temperature conductivity of the ZnO films deposited on glass substrates is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnO films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates under identical conditions. Hall-measurements show the maximum carrier concentration of the films on PET and glass substrate around 2.8 x 10 16 and 3.1 x 10 2 cm -3 , respectively. This report will provide newer applications of ZnO thin films in flexible display technology

  8. Nanostructure transition in Cr–C–N coatings deposited by pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Lin, J.; Moore, J.J.; Lei, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cr–C–N coatings with different compositions, i.e. (C + N)/Cr atomic ratios (x) of 0.81–2.77, were deposited using pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering by varying the chromium and graphite target powers, the pulse configuration and the ratio of the nitrogen flow rate to the total gas flow rate. Three kinds of nanostructures were identified in the Cr–C–N coatings dependent on the x values: a nano-columnar structure of hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Cr 2 (C,N) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Cr(C,N) at x = 0.81 and 1.03 respectively, a nanocomposite structure consisting of nanocrystalline Cr(C,N) embedded in an amorphous C(N) matrix at x = 1.26 and 1.78, and a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure at x = 2.77. A maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa and a high H/E ratio of 1.0 have been achieved in the nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure at x = 1.26, whereas the coating with a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure had a minimum hardness of 10.9 GPa and a low H/E ratio of 0.08 at x = 2.77. The incorporation of carbon into the Cr–N coatings led to a phase transition from hcp-Cr 2 (C,N) to fcc-Cr(C,N) by the dissolution into the nanocrystallites, and promoted the amorphization of Cr–C–N coatings with the precipitation of amorphous C(N). It was found that a high x value over 1.0 in the Cr–C–N coatings is the composition threshold to the nanostructure transition. - Highlights: ► Nanostructure transition of Cr–C–N coatings depended on (C + N)/Cr atomic ratio. ► A nano-columnar structure formed at atomic ratio less than 1.0. ► A nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure formed at atomic ratio of 1.0–2.7. ► A Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure formed at atomic ratio more than 2.7. ► Maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa was for nanocomposite coatings at atomic ratio of 1.26.

  9. Characterization of YBaCuO films deposited by the sputtering method using a temple-bell-type substrate holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, H.; Fukumoto, Y.; Shibutani, K.; Hayashi, S.; Ishibashi, K.; Inoue, K.

    1992-01-01

    The as-grown YBaCuO films deposited by the off-axis sputtering method using a temple-bell type substrate holder showed a good crystalline quality with a minimum yield value x min of 0.9 MeV He ions of 3.8%. The post-annealing degraded the crystalline quality to increase x min up to 11.8%, though it improved both the T c and J c . It was supposed that the degradation was caused by the re-arrangement of oxygen atoms. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi-630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  11. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  12. Low-temperature growth of low friction wear-resistant amorphous carbon nitride thin films by mid-frequency, high power impulse, and direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D., E-mail: konba@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Garbrecht, Magnus; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Jensen, Jens; Greczynski, Grzegorz; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    The potential of different magnetron sputtering techniques for the synthesis of low friction and wear resistant amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films onto temperature-sensitive AISI52100 bearing steel, but also Si(001) substrates was studied. Hence, a substrate temperature of 150 °C was chosen for the film synthesis. The a-CN{sub x} films were deposited using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) with an MF bias voltage, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a synchronized HiPIMS bias voltage, and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with a DC bias voltage. The films were deposited using a N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 0.16 at the total pressure of 400 mPa. The negative bias voltage, V{sub s}, was varied from 20 to 120 V in each of the three deposition modes. The microstructure of the films was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, while the film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. All films possessed an amorphous microstructure, while the film morphology changed with the bias voltage. Layers grown applying the lowest substrate bias of 20 V exhibited pronounced intercolumnar porosity, independent of the sputter technique. Voids closed and dense films are formed at V{sub s} ≥ 60 V, V{sub s} ≥ 100 V, and V{sub s} = 120 V for MFMS, DCMS, and HiPIMS, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, N/C, of the films ranged between 0.2 and 0.24. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that Ar content varied between 0 and 0.8 at. % and increased as a function of V{sub s} for all deposition techniques. All films exhibited compressive residual stress, σ, which depends on the growth method; HiPIMS produces the least stressed films with values ranging between −0.4 and −1.2 GPa for all V{sub s}, while CN{sub x} films deposited by MFMS showed residual stresses up to −4.2

  13. Low-temperature growth of low friction wear-resistant amorphous carbon nitride thin films by mid-frequency, high power impulse, and direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D.; Schmidt, Susann; Garbrecht, Magnus; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Jensen, Jens; Greczynski, Grzegorz; Hultman, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential of different magnetron sputtering techniques for the synthesis of low friction and wear resistant amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN x ) thin films onto temperature-sensitive AISI52100 bearing steel, but also Si(001) substrates was studied. Hence, a substrate temperature of 150 °C was chosen for the film synthesis. The a-CN x films were deposited using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) with an MF bias voltage, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a synchronized HiPIMS bias voltage, and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with a DC bias voltage. The films were deposited using a N 2 /Ar flow ratio of 0.16 at the total pressure of 400 mPa. The negative bias voltage, V s , was varied from 20 to 120 V in each of the three deposition modes. The microstructure of the films was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, while the film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. All films possessed an amorphous microstructure, while the film morphology changed with the bias voltage. Layers grown applying the lowest substrate bias of 20 V exhibited pronounced intercolumnar porosity, independent of the sputter technique. Voids closed and dense films are formed at V s  ≥ 60 V, V s  ≥ 100 V, and V s  = 120 V for MFMS, DCMS, and HiPIMS, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, N/C, of the films ranged between 0.2 and 0.24. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that Ar content varied between 0 and 0.8 at. % and increased as a function of V s for all deposition techniques. All films exhibited compressive residual stress, σ, which depends on the growth method; HiPIMS produces the least stressed films with values ranging between −0.4 and −1.2 GPa for all V s , while CN x films deposited by MFMS showed residual stresses up to −4.2 GPa. Nanoindentation showed a significant

  14. Comprehensive study of the p-type conductivity formation in radio frequency magnetron sputtered arsenic-doped ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Yang, B.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Wong, K. S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Xie, Z.; Ling, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO 2 using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 -MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of ∼10 17 cm -3 and mobility of ∼8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.

  15. Crossover of the preferred growth orientation of AlN/Si(001) films during off-axis radio frequency sputter growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  16. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  17. Optimal conditions for the deposition of novel anticorrosive coatings by RF magnetron sputtering for aluminum alloy AA6082

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachetti-Sibaja, S.B.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Rodil, S.E.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-conventional technique for improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. • Effect of the deposition parameters: power, substrate temperature and deposition time. • Changes in the crystallinity of the coatings are observed with the temperature. • The structure of these coatings is found to be dependent on the nature of the substrate. • La coatings can provide a better physical barrier to inhibit the corrosion attack. - Abstract: Cerium and lanthanum coatings were deposited on glass, silicon (1 0 0), and aluminum alloy by RF magnetron sputtering in which several experimental conditions such as power, substrate temperature, and deposition time were varied, using pure CeO 2 and La 2 O 3 targets. The effect of deposition parameters on the bonding structure, surface morphology and properties against corrosion of rare earth (RE) coatings formed on metallic substrate was reported. The microstructure and chemistry of the thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); whereas their use as corrosion resistant coatings was studied in aqueous NaCl solution (3.0 wt%) by using polarization curves. Variations in these properties were observed by increasing the substrate temperature which modifies the crystallinity of the rare earth coatings. XRD and XPS findings indicate that the cerium coatings are composed by CeO 2 and a significant quantity of Ce 2 O 3 due to oxygen deficiency in the sputtering chamber, whereas La 2 O 3 /La(OH) 3 and some La intermetallic compounds are detected in the lanthanum films. Variations in the E corr and I corr were found as a function of the thickness, texture, and morphology of the as-prepared coatings

  18. Copper deposition on fabrics by rf plasma sputtering for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, G; Guzmán, P; Barrantes, Y; Navarro, G; Asenjo, J; Guadamuz, S; Vargas, VI; Zuñiga, P; Chaves, S; Chaves, J

    2015-01-01

    The present work is about preparation and characterization of RF sputtered Cu films on cotton by the usage of a Magnetron Sputter Source and 99.995% purity Cu target at room temperature. Cotton fabric samples of 1, 2 and 4 min of sputtering time at discharge pressure of 1×10 −2 Torr and distance between target and sample of 8 cm were used. The main goal was to qualitatively test the antimicrobial action of copper on fabrics. For that purpose, a reference strain of Escherichia Coli ATCC 35218 that were grown in TSA plates was implemented. Results indicated a decrease in the growth of bacteria by contact with Cu; for fabric samples with longer sputtering presented lower development of E. coli colonies. The scope of this research focused on using these new textiles in health field, for example socks can be made with this textile for the treatment of athlete's foot and the use in pajamas, sheets, pillow covers and robes in hospital setting for reducing the spread of microorganisms. (paper)

  19. Growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica by rf co-sputter deposition and post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Kumar, V.V.; Singh, F.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films with ZnO nanocrystals in silica were synthesized by rf reactive magnetron co-sputter deposition and post-annealing. The films were deposited from a ZnO/Si composite target in an rf oxygen plasma. The deposited films were annealed in air/vacuum at high temperatures to grow ZnO nanocrystals. The deposited and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), uv-vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. FT-IR results of the films show the vibrational features of Si-O-Si and Zn-O bonds. UV-VIS spectra of the deposited film shows the band edge of ZnO. The XRD results of the films annealed at 750 deg. C and 1000 deg. C indicate the growth of ZnO nanocrystals with average crystallite sizes between 7 nm and 26 nm. PL measurements of the deposited film show a broad visible luminescence peak which can be due to ZnO. These results suggest the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica matrix

  20. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  1. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I.; Ivanova, Anna A.; Putlyaev, Valery I.; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  2. Annealing effect on the performance of sputtering deposited Metglas thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liang

    2010-12-01

    Magnetostrictive sensors based on ferromagnetic materials have been widely used in detecting chemicals and biological species. The Metglas™ 2826MB is one of the bulk strip materials that is employed as the sensor platform. However, the sensitivity is limited by the large size of the sensors itself. In order to improve the sensitivity, we have developed a process to fabricate microscale sensors of 500 × 100 μm in size using conventional MEMS technology. As-deposited, the sensors suffered from internal stress, which was released by a annealing the sensors at 215 °C for two hours under vacuum condition. The annealing process improved the magnetic properties of the thin films and increased the resonant frequency of the sensor by 214 kHz.

  3. Annealing effect on the performance of sputtering deposited Metglas thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liang; Hu, Jing; Prorok, Barton C.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2010-01-01

    Magnetostrictive sensors based on ferromagnetic materials have been widely used in detecting chemicals and biological species. The Metglas™ 2826MB is one of the bulk strip materials that is employed as the sensor platform. However, the sensitivity is limited by the large size of the sensors itself. In order to improve the sensitivity, we have developed a process to fabricate microscale sensors of 500 × 100 μm in size using conventional MEMS technology. As-deposited, the sensors suffered from internal stress, which was released by a annealing the sensors at 215 °C for two hours under vacuum condition. The annealing process improved the magnetic properties of the thin films and increased the resonant frequency of the sensor by 214 kHz.

  4. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  5. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polášek, J.; Mašek, K.; Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O"− ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  6. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polášek, J., E-mail: xpolasekj@seznam.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J. [HVM Plasma Ltd., Na Hutmance 2, Prague 5, CZ-158 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-30

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O{sup −} ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  7. Silver nanoparticles deposited on anodic aluminum oxide template using magnetron sputtering for surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-ek, Krongkamol [Nanoscience and Technology Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Eiamchai, Pitak; Horprathum, Mati; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limnonthakul, Puenisara [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Chindaudom, Pongpan [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Nuntawong, Noppadon, E-mail: noppadon.nuntawong@nectec.or.t [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2010-09-30

    Low-cost and highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates have been fabricated by a simple anodizing process and a magnetron sputtering deposition. The substrates, which consist of silver nanoparticles embedded on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, are investigated by a scanning electron microscope and a confocal Raman spectroscopy. The SERS activities are demonstrated by Raman scattering from adsorbed solutions of methylene blue and pyridine on the SERS substrate surface. The most optimized SERS substrate contains the silver nanoparticles, with a size distribution of 10-30 nm, deposited on the AAO template. From a calculation, the SERS enhancement factor is as high as 8.5 x 10{sup 7}, which suggests strong potentials for direct applications in the chemical detection and analyses.

  8. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Dong, E-mail: khd0708@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Min Ju [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Heon [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 163-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungho, E-mail: sungho85.kim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN{sub x}) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 3} in positive bias region and 5 × 10{sup 5} in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10{sup 4} s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10{sup 2} at 85 °C to ∼10{sup 3} at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN{sub x} films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN{sub x}-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN{sub x} is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  9. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN_x) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10"3 in positive bias region and 5 × 10"5 in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10"4 s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10"2 at 85 °C to ∼10"3 at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN_x films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN_x-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN_x is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  10. Properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by rf reactive magnetron sputtering on biased substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezar, Sawsen, E-mail: snezar@cdta.dz [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, Nadia [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Sali, Samira [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE Algiers) (Algeria); Faiz, Mohammed; Mekki, Mogtaba [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Laoufi, Nadia Aïcha [Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Tabet, Nouar [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha (Qatar)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on negatively biased substrates by rf magnetron sputtering technique. • The bias favors the formation of TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase. • The roughness of the films increases and the grain size decreases as the bias voltage is varied between (0 and −100 V). • XPS reveals the presence of adsorbed humidity of the surface and Ti{sup 4+} oxidation state in the as prepared samples. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films are of paramount importance due to their pervasive applications. In contrast to previous published works where the substrate was heated at high temperatures to obtain TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase, we show in this study that it is possible to deposit crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films on biased and unbiased substrate at room temperature using reactive rf magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was varied from 0 V to −100 V. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average crystallite size was estimated using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that the application of negative bias affects the surface roughness of the films and favors the formation of the rutile phase. The root mean square roughness (R{sub rms}), the average grain size and the optical band gap of the films decreased as the substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to −100 V. The UV–visible transmittance spectra showed that the films were transparent in the visible range and absorb strongly in the UV range. This study shows that biasing the substrate could be a promising and effective alternative to deposit TiO{sub 2} crystallized thin films of engineered properties at room temperature.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of nitrogen doped SnO2 thin films deposited on flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yeyu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Qiyue; Xie, Zonghan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The best SnO 2 :N TCO film: about 80% transmittance and 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped tin oxide film was deposited on PET by RF-magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the properties of thin films were investigated. • For SnO 2 :N film, visible light transmittance was 80% and electrical resistivity was 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :N) thin films were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature by RF-magnetron sputtering. Effects of oxygen partial pressure (0–4%) on electrical and optical properties of thin films were investigated. Experimental results showed that SnO 2 :N films were amorphous state, and O/Sn ratios of SnO 2 :N films were deviated from the standard stoichiometry 2:1. Optical band gap of SnO 2 :N films increased from approximately 3.10 eV to 3.42 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased from 0% to 4%. For SnO 2 :N thin films deposited on PET, transmittance was about 80% in the visible light region. The best transparent conductive oxide (TCO) deposited on flexible PET substrates was SnO 2 :N thin films preparing at 2% oxygen partial pressure, the transmittance was about 80% and electrical conductivity was about 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm

  12. Bioactivity response of Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Alves, C.F., E-mail: cristiana.alves@fisica.uminho.pt [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta

  13. Influence of deposition temperature and amorphous carbon on microstructure and oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Kristian; Andersson, Matilda; Högström, Jonas; Fredriksson, Wendy; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif; Jansson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    It is known that mechanical and tribological properties of transition metal carbide films can be tailored by adding an amorphous carbon (a-C) phase, thus making them nanocomposites. This paper addresses deposition, microstructure, and for the first time oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C/a-C films with emphasis on studies of both phases. By varying the deposition temperature between 20 and 700 °C and alternating the film composition, it was possible to deposit amorphous, nanocomposite, and crystalline Crsbnd C films containing about 70% C and 30% Cr, or 40% C and 60% Cr. The films deposited at temperatures below 300 °C were X-ray amorphous and 500 °C was required to grow crystalline phases. Chronoamperometric polarization at +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat. KCl) in hot 1 mM H2SO4 resulted in oxidation of Crsbnd C, yielding Cr2O3 and C, as well as oxidation of C. The oxidation resistance is shown to depend on the deposition temperature and the presence of the a-C phase. Physical characterization of film surfaces show that very thin C/Cr2O3/Crsbnd C layers develop on the present material, which can be used to improve the oxidation resistance of, e.g. stainless steel electrodes.

  14. Critical parameters in the sputter-deposition of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakuraku, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Doi, T.; Inoue, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kagoshima University, Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890, (Japan); Mori, Z.; Koba, S. [Yatsushiro National College of Technology, Yatsushiro 866 (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A superconducting thin film of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (NBCO) was prepared on an MgO(100) substrate by dc magnetron sputtering. Superconducting properties as well as features such as resistivity at room temperature and surface morphology were improved by optimizing the composition of sputtering target and critical parameters such as substrate temperature and oxidation gas pressure. A highly c-axis oriented thin film with T{sub c} (zero resistance temperature) = 95.2 K was obtained reproducibly with NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.2}O{sub 7-{delta}} off-stoichiometric target sputtering. T{sub c} = 95.2 K was 8 K higher than that deposited by stoichiometric target sputtering. Critical current density was 1x10{sup 6} A cm{sup -2} at 77 K, and surface roughness was 35 nm. (author)

  15. InxGa1-xAs obtained from independent target via co-sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Correa, R; Torres-Jaramillo, S.; Pulzara-Mora, C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is focused on the preparation of InGaAs thin films on GaAs substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique, using the sputtering power as control means for the formation of different stoichiometries. Results of X-ray and Raman spectroscopy allowed corroborating the formation of In x Ga 1-x As in different concentrations, identifying peaks associated with crystallographic planes (X-rays) and characteristic vibrational phonon modes (Raman). An analysis performed with the Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, allowed discussing on the composition in each of the layers. Finally, an alternative in obtaining the ternary semiconductor with polycrystalline structure and preferential growth along the direction (111) was demonstrated and generated by a technique different from the epitaxial techniques, which are commonly used for the growth of III-V semiconductors. (paper)

  16. Deposition of thin titanium-copper films with antimicrobial effect by advanced magnetron sputtering methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Wulff, H.; Rebl, H.; Zietz, C.; Arndt, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Nebe, B.; Bader, R.; Podbielski, A.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 7 (2011), s. 1512-1519 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : implant coating * titanium-copper film * pulsed magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2011

  17. Structure of AlN films deposited by magnetron sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowska-Langier K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AlN films on a Si substrate were synthesized by magnetron sputtering method. A dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in the experiment. Processes of synthesis were carried out in the atmosphere of a mixture of Ar/N2. Morphology and phase structure of the AlN films were investigated at different pressures. Structural characterizations were performed by means of SEM and X-ray diffraction methods. Our results show that the use of magnetron sputtering method in a dual magnetron sputtering system is an effective way to produce AlN layers which are characterized by a good adhesion to the silicon substrate. The morphology of the films is strongly dependent on the Ar/N2 gas mixture pressure. An increase of the mixture pressure is accompanied by a columnar growth of the layers. The films obtained at the pressure below 1 Pa are characterized by finer and compacter structure. The AlN films are characterized by a polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzite structure in which the crystallographic orientation depends on the gas mixture pressure.

  18. Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic CoPd-CaF2 nanogranular soft magnetic films prepared by tandem-sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF2 matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co0.69Pd0.31)52-(Ca0.31F0.69)48 exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF2-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF2 matrix.

  19. Heteroepitaxial growth of CuInS2 thin films on sapphire by radio frequency reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.B.; Kriegseis, W.; Meyer, B.K.; Polity, A.; Serafin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Direct heteroepitaxial growth of uniform stoichiometric CuInS 2 (CIS) thin films on sapphire (0001) substrates has been achieved by radio frequency reactive sputtering. X-ray ω-2θ scans reveal that the sputtered layers grow in a (112) orientation with a chalcopyrite structure. A rocking curve full width at half maximum of about 0.05 deg. (180 arc sec) for the (112) peak demonstrates a nearly perfect out-of-plane arrangement of CIS (112) parallel sapphire (0001). X-ray diffraction Phi scans further illustrate an excellent in-plane ordering of CIS [1-bar10] parallel sapphire (101-bar0). The sputtered thin CIS epilayers had a smooth surface with a typical root-mean-square roughness of about 3.3 nm as evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The epitaxial growth of tetragonal CIS on hexagonal sapphire provides evidence that heteroepitaxial growth may be realized between structures of different symmetry, such as films of cubic or tetragonal structures on hexagonal substrates or vice versa

  20. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.

  1. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  2. The influence of annealing on yttrium oxide thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Process and microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering in different deposition condition with various oxygen flow rates. The annealing influence on the yttrium oxide film microstructure is investigated. The oxygen flow shows a hysteresis behavior on the deposition rate. With a low oxygen flow rate, the so called metallic mode process with a high deposition rate (up to 1.4µm/h was achieved, while with a high oxygen flow rate, the process was considered to be in the poisoned mode with an extremely low deposition rate (around 20nm/h. X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that the yttrium oxide films that were produced in the metallic mode represent a mixture of different crystal structures including the metastable monoclinic phase and the stable cubic phase, while the poisoned mode products show a dominating monoclinic phase. The thin films prepared in metallic mode have relatively dense structures with less porosity. Annealing at 600 °C for 15h, as a structure stabilizing process, caused a phase transformation that changes the metastable monoclinic phase to stable cubic phase for both poisoned mode and metallic mode. The composition of yttrium oxide thin films changed from nonstoichiometric to stoichiometric together with a lattice parameter variation during annealing process. For the metallic mode deposition however, cracks were formed due to the thermal expansion coefficient difference between thin film and the substrate material which was not seen in poisoned mode deposition. The yttrium oxide thin films that deposited in different modes give various application options as a nuclear material.

  3. Development of an ion-beam sputtering system for depositing thin films and multilayers of alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Ajay; Phase, D.M.; Chaudhari, S.M.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An ion-beam sputtering (IBS) system has been designed and developed for preparing thin films and multilayers of various elements, alloys and compounds. The ion source used is a 3 cm diameter, hot-cathode Kaufman type 1.5 kV ion source. The system has been successfully tested with the deposition of various materials, and the deposition parameters were optimised for achieving good quality of thin films and multilayers. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the system to produce a variety of structures is done by depositing thin film of pure iron, an alloy film of Fe-Zr, a compound thin film of FeN, a multilayer of Fe-Ag and an isotopic multilayer of 57 FeZr/FeZr. Microstructural measurements on these films using X-ray and neutron reflectivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction are presented and discussed to reveal the quality of the microstructures obtained with the system. It is found that in general, the surface roughnesses of the film deposited by IBS are significantly smaller as compared to those for films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Further, the grain size of the IBS crystalline films is significantly refined as compared to the films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Grain refinement may be one of the reasons for reduced surface roughness. In the case of amorphous films, the roughness of the films does not increase appreciably beyond that of the substrate even after depositing thicknesses of several hundred angstroms

  4. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALIREZA Samavati; S. K. Ghoshal; Z. Othaman

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined.Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃,700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure.Atomic force microscopy,field emission scanning electron microscopy,visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed.The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented.The density,size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.%Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃, 700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  5. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  7. Study of Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    In the present work, bi-layer thin films of Sb/SnO{sub 2} were produced on unheated glass substrates using ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique without post annealing treatment. The thickness of Sb layers was varied from 2 to 10 nm and the Sb layers were deposited on SnO{sub 2} layers having thicknesses of 40 nm to 115 nm. The effect of thickness was studied on the morphological, electrical and optical properties. The Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer resulted in lowering the electrical resistivity as well as reducing the optical transmittance. However, the optical and electrical properties of the bi-layer films were mainly influenced by the thickness of Sb layers due to progressive transfer in structures from aggregate to continuous films. The bi-layer films show the electrical resistivity of 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and an optical transmittance of 26% for Sb film having 10 nm thickness. - Highlights: • Bi-layer Sb/SnO{sub 2} structures were synthesized by ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. • The 6 nm-thick Sb film is a transition region in this study. • The conductivity of the bi-layer films is increased as Sb thickness increases. • The transmittance of the bi-layer films is decreased as Sb thickness increases.

  8. Electrical properties of indium-tin oxide films deposited on nonheated substrates using a planar-magnetron sputtering system and a facing-targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hideo; Hoshi, Youichi; Kameyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of the electrical properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film prepared by both a planar-magnetron sputtering system (PMSS) and a facing-targets sputtering system (FTSS) at room temperature were investigated. It was found that the outstanding non-uniformities of the electrical properties in noncrystalline ITO films are mainly due to the variation of the oxygen stoichiometry dependent on film positions on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, ITO film with uniform distribution of electrical properties was obtainable using FTSS

  9. Contamination of magnetron sputtered metallic films by oxygen from residual atmosphere in deposition chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Fitl, Přemysl; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2015), s. 416-421 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contamination * low-pressure discharges * magnetron * metallic films * sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2015

  10. Structural and electrical properties of sputter deposited ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Shameem P., V.; Mekala, Laxman; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films having different oxygen content was achieved at ambient temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique and their structural and electrical properties are studied. The structural studies show that the films are polycrystalline with a preferential orientation of the grains along the c-axis [002], which increases with increase in oxygen partial pressure. The grain size and the surface roughness of the zinc oxide films are found to decrease with increasing oxygen partial pressure. It is observed that the resistivity of the zinc oxide films can be tuned from semiconducting to insulating regime by varying the oxygen content.

  11. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  12. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  13. Stress and piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films deposited onto metal electrodes by pulsed direct current reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Marc-Alexandre; Muralt, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited onto platinum, aluminum, and titanium electrodes by reactive magnetron sputtering in the pulsed direct current mode. The films exhibited all a columnar microstructure and a c-axis texture. The built-in stress and the piezoelectric properties of these films were studied as a function of both the processing conditions and the electrode material. Stress was found to be very much dependent on the growth conditions, and values ranging from strong compression to high tension were observed. The piezoelectric d 33,f coefficient was shown to rely on substrate quality and ionic bombardment: The nucleation surface must be stable with regard to the nitrogen plasma and present a hexagonal symmetry and, on the other hand, enough energy must be delivered to the growing film through ionic bombardment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. Off-axis sputter deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 thin films for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Bagley, B.G.; Feldmann, W.L.; Barner, J.B.; Shokoohi, F.; Miceli, P.; Wilkens, B.J.; Fathy, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 were grown in situ by off-axis sputter deposition for microwave device fabrication. These ∼1 cm 2 films, which are reproducible, exhibit midpoint T c 's of 89--90.5 K as measured by ac susceptibility, ion channeling yields of 4.7%--6%, and c-axis rocking-curve half-widths of 0.5 degree, even with a rich microstructure as seen by scanning electron microscopy. Two films were photodefined into miniature X-band microwave bandpass filters. These narrow-band filters (0.5% bandwidth) exhibited 4.4-and 4.5-dB insertion losses at 77 K and 9.25 GHz, with little temperature dependence below 80 K

  15. Effect of plastic strain on shape memory characteristics in sputter-deposited Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.

    1995-01-01

    The plastic strain which is introduced during cooling and heating under a constant stress has an influence upon the transformation and deformation characteristics of sputter-deposited Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films. With increasing the accumulated plastic strain, Ms rises and recovery strain increases. The changes in such characteristics are due to the internal stress field that is formed by plastic deformation. However, the change in Ms in Ti-50.5at%Ni is larger than that in Ti-48.9at%Ni, although the plastic strain in the former is lower than that in the latter. In order to understand this point, the effective internal stresses were estimated in both alloys; the internal stress in the former is more effectively created by the introduction of plastic strain than in the latter. (orig.)

  16. Protection of p+-n-Si Photoanodes by Sputter-Deposited Ir/IrOxThin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Bastian Timo; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sputter deposition of Ir/IrOx on p+-n-Si without interfacial corrosion protection layers yielded photoanodes capable of efficient water oxidation (OER) in acidic media (1 M H2SO4). Stability of at least 18 h was shown by chronoamperomety at 1.23 V versus RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) under 38...... density of 1 mA/cm2 at 1.05 V vs. RHE. Further improvement by heat treatment resulted in a cathodic shift of 40 mV and enabled a current density of 10 mA/cm2 (requirements for a 10% efficient tandem device) at 1.12 V vs. RHS under irradiation. Thus, the simple IrOx/Ir/p+-n-Si structures not only provide...

  17. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  18. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  19. Effects of deposition and post-annealing conditions on electrical properties and thermal stability of TiAlN films by ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2006-01-01

    TiAlN films were deposited by ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) using a Ti-Al (90/10) alloy target in a nitrogen atmosphere on thermal oxidized Si wafers. Effects of ion beam voltage, substrate temperature (T s ) and post-annealing conditions on electrical properties and oxidation resistance of TiAlN films were studied. According to the experimental results, the proper kinetic energy provided good crystallinity and a dense structure of the films. Because of their better crystallinity and predomination of (200) planes, TiAlN films deposited with 900 V at low T s (50 deg. C) have shown lower resistivity than those at high T s (250 deg. C). They also showed better oxidation resistance. If the beam voltage was too high, it caused some damage to the film surfaces, which caused poor oxidation resistance of films. When sufficient kinetic energy was provided by the beam voltage, the mobility of adatoms was too high due to their extra thermal energy, thus reducing the crystallinity and structure density of the films. A beam voltage of 900 V and a substrate temperature of 50 deg. C were the optimum deposition conditions used in this research. They provided good oxidation resistance and low electrical resistivity for IBSD TiAlN films

  20. Growth and surface characterization of sputter-deposited molybdenum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, C.V. [Nanoscience and Surface Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: ramanacv@umich.edu; Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Technical Centre, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kochubey, V.A. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, L.D. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shutthanandan, V. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Becker, U. [Nanoscience and Surface Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ewing, R.C. [Nanoscience and Surface Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering using a molybdenum (Mo) target. The sputtering was performed in a reactive atmosphere of an argon-oxygen gas mixture under varying conditions of substrate temperature (T {sub s}) and oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}). The effect of T {sub s} and pO{sub 2} on the growth and microstructure of molybdenum oxide films was examined in detail using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The analyses indicate that the effect of T {sub s} and pO{sub 2} on the microstructure and phase of the grown molybdenum oxide thin films is remarkable. RHEED and RBS results indicate that the films grown at 445 deg. C under 62.3% O{sub 2} pressure were stoichiometric and polycrystalline MoO{sub 3}. Films grown at lower pO{sub 2} were non-stoichiometric MoO {sub x} films with the presence of secondary phase. The microstructure of the grown Mo oxide films is discussed and conditions were optimized to produce phase pure, stoichiometric, and highly textured polycrystalline MoO{sub 3} films.

  1. Growth and surface characterization of sputter-deposited molybdenum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kesler, V. G.; Kochubey, V. A.; Pokrovsky, L. D.; Shutthanandan, V.; Becker, U.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2007-04-15

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering using a molybdenum (Mo) target. The sputtering was performed in a reactive atmosphere of argon-oxygen gas mixture under varying conditions of substrate temperature (Ts) and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The effect of Ts and pO2 on the growth and microstructure of molybdenum oxide films was examined in detail using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The analyses indicate that the effect of Ts and pO2 on the microstructure and phase of the grown molybdenum oxide thin films is remarkable. RHEED and RBS results indicate that the films grown at 445 *C under 62.3% O2 pressure were stoichiometric and polycrystalline MoO3. Films grown at lower pO2 were nonstoichiometric MoOx films with the presence of secondary phase. The microstructure of the grown Mo oxide films is discussed and conditions were optimized to produce phase pure, stoichiometric, and highly textured polycrystalline MoO3 films.

  2. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, R.K.; Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P.; Limaye, P.K.; Singh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  3. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, R.K., E-mail: crupeshbarc@gmail.com [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Limaye, P.K. [Refuelling Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, K. [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  4. Influence of sputtering deposition parameters on electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs characterized by high visible transmittance and low electrical resistivity play an important role in photovoltaic technology. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO is one of the TCOs that can find its application in thin film solar cells (CIGS or CdTe PV technology as well as in other microelectronic applications. In this paper some optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method have been investigated. AZO layers have been deposited on the soda lime glass substrates with use of variable technological parameters such as pressure in the deposition chamber, power applied and temperature during the process. The composition of AZO films has been investigated by EDS method. Thickness and refraction index of the deposited layers in dependence on certain technological parameters of sputtering process have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements of transmittance and sheet resistance were also performed.

  5. Influence of sputtering deposition parameters on electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Agata, Zdyb; Gulkowski, Slawomir; Fave, Alain; Fourmond, Erwann

    2017-11-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) characterized by high visible transmittance and low electrical resistivity play an important role in photovoltaic technology. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the TCOs that can find its application in thin film solar cells (CIGS or CdTe PV technology) as well as in other microelectronic applications. In this paper some optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method have been investigated. AZO layers have been deposited on the soda lime glass substrates with use of variable technological parameters such as pressure in the deposition chamber, power applied and temperature during the process. The composition of AZO films has been investigated by EDS method. Thickness and refraction index of the deposited layers in dependence on certain technological parameters of sputtering process have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements of transmittance and sheet resistance were also performed.

  6. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanostructures based on FeCo / IrMn deposited by cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Saulo Milani

    2011-01-01