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Sample records for french hydraulic plan

  1. A boost to the French hydraulic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A plan for boosting the hydroelectric power generation in France is presented, the first step of an energy policy based on the conclusions of the Grenelle Environnement Forum which targets a 23 percent objective for the renewable energies in France by 2020. Hydroelectricity represents nowadays 12 percent of total electric power generation. The plan is composed of three parts: attribution of concessions will be opened to competition (concessions of the 400 largest dams will be renewed); investments in dams will be strongly encouraged and assisted by the government in order to increase France's hydraulic power generation capacities and enhance its security of power supply - small and micro hydraulic power generation is to be developed; the quality of river waters will be improved

  2. Simplified hydraulic model of French vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Luis; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Molle, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Designing vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) to treat both rain events and dry weather flow is a complex task due to the stochastic nature of rain events. Dynamic models can help to improve design, but they usually prove difficult to handle for designers. This study focuses on the development of a simplified hydraulic model of French VFCWs using an empirical infiltration coefficient--infiltration capacity parameter (ICP). The model was fitted using 60-second-step data collected on two experimental French VFCW systems and compared with Hydrus 1D software. The model revealed a season-by-season evolution of the ICP that could be explained by the mechanical role of reeds. This simplified model makes it possible to define time-course shifts in ponding time and outlet flows. As ponding time hinders oxygen renewal, thus impacting nitrification and organic matter degradation, ponding time limits can be used to fix a reliable design when treating both dry and rain events.

  3. French military plans for Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1984-01-01

    France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references

  4. Thermal-hydraulic research plan for Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.Y.

    1988-02-01

    This document presents a plan for thermal-hydraulic research for Babcock and Wilcox designed reactor systems. It describes the technical issues, regulatory needs, and the research necessary to address these needs. The plan also discusses the relationship between current and proposed research, and provides a tentative schedule to complete the required work

  5. Nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic performance research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to present a more detailed description of the thermal-hydraulic research program than that provided in the NRC Five-Year Plan so that the research plan and objectives can be better understood and evaluated by the offices concerned. The plan is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) with input from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and updated periodically. The plan covers the research sponsored by the Reactor and Plant Systems Branch and defines the major issues (related to thermal-hydraulic behavior in nuclear power plants) the NRC is seeking to resolve and provides plans for their resolution; relates the proposed research to these issues; defines the products needed to resolve these issues; provides a context that shows both the historical perspective and the relationship of individual projects to the overall objectives; and defines major interfaces with other disciplines (e.g., structural, risk, human factors, accident management, severe accident) needed for total resolution of some issues. This plan addresses the types of thermal-hydraulic transients that are normally considered in the regulatory process of licensing the current generation of light water reactors. This process is influenced by the regulatory requirements imposed by NRC and the consequent need for technical information that is supplied by RES through its contractors. Thus, most contractor programmatic work is administered by RES. Regulatory requirements involve the normal review of industry analyses of design basis accidents, as well as the understanding of abnormal occurrences in operating reactors. Since such transients often involve complex thermal-hydraulic interactions, a well-planned thermal-hydraulic research plan is needed

  6. Planning and developing the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1983-01-01

    Since France has been compelled to free itself from the domination of oil, it has undertaken a nuclear programme capable of providing for nearly one third of its energy needs by 1990. Some years after the first oil crisis, a good part of the battle has already been won: 22 reactor units of 900 MW each have been connected to the grid and account for 40% of the electricity produced in France, while 12 other 900 MW units, together with the first 1300 MW units, are under construction. Nuclear power has thus become an industrial reality possessed of the tools appropriate for the whole fuel cycle, which has managed to cope with costs and meet deadlines, and has developed a safe and reliable product. With these positive results despite inevitable incidents the French nuclear industry has come of age. There are, however, handicaps which remain to be overcome: high investment costs, operating constraints and continuing doubt on the part of the public. The efforts deployed in these three spheres are beginning to bear fruit. As a result, implementation of the French nuclear programme is being continued, albeit at a slower rate, for the aim is no longer to replace oil by nuclear power as soon as possible, but rather to keep up with the rise in consumption. In pursuing its nuclear efforts, France will henceforth be stressing progress in terms of quality, which can still be achieved in terms of increased reliability (incorporation of feedback), better economic return (initiation of a new series known as ''N4''), easier operation (improvement of the man-machine interface) and also more independence. The ''frenchification'' of the light-water reactor has from the beginning been seen as one of the means of achieving this independence. This also applies to mastery of the whole fuel cycle. And finally, fast breeders represent the next stage

  7. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Darryl E; Mitsch, William J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the valuable ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems they remain threatened around the globe. Urban development has been a primary cause for mangrove destruction and deterioration in south Florida USA for the last several decades. As a result, the restoration of mangrove forests has become an important topic of research. Using field sampling and remote-sensing we assessed the past and present hydrologic conditions of a mangrove creek and its connected mangrove forest and brackish marsh systems located on the coast of Naples Bay in southwest Florida. We concluded that the hydrology of these connected systems had been significantly altered from its natural state due to urban development. We propose here a mangrove creek restoration plan that would extend the existing creek channel 1.1 km inland through the adjacent mangrove forest and up to an adjacent brackish marsh. We then tested the hydrologic implications using a hydraulic model of the mangrove creek calibrated with tidal data from Naples Bay and water levels measured within the creek. The calibrated model was then used to simulate the resulting hydrology of our proposed restoration plan. Simulation results showed that the proposed creek extension would restore a twice-daily flooding regime to a majority of the adjacent mangrove forest and that there would still be minimal tidal influence on the brackish marsh area, keeping its salinity at an acceptable level. This study demonstrates the utility of combining field data and hydraulic modeling to aid in the design of mangrove restoration plans.

  8. Research on Trajectory Planning and Autodig of Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the advances in computer control technology keep emerging, robotic hydraulic excavator becomes imperative. It can improve excavation accuracy and greatly reduce the operator’s labor intensity. The 12-ton backhoe bucket excavator has been utilized in this research work where this type of excavator is commonly used in engineering work. The kinematics model of operation device (boom, arm, bucket, and swing in excavator is established in both Denavit-Hartenberg coordinates for easy programming and geometric space for avoiding blind spot. The control approach is based on trajectory tracing method with displacements and velocities feedbacks. The trajectory planning and autodig program is written by Visual C++. By setting the bucket teeth’s trajectory, the program can automatically plan the velocity and acceleration of each hydraulic cylinder and motor. The results are displayed through a 3D entity simulation environment which can present real-time movements of excavator kinematics. Object-Oriented Graphics Rendering Engine and skeletal animation are used to give accurate parametric control and feedback. The simulation result shows that a stable linear autodig can be achieved. The errors between trajectory planning command and simulation model are analyzed.

  9. Greenhouse effect: the French plan; Effet de serre: le plan francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Mousel, M

    1999-11-01

    Some questions and their answers to fight against the greenhouse gases emissions are tackled here. Among the different propositions: carbon taxes ( between 150 and 500 French Francs/carbon ton), a change in transportation system by using the train for the freight as often as possible, a planning in urban area: urban housing, urbanism, transport. (N.C.)

  10. Reactor cooling systems thermal-hydraulic assessment of the ASTEC V1.3 code in support of the French IRSN PSA-2 on the 1300 MWe PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Philippot, Marc; Foucher, Laurent; Guillard, Gaetan; Fleurot, Joelle

    2010-01-01

    The French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) is performing a level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2) on the French 1300 MWe PWRs. This PSA-2 study is relying on the ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS (Germany). In order to assess the reliability and the quality of physical results of the ASTEC V1.3 code as well as the PWR 1300 MWe reference input deck, a wide-ranging series of comparisons with the French best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code CATHARE 2 V2.5 has been performed on 14 different severe-accident scenarios. The present paper details 4 out of the 14 studied scenarios: a 12-in. cold leg Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a 2-tube Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), a 12-in. Steam Line Break (SLB) and a total Loss of Feed Water scenario (LFW). The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary and secondary circuits is thoroughly investigated and compared to the CATAHRE 2 V2.5 results. The ASTEC results of the core degradation phase are also presented. Overall, the thermal-hydraulic behavior given by the ASTEC V1.3 is in very good agreement with the CATHARE 2 V2.5 results.

  11. Forecasting accidental marine pollution drift: the French operational plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.; Poitevin, J.; Tiercelin, C.; Marchand, M.

    1998-01-01

    In case of accidental marine pollution, Cedre and Meteo-France, within the framework of their own public service missions, provide assistance to the French authorities in charge of pollution response. Meteo-France has developed a numerical marine oil pollution transport model, named MOTHY, designed to simulate the transport of oil in three dimensions. A hydrodynamic ocean model is linked to an oil spill model including current shear, vertical movements and fate of the oil. The use of a global atmospheric model for atmospheric forcing enables world-wide application of the model. This oil spill response system has been operational since February 1994. In case of marine pollution, Meteo-France send meteorological forecasts and oil spill drift forecasts to Cedre. In return, by its experimentations and interventions on actual pollution, Cedre is contributing to the improvement and validation of the model. New developments, exercises and training are conducted jointly. This paper summarizes the key features of MOTHY and presents some examples of model applications. (author)

  12. Test plan: Hydraulic fracturing and hydrologic tests in Marker Beds 139 and 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Beauheim, R.L.

    1991-03-01

    Combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements in this test plan are designed to evaluate the potential influence of fracture formation in anhydrite Marker Beds 139 and 140 on gas pressure in and gas flow from the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with time. The tests have the further purpose of providing comparisons of permeabilities of anhydrite interbeds in an undisturbed (virgin) state and after fracture development and/or opening and dilation of preexisting partially healed fractures. Three sets of combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements are planned. A set of trial measurements is expected to last four to six weeks. The duration of each subsequent experiment is anticipated to be six to eight weeks

  13. Energy in the french and dutch Green plans: an instructive comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatem, F.

    1990-11-01

    In this article, while recognizing that the French Environment Plan has the merit of proposing, for the first time, an overview of the pollution problems to be tackled, the author however sets down a number of provisions in this regard. Through an examination of the three parts of the plan (the stakes and the findings, the goals, ways and means), he illustrates his point of view with the support of a detailed analysis of the proposals concerning energy. The comparison which he makes with the proposals contained in the Dutch Green Plan highlights the points which need to be reflected upon thoroughly in France. With relation to the rigor, the clarity, the accuracy, the seriousness of the assessments in the Dutch Plan, the author finds that the French Plan lacks a ranking of goals, a discussion of ways and means to be deployed, an adequate economic and financial framework, and it tends to prefer discourse to analysis and preconception to demonstration. This document is only an initial sketch; a real action plan still remains to be prepared.

  14. Design of emergency plans due to the failure risk of hydraulic works - Theory and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Rivera, Juan Camilo

    2006-01-01

    Dams are built to be highly safe hydraulic works. Nevertheless, they are not exempt from a certain failure risk, which turns in a variable value along the time service of the dam. As the mentioned dam-failure risk can be a significant hazard, analysis on dam-break is becoming important, as same as the assessment of its consequences. This type of studies are intended to reduce the costs linked to dam-failure, which are mainly due to the losses of human beings and material goods. A suitable way to minimize such losses consists of designing emergency plans, which permit to prepare and implant appropriate protection measures. A methodological framework to carry out this kind of emergency plans is introduced in this paper, accompanied by a case study corresponding to an emergency plan of a Spanish dam

  15. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  16. [Career plans of French residents in Psychiatry: results of a National Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Vergiat, A; Chauvelin, L; Van Effenterre, A

    2015-02-01

    For many years, the numerus clausus limiting the number of medical students has increased in France. The government wants to reform the residency process to homogenize medical studies. However, the suggested residency program changes would imply changes in the length of residency, in the mobility of residents after residency, their access to unconventional sectors, and more generally, the responsibility of the resident and his/her status in the hospital. In this context, we have investigated the future plans of all psychiatry residents in France. To study the desires of psychiatry residents in France, regarding their training, their short and long-term career plans, and to analyze the evolution of those desires over the last 40 years. A survey was carried out among residents in psychiatry from November 2011 to January 2012. An anonymous questionnaire including four parts (resident's description, residency training and trainees choice, orientation immediately after residency, professional orientation in 5-10 years) was sent by the French Federative Association of Psychiatrists Trainees (AFFEP) to all French psychiatrist trainees, through their local trainee associations (n=26) and through an on line questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by 853 of the 1615 psychiatry residents (53%), of which 71% were women. At the end of the residency, 76% of residents reported that they would like to pursue a post-residency position (chief resident, senior physician assistant university hospitals); 22% reported wanting to work in another city. Between 5 to 10 years after completion of the residency, 71% reported wanting to work in a hospital, and 40% preferred to have their own private practice. Almost a third of the trainees wished to work in the child and adolescent psychiatry field, for some of them in an exclusive way, for others, combined with a practice in adult psychiatry. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Municipal hydraulic planning for energy saving; Planeacion hidraulica municipal para el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, Enrique [PTF S.C. Consultores, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The efficient handling of the economic and natural resources of the municipalities, is nowadays so much complex, that it requires a formal planning. In the public service of potable water supply, two fundamental approaches are conjugated to consider: the rational use of the water resource and the efficient use of the electrical energy, for its extraction from the underground deep reservoirs. In the paper that is presented, the individual features of the previous matters are described and the positive results in a municipality of the Guanajuato's Low Lands (Bajio ), where already the dual objectives are obtained and that with a more professional municipal hydraulic planning, these will be permanent, with the inherent benefit towards the population. [Spanish] El manejo eficiente de los recursos economicos y naturales de los municipios, es hoy en dia cada vez mas complejo, que requiere una planeacion formal. En el servicio publico de abastecimiento de agua potable, se conjugan dos enfoques primordiales a considerar: el uso racional del recurso agua y la utilizacion eficiente de la energia electrica, para su extraccion de los acuiferos subterraneos profundos. En el trabajo que se presenta, se describen las particularidades de lo anterior y los resultados positivos en un municipio del Bajio guanajuatense, donde ya se logran los objetivos duales y que con una planeacion hidraulica municipal mas profesional, estos seran permanentes, con el beneficio inherente hacia la poblacion.

  18. Primary Progressive Aphasia in the Network of French Alzheimer Plan Memory Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Eloi; Démonet, Jean-François; Wallon, David; Dumurgier, Julien; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Jager, Alain; Duron, Emmanuelle; Gabelle, Audrey; de la Sayette, Vincent; Volpe-Gillot, Lisette; Tio, Gregory; Evain, Sarah; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Enderle, Adeline; Mouton-Liger, François; Robert, Philippe; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence; Hugon, Jacques; Paquet, Claire

    2016-10-18

    Few demographical data about primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are available, and most knowledge regarding PPA is based on tertiary centers' results. Our aims were to describe demographical characteristics of the PPA population in a large sample of PPA patients from the network of French Alzheimer plan memory centers (Sample 1), and to describe the stratification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two different samples of PPA patients (Samples 2 and 3). All registered PPA patients in the French Alzheimer's disease (AD) databank (Sample 1: n = 2,035) and a subsample (Sample 2: n = 65) derived from a multicentric prospective cohort with CSF biomarker analysis were analyzed. A multicentric retrospective cohort from language expert tertiary centers (Sample 3: n = 97) with CSF biomarker analysis was added. Sample 3 was added to replicate the CSF results of the Sample 2 and to evaluate repartition of AD pathology in the three variant of PPA according to the latest classification. Non-Fluent/Agrammatic, Logopenic, and Unclassifiable PPA patients (NF/A-Logo-Unclass PPA) were older and more frequent than Semantic PPA patients (2.2 versus 0.8/100,000 inhabitants; p < 0.00001). Male predominance occurred after the age of 80 (p < 0.00001). A higher level of education was observed in the PPA population compared to a typical amnesic AD group. No demographical significant difference between PPA due to AD and not due to AD was observed. The Logopenic variant was most frequent with 85% of AD CSF biomarker profiles (35% in NF/A PPA; 20% in Semantic PPA). PPA occurs also in an elderly population, especially in male patients over 80. CSF biomarkers are useful to stratify PPA. The epidemiology of PPA should be further investigated to confirm gender and cognitive reserve role in PPA to better understand the factors and mechanisms leading to this language-predominant deficit during neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Multi-annual energy plan 2016-2018 and 2019-2023 of French Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms France's commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help to meet France's objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with its commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment. This document is the multi-annual energy plan for French Guiana overseas region. It establishes the priority actions for all energy sources with respect to supply control, supply diversification, supply security, development of storage facilities and networks. It covers a first 3-years period (2016-2018) followed by a second 5-years period (2019-2023)

  20. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  1. Conference on territorial planning of wind energy - engine or hindrance of climate policy? A French-German comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Jacques; Von Nicolai, Helmuth; Thomas, Isabelle; Lueer, Michael; Eric Virvaux

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the 2009 edition of the European Wind Energy Conference, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side event on the territorial planning of wind energy. During this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on: the importance given to climate policy with respect to other territorial planning goals, like nature protection; the involvement of project managers and citizens; the conciliation between 'regional development scheme' and wind energy development areas; and the regional implementation of government objectives. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Territorial planning of wind energy (Jacques Lengyel); 2 - The German planning systems for the definition of wind energy development areas (Helmuth von Nicolai); 3 - The wind energy regional scheme in Brittany - Accompanying the deployment of 1000 MW by 2010 (Isabelle Thomas); 4 - Definition of wind energy development areas in the framework of the German regional planning - Advantages and drawbacks for the wind energy industry (Michael Lueer); 5 - Implementation of the regional schemes for the development of renewable energies: the Renewable Energies Syndicate (SER)/France Wind Energy (FEE) proposals for the wind energy aspect (Eric Virvaux)

  2. Nupec thermal hydraulic test to evaluate post-DNB characteristics for PWR fuel assemblies (1. general test plan and results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norio, Kono; Kenji, Murai; Kaichiro, Misima; Takayuki, Suemura; Yoshiei, Akiyama; Keiichi, Hori

    2001-01-01

    In the present thermal hydraulic design of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) under anticipated transient conditions is not allowed. However, it is recognized that the DNB dose not cause a fuel rod failure immediately, and a suitable reactor trip can prevent the core from severe damages. If the fuel rod temperature under the post-DNB conditions can be accurately evaluated, the potentially existing margin in the present design method will be quantitatively assessed. To establish the heat transfer evaluation method on post-DNB event for PWR thermal hydraulic design, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) started a program, NUPEC Thermal Hydraulic Test to Evaluate Post-DNB Characteristics for PWR Fuel Assemblies (NUPEC-TH-P), in 1995 (hereinafter the year means fiscal year) under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and industry (METI). This program is now under going until 2001. This paper is to show the overall plan and the status of NUPEC-TH-P. (authors)

  3. The French governmental organisation and relief in France planning in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Despite of the unlikeliness of a nuclear accident, emergency planning is a must. It has several aspects: Internal Emergency PLan, Specific Intervention Plan, Post Accident and Relief specialized Plan. As a whole, the organisation is similar to the one used for others industrial risks. In a 'Department', the supervisor for overall emergency action is the 'Prefet', a high civil servant appointed by the Cabinet and responsible for nuclear security; all the other civil servants are under the Prefet's command and assist him. A national post-accident plan is being worked out; it will cover all the fields of intervention: control, administration of stable iodine, sheltering or evacuation. (author)

  4. A plan for the modification and assessment of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 for use in analyzing CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Giguere, P.T.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the results of the review and planning done for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that could occur in the CANDU 3 reactor design during transient conditions, plan modifications to the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 (TRAC) computer code needed to adequately predict CANDU 3 transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena, and identify an assessment program to verify the ability of TRAC, when modified, to predict these phenomena. This work builds on analyses and recommendations produced by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). To identify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, a large-break loss-of-coolant accident simulation, performed as part of earlier work by INEL with an Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) thermal-hydraulic computer code (CATHENA), was analyzed in detail. Other accident scenarios were examined for additional phenomena. A group of Los Alamos National Laboratory reactor thermal-hydraulics experts ranked the phenomena to produce a preliminary phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT). The preliminary nature of the PIRT was a result of a lack of direct expertise with the unique processes and phenomena of the CANDU 3. Nonetheless, this PIRT provided an adequate foundation for planning a program of code modifications. We believe that this PIRT captured the most important phenomena and that refinements to the PIRT will mainly produce clarification of the relative importance (ranking) of phenomena. A plan for code modifications was developed based on this PIRT and on information about the modeling methodologies for CANDU-specific phenomena used in AECL codes. AECL thermal-hydraulic test facilities and programs were reviewed and the information used in developing an assessment plan to ensure that TRAC-PF1/MOD2, when modified, will adequately predict CANDU 3 phenomena

  5. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2009), s. 287-296 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : simulatin modeling * hydraulics * SimHydraulics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  6. The plan contract between CEA and the French state for 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijaudier-Cabot, F.

    2001-01-01

    The French energy commission (CEA) has defined 3 axis of development in the framework of a 4 year contract with the government. The first axis is to propose technological solutions for improving competitiveness of nuclear energy, for managing nuclear wastes and for assuring safety at any step of the nuclear industry. The second axis concerns promoting new technologies in the fields of energy, of information and of bio-engineering. CEA will develop studies about the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy for transport. The third axis deals more particularly with fundamental research in the fields of energy, of environment, of bio-technologies and of health (research about the prion for instance). The subsidy given by the state has been increased by 3.4% for 2001. (A.C.)

  7. The Megha-Tropiques Mission: overview of the French Science and Cal/Val plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Megha-Tropiques mission is an Indo-French mission built by the Centre National d'Études Spatiales et l'Indian Space Research Organisation due to launch in 2010. Megha means cloud in Sanskrit and Tropiques is the French for tropics. The major innovation of MT is to bring together a suite of complementary instruments on a dedicated orbit that strongly improves the sampling of the water cycle elements. Indeed the low inclination on the equator (20°) combined to the elevated height of the orbit (865km) provides unique observing capabilities with up to 6 over-passes per day for the best case (Figure 8). The scientific objective of the mission concerns i) Atmospheric energy budget in the inter-tropical zone and at system scale (radiation, latent heat, …) ii) Life cycle of Meso-scale Convective Complexes in the Tropics (over Oceans and Continents) and iii) Monitoring and assimilation for Cyclones, Monsoons, Meso-scale Convective Systems forecasting. These scientific objectives are achieved thanks to the following payload: SCARAB : wide band instrument for inferring longwave and shortwave outgoing fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (cross track scanning, 40 km resolution at nadir); SAPHIR: microwave sounder for water vapour sounding: 6 channels in the WV absorption band at 183.31 GHz. (cross track, 10 km) and MADRAS: microwave imager for precipitation: channels at 18, 23, 37, 89 and 157 GHz, H and V polarisations. (conical swath, <10 km to 40 km). In this presentation, a rapid overview of the anticipated Science and Cal/Val activities will be offered after a quick introduction to the Mission. The emphasis will be set on the instrumental combination and the associated scientific and technical challenges. Finally, the combination of this spacecraft and the other missions expected simultaneously, in particular in the framework of GPM, will be discussed.

  8. Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Aroumougame, Vani; Ibanez, Gladys; Allès, Benjamin; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-02-02

    Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status. Meal planning, i.e. planning ahead the foods that will be eaten for the next few days, was assessed in 40,554 participants of the web-based observational NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary measurements included intakes of energy, nutrients, food groups, and adherence to the French nutritional guidelines (mPNNS-GS) estimated through repeated 24-h dietary records. A food variety score was also calculated using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight and height were self-reported. Association between meal planning and dietary intakes were assessed using ANCOVAs, while associations with quartiles of mPNNS-GS scores, quartiles of food variety score and weight status categories (overweight, obesity) were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 57% of the participants declared to plan meals at least occasionally. Meal planners were more likely to have a higher mPNNS-GS (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.13, 95% CI: [1.07-1.20]), higher overall food variety (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.25, 95% CI: [1.18-1.32]). In women, meal planning was associated with lower odds of being overweight (OR = 0.92 [0.87-0.98]) and obese (OR = 0.79 [0.73-0.86]). In men, the association was significant for obesity only (OR = 0.81 [0.69-0.94]). Meal planning was associated with a healthier diet and less obesity. Although no causality can be inferred from the reported associations, these data suggest that meal planning could potentially be relevant for obesity prevention.

  9. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles: I-Master Plan and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tamai, Hidesada; Liu, Wei; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    R&D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle has been progressed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with power utilities, reactor vendors and universities since 2002. In this series-study, we will summarize the R&D achievements using large-scale test facility (37-rod bundle with full-height and full-pressure), model experiments and advanced numerical simulation technology. This first paper described the master plan for the development of design technology and showed an executive summary for this project up to FY2005. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the tight-lattice configuration were investigated and the feasibility was confirmed based on the experiments. We have developed the design technology including 3-D numerical simulation one to evaluate the effects of geometry/scale on the thermal-hydraulic behaviors.

  10. Application of MELCOR Code to a French PWR 900 MWe Severe Accident Sequence and Evaluation of Models Performance Focusing on In-Vessel Thermal Hydraulic Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    In the ambit of the Severe Accident Network of Excellence Project (SARNET), funded by the European Union, 6. FISA (Fission Safety) Programme, one of the main tasks is the development and validation of the European Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC Code). One of the reference codes used to compare ASTEC results, coming from experimental and Reactor Plant applications, is MELCOR. ENEA is a SARNET member and also an ASTEC and MELCOR user. During the first 18 months of this project, we performed a series of MELCOR and ASTEC calculations referring to a French PWR 900 MWe and to the accident sequence of 'Loss of Steam Generator (SG) Feedwater' (known as H2 sequence in the French classification). H2 is an accident sequence substantially equivalent to a Station Blackout scenario, like a TMLB accident, with the only difference that in H2 sequence the scram is forced to occur with a delay of 28 seconds. The main events during the accident sequence are a loss of normal and auxiliary SG feedwater (0 s), followed by a scram when the water level in SG is equal or less than 0.7 m (after 28 seconds). There is also a main coolant pumps trip when ΔTsat < 10 deg. C, a total opening of the three relief valves when Tric (core maximal outlet temperature) is above 603 K (330 deg. C) and accumulators isolation when primary pressure goes below 1.5 MPa (15 bar). Among many other points, it is worth noting that this was the first time that a MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck was available for a French PWR 900. The main ENEA effort in this period was devoted to prepare the MELCOR input deck using the code version v.1.8.5 (build QZ Oct 2000 with the latest patch 185003 Oct 2001). The input deck, completely new, was prepared taking into account structure, data and same conditions as those found inside ASTEC input decks. The main goal of the work presented in this paper is to put in evidence where and when MELCOR provides good enough results and why, in some cases mainly referring to its

  11. French National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) - 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Faced with the high diversity of radioactive materials and waste, it may be difficult to grasp the relevance and consistency of the installed management framework. The purpose of the National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) is to clarify this management framework and improve it. To this end, it draws up an assessment of the management policy, evaluates the needs and determines the objectives to be attained in the future. The PNGMDR's usefulness was confirmed by Parliament. The evaluation report of the PNGMDR 2007-2009 by the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options thus indicates that 'the interest of a summary document exposing all the problems and the solutions related to the management of radioactive waste was underlined a number of times by the Office. Since such a plan can allow achieving exhaustiveness and introducing a consistency in the management of radioactive waste, the Office deemed it necessary that it be linked to the law in one way or another. Conforming to the Office's recommendations, the Act of 28 June 2006 related to the sustainable management of radioactive waste stipulated that such a plan must be elaborated, updated every three years and published, extending its scope to reusable radioactive materials'. Thus, the PNGMDR provides the public with a global vision of the management of radioactive materials and waste, concerning both topics 'in the news' and those less publicised. Some waste, in fact, attracts momentarily particular attention, for example, on the occasion of a search for a disposal site, such as in 2008-2009, for so-called low level and long lived ('LL-LL') waste. The media also broadcast in 2008 and 2009 special enquiries on the management of mining residues and on reprocessed uranium; all these topics are discussed in detail in the PNGMDR. Other waste topics attract less attention, such as sealed radioactive sources, which are more dispersed throughout France

  12. Evaluation of Hydraulic Potentiality for Small Scale Hydroelectric Power Systems. Base for formulation of plans for the municipal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Q, E.

    1997-01-01

    Colombia has been recognized as the fourth country in the world with high hydraulic resources, the best way to exploit this potential is by talking use of as a main hydroelectric alternative on isolated areas of the country. At the beginnings there was an study the Potential Hydraulic Assessment was performed at the Chicamocha Deep Valley, due to this area count with a good hydrologic and meteorological network enough, to investigate the hydro climate behavior

  13. Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera's beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sahal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small amplitude tsunamis have impacted the French Mediterranean shore (French Riviera in the past centuries. Some caused casualties; others only generated economic losses. While the North Atlantic and Mediterranean tsunami warning system is being tested and is almost operational, no awareness and preparedness measure is being implemented at a local scale. Evacuation is to be considered along the French Riviera, but no plan exists within communities. We show that various approaches can provide local stakeholders with evacuation capacities assessments to develop adapted evacuation plans through the case study of the Cannes–Antibes region. The complementarity between large- and small-scale approaches is demonstrated with the use of macro-simulators (graph-based and micro-simulators (multi-agent-based to select shelter points and choose evacuation routes for pedestrians located on the beach. The first one allows automatically selecting shelter points and measuring and mapping their accessibility. The second one shows potential congestion issues during pedestrian evacuations, and provides leads for the improvement of urban environment. Temporal accessibility to shelters is compared to potential local and distal tsunami travel times, showing a 40 min deficit for an adequate crisis management in the first scenario, and a 30 min surplus for the second one.

  14. Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera's beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal, A.; Leone, F.; Péroche, M.

    2013-07-01

    Small amplitude tsunamis have impacted the French Mediterranean shore (French Riviera) in the past centuries. Some caused casualties; others only generated economic losses. While the North Atlantic and Mediterranean tsunami warning system is being tested and is almost operational, no awareness and preparedness measure is being implemented at a local scale. Evacuation is to be considered along the French Riviera, but no plan exists within communities. We show that various approaches can provide local stakeholders with evacuation capacities assessments to develop adapted evacuation plans through the case study of the Cannes-Antibes region. The complementarity between large- and small-scale approaches is demonstrated with the use of macro-simulators (graph-based) and micro-simulators (multi-agent-based) to select shelter points and choose evacuation routes for pedestrians located on the beach. The first one allows automatically selecting shelter points and measuring and mapping their accessibility. The second one shows potential congestion issues during pedestrian evacuations, and provides leads for the improvement of urban environment. Temporal accessibility to shelters is compared to potential local and distal tsunami travel times, showing a 40 min deficit for an adequate crisis management in the first scenario, and a 30 min surplus for the second one.

  15. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  16. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  17. Planning model for hydraulic and thermic generation systems expansion under uncertainly conditions and financial restrictions; Modelo de planejamento da expansao de sistemas hidrotermicos sob incertezas e restricoes financeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstin, B.G.; Costa, J.P. da [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F.; Campodonico, N.M.

    1993-12-31

    This issue presents a methodology for planning the systems expansion of hydraulic and thermic power generation associated considering several uncertainly factors, such as: demand growing, fuel costs, delays on the work construction, financial restrictions, etc. The solution focus is based on stock optimize techniques, decision analysis. This work is being developed by the Brazilian Electrical Centre (ELETROBRAS) and rely on the Energy Latin-American Organization (OLADE), Development Inter-American Bank (BID), World Bank (BIRD) and International Energy Agency (IAEA) support. An example case with Costa Rica system is also discussed 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  19. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project

  20. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  1. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  2. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  3. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  4. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  5. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  6. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  7. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  8. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  9. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  10. Survey on hydraulic power resources. Survey plan (draft) (For clean energy of the future generations); Chikyu kibo suiryoku shigen chosa chosa keikakusho (an). Mirai no sedai ni clean energy wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    Promotion of development of hydraulic power and others as fossil fuel alternative energy sources is one of the most important measures for solving the global environmental problems. This draft plan proposes, first of all, to conduct surveys on hydraulic power resources on a global scale, to collect the basic data for development of the energy sources. It is estimated that developed hydraulic power resources account for approximately 14% of the total developable resources, the remainder being left untouched. By region, these percentages rise to approximately 55 and 45% in North America and Europe, respectively. These percentages in Asia, Africa, Latin America and FSU are significantly lower, and their undeveloped resources are estimated to total approximately 6 times as large as those already developed worldwide. It is expected that the hydraulic power resources are surveyed on a 10-year plan (1991 to 2000) with a total budget of 30 billion yen, to collect the data and establish the databases in cooperation with international organizations, e.g., UN organizations, regional organizations (e.g., ASEAN organizations) and newly founded organizations. (NEDO)

  11. Adapting the Quebecois method for assessing implementation to the French National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012: lessons for gerontological services integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many countries face ageing-related demographic and epidemiological challenges, notably neurodegenerative disorders, due to the multiple care services they require, thereby pleading for a more integrated system of care. The integrated Quebecois method issued from the Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy inspired a French pilot experiment and the National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012. Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy method implementation was rated with an evaluation grid adapted to assess its successive degrees of completion.Discussion: The approaching end of the president's term led to the method's institutionalization (2011–2012, before the implementation study ended. When the government changed, the study was interrupted. The results extracted from that ‘lost’ study (presented herein have, nonetheless, ‘found’ some key lessons.Key lessons/conclusion: It was possible to implement a Quebecois integrated-care method in France. We describe the lessons and pitfalls encountered in adapting this evaluation tool. This process is necessarily multidisciplinary and requires a test phase. A simple tool for quantitative assessment of integration was obtained. The first assessment of the tool was unsatisfactory but requires further studies. In the meantime, we recommend using mixed methodologies to assess the services integration level.

  12. Adapting the Quebecois method for assessing implementation to the French National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012: lessons for gerontological services integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many countries face ageing-related demographic and epidemiological challenges, notably neurodegenerative disorders, due to the multiple care services they require, thereby pleading for a more integrated system of care. The integrated Quebecois method issued from the Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy inspired a French pilot experiment and the National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012. Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy method implementation was rated with an evaluation grid adapted to assess its successive degrees of completion. Discussion: The approaching end of the president's term led to the method's institutionalization (2011–2012, before the implementation study ended. When the government changed, the study was interrupted. The results extracted from that ‘lost’ study (presented herein have, nonetheless, ‘found’ some key lessons. Key lessons/conclusion: It was possible to implement a Quebecois integrated-care method in France. We describe the lessons and pitfalls encountered in adapting this evaluation tool. This process is necessarily multidisciplinary and requires a test phase. A simple tool for quantitative assessment of integration was obtained. The first assessment of the tool was unsatisfactory but requires further studies. In the meantime, we recommend using mixed methodologies to assess the services integration level.

  13. Additional safety assessments, follow-up of stress tests of the French nuclear power stations. Action plan of the nuclear safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the French national action plan defined by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in compliance with the recommendations made by the ENSREG (European nuclear safety regulators group). It refers to decisions taken at the national level after the Fukushima accident, recommendations after European stress tests, and recommendations after the extraordinary meeting of contracting parties at the Convention on Nuclear Safety of August 2012. For different topics, this document recalls the recommendations made by the peer review, indicates the ASN's opinion and progress or ASN's requirements for different power stations. The first part addresses the recommendations made by peers and based on the European review. Topics concern natural hazards (effects, detection, inspections and controls related to earthquakes, margin assessment with respect to flooding and natural hazards), the loss of safety systems (cooling systems, electricity supplies, actions, instruments, training, and so on), the management of a severe accident (reference levels, measures, guides, exercises, training, management of contaminated water, radiation protection, premises). The second part deals with topics addressed within the frame of the Convention: national organisations, organisations in an emergency and post-accidental situation, international cooperation. A third part addresses the follow-up of additional measures issued by the ASN

  14. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  15. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  16. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  17. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  18. Etude Climat no. 36 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans: a tool for guiding the energy and climate transition in French regions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Charentenay, Jeremie; Leseur, Alexia; Bordier, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The Regional Climate-Air-Energy Plan (SRCAE - Schema Regional Climat-Air-Energie) was introduced by the Grenelle II legislation. The Plans are co-authored by the State through its decentralised services and the 'Conseil Regionaux' (regional councils) with the objective to guide climate and energy policy in the 26 French regions through to 2020 and 2050. Starting from an assessment of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the SRCAE establishes energy transition scenarios based on the sectoral and structural guidelines that constitute the principal framework of the regional strategy. This report offers a detailed analysis of the strategies chosen by the various Regions for a successful transition to low-carbon energy sources, via the study of eleven SRCAEs that were opened to public consultation before the end of July 2012 (Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Bourgogne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Ile-de-France, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardie and Rhone-Alpes regions). The wide range of methodologies used by the Regions, both to draw up their inventories of GHG emissions and for their scenarios, means that a quantitative comparison between regions or against the national objectives is not possible. Nevertheless, the report establishes a typology of regions and identifies policies that are common to all regions and those chosen in response to local characteristics. Certain guidelines could be applied by other regions of the same type, or could feed into discussions at national level. The report also indicates that the SRCAEs go beyond the competencies of the Regions, highlighting the role of local, national and European decision-making in the success of a regional energy transition. Particular attention was paid to the building and transport sectors, often identified as having the largest potential for reducing

  19. VHTR core modeling: coupling between neutronic and thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaiem, I.; Damian, F.; Raepsaet, X.; Studer, E.

    2005-01-01

    Following the present interest in the next generation nuclear power plan (NGNP), Cea is deploying special effort to develop new models and qualify its research tools for this next generation reactors core. In this framework, the Very High Temperature Reactor concept (VHTR) has an increasing place in the actual research program. In such type of core, a strong interaction exists between neutronic and thermal-hydraulics. Consequently, the global core modelling requires accounting for the temperature feedback in the neutronic models. The purpose of this paper is to present the new neutronic and thermal-hydraulics coupling model dedicated to the High Temperature Reactors (HTR). The coupling model integrates a new version of the neutronic scheme calculation developed in collaboration between Cea and Framatome-ANP. The neutronic calculations are performed using a specific calculation processes based on the APOLLO2 transport code and CRONOS2 diffusion code which are part of the French reactor physics code system SAPHYR. The thermal-hydraulics model is characterised by an equivalent porous media and 1-D fluid/3-D thermal model implemented in the CAST3M/ARCTURUS code. The porous media approach involves the definition of both homogenous and heterogeneous models to ensure a correct temperature feedback. This study highlights the sensitivity of the coupling system's parameters (radial/axial meshing and data exchange strategy between neutronic and thermal-hydraulics code). The parameters sensitivity study leads to the definition of an optimal coupling system specification for the VHTR. Besides, this work presents the first physical analysis of the VHTR core in steady-state condition. The analysis gives information about the 3-D power peaking and the temperature coefficient. Indeed, it covers different core configurations with different helium distribution in the core bypass. (authors)

  20. Report on the behalf of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the bill project related to the follow-up of environmental consequences of French nuclear tests in French Polynesia - Nr 244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteau, Roland

    2012-01-01

    In a first part of this report, the author recalls the history of the creation of the Pacific experiment centre and the test campaign which took place without a real consultation of local populations. He comments the end of nuclear tests while giving an overview of site dismantling and of radioactive materials which have been left there. Then, he addresses the environmental consequences of the nuclear tests in French Polynesia: follow-up system, follow-up of radiological consequences, risks related to subsoil steadiness, necessity of better information of local populations and acknowledgement of test effects. He presents the bill project concerning the return of both atolls within the authority of French Polynesia. The discussion of the bill project articles is reported

  1. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  2. French Modular Impoundment: Final Cost and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, Peter [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States); French, Bill [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report comprises the Final Cost and Performance Report for the Department of Energy Award # EE0007244, the French Modular Impoundment (aka the “French Dam”.) The French Dam is a system of applying precast modular construction to water control structures. The “French Dam” is a term used to cover the construction means/methods used to construct or rehabilitate dams, diversion structures, powerhouses, and other hydraulic structures which impound water and are covered under FDE’s existing IP (Patents # US8414223B2; US9103084B2.)

  3. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  4. Brake hydraulics simulation with real-time capability. From hydraulics plan to implementation: the Bosch ESP 5.7 as an example; Echtzeitfaehige Bremshydrauliksimulation. Vom Hydraulikplan zur Implementierung am Beispiel des Bosch ESP 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc, E.; Oliver, P.; Thies, W. [Tesis Dynaware (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    For the development and testing of ABS/ESP control units, both the detailed simulation of the vehicle and drive train dynamics as well as the dynamic behaviour of the hydraulic system are important. The signals coming from the control unit that control the valves in the brake hydraulic system cause pressure changes in the brake system and thus affect the braking torque. In turn, the changes in the speed of the wheels are fed back to the control unit via sensors. The objective of an ABS control strategy is to prevent the wheels from locking during braking in order to ensure and maintain the steerability of the vehicle, while the ESP action also attempts to achieve a stabilization of the yawing motion by means of active braking. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Entwicklung und den Test von ABS/ESP-Steuergeraeten ist neben der detaillierten Simulation von Fahr- und Antriebsstrangdynamik auch das dynamische Verhalten des hydraulischen Systems wichtig. Die vom Steuergeraet kommenden Signale zur Ansteuerung der Ventile in der Bremshydraulik bewirken Druckaenderungen im Bremssystem und somit der Bremsmomente. Die Aenderungen der Raddrehzahlen werden wiederum ueber Sensoren dem Steuergeraet zurueckgemeldet. Ziel einer ABS-Regelstrategie ist das Verhindern des Blockierens der Raeder beim Bremsen, um die Lenkbarkeit des Fahrzeugs zu erhalten, waehrend bei einem ESP-Eingriff durch aktives Bremsen zusaetzlich eine Stabilisierung der Gierbewegung erfolgen soll, wie der folgende Beitrag von Tesis Dynaware zeigt. (orig.)

  5. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  6. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  7. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  8. French dissatisfactions on the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that the French electricity professional consumers are dissatisfied with the results of the creation of the European domestic electricity market in 1997: price increase either on bills or on the wholesale markets, and even more price increases are to come. The author proposes to examine several issues: what has been done during the 6 or 7 past years, that is since the California crisis in 2000-2001, to put the European electrical reforms on a virtuous track? Have the basic market economy principles been respected to protect competitiveness of all energy consumer professionals? How and why the French government or EDF will make us pay gas, coal or CO 2 emission permits like in England or Germany whereas the French electricity production has mainly (90 or 95 per cent) a nuclear or hydraulic origin?

  9. Local energy policies: Planning devices and coaching tools - Example of the French case; Politiques energetiques locales: Dispositifs de planification et outils d'accompagnement - Exemple du cas francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanard, Camille; de Sede-Marceau, Marie-Helene

    2010-09-15

    Collectivities traditionally have multiple responsibilities linked to energy. They act directly on the energy chain (production-distribution-consumption) through their heritage, but also on the tripych space-environment-society, in particular through their planning choices. Hence, all the public policies are concerned by the energy theme. However, collectivities seem to suffer from an information deficit, both on planning devices that can be mobilized and on the territory features. This article proposes to realise an overview tour of the coaching tools that can be used by the French territories collectivities to build efficient energy policies. [French] Les collectivites ont traditionnellement des responsabilites multiples en lien avec l'energie. Elles agissent directement sur la chaine energetique (production-distribution-consommation) a travers leur patrimoine, mais aussi sur le triptyque espace-environnement-societe, en particulier a travers leurs choix d'amenagement. Ainsi, toutes les politiques publiques sont concernees par la thematique ' energie '. Cependant, les collectivites semblent souffrir d'un deficit d'information, tant sur les dispositifs de planification pouvant etre mobilises que sur les caracteristiques du territoire. Cet article propose de realiser un tour d'horizon de l'ensemble des outils d'accompagnements pouvant etre mobilises par les collectivites territoriales francaises pour construire des politiques energetiques efficaces.

  10. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  12. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  13. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  14. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  15. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  16. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    particular by working to develop storage solutions at all levels within the grid, and by preparing to introduce electric vehicles. Developing solutions for tomorrow: strong willingness of public authorities in France to develop Smart Grids has notably led to the creation of support mechanisms for innovation and for demonstration projects, and to a strategic business sector plan dedicated to Smart Grids. Related competencies have also emerged, in the development of market design, and cyber security. The French Smart Grid vision focuses on mastering complexity, on large scale deployments, and on the development of systems showing a high degree of dependability and reliable functioning. World leaders, mid-cap companies and small businesses specialized in the full range of Smart Grid technologies: operators of electrical and telecommunications networks, equipment and component manufacturers, software engineering companies, data centre managers etc. Over 100 Smart Grid projects are currently underway in France. Strong R and D and innovation capacity: some 20 demonstration projects have started up under the Smart Grids segment of the Investments for the Future programme. France ranks first in Europe for Smart Grid investments

  17. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  18. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  19. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  20. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  1. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  2. Hydraulic Structures : Caissons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Molenaar, W.F.; Bezuyen, K.G.

    These lecture notes on caissons are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CTB3355), part of the Bachelor of Science education and the Hydraulic Engineering track of the Master of Science education for civil engineering students at Delft University of

  3. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  4. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  5. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  6. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  7. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  8. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  9. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  10. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  11. French-Finnish colloquium on safety of French and Russian type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukka, M.; Jaervinen, M.; Minkkinen, P.; Ukkola, A.; Levomaeki, L.

    1994-01-01

    The French-Finnish Colloquium on Safety of French and Russian Type Nuclear Power Plants was held in June, 14th - 16th, 1994, in Lappeenranta, Finland. The main topics of the colloquium were: VVER and RBMK reactors; Industrial safety studies for VVER's in FRAMATOME; Structural safety analysis of Ignalina NPP; Thermalhydraulic system (BETHSY) and analytical experiments for French NPP; Test facilities simulating VVER plants during accidents; PACTEL - facility for VVER thermal hydraulics; High burn-up fuel and reactivity accidents; Overview of severe accident research at Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute of CEA; Research of severe accidents in Finland; Review of main activities concerning computer codes used for VVER thermal-hydraulic safety analysis in OKB Gidropress; CATHARE code; APROS computer code, new developments; TRIO and TOLBIAC computer codes; ESTET and N3S softwares; HEXTRAN - 3D reactor dynamics code for VVER accident analysis; An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs; Boron mixing transients in a 900 MW PWR vessel for a reactor start-up operation; and Problem of boric acid dilution in IVO

  12. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  13. French steam generator design developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginier, R.; Campan, J.L.; Pontier, M.; Leridon, A.; Remond, A.; Castello, G.; Holcblat, A.; Paurobally, H.

    1986-01-01

    From the outset of the French nuclear power program, a significant R and D effort has been invested in improvement of the design and operation of Pressurized Water Reactors including a special committment to improving steam generators. The steam generator enhancement program has spawned a wide variety of specific R and D resources, e.g., low temperature hydraulic models for investigation of areas with single-phase flow, and freon-filled models for simulation of areas of steam generators experiencing two-phase flow (tube bundles and moisture separators). For the moisture separators, a large scale research program using freon-filled models and highly sophisticated instrumentation was used. Tests at reactor sites during startup of both 900 MWe and 1300 MWe have been used to validate the assumptions made on the basis of loop tests. These tests also demonstrated the validity of using freon to simulate two-phase flow conditions. The wealth of knowledge accumulated by the steam generator R and D program has been used to develop a new design of steam generators for the N4 plants. The current R and D effort is aimed at qualifying the N4 steam generator model and developing more comprehensive models. One prong of the R and D effort is the Megeve program. Megeve is a 25 MW steam generator which simulates operating conditions of the N4 model. The other prong is Clotaire, a freon-filled steam generator model which will be used to qualify thermal/hydraulic design codes used for multidimensional calculations for design of tube bundles

  14. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly. A full scale hydraulic yaw test rig is available for experiments and tests. The test rig is presented as well as the system schematics of the hydraulic yaw system....... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  15. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  16. Hydraulic hoisting and backfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, H. B.

    In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. The following are some of the advantages of hydraulic hoisting as against conventional skip hoisting: (1) smaller shafts are required because the pipes to hoist the same quantity of ore hydraulically require less space in the shaft than does skip hoisting equipment; (2) the hoisting capacity of a mine can easily be increased without the necessity of sinking new shafts. Large savings in capital costs can thus be made; (3) fully automatic control is possible with hydraulic hoisting and therefore less manpower is required; and (4) health and safety conditions will be improved.

  17. Using Early Silent Film to Teach French: The Language of "Cinema Muet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michelle E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of early silent films in second-language classrooms, focusing on the experiences of one instructor in using early French silents in elementary and intermediate French courses. Sample lesson plans and information on the availability of French silents are also provided. (Contains 17 references.) (MDM)

  18. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  19. The hydraulic wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cardona, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present article this dedicated to recover a technology that key in disuse for the appearance of other techniques. It is the hydraulic wheel with their multiple possibilities to use their energy mechanical rotational in direct form or to generate electricity directly in the fields in the place and to avoid the high cost of transport and transformation. The basic theory is described that consists in: the power of the currents of water and the hydraulic receivers. The power of the currents is determined knowing the flow and east knowing the section of the flow and its speed; they are given you formulate to know these and direct mensuration methods by means of floodgates, drains and jumps of water. The hydraulic receivers or properly this hydraulic wheels that are the machines in those that the water acts like main force and they are designed to transmit the biggest proportion possible of absolute work of the water, the hydraulic wheels of horizontal axis are the common and they are divided in: you rotate with water for under, you rotate with side water and wheels with water for above. It is analyzed each one of them, their components are described; the conditions that should complete to produce a certain power and formulate them to calculate it. There are 25 descriptive figures of the different hydraulic wheels

  20. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  1. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  2. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  3. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  4. Technology and control for hydraulic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, Y.; David, O.; Louveau, F.; Friconneau, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic manipulators are candidate for fusion reactor maintenance. Their main advantages are their large payload with respect to volume and mass, their reliability and their robustness. However, due to their force control limitations, they are disqualified for precise manipulation and are dangerous for the environment and themselves in case of unexpected collision. CEA, in collaboration with CYBERNETIX and IFREMER has developed the advanced hydraulic robot MAESTRO. Force and hybrid control has been developed in order to avoid the previous problems. Using 'pressure' control servo-valve instead of the standard 'flow' control servo-valve (standard configuration of the MAESTRO) makes a real simplification of the control loop. No more pressure sensors are needed for monitoring the hydraulic joint in force control mode and using this kind of valves makes big safety improvements. The French company IN-LHC, designed and manufactured a prototype of servo-valve that fits the performances and space constraints of the Maestro arm. A characterisation of this new product was made on a mock-up and a set of these prototypes integrated in the Maestro slave-arm. A comparison between the two actuating technologies was made and showed that the performances of the pressure servo-valves make it applicable to general application

  5. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  6. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  7. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  8. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  9. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  10. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  11. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  12. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  13. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  14. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  15. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  16. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  17. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  18. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  19. Manual Hydraulic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.; Voorendt, M.Z.

    This manual is the result of group work and origins in Dutch lecture notes that have been used since long time. Amongst the employees of the Hydraulic Engineering Department that contributed to this work are dr.ir. S. van Baars, ir.K.G.Bezuijen, ir.G.P.Bourguignon, prof.ir.A.Glerum,

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  1. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  2. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  3. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  4. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  5. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  7. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment Facility (THEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinell, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment Facility (THEF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overview describes the major test systems, measurements, and data acquisition system, and presents objectives, facility configuration, and results for major experimental projects recently conducted at the THEF. Plans for future projects are also discussed. The THEF is located in the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF) area at the INEL

  8. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  9. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  10. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  12. Acceptance Test Report for 241-SY Pump Cradle Hydraulic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this ATP is to verify that hydraulic system/cylinder procured to replace the cable/winch system on the 101-SY Mitigation Pump cradle assembly fulfills its functional requirements for raising and lowering the cradle assembly between 70 and 90 degrees, both with and without pump. A system design review was performed on the 101-SY Cradle Hydraulic System by the vendor before shipping (See WHC-SD-WM-DRR-045, 241-SY-101 Cradle Hydraulic System Design Review). The scope of this plan focuses on verification of the systems ability to rotate the cradle assembly and any load through the required range of motion

  13. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  14. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  15. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  16. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  17. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  18. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  19. The Phebus FP thermal-hydraulic analysis with Melcor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgane, Kikuo; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Fukahori, Takanori; Yoshino, Mamoru

    1995-01-01

    The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.2, has been applied for thermal-hydraulic pre-test analysis of the first test of the Phebus FP program (test FPT-0) to study the best test parameters and the applicability of the code. The Phebus FP program is an in-pile test program which has been planned by the French Commissariate a L'Energie Atomique and the Commission of the European Union. The experiments are being conducted by an international collaboration to study the release and transport of fission products (FPs) under conditions assumed to be the most representative of those that would occur in a severe accident. The Phebus FP test apparatus simulates a test bundle of an in-pile section, the circuit including the steam generator U-tubes and the containment. The FPT-0 test was designed to simulate the heat-up and subsequent fuel bundle degradation after a loss of coolant severe accident, using fresh fuel. Two options for fuel degradation models in MELCOR have been applied to fuel degradation behavior. the first model assumes that fuel debris will be formed immediately after the fuel support fails by cladding relocation due to the candling process. The other is the uncollapsed bare fuel pellets option, in which the fuel pellets remain standing in a columnar shape until the fuel reaches its melting point, even if the cladding has been relocated by candling. The thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the circuit and containment of Phebus FP are discussed herein. Flow velocities in the Phebus FP circuit are high in order to produce turbulent flow in a small diameter test pipe. The MELCOR calculation has shown that the length of the hot leg and steam generator are adequate to attain steam temperatures or 700 degrees C and 150 degrees C in the respective outlets. The containment atmosphere temperature and humidity derived by once through integral system calculation show that objective test conditions would be satisfied in the Phebus FP experiment

  20. The Phebus FP thermal-hydraulic analysis with Melcor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgane, Kikuo; Kiso, Yoshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Fukahori, Takanori [Hitachi Engineering Company, Ltd., Hitachi-shi Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Yoshino, Mamoru [Nuclear Engineering Ltd., Tosabori Nishi-ku (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.2, has been applied for thermal-hydraulic pre-test analysis of the first test of the Phebus FP program (test FPT-0) to study the best test parameters and the applicability of the code. The Phebus FP program is an in-pile test program which has been planned by the French Commissariate a L`Energie Atomique and the Commission of the European Union. The experiments are being conducted by an international collaboration to study the release and transport of fission products (FPs) under conditions assumed to be the most representative of those that would occur in a severe accident. The Phebus FP test apparatus simulates a test bundle of an in-pile section, the circuit including the steam generator U-tubes and the containment. The FPT-0 test was designed to simulate the heat-up and subsequent fuel bundle degradation after a loss of coolant severe accident, using fresh fuel. Two options for fuel degradation models in MELCOR have been applied to fuel degradation behavior. the first model assumes that fuel debris will be formed immediately after the fuel support fails by cladding relocation due to the candling process. The other is the uncollapsed bare fuel pellets option, in which the fuel pellets remain standing in a columnar shape until the fuel reaches its melting point, even if the cladding has been relocated by candling. The thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the circuit and containment of Phebus FP are discussed herein. Flow velocities in the Phebus FP circuit are high in order to produce turbulent flow in a small diameter test pipe. The MELCOR calculation has shown that the length of the hot leg and steam generator are adequate to attain steam temperatures or 700{degrees}C and 150{degrees}C in the respective outlets. The containment atmosphere temperature and humidity derived by once through integral system calculation show that objective test conditions would be satisfied in the Phebus FP experiment.

  1. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  2. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  3. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  4. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  5. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  6. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  7. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  8. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  9. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  10. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  11. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  12. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  13. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size

  14. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  15. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  16. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  18. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  19. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  20. Hydraulic fracturing proppants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. P. de Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be classified as unconventional or conventional depending on the oil and gas extraction difficulty, such as the need for high-cost technology and techniques. The hydrocarbon extraction from bituminous shale, commonly known as shale gas/oil, is performed by using the hydraulic fracturing technique in unconventional reservoirs where 95% water, 0.5% of additives and 4.5% of proppants are used. Environmental problems related to hydraulic fracturing technique and better performance/development of proppants are the current challenge faced by companies, researchers, regulatory agencies, environmentalists, governments and society. Shale gas is expected to increase USA fuel production, which triggers the development of new proppants and technologies of exploration. This paper presents a review of the definition of proppants, their types, characteristics and situation in the world market and information about manufacturers. The production of nanoscale materials such as anticorrosive and intelligent proppants besides proppants with carbon nanotubes is already carried out on a scale of tonnes per year in Belgium, Germany and Asia countries.

  1. Hydraulic jett mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient mixing of reactants into a waste stream has always been a problem in that there has been no mixer capable of combining all the elements of enhanced mixing into a single piece of equipment. Through the development of a mixing system for the mining industry to treat acid mine water containing heavy metals, a versatile new hydraulic jetting static mixer has been developed that has no moving parts and a clean bore with no internal components. This paper reports that the main goal of the development of the hydraulic jett mixer was to reduce the size of the tankage required for an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant through development of a static mixing device that could coincidentally aerate the treatment flow. This process equipment being developed would simultaneously adjust the pH and oxidize the metals allowing formation of the hydroxide sludges required for sedimentation and removal of the metals from the treatment stream. In effect, the device eliminates two reaction tanks, the neutralization/mixing tank and the aeration tank

  2. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  3. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  4. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  6. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  8. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  9. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  10. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  11. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  12. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  13. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  14. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  15. Process of preparing hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-12-11

    A process of preparing hydraulic cement from oil shale or shale coke is characterized in that the oil shale or shale coke after the distillation is burned long and hot to liberate the usual amount of carbonic acid and then is fine ground to obtain a slow hardening hydraulic cement.

  16. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  17. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Duraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that relate directly to this extraction method, neither in the EU as a whole nor in Poland. However, in Poland a new Geological and Mining Act is supposed to come into force on 1st January 2012, which will regulate natural gas extraction with a view to ensure proper extraction of shale gas in the near future. This article is aimed at showing Polish regulations, both planned and currently in force, as well as the relevant EU law in respect of shale gas extraction. The author would like to emphasize the need to create one coherent legislative regime which would enable entrepreneurs to commence extraction by way of hydraulic fracturing without creating a danger for the environment.

  18. Hydraulically centered control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlacher, W.R.; Sampson, W.T.; Schukei, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A control rod suspended to reciprocate in a guide tube of a nuclear fuel assembly has a hydraulic bearing formed at its lower tip. The bearing includes a plurality of discrete pockets on its outer surface into which a flow of liquid is continuously provided. In one embodiment the flow is induced by the pressure head in a downward facing chamber at the end of the bearing. In another embodiment the flow originates outside the guide tube. In both embodiments the flow into the pockets produces pressure differences across the bearing which counteract forces tending to drive the rod against the guide tube wall. Thus contact of the rod against the guide tube is avoided

  19. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  20. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  1. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  2. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  3. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  4. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  5. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  6. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  7. Planning for Conflict Termination and Post-Conflict Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flavin, William

    2003-01-01

    ... and coordinated British, French, and Israeli military operation. The French and British leadership conducted detailed, thorough planning to ensure that the costs and risks were reduced to an acceptable minimum...

  8. Operation results of the secondary circuits of the French PWR type power plant park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Global results of performances realized since 1981 by the French PWR 900 MW power plants (installed power, availability, casual or planned shutdowns); analysis of the behaviour (casual unavailability) comparing together the performances of the different components in the secondary circuit; behaviour of the principal materials of the secondary circuit and their weight in the unavailabilities of the whole French nuclear park [fr

  9. In-place testing of hydraulic snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, J.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing number of utilities have implemented periodic in-service inspection (ISI) programs of their hydraulic snubbers. This thrust has caused the nuclear power industry to seek cost-effective means of testing hydraulic snubbers. This paper reviews the following aspects of in-place testing and develops a technical justification for its use as a viable alternative to test bench testing. (1) A detailed examination of how in-place testing works is provided. Discussed are the hydraulic principles, fluid flow paths, and snubber test setup. (2) A comparison of the test bench and in-place test machines is provided. The discussion reviews the similarities and differences between the two test methods as well as the test results. (3) The need for correlation of in-place test results back to test bench data with a snubber footprint is discussed. (4) The issue of partial load testing with extrapolation to full load testing is discussed and compared with full load testing. The hydraulic principles as well as the costs and benefits of partial load versus full load testing are compared. (5) In-place test machine technology is reviewed. The operating principles, accuracies, and limitations are presented. (6) Actual test data are provided and reviewed on a test-by-test basis. (7) Lessons learned from actual in-place test jobs are reviewed. (8) In-place test procedures and calibration practices are outlined to illustrate the nature of the required planning on the part of the utility

  10. Experience in small hydropower indigenous manufacture of mini hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gao Rong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydropowers

    1995-07-01

    This document reports the China experience with fabrication of mini hydraulic turbines for small hydroelectric power plants. The document presents the necessity of indigenous manufacture for MHP equipment, the standardized and serialized production, the planning of the series of turbines, the manufacturing of turbine runners, and as a case study the basic conditions for manufacturing MHP turbines.

  11. The French gas industry in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, Meline

    2015-01-01

    After a first article which briefly outlines the importance of the gas world market (in a context of increase of energy demand and of necessity of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), and indicates the important roles played by French companies who intervene on the whole supply chain (Total, GDF Suez, EDF) or as engineering companies Technip, Gaztransport Technigaz or GTT (the last one is specialized in marine engineering and intervenes in the LNG sector), an interview of the State Secretary in charge of Foreign Trade is proposed. It addresses the presence and intervention of French companies as natural gas tends to become the first fuel in the energy mix for OECD countries, the present and future role of the French gas industry and the importance for France of this international profile, the French policy to support the development of this industry, how the French gas industry may intervene in international diplomatic relationships, and how France and its industry have contributed to an access for all to energy at the international level. The next article describes the development of GDF Suez activities in Latin America (in Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Argentina, Costa Rica and Peru). The activities of the EDF group in the gas sector are then presented: development of infrastructures (notably the methane harbour of Dunkerque). In an interview, the manager of the LNG market strategy for Total presents and comments the LNG's role in Total's strategy, the perspectives of the LNG market and the influence of a low oil price, the Total's position with respect to shale gas exploitation, the planned developments and investments for the LNG sector, the use of LNG in the transport sector, the impact of the Yamat LNG project in the Arctic region. Then, an interview of the GTT chairman is proposed; it addresses the fact that Total sold its shares to a Singapore investment company, the activities and clients, the issue of international regulations, and the objectives of this

  12. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  13. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  14. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  15. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  16. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  17. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  18. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  19. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinpeter, M.

    1985-01-01

    The article provides a comprehensive review of the progress and policy of the provision of energy in France. The main points are that the present 66% dependence upon imported energy should be reduced to 50% by AD2000 and that nuclear sources should by then provide 40% of the total energy supply and nearly 75% of that used for electricity generation (the remainder indigenous water power and coal) at between 600 and 850GW (1985, 275GW). Other sources of energy (oil, coal, natural gas, renewable sources other than hydraulic and energy saving) are discussed and stated to be of minor importance. Electricity supply and nuclear policies are treated in some detail, as is energy-commercial policy in the framework of current objectives, which include the encouragement of the use of electricity in industry, commerce and the home; the tariff structure directed towards this end is described. (C.J.O.G.)

  20. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  1. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Q, E-mail: qhshi@dfem.com.c [Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd., DEC 188, Huanghe West Road, Deyang, 618000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  2. The evolutions of energy in French regions between 2002 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Moroni, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    This publication proposes and comments maps, graphs and tables of data regarding energy production in France and in its regions over 10 years (2002-2012). Thus, it discusses the evolution of the nuclear, and non nuclear (notably hydraulic) plants, the development of wind and photovoltaic energy production (installed power) in the French regions. It outlines the strong geographic concentration of electricity production (three quarters of the production come from five regions), the global general decrease of energy consumption with a decrease of energy consumption in the housing sector, and an increase in the office building sector. It outlines that energy intensity decreases in almost all French regions

  3. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  4. Stirling/hydraulic artificial heart power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Bennett, A.; Emigh, S.G.; Griffith, W.R.; Noble, J.E.; Perrone, R.E.; White, M.A.; Martini, W.R.; Alexander, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The REL power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has been achieved with an engine (2.6 years) and hydraulic actuator/controller (1.6 years). Peak power source efficiency is 15.5 percent on 5 to 10 watts delivered to the blood pump push plate with 33 watts steady thermal input. Planned incorporation of power source output control is expected to reduce daily average thermal input to 18 watts. Animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. Volume and weight are 0.93 liter and 2.4 kg (excluding blood pump) with an additional 0.4 liter of low temperature foam insulation required to preclude tissue thermal damage. Carefully planned development of System 7 is expected to produce major reductions in size

  5. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  8. Steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inch, W.W.; Scott, D.A.; Carver, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses a code for detailed numerical modelling of steam generator thermal-hydraulics, and describes related experimental programs designed to promote in-depth understanding of three-dimensional two-phase flow. (auth)

  9. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  10. Robust Prediction of Hydraulic Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Manning’s n were required as input for further hydraulic analyses with HEC - RAS . HYDROCAL was applied to compare different estimates of resistance... River Restoration Science Synthesis (NRRSS) demonstrated that, in 2007, river and stream restoration projects and funding were at an all time high...behavior makes this parameter very difficult to quan- tify repeatedly and accurately. A fundamental concept of hydraulic theory in the context of river

  11. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  12. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  13. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  14. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  15. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  16. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  17. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  18. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  19. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  20. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  1. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  2. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  3. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  4. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  5. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  6. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  7. France - About the possibility to stop the 19 French reactors which are over 30 years of service. Overview of conditions for phasing out nuclear under condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Yves

    2011-03-01

    After having set a 30 year limit for a nuclear reactor life, the author analyses the associated consequences in terms of loss of production (while taking the load factor of the concerned reactors into account). He indicates the French production of different resources (nuclear, conventional thermal, hydraulic, renewable) and the French energy consumption, assesses the avoided production due to the shutting down of the 19 reactors, outlines that the present reactor fleet is under-exploited, and addresses the peak issue

  8. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  9. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  11. Birth of a hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump, i.e., the sharp transition between a supercritical and a subcritical free-surface flow, has been extensively studied in the past centuries. However, ever since Leonardo da Vinci asked it for the first time, an important question has been left unanswered: How does a hydraulic jump form? We present an experimental and theoretical study of the formation of stationary hydraulic jumps in centimeter wide channels. Two starting situations are considered: The channel is, respectively, empty or filled with liquid, the liquid level being fixed by the wetting properties and the boundary conditions. We then change the flow-rate abruptly from zero to a constant value. In an empty channel, we observe the formation of a stationary hydraulic jump in a two-stage process: First, the channel fills by the advancing liquid front, which undergoes a transition from supercritical to subcritical at some position in the channel. Later the influence of the downstream boundary conditions makes the jump move slowly upstream to its final position. In the pre-filled channel, the hydraulic jump forms at the injector edge and then moves downstream to its final position.

  12. ASTEC-CATHARE2 benchmarks on French PWR 1300MWe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Philippot, Marc; Foucher, Laurent; Guillard, Gaetan; Fleurot, Joelle

    2009-01-01

    The French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) is performing a level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2) on the French 1300 MWe reactors. This PSA-2 is heavily relying on the ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS (Germany). In order to assess the reliability and the quality of physical results of the ASTEC V1.3 code as well as the PWR 1300 MWe reference input deck, an important series of benchmarks with the French best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code CATHARE 2 V2.5 has been performed on 14 different severe accident scenarios. The present paper details 2 out of the 14 studied scenarios: a 12 inches cold leg Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and a 2 tubes Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR). The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary and secondary circuits is thoroughly investigated and the ASTEC results of the core degradation phase are presented. Overall, the thermal-hydraulic behavior given by the ASTEC V1.3 is in very good agreement with the CATHARE 2 V2.5 results. (author)

  13. Hydraulic and marine energies. Market evolution and perspectives on the medium term for the sector actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this report proposes an analysis of the hydraulic and marine energy sector and of its perspectives through the identification of its main activity determining factors, a presentation of the activity evolution until 2015, and a discussion of the process of concession renewal, and of the development of small hydroelectric projects. The second part presents and comments the financial performance of enterprises belonging to the sector, and the third part an overview of highlights and of development focuses of operators (increase of production capacities, concession renewals, international development, and diversification in other renewable energies). The third part reports an analysis of the sector context: structural brakes and drivers, hydraulic world market, hydraulic French market. The three last parts propose an analysis of the sector economic structure and of actors, data sheet for operators, equipment manufacturers and engineering companies, and economic and financial indicators for 192 operators which allow a comparative overview of these actors

  14. Acting against climate change, the French know-how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This publication aims at presenting for international purposes the French public and private know-how in the field of struggle against climate change and of decision-making tools. It first recalls the various international commitments (international mobilisation within the IPCC, United Nations, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC, the Kyoto protocol) and proposes an overview of the UE policy. The next part outlines the role of France as host of the COP21, and the French policy and its territorial declinations. It proposes an overview of the French global offer to meet climate challenges: a table indicates actions and actors in the fields of diagnosis, elaboration of action plans, monitoring and assessment, labelling, capacity development. An article presents the 'Monitoring, Reporting and Verification' (MRV) principle and the different arrangements, bodies and actors addressing these assessment issues, with a focus of methods of assessments of greenhouse gas emissions (standards and methods have been developed in France and are evoked). Various tools applicable in different sectors are also indicated, and the exportation of abilities regarding energy-climate diagnosis is outlined. The next part addresses methods, tools and publications addressing the diagnosis of consequences of climate change. The structure, content and approach of Territorial Climate Energy Plans (PCET) is presented and commented. The next parts show how French companies are mobilised to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, give an overview of public and private initiatives for adaptation to climate change, describe how energy-climate approaches are monitored and assessed, comment how French local communities act at an international level through decentralised cooperation, and indicate how French know-how is developed and can be exported in the field of education and training of actors

  15. Are the French neurology residents satisfied with their training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M

    2015-11-01

    There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mastery of energy in the French State buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-01

    One of the goals of the ADEME (the French Environment and Mastery of Energy Agency) is to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and of their equipments. Public and State buildings represent an important source of energy saving possibilities concerning the heating, the lighting and the air-conditioning. Total buildings energy consumption reached 86.3 Mtep in 1994 (45.2% of the total French energy consumption). State buildings represent only a 2.2 Mtep consumption per year for a heated surface of 65 millions of m{sup 2}. Heating represents 60% of this consumption. The corresponding functioning expenses are estimated to 3 billions of French Francs from which about 500 MF could be saved using more performing equipments and materials. In 1991, the French Ministry of Law in collaboration with the ADEME, carried out an action plan of energy audits for the mastery of energy in the French Law Courts. This action led to a 2.3 MF saving per year, from which 2.3 MF are gained without investments and 1.4 MF are linked to modernization works. Financing can be done by taking a 10 years credit-lease with refunding annuities lower than the saving generated by the investment. (J.S.). 1 ref., 1 photo.

  17. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  18. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  19. Climate plan 2004; Plan climat 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  20. Water hydraulic applications in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuko, M.; Koskinen, K.T.; Vilenius, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water hydraulic technology provides several advantages for devices operating in critical environment. Though water hydraulics has traditionally been used in very rough applications, gives recent strong development of components possibility to build more sophisticated applications and devices with similar capacity and control properties than those of oil hydraulics without the disadvantages of oil hydraulic systems. In this paper, the basic principles, possibilities and advantages of water hydraulics are highlighted, some of the most important design considerations are presented and recent developments of water hydraulic technology are presented. Also one interesting application area, ITER fusion reactor remote handling devices, are discussed. (Author)

  1. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  2. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  3. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  4. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010

  5. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2006-10-01

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  6. Coupling of 3-D core computational codes and a reactor simulation software for the computation of PWR reactivity accidents induced by thermal-hydraulic transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Caruge, D.; Paik, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The French CEA has recently developed a set of new computer codes for reactor physics computations called the Saphir system which includes CRONOS-2, a three-dimensional neutronic code, FLICA-4, a three-dimensional core thermal hydraulic code, and FLICA-S, a primary loops thermal-hydraulic transient computation code, which are coupled and applied to analyze a severe reactivity accident induced by a thermal hydraulic transient: the Steamline Break accident for a pressurized water reactor until soluble boron begins to accumulate in the core. The coupling of these codes has proved to be numerically stable. 15 figs., 7 refs

  7. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  9. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  10. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  11. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  12. Hydraulics submission for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  14. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  16. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-01-01

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% 239 Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: (sm b ullet)bare, (sm b ullet)1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or (sm b ullet)12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection

  17. Hydraulics submission for Gloucester County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  18. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  19. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  20. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  1. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  2. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  3. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  4. Stakeholder Engagement Road Map and Peer Review Overview for EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This roadmap outlines EPA’s plans to build upon the Agency’s commitment to transparency & stakeholder engagement coordinated during the development of the Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Study Plan & will help inform the 2014 HF study draft assessment report.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Guided by Single Radial Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiankui Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation direction and promoting deep penetration, but this notion currently lacks an effective theoretical support for fracture propagation. In order to verify the technology, a 3D extended finite element numerical model of hydraulic fracturing promoted by the single radial borehole was established, and the influences of nine factors on propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by the single radial borehole were comprehensively analyzed. Moreover, the term ‘Guidance factor (Gf’ was introduced for the first time to effectively quantify the radial borehole guidance. The guidance of nine factors was evaluated through gray correlation analysis. The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results to a certain extent. The study provides theoretical evidence for the artificial control technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture promoted by the single radial borehole, and it predicts the guidance effect of a single radial borehole on hydraulic fracture to a certain extent, which is helpful for planning well-completion and fracturing operation parameters in radial borehole-promoted hydraulic fracturing technology.

  6. Variabilidade espacial de classes de textura, salinidade e condutividade hidráulica de solos em planície aluvial Spatial variability of textural classes, salinity and hydraulic conductivity of soil in an alluvial plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo A. A. Montenegro

    2006-03-01

    , 320, and 520 m, respectively. It has been verified that the indicator geostatistics preserved the spatial correlation between texture and hydraulic conductivity, and between texture and electrical conductivity. Thus, the main soil classes can be adopted to represent different leaching and salinisation risk patterns. The discussed methodology has a potential for spatial variability investigations on soil physical properties in alluvial areas where contrasting soil classes prevail.

  7. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  8. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  9. French Influence on Portuguese Architects in the Age of Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayo, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    This investigation shows the European influence on the work of Portuguese architects of the Enlightenment period. Based on previous studies we focus our attention on the design of “Praça do Comércio” square and on a hypothesis, that it was based on the French Royal Square. We demonstrate that the design of Lisbon from the second half of the eighteenth-century was influenced by the theories and best practices of the time. We also confirm that the architect Eugénio dos Santos e Carvalho, a member of the reconstruction team for the Baixa, had in his personal library several reference books of French architectural practice that certainly influenced his architecture. The plans for the main square of Lisbon’s lower city, “Praça do Comércio”, can be compared to the “Place de Nos Conquêtes”, predecessor of the “Place Vêndome”, in its design, architecture and dimensions. This research analysed the cartography and iconography of Lisbon’s reconstruction. In particular, the drawings of “Praça do Comércio” and “Place de nos Conquêtes” were exhaustively studied. The comparative study of the elements for both squares lead to the conclusion that the Portuguese square presents many aspects of the French Age of Enlightenment, and in particular those featured in the “Place de nos Conquêtes”. This paper concludes that the Portuguese urban design and architectural projects of the 18th century are the result of previous knowledge where it was always possible to articulate the vernacular with academic design, and where many different influences left their mark on the culture of the period. The plans for the lower part of Lisbon display a mixture of references that relate to architectural and urban planning traditions of the Portuguese military engineering and contemporary French urban planning.

  10. Contribution to the development of the French electronuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work are described the research and development studies carried out by Denis Doizi on electronuclear power topics. It is composed into two parts: 1)the first part (1984-2001) deals with the research project on Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (Silva in French). In the second part (2001-2007) is particularly developed the plan of massive hydrogen production from nuclear heat. (O.M.)

  11. Present situation and future prospects for French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author depicts the present situation and future of the French nuclear power programme which has now become a major industrial reality after successful acceptance of a twofold challenge: the technical problem and that of training the personnel responsible for operating the power stations. The large number of nuclear plants now in operation and planned for the next few years makes electricity generated from nuclear power a ''new industrial reality'', which we must still learn to utilize to the best effect [fr

  12. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira

    1997-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission's research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment

  13. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  14. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  15. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  16. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  17. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  18. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  19. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  20. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  1. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  2. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  3. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  4. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  5. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y L; Li, G Y; Shi, Q H; Wang, Z N

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  6. Research and development program for PWR safety at the CEA reactor thermal hydraulics laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.

    1995-01-01

    Since the start of the French electronuclear program, the three partners Fermate, EDF and Cea (DRN and IPSN) have devoted considerable effort to research and development for safety issues. In particular an important program on thermal hydraulics was initiated at the beginning of the seventies. It is illustrated by the development of the CATHARE thermalhydraulic safety code which includes physical models derived from a large experimental support program and the construction of the BETHSY integral facility which is aimed to assess both the CATHARE code and the physical relevance of the accident management procedures to be applied on reactors. The state of the art on this program is described with particular emphasis on the capabilities and the assessment of the last version of CATHARE and the lessons drawn from 50 BETHSY tests performed so far. The future plans for safety research cover the following strategy: - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to perform safety studies on the basis of plant operation feedback - to contribute to treating the safety issues related to the future reactors and in particular the case of severe accidents which have to be taken into account from the design stage. The program on severe accidents is aimed to support the design studies performed by the industrial partners and to provide computing tools which model the various phases of severe accidents and will be validated on experiments performed with real and simulating materials. The main lines of the program are: - the development of the TOLBIAC 3D code for the thermal hydraulics of core melt pools, which will be validated against the Bali experiment presently under construction - the Sultan experiment, to study the capability of cooling by external flooding of the reactor vessel - the development of the MC-3D code for core melt

  7. French practice for assessing the fission product releases from the containment during a PWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Dufresne, J.; L'homme, A.

    1988-10-01

    French safety philosophy as concerns severe PWR accidents has already been outlined by the Director of CEA/IPSN in an article published in ''Nuclear Safety''. Therefore the present paper will focus on: a) the French reference source terms, as used for elaborating ultimate emergency procedures on PWRs and for emergency planning; b) the methods currently developed for more realistic assessments of the release of fission products during a severe accident

  8. Preparing to review the license application of the French geological disposal facility - Issues, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandrieux, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the French context for GDR authorization, the French dedicated legislative framework (28 June 2006 Act on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste), the challenges (regulatory issues, long-term project supervision, technical issues, procedural issues), and the preparing for the review of the DGR license application. A planning schedule is propose with Andra to submit license application for DGR in 2015

  9. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  10. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  11. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  12. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  13. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  14. Current Development and Trends in Thermal-Hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, I.

    2008-01-01

    A review of CSNI activities during the last two decades in the field of thermal-hydraulics and related topics has been extensively presented in sessions 2. to 9. New activities are in progress or planned partly based on recommendations of the CSNI Operating Plan and the CSNI SESAR SFEAR report, but also on requests coming from the member states. These activities are performed in the frame of the CSNI Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA) or in the frame of CSNI Projects. These actions are summarized in this paper.

  15. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  16. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy...... nonhydrostatic pressure contributions from surface tension in light of recent observations by Bush and co-workers [J. Fluid Mech. 558, 33 (2006); Phys. Fluids 16, S4 (2004)]. The model can be analyzed by linearization around the circular state, resulting in a parameter relationship for nearly circular polygonal...... states. A truncated but fully nonlinear version of the model can be solved analytically. This simpler model gives rise to polygonal shapes that are very similar to those observed in experiments, even though surface tension is neglected, and the condition for the existence of a polygon with N corners...

  17. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B.

    2003-01-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  18. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B. [EDF R and D, EDF SEPTEN Electricity of France - Research and Development, Department SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2003-07-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  19. Protest in Paris the successful reform of French science needs a greater commitment to openess and consultation

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    There has been a rebellion in the French scientific community over plans to put the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) on the road to becoming primarily a funding agency for university-based research.

  20. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  1. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  2. Control rod driving hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a control rod driving hydraulic device for an improved BWR type reactor, a bypass pipeline is disposed being branched from a scram pipeline, and a control orifice and a throttle valve are interposed to the bypass pipeline for restricting pressure. Upon occurrence of scram, about 1/2 of water quantity flowing from an accumulator of a hydraulic control unit to the lower surface of a piston of control rod drives by way of a scram pipeline is controlled by the restricting orifice and the throttle valve, by which the water is discharged to a pump suction pipeline or other pipelines by way of the bypass pipeline. With such procedures, a function capable of simultaneously conducting scram for two control rod drives can be attained by one hydraulic control unit. Further, an excessive peak pressure generated by a water hammer phenomenon in the scram pipeline or the control rod drives upon occurrence of scram can be reduced. Deformation and failure due to the excessive peak pressure can be prevented, as well as vibrations and degradation of performance of relevant portions can be prevented. (N.H.)

  3. Climate plan 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Climate Plan is an action plan drawn up by the French Government to respond to the climate change challenge, first by 2010 (complying with the Kyoto Protocol target), and, secondly, beyond this date. Projections for France show that national emissions could be 10% higher than the Kyoto target in 2010 if no measures are taken. This is particularly due to increasing emissions in the sectors affecting daily life (residential-tertiary sectors, transport, etc.). For this reason, the Climate Plan contains measures affecting all sectors of the economy and the daily life of all French citizens with a view to economizing the equivalent of 54 million tonnes of CO 2 each year by the year 2010, which will help to reverse the trend significantly. Beyond 2010, the Climate Plan sets out a strategy for technological research which will enable France to meet a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions four or fivefold by 2050. (author)

  4. Diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: French practical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Crestani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most frequent chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in adults. The management of rare diseases in France has been organised by a national plan for rare diseases, which endorsed a network of expert centres for rare diseases throughout France. This article is an overview of the executive summary of the French guidelines for the management of IPF, an initiative that emanated from the French National Reference Centre and the Network of Regional Competence Centres for Rare Lung Diseases. This review aims at providing pulmonologists with a document that: 1 combines the current available evidence; 2 reviews practical modalities of diagnosis and management of IPF; and 3 is adapted to everyday medical practice. The French practical guidelines result from the combined efforts of a coordination committee, a writing committee and a multidisciplinary review panel, following recommendations from the Haute Autorité de Santé. All recommendations included in this article received at least 90% agreement by the reviewing panel. Herein, we summarise the main conclusions and practical recommendations of the French guidelines.

  5. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK)

  6. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  7. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  8. Side event from the Coordination office at Warsaw: Latest developments on the French Wind Power Market: New rules, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; Elfassi, Paul; Froeding, Veronique; Petit, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    At the occasion of the 2010 edition of the European Wind energy Conference (EWEC 2010), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Side event on the latest developments of the French Wind Power Market. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The new regulatory framework under the 'Grenelle' laws: Wind energy planning. French National Action Plan: the wind energy challenge (Fabrice Cassin); 2 - The upcoming enforcement of the dangerous installations rules (ICPe) to wind power plants (Veronique Froeding); 3 - New tax system for wind energy projects and local acceptance (Jean-Francois Petit)

  9. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  10. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  11. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  12. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  13. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  14. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  15. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  16. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  17. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  18. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  19. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  20. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  1. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  2. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  3. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  4. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  5. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  6. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR THERMAL HYDRAULICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Auria, F; Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2017-01-12

    The nuclear thermal-hydraulics discipline was developed following the needs for nuclear power plants (NPPs) and, to a more limited extent, research reactors (RR) design and safety. As in all other fields where analytical methods are involved, nuclear thermal-hydraulics took benefit of the development of computers. Thermodynamics, rather than fluid dynamics, is at the basis of the development of nuclear thermal-hydraulics together with the experiments in complex two-phase situations, namely, geometry, high thermal density, and pressure.

  7. Calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity test has some defects such as weak repeatability, time-consuming. Taking bentonite as dual porous media, the calculation formula of the distance, d 2 , between montmorillonite in intraparticle pores is deduced. Improved calculated method of hydraulic conductivity is obtained using d 2 and Poiseuille law. The method is valid through the comparison with results of test and other methods. The method is very convenient to calculate hydraulic conductivity of bentonite of certain montmorillonite content and void ratio. (authors)

  8. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  9. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: Overview of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Dept. International Programmes, Berlin (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dept. International Relations, 92 - Clamart (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    - Purpose: The main purpose of the French-German Initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. - Coordination: GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit), supported in programme 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire) are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary. German Support by Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW) e.V.; French Support by Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), Electricite de France (EdF). - Programmes: Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million Euro within the frame work of the French- German Initiative: Programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS: Safety of the Chernobyl 'Sarcophagus', Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY: Study of the radioecological consequences of the accident,Programme 3: HEALTH: Study of health effects. - Background: At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real co-ordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the

  10. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Settled on 24 March 2000, the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is an independent authority. CRE supports an efficient functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, to the advantage of final consumers. CRE ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. CRE has examined the functioning of the wholesale markets for electricity and gas for the year 2007. The report discloses the results of a first set of analyses, as well as the next actions to be conducted in order to explain some observed behaviour. On the basis of analyses led on the electricity market, CRE observes that nuclear generation was marginal during 15% of the hours in 2007. Hydraulic generation was marginal during 25% of the hours, coal generation during 25% to 30% of the hours and oil generation during less than 2% of the hours in 2007. Finally, prices on the border markets were of high importance on the French prices which they determined during 20% to 25% of the hours of the year. On an efficient market, the price is driven by the marginal power plant among all those which contribute to satisfy the demand. Therefore the wholesale price formation is conditioned by the frequency of marginality of each generation sector and by the associated valuation of production. On the day-ahead market, when nuclear or hydraulic generation was marginal, the day-ahead price reflected the associated valuation which was decided by EDF. The level of this valuation was generally higher than the marginal generation cost of these plants. As a matter of fact, a producer, even market dominant, may legitimately seek to optimise its income, provided that there is no abuse of a dominant position or any price manipulation. Consequently, at this stage, the relevance of the valuation method for nuclear and hydraulic generation on the wholesale market is still to be checked. CRE has also demonstrated that generation transparency, even if it gradually increased, still needs to

  11. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in french

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Brodski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in french, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  12. Hydraulic nuts (hydranuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, S.

    2008-01-01

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation, HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  13. Analysis of the Phebus FPT0 containment thermal hydraulics with the Jericho and Trio-VF codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layly, V.D.; Spitz, P.; Mailliat, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the thermal hydraulic behavior of the containment, during the Phebus FPT0 test performed on December 2, 1993, with the Jericho code which deals with the thermal hydraulics of containment in the severe accident field. This code is part of Escadre which is the French system of codes in charge of predicting PWR severe accidents. After summarizing the relevant Jericho code characteristics and the preliminary assessment work for the Phebus conditions, we briefly describe the REPF 502 test facility and report the thermal hydraulic FPT0 experimental protocol. Then, the experiment / Jericho calculation comparisons are analysed. Because the Jericho code assumes a well-mixed atmosphere, some additional 3-D calculations have been carried out in order to get further insight on the convection flow patterns and qualify the well-mixed atmosphere assumption in the Phebus containment. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs

  14. Active offer of health services in French in Ontario: Analysis of reorganization and management strategies of health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise

    2018-01-01

    The availability of health services in French is not only weak but also inexistent in some regions in Canada. As a result, estimated 78% of more than a million of Francophones living in a minority situation in Canada experience difficulties accessing health care in French. To promote the delivery of health services in French, publicly funded organizations are encouraged to take measures to ensure that French-language services are clearly visible, available, easily accessible, and equivalent to the quality of services offered in English. This study examines the reorganization and management strategies taken by health care organizations in Ontario that provide health services in French. Review and analysis of designation plans of a sample of health care organizations. Few health care organizations providing services in French have concrete strategies to guarantee availability, visibility, and accessibility of French-language services. Implementation of the active offer of French-language services is likely to be difficult and slow. The Ontario government must strengthen collaboration with health care organizations, Francophone communities, and other key actors participating in the designation process to help health care organizations build capacities for the effective offer of French-language services. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Modeling and stability of electro-hydraulic servo of hydraulic excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenhua; Yin, Chenbo; Li, Guo; Sun, Menghui

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the hydraulic excavator is complicated and the working environment is bad. The safety and stability of the control system is influenced by the external factors. This paper selects hydraulic excavator electro-hydraulic servo system as the research object. A mathematical model and simulation model using AMESIM of servo system is established. Then the pressure and flow characteristics are analyzed. The design and optimization of electro-hydraulic servo system and its application in engineering machinery is provided.

  16. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  17. Validation studies of thermal-hydraulic code for safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapalehto, T.

    1995-01-01

    The thesis gives an overview of the validation process for thermal-hydraulic system codes and it presents in more detail the assessment and validation of the French code CATHARE for VVER calculations. Three assessment cases are presented: loop seal clearing, core reflooding and flow in a horizontal steam generator. The experience gained during these assessment and validation calculations has been used to analyze the behavior of the horizontal steam generator and the natural circulation in the geometry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant. Large part of the work has been performed in cooperation with the CATHARE-team in Grenoble, France. (41 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.)

  18. Simulation of the hydraulic performance of highway filter drains through laboratory models and stormwater management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Lashford, Craig; Coupe, Stephen J

    2017-05-23

    Road drainage is one of the most relevant assets in transport infrastructure due to its inherent influence on traffic management and road safety. Highway filter drains (HFDs), also known as "French Drains", are the main drainage system currently in use in the UK, throughout 7000 km of its strategic road network. Despite being a widespread technique across the whole country, little research has been completed on their design considerations and their subsequent impact on their hydraulic performance, representing a gap in the field. Laboratory experiments have been proven to be a reliable indicator for the simulation of the hydraulic performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs). In addition to this, stormwater management tools (SMT) have been preferentially chosen as a design tool for BMPs by practitioners from all over the world. In this context, this research aims to investigate the hydraulic performance of HFDs by comparing the results from laboratory simulation and two widely used SMT such as the US EPA's stormwater management model (SWMM) and MicroDrainage®. Statistical analyses were applied to a series of rainfall scenarios simulated, showing a high level of accuracy between the results obtained in laboratory and using SMT as indicated by the high and low values of the Nash-Sutcliffe and R 2 coefficients and root-mean-square error (RMSE) reached, which validated the usefulness of SMT to determine the hydraulic performance of HFDs.

  19. French electric power balance sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2010-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2009: key figures of the French electricity consumption, lowering of the French power generation, decrease of trade balance at borders but still positive, continuation of RTE's investments for the improvement of the grid performance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  20. Foreign direct investments into French real estate

    OpenAIRE

    BRIZARD, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to draw the global trend of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the French real estate market since 2008 and to understand foreign investors’ behavior and the incentives which urge them to invest in French property market. This study relies on the numerous yearly reports released by consulting and real estate companies and gives an overview of FDI since 2008. From a legal point of view, the French property market is extremely organized. Acquiring, holding and sel...

  1. French vertical flow constructed wetlands: a need of a better understanding of the role of the deposit layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands, treating directly raw wastewater, have become the main systems implemented for communities under 2,000 population equivalent in France. Like in sludge drying reed beds, an organic deposit layer is formed over time at the top surface of the filter. This deposit layer is a key factor in the performance of the system as it impacts hydraulic, gas transfers, filtration efficiency and water retention time. The paper discusses the role of this deposit layer on the hydraulic and biological behaviour of the system. It presents results from different studies to highlight the positive role of the layer but, as well, the difficulties in modelling this organic layer. As hydraulic, oxygen transfers, and biological activity are interlinked and impacted by the deposit layer, it seems essential to focus on its role (and its quantification) to find new developments of vertical flow constructed wetlands fed with raw wastewater.

  2. Radio cobalt in French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, A.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers. The activity levels of radio-cobalt vary according to the sampled compartments nature (bryophyta > immersed plants > sediment > fish). Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Cobalt is mainly fixed by kidneys; muscles is no more than 30 % of the total fish activity. (author)

  3. French programme for HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is reported that in the frameworks of the French HTR research program, stopped in 1979 the HTR coated particle fuel, fuel rod and prismatic fuel element design have been successfully developed and irradiation tested in France and specific examination methods for irradiated fuel particles, rods and graphite blocks have been developed. Currently CEA is involved in fission product transport experiments sponsored by the US Department of Energy and performed in the COMEDIE loop. Finally the CEA follows progress and developments in HTR fuel research and development throughout the world. 1 tab

  4. Future perspectives of French dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval M.

    1996-01-01

    If the French deterrence must disappear in aid of an European deterrence, it will be necessary to take in account the development of nuclear weapon in Asia and then our deterrence system should maintain its credibility by getting the appropriate length. If policy problems are as important for civil nuclear than for military nuclear, it will be necessary to show concern about them because the Asian economy is in full development and Asia is not so frightened by nuclear power than Europe. (N.C.)

  5. French regulations and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr

  6. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  7. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  8. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  9. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  10. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  11. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  12. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  13. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  14. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  15. Characteristics of Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarkani, M. S. S.; Tan, L. W.; Al-Gheethi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of hydraulic jump, especially the air entrainment within jump is still not properly understood. Therefore, the current work aimed to determine the size and number of air entrainment formed in hydraulic jump at three different Froude numbers and to obtain the relationship between Froude number with the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. Experiments of hydraulic jump were conducted in a 10 m long and 0.3 m wide Armfield S6MKII glass-sided tilting flume. Hydraulic jumps were produced by flow under sluice gate with varying Froude number. The air entrainment of the hydraulic jump was captured with a Canon Power Shot SX40 HS digital camera in video format at 24 frames per second. Three discharges have been considered, i.e. 0.010 m3/s, 0.011 m3/s, and 0.013 m3/s. For hydraulic jump formed in each discharge, 32 frames were selected for the purpose of analysing the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. The results revealed that that there is a tendency to have greater range in sizes of air bubbles as Fr1 increases. Experiments with Fr1 = 7.547. 7.707, and 7.924 shown that the number of air bubbles increases exponentially with Fr1 at a relationship of N = 1.3814 e 0.9795Fr1.

  16. Primary system thermal hydraulics of future Indian fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velusamy, K., E-mail: kvelu@igcar.gov.in [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Natesan, K.; Maity, Ram Kumar; Asokkumar, M.; Baskar, R. Arul; Rajendrakumar, M.; Sarathy, U. Partha; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P. [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kumar, G. Senthil; Jebaraj, C. [AU-FRG Centre for CAD/CAM, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present innovative design options proposed for future Indian fast reactor. • These options have been validated by extensive CFD simulations. • Hotspot factors in fuel subassembly are predicted by parallel CFD simulations. • Significant safety improvement in the thermal hydraulic design is quantified. - Abstract: As a follow-up to PFBR (Indian prototype fast breeder reactor), many FBRs of 500 MWe capacity are planned. The focus of these future FBRs is improved economy and enhanced safety. They are envisaged to have a twin-unit concept. Design and construction experiences gained from PFBR project have provided motivation to achieve an optimized design for future FBRs with significant design changes for many critical components. Some of the design changes include, (i) provision of four primary pipes per primary sodium pump, (ii) inner vessel with single torus lower part, (iii) dome shape roof slab supported on reactor vault, (iv) machined thick plate rotating plugs, (v) reduced main vessel diameter with narrow-gap cooling baffles and (vi) safety vessel integrated with reactor vault. This paper covers thermal hydraulic design validation of the chosen options with respect to hot and cold pool thermal hydraulics, flow requirement for main vessel cooling, inner vessel temperature distribution, safety analysis of primary pipe rupture event, adequacy of decay heat removal capacity by natural convection cooling, cold pool transient thermal loads and thermal management of top shield and reactor vault.

  17. French high level wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.; Sombret, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    The first French spent fuel reprocessing plant went on stream in 1956 at Marcoule. Since then, all French irradiated fuels and some foreign spent fuels have been reprocessed either in this plant or in a subsequent plant built at La Hague. Marcoule is primarily devoted to metallic fuels, and La Hague to oxide fuels. The fission products solutions generated by reprocessing are acid liquids. They are stored on site in double walled stainless steel tanks fitted with a cooling device to deal with thermal release due to radioactive decay. Although these liquids are retrievable and can be transfered from one tank to another, and in spite of the fact that no disturbance such as overheating or leakage has ever occurred, a decision was made to solidify these solutions in order to make interim storage and, later on, ultimate disposal, safer and easier to control. Glass was chosen, because it is a flexible medium to deal with and it answers the quality requirements of ultimate disposal as well as the manufacturing constraints, such as equipment corrosion, volatilization during fabrication, and suitability to casting into canisters

  18. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  19. Hydraulic loop: practices using open control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.A.; Alonso, L.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Tecnatom Hydraulic Loop is a dynamic training platform. It has been designed with the purpose of improving the work in teams. With this system, the student can obtain a full scope vision of a system. The hydraulic Loop is a part of the Tecnatom Maintenance Centre. The first objective of the hydraulic Loop is the instruction in components, process and process control using open control system. All the personal of an electric power plant can be trained in the Hydraulic Loop with specific courses. The development of a dynamic tool for tests previous to plant installations has been an additional objective of the Hydraulic Loop. The use of this platform is complementary to the use of full-scope simulators in order to debug and to analyse advanced control strategies. (Author)

  20. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected......'s mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... subcritical flow, we assume that the critical height is attained close to the channel outlet. We use mass and momentum conservation to determine the position of the jump and obtain an estimate which is in rough agreement with our experiment. We show that the averaging method with a varying velocity profile...

  1. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  2. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  3. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  4. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  5. effective hydraulic conductivity for a soil of variable pore size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, soil, infiltration, permeability, water. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. Accurate determination of hydraulic conductivity is very crucial for infiltration and runoff estimation. Factors which affect water infiltration in the soil include hydraulic conductivity, wetting front and soil.

  6. Inserting the hydraulic works in the urban scenery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiaffonati, F.; Mussinelli, E.

    1999-01-01

    In the latest planning situation, the theme of water is becoming a basic factor of environmental quality. The laws and rules, particularly in Italy, are both evolving towards an active protection of landscape and the development of new approaches in environmental design. The European cases here analysed demonstrate a richness of projects and realizations on different scales that show a useful reference also for those contexts, like the Italian one, that are starting to consider the fitting of hydraulics works in urban landscape [it

  7. Local agenda 21. The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In keeping with the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and with the ''Agenda 21'' Action program for the 21 Century, the French Minister of the Environment, in January 1993, and again on 11 May 1994, set up new mechanisms, entitled ''Urban Ecology Charters'' or ''Environmental Charters'', also described as ''Partnership Programmes for Sustainable Development''. Their purpose is to implement a new economic approach which, in the Rio spirit, encourages a sustainable form of development, characterized by the integration of environmental costs. Since 1999, a broad new legal text, the ''Act on Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Policy'' encourages urban and rural local government to define and run development projects that refer to Chapter 28 of the Action 21 program of Rio. The development of Agenda 21 is now supported by contracts between the State and local authorities of various character, such as the large ''Regions'' (of which there are only 21 in France), local institutions responsible for managing urban agglomerations, smaller ad-hoc rural areas called ''Pays'', and some of the regional natural parks or reserves. Such development projects are required broadly to call upon the participation of, and partnership with concerned private and public stakeholders. They must support modes of production and consumption that are thrifty in resources (energy, water, soil, air, biodiversity), and also socially responsible towards populations of other countries and future generations. (author)

  8. The absent father of Sino-French cinema: Contemporary Taiwanese cinema and 1950s French auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, ME

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. In contemporary Sino-French cinema, father characters who are dead, long lost or geographically distant leave gaping holes in the lives of the offspring left behind. The absent fathers in Sino-French films by Taiwanese auteurs Cheng Yu-chieh, Hou Hsiao-hsien and Tsai Ming-liang serve as metaphors for French auteurs. French New Wave films constitute the majority of the intertexts; however, early 1950s French cinema and even late nineteenth-century painting reflect th...

  9. Assessment and perspective of the French wind sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, Jerome; Ranchin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    This report first proposes an inventory of public and private research laboratories already involved in the field of wind energy, an inventory of their expertise, and an inventory of education and training programs in this field. The next part proposes a comparative study of research and education in the field of wind energy among European countries: presentation of French industrial actors, overview of the world wind energy industry, overview of the situation in some countries (Germany, Denmark, Spain and United States), overview of research in these countries and in France, overview of European education and comparison with France. The authors then report an identification of industrial R and D needs with a description of the French sector (industrial actors, public bodies and professional association, R and D laboratories), an analysis of the main development modalities (site selection, environmental study, town planning document, public survey, construction permit, connection to the grid), an analysis of main obstacles (connection, intermittency, environment as a source of conflicts and stakes, opponents), a brief evocation of tariffs, and an analysis of technology (current research themes, analysis of existing R and D European strategies). The last part reports an identification of strengths of the French research, and states some restructuring proposals

  10. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl (FGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Chernobylsk (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million EURO within the framework of the French-German initiative: - Programme 1 - SARCOPHAGUS, referring to the safety of the Chernobyl 'SARCOPHAGUS'; - Programme 2 - RADIOECOLOGY, concerning the study of the radioecological consequences of the accident; - Programme 3 - HEALTH regarding the study of health effects. At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real coordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the ecological and medical consequences of the accident. The main purpose of the French-German initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. GRS supported in program 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary.

  11. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  12. Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabonese French Dictionaries: Survey and Perspectives. 257 ... be regarded, according to Gouws (2007: 314), as externally motivated products. .... Fair attention is given to different style or normative levels, i.e. .... differs enough from standard French to be regarded as a new emerging lan- ..... Tous les leaders des par-.

  13. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  14. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  15. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  16. French for Specific Purposes: The Hawaiian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, Mustapha

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of and the reaction to a course in Business French at the University of Hawaii. Its success, coupled with its recognition by state and academic officials, brought about the initiation of similar courses in other languages and the development of French for travel industry management majors. (SED)

  17. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  18. The French Language in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  19. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  20. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  2. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  3. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  4. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  5. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  6. Information and dialogue process on safety and environmental effects of the hydraulic fracturing technology; Der Informations- und Dialogprozess zur Sicherheit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Fracking-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Dietrich; Richter, Sandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Ewen, Christoph [team ewen, Darmstadt (Germany); Hammerbacher, Ruth [hammerbacher gmbh - beratung und projekte, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    After the big success of hydraulic fracturing in the USA, natural gas utilities are now planning natural gas production from nonconventional deposits (shale gas, coal seam gas) by hydraulic fracturing also in Germany. In order to calm public fears, an 'information and dialogue process on safety and environmental effects of the hydraulic fracturing technology' was initiated. A risk study carried out by a team of neutral experts gives recommendations for a well-founded, careful and realistic discussion of the environmental compatibility of hydraulic fracturing.

  7. Information and dialogue process on safety and environmental effects of the hydraulic fracturing technology; Der Informations- und Dialogprozess zur Sicherheit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Fracking-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Dietrich; Richter, Sandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Ewen, Christoph [team ewen, Darmstadt (Germany); Hammerbacher, Ruth [hammerbacher gmbh - beratung und projekte, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    After the big success of hydraulic fracturing in the USA, natural gas utilities are now planning natural gas production from nonconventional deposits (shale gas, coal seam gas) by hydraulic fracturing also in Germany. In order to calm public fears, an 'information and dialogue process on safety and environmental effects of the hydraulic fracturing technology' was initiated. A risk study carried out by a team of neutral experts gives recommendations for a well-founded, careful and realistic discussion of the environmental compatibility of hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  9. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the valuable ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems they remain threatened around the globe. As a result, the restoration of mangrove forests has become an important topic of research. Urban development has been a primary cause for mangrove destruction and d...

  10. Microseismic signatures of hydraulic fracture growth in sediment formations: Observations and modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Hainzl, S.; Eisner, L.; Shapiro, S. A.; Le Calvez, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. B2 (2008), B02307/1-B02307/12 ISSN 0148-0227 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : microseismic data * hydraulic fracture simulation * Texas Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  11. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : land management * soil structure * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  12. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological functioning of the Nyl River floodplain in the Limpopo Province of South Africa depends on water supplied by catchments which are experiencing continuing water resource development. Hydrological and hydraulic models have been produced to assist in future planning by simulating the effects of ...

  13. Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam J; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Smeding, Annique; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Régner, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M age  = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Saltos, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  15. Stars War in French Gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergaud, Olivier; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we analyze the careers from a sample of more than 1,000 top French chefs over more than twenty years and link it to the success or reputation of the restaurants where they have worked. This allows us to test what are the determinants of success but also to investigate the dynamics...... of performance and reputation, stressing the importance of the quality of apprenticeships, mentoring and entrepreneurship spirit. We find that the prestige of the restaurant where individuals work is on average declining along the career, and that the quality of apprenticeship is strongly related to the future...... success as chef. We also find that prices of restaurants with higher reputation are more sensitive to bad signals....

  16. Disputing Rossellini: Three French perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Harvey-Davitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his burgeoning body of film theoretical work the French philosopher Jacques Rancière repeatedly turns to some canonical films by Neorealist pioneer Roberto Rossellini. Not simply retreading tired motifs of Neorealism, Rancière’s comments offer some profound new insights, revolutionising prior perspectives on Rossellini. In this article I shall put Rancière’s perspective into dialogue with two of the most significant of these perspectives: André Bazin’s and Gilles Deleuze’s. In doing so I shall claim that Rancière’s approach departs radically from the canonised, standardised Neorealist conception of Rossellini. Instead, I wish to claim that he describes a modernist artist primarily concerned with aesthetic clashes. In doing so I shall contemplate how the meaning of these films has evolved since the era of their contemporary reception, demonstrating the congruence and disparity between these three disparate approaches.

  17. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  18. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  19. Clusia blattophila sp. nov. (Clusiaceae) from an inselberg in French Guiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Gustafsson, M. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2011), s. 178-181 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Clusia * inselberg * French Guayana Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2011

  20. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  1. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De la Cruz, Eulogio; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Lavado Soto, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  3. Experimental thermal hydraulics in support of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic design plays a crucial role for the safe and economical deployment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Robust experimental programmes are required in support of LMFBR thermal hydraulics design. The philosophy of testing has been to construct small scale models to understand the physical behaviour and to build larger scale models to optimize the component design. The experiments are conducted either in sodium or using a simulant like water/air. The paper gives a brief account of the various thermal hydraulic experiments carried out in support of the design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). (author)

  4. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  5. Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle

  6. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  7. Université de Genève - Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet1211 Genève 4Tél : +41 22 379 6383 (secrétariat)Tél : +41 22 379 6256 (réception) Fax: +41 22 379 6922 Lundi 30 octobre 2006 COLLOQUE 17h00 - Auditoire Stueckelberg Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre Dr S. Udry / Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny Depuis la détection de la première 'exoplanète' en orbite autour d'une étoile semblable à notre soleil, il y a un peu plus de 10 ans, près de 200 candidats planétaires ont été mis à jour, la plupart par spectroscopie Doppler. Les propriétés variées et inattendues de ces systèmes seront discutées ainsi que les contraintes qu'elles fournissent pour les modèles de formation planétaire. Si les planètes découvertes sont pour la plupart des géantes gazeuses ressemblant à Jupiter, un nouveau pas a été récemment franchi avec la détection de planètes plus légères (10-20 masses terrestres) et probabl...

  8. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution; L'utilisation des maquettes aeriennes et hydrauliques pour l'etude de la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facy, L; Perrin De Brichambaut, C; Doury, A; Le Quinio, R

    1962-07-01

    Fundamental studies on turbulent atmospheric diffusion of finely divided particles, cannot remain on a purely theoretical basis. Further experimental studies must be considered. - In full scale, from accidental and induced releases. - On a reduced scale, in aerodynamic wind tunnels or hydraulic water tunnels. A first set of studies on reduced scale models has been worked out according to a contract between French 'Meteorologie Nationale' and French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' and with the Collaboration of Saint-Cyr 'Institut Aerotechnique'. Essentially two kinds of results have been obtained: - The mathematical model of SUTTON for the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, deduced from the SUTTON theory, generally used by us, has been correctly verified, qualitatively and quantitatively whenever experiments were consistent with the theory conditions. - The quantitative assays of photographic and cinematographic visualization have given precise details on the phenomena inaccessible to calculations, due to the influence of obstacles and release conditions. - Generally, it can be asserted, that the atmospheric pollution studies are worked out by mock up experimentations and that, in some cases these experiments never can be replaced by mathematically pure models. (authors) [French] Les etudes fondamentales portant sur la diffusion turbulente dans l'atmosphere de quantites de matieres finement divisees, ne peuvent se maintenir sur un plan exclusivement theorique. C'est pourquoi des etudes experimentales complementaires doivent etre obligatoirement envisagees: - en vraie grandeur, a partir d'emissions accidentelles ou provoquees; - sur modeles reduits, en soufflerie aerodynamique ou en veine hydraulique. En ce qui concerne les modeles reduits, une premiere serie d'etudes a pu etre menee a bien, dans le cadre d'un contrat passe entre la Meteorologie Nationale et le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, et avec la collaboration de l'Institut Aerotechnique de Saint

  9. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo; Lee, Jong-won; Park, Sangdeok

    2015-01-01

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program

  10. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  11. French Society Abroad: The Popularization of French Dance throughout Europe, 1600-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paul Rinehart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dissemination of French dance, dance notation, and dance music throughout Europe, and it explains the reasons why French culture had such an influence on other European societies from 1600-1750. First, the paper seeks to prove that King Louis XIV played a significant role in the outpour of French dance and the arts. Next, the paper discusses prominent French writers of dance notation who influenced the spread of French dance literature and training throughout Europe. Finally, the paper delineates European composers and their involvement in the development and production of French dance music. Using academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and other scholarly sources, this paper seeks to accurately present the information in an orderly fashion. The paper contains visual evidence of dance and music notation to assist the reader in understanding the subject matter. Additionally, theories of contemporary authors as well as authors from the time period are discussed to present concrete evidence. The two main types of dance discussed in the paper are ballroom and court dances, which were prominent within the French royal court. One major finding of the research is the fact that French court and ballroom dances were specifically designed to communicate the power and prestige of King Louis XIV; consequently, other European countries were influenced to strive for similar prestige. Another finding is that many forms of French dance notation were translated and published in other countries, which increased the use of French dance throughout Europe. Musically, European composers such as Handel and Mozart included elements of French dance music in their compositions, and thus played a significant role in prevalence of French dance music throughout Europe. Overall, this paper proves that French dance received wide recognition due to political influence, availability of dance notation, and the involvement of prominent composers.

  12. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    clarifier. The inlet zone of an existing rectangular storm water clarifier was redesigned to improve the fluid flow conditions and reduce the hydraulic head loss in order to remove the lamellar plates and adapt the clarifier to the needs of high-rate clarification of storm water with flocculant addition...... excessive local head losses and helped to select structural changes to reduce such losses. The analysis of the facility showed that with respect to hydraulic operation, the facility is a complex, highly non-linear hydraulic system. Within the existing constraints, a few structural changes examined......The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...

  13. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  14. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  15. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  16. Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2010-01-01

    The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston–cylinder and drag-based microdevices. (topical review)

  17. National Laboratory of Hydraulics. 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This progress report of the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) of Electricite de France (EdF) summarizes, first, the research and development studies carried out in 1996 for the development of research tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and for the development of computer tools (computer codes and softwares for fluid mechanics modeling, modeling of reactive, compressible, two-phase and turbulent flows and of complex chemical kinetics using finite elements and finite volume methods). A second parts describes the research studies performed for other services of EdF, concerning: the functioning of nuclear reactors (thermohydraulic studies of the reactor vessel and of the primary coolant circuit, gas flows following severe accidents, fluid-structure thermal coupling etc...), fossil fuel power plants, the equipment and operation of thermal power plants and hydraulic power plants, the use of electric power. A third part summarizes the river and marine hydraulic studies carried out for other companies. (J.S.)

  18. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  19. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  20. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  1. Hydraulic concrete composition and properties control system

    OpenAIRE

    PSHINKO O.M.; KRASNYUK A.V.; HROMOVA O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  2. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  3. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  4. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2005-01-01

    is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results.......Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...

  5. Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1992-10-01

    The report documents the work performed within the Research and Development Task T hermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs , funded by the German government. It contains the development of new codes, the extension of existing codes, the qualification and verification of codes and the development of a code library. The overall goal of this work was to adapt the system of thermal hydraulics and mechanics codes to the permanently growing requirements of the status of science and technology

  6. The yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This is an account of a paper appeared in Energy Economist, February 1988 and contains a severe critique of the French nuclear power policy, in particular the Electricite de France, Cogema and Framatome. It is argued that the blueprint of the original nuclear power program has not been achieved in many topics. Points of critique to the EdF are: the electricity price, overcapacities and financial indeptedness. The French industries are not flourishing due to ample supply of cheap energy, nor do French nuclear manufacturers sell the fast breeder technology throughout the world. (qui)

  7. French electric power balance sheet 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Riere, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2010: increase of RTE's investments and safety expenses for adapting the grid to the new electricity industry stakes and to meteorological hazards, decrease of power cuts frequency, rise of the French power consumption, strong increase of winter consumption peaks, increase of the French power generation, increase of the positive trade balance. New RTE's infrastructures, electricity quality data, and the evolution of market mechanisms are presented in appendixes

  8. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2014-01-01

     COLLOQUIAL FRENCH is easy to use and completely up to date!Specially written by experienced teachers for self-study or class use, the course offers a step-by-step approach to written and spoken French. No prior knowledge of the language is required.What makes COLLOQUIAL FRENCH your best choice in personal language learning?Interactive - lots of exercises for regular practiceClear - concise grammar notesPractical - useful vocabulary and pronunciation guideComplete - including answer key and reference sectionWhether you''re a business traveller, or about to take up a daring challenge in adventu

  9. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  10. BWR 9 X 9 Fuel Assembly Thermal-Hydraulic Tests (2): Hydraulic Vibration Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiaki Tsukuda; Katsuichiro Kamimura; Toshiitsu Hattori; Akira Tanabe; Noboru Saito; Masahiko Warashina; Yuji Nishino

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted thermal-hydraulic projects for verification of thermal-hydraulic design reliability for BWR high-burnup 8 x 8 and 9 x 9 fuel assemblies, entrusted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the NUPEC thermal-hydraulic projects, hydraulic vibration tests using full-scale test assemblies simulating 9 x 9 fuel assemblies were carried out to evaluate BWR fuel integrity. The test data were applied to development of a new correlation for the estimation of fuel rod vibration amplitude. (authors)

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  12. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping...

  13. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  14. Validation of CESAR Thermal-hydraulic Module of ASTEC V1.2 Code on BETHSY Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Bandini, Giacomino; Foucher, Laurent; Fleurot, Joëlle; Meloni, Paride

    The ASTEC V1 system code is being jointly developed by the French Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) and the German Gesellschaft für Anlagen und ReaktorSicherheit (GRS) to address severe accident sequences in a nuclear power plant. Thermal-hydraulics in primary and secondary system is addressed by the CESAR module. The aim of this paper is to present the validation of the CESAR module, from the ASTEC V1.2 version, on the basis of well instrumented and qualified integral experiments carried out in the BETHSY facility (CEA, France), which simulates a French 900 MWe PWR reactor. Three tests have been thoroughly investigated with CESAR: the loss of coolant 9.1b test (OECD ISP N° 27), the loss of feedwater 5.2e test, and the multiple steam generator tube rupture 4.3b test. In the present paper, the results of the code for the three analyzed tests are presented in comparison with the experimental data. The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the BETHSY facility during the transient phase is well reproduced by CESAR: the occurrence of major events and the time evolution of main thermal-hydraulic parameters of both primary and secondary circuits are well predicted.

  15. French Wine and the U.S. Boycott of 2003: Does Politics Really Affect Commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Orley Ashenfelter; Stephen Ciccarella; Howard J. Shatz

    2007-01-01

    In early 2003, France actively tried to thwart the plans of the Bush administration to build international support for a war to depose Iraqi ruler Saddam Hussein. In response, calls in the United States for a boycott of French products, wine in particular, rebounded through all forms of media. In the spring of 2003, French business people even reported that the boycott calls were hurting their U.S. sales. Using a dataset of sales of nearly 4,700 individual wine brands, we show that there actu...

  16. Proceedings of the 1991 national conference on hydraulic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1991 National Conference of Hydraulic Engineering. The conference was held in conjunction with the International Symposium on Ground Water and a Software Exchange that facilitated exchange of information on recent software developments of interest to hydraulic engineers. Also included in the program were three mini-symposia on the Exclusive Economic Zone, Data Acquisition, and Appropriate Technology. Topics include sedimentation; appropriate technology; exclusive economic zone hydraulics; hydraulic data acquisition and display; innovative hydraulic structures and water quality applications of hydraulic research, including the hydraulics of aerating turbines; wetlands; hydraulic and hydrologic extremes; highway drainage; overtopping protection of dams; spillway design; coastal and estuarine hydraulics; scale models; computation hydraulics; GIS and expert system applications; watershed response to rainfall; probabilistic approaches; and flood control investigations

  17. GTRgaz: investment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    GTRgaz company published on June 2007 its indicative development plan for the 10 years to come. This document serves as a communication vector between GTRgaz and the actors of the market and presents the projects of development of the gas transportation network as defined on the basis of the evolution of French and European markets, and on the knowledge of capacity needs directly or indirectly expressed by the suppliers community. This article summarizes the different points of this plan: reduction of the number of balancing points, development of interconnection capacities, development of output capacities, network free interplay improvement beyond 2013. (J.S.)

  18. Energy challenges: European viewpoints and French answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gjidara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union attempts to improve the European energy market so that it is better coordinated because in a unified Europe it is no longer possible to act in isolation. The production of energy form renewable sources of great proportions demands a mutually linked European energy market if the aims established in the “Energy and Climate” programme and adopted in 2009 are to be achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish how the principles of European Law influence legal norming in energy issues and in the battle against global warming. The development of energy which does not emit carbon dioxide is in accordance with the aims set by the European Union. In that area, this development relies on regions, and not just countries which are not always able to implement defined ambitious aims. Energy continues in the majority of cases to depend on the power of countries and European control is limited. The European Union participates mainly in the co-ordination and support of national policy, within provisions relating to trans-European networks and within environment protection policy. In principle, the measures relating to the choice of each country from the various sources of energy and on the general structure of providing energy have been unanimously accepted. Particular attention has been given to comparing the French legal rules which are applied in the development of renewable sources of energy and the adaptation of the law on renewable sources of energy and laws on environmental protection to urban planning and the importance of supervision with European legal standards of regulation.

  19. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  20. [The French medecine pricing committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, D

    2017-09-01

    The French medicine pricing committee (CEPS) has to reconcile several major constraints, including optimal patient access to medicines and a good control of expenditures on reimbursable medicines. From 2013 to 2015, drug price decreases and discounts obtained by CEPS contributed more than € 5 billion to the balance of the health insurance accounts. As for price setting, there is a significant drop in the prices of medicines in France once they are registered for reimbursement. France is affected by a limited, but costly, flow of innovative medicines, whose prices are higher than those of previous generations, a reflection of an international gradient to which France is obviously subject, despite prices that remain at the low end of the range in Western Europe. The provision of innovative medicines for all patients who need them has been ensured in France over the last fifteen years at a controlled cost. But with the arrival of new expensive products, a resolute policy of control of expenditures must take over from the fall in prices, and original financing channels will have to be explored. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  2. New generation of French ISIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, J.; Cattiaux, G.; Clicques, J.; Landez, J.P.; Birac, A.M.; Benoist, P.; Viard, J.

    1986-11-01

    Up to now, 110 pre- or inservice inspections of PWR vessels have been performed both in France and aboard by the mean of the first generation of french ISIM named MIS. Due to the increase of the number inspections which have to be realized in the next years, a new generation of ISIM have been developed. The first one is named MIS 5. The general structure of the mechanical part of MIS has not been changed, some improvements have been introduced to take in account the experience and facilitate maintenance, mounting, dismounting and transportation. The main changes lie in the control system and data acquisition and analysis equipment. The versatility of computers is widely used. A parametrizing unit allows to set all the parameters both for the tools and for the ultrasonic equipment and the data acquisition system. The ultrasonic equipment is able of managing 32 channels. Data are recorded simultaneously on Winchester disk, bulk memory and cassette of a HP 1000 computer (serial 900) and cassette. SOFTWARES have been developed by INTERCONTROLE for acquisition and analysis which allow to exhibit results automatically on screen printer or/and plotter. All the electronics and computer equipment are set in a shelter outside of the containement, linked to the MIS by 2 cables. 7 refs

  3. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  4. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  5. [Strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities of French research in trophic ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perga, Marie-Élodie; Danger, Michael; Dubois, Stanislas; Fritch, Clémentine; Gaucherel, Cédric; Hubas, Cedric; Jabot, Franck; Lacroix, Gérard; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marmonier, Pierre; Bec, Alexandre

    2018-05-30

    The French National Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE) aims at fostering pluridisciplinarity in Environmental Science and, for that purpose, funds ex muros research groups (GDR) on thematic topics. Trophic ecology has been identified as a scientific field in ecology that would greatly benefit from such networking activity, as being profoundly scattered. This has motivated the seeding of a GDR, entitled "GRET". The contours of the GRET's action, and its ability to fill these gaps within trophic ecology at the French national scale, will depend on the causes of this relative scattering. This study relied on a nationally broadcasted poll aiming at characterizing the field of trophic ecology in France. Amongst all the unique individuals that fulfilled the poll, over 300 belonged at least partly to the field of trophic ecology. The sample included all French public research institutes and career stages. Three main disruptions within the community of scientist in trophic ecology were identified. The first highlighted the lack of interfaces between microbial and trophic ecology. The second evidenced that research questions were strongly linked to single study fields or ecosystem type. Last, research activities are still quite restricted to the ecosystem boundaries. All three rupture points limit the conceptual and applied progression in the field of trophic ecology. Here we show that most of the disruptions within French Trophic Ecology are culturally inherited, rather than motivated by scientific reasons or justified by socio-economic stakes. Comparison with the current literature confirms that these disruptions are not necessarily typical of the French research landscape, but instead echo the general weaknesses of the international research in ecology. Thereby, communication and networking actions within and toward the community of trophic ecologists, as planned within the GRET's objectives, should contribute to fill these gaps, by reintegrating microbes within

  6. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordjman, F.; Vivies, P. de; Pariente-David, S.; Zagury, Ph.; April, F.; Guenaire, M.; Greiveldinger, H.; Rottenberg, J.; Lemaire, Ch.; Gentou, H.; Lesaffre, Th.; Besnault, J.; Martin, S.; Mouton, F.R.; Boulanger, Ph.

    2003-05-01

    The following topics are discussed: the national and european regulation framework; the french market opening forms; the impacts (purchase policy) on the actors (big industrial groups) and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  7. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  8. language teacher recruitment in the French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We first present the broad lines of the French system of language teacher recruitment in ... Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Turkish and .... knowledge and learning ability), the higher the Department's.

  9. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and presumably based on the present participle diff erant. (from differer), which in French means ... grammatical items that can fill the determiner slot). But ... or opposition which gives them form [ ... ] Here the ..... Here is a simple example from ...

  10. French bank mergers and acquisitions performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Ben Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of mergers and acquisitions on French bank performance. Performance is measured by potential gains in efficiency and value creation. We first analyzed efficiency using the data envelopment analysis (DEA under input oriented with variable returns to scale to obtain the efficiency scores. Second, we analyzed the impact on French bank value creation following mergers-acquisitions operations of a set of control variables (model 1 and explicative variables measuring strategic similarities between bidders and targets (model 2. The sample studied is composed of French bank mergers-acquisitions happening between 1996 and 2006 and implying one of the 14 greatest French banking groups. Empirical result showed that mergers and acquisitions have been traduced by an improvement in the overall efficiency by 17.82% and a shareholder value reduction by 5.14%

  11. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  12. Opening of the French gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2002-01-01

    A report on the opening of the French gas market has been established, on the request of both the French minister of economy, finances and industry and the state secretary of industry, as expressed in their respective letters addressed to the president of the commission of electric power regulation (CRE). This report follows the step report on the opening of the French gas market published on January 15, 2002. It presents a status of the French gas market since August 2000, date of the enforcement of the European Union directive 98/30/CE, and expresses some recommendations about the main questions that should fall into the field of the future gas regulation. This report was elaborated before the project of law relative to the energy markets and published on October 24, 2002. These recommendations will have to be adapted to the dispositions of the law. This article presents some excerpts of the synthesis report. (J.S.)

  13. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  14. developing french for specific purposes in the nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    Following the changing role of the French Language from a vehicle of French culture to a vehicle of Science, Technology, Commerce and Diplomacy, the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL) around the world has shifted emphasis from literary studies to what has come to be known as French for Specific Purposes ...

  15. Unforgettable French Memory Tricks to Help You Learn and Remember French Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Rice-Jones, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Unforgettable French uses memory tricks to teach and reinforce major points of rench grammar from the basics up to high school level, to learners of all ages. It may be used: by anyone who wishes to gain confidence in speaking French, as a evision aid, to consolidate the learner's grasp of grammatical points, to complement whatever French scheme you are using, and by French teachers at all levels, from elementary school through to adult. These tried-and-tested memory tricks help to explain "tri

  16. The CRE mission in French Guyana. Report, February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document reports a mission in French Guyana which aimed at assessing technical and logistic constraints on the electric power system, and the situation of isolated communities, and also at meeting the various actors (EDF as local producer and grid manager, institutional actors, actors involved in the development of the biomass sector, managers of the Kourou space centre which is the main consumer, representatives of the mining industry). The first part of this report proposes an overview of the demographical situation and of stakes of economic development which are both determining factors of the evolutions of the electricity system. The second part proposes an analysis and assessment of the electric power system of the Guyanese coast: production fleet, maintenance of a dam, replacement of a power plant, moderate development of photovoltaic energy, low development but promising perspectives for other renewable energies (hydraulic, biomass), geographical distribution of future production means, development of storage. The third part addresses the power system of inland communities: increasing population with increasing needs, isolated areas, isolated and mainly thermal production plants, lack of support and development

  17. Approaching French Language Literature in Canadian Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Charlie

    2005-01-01

    This book forms a self-study pack and teaching guide to help English speakers start using computers and the web to support their studies of French Canadian Literature, song, film and multimedia. Readers will need access to the Internet so that they can experience ‘Electronic Encounters’ with Canadian media in French and English. The approach is underpinned with ideas drawn from the analysis of travel writing.

  18. Activating teaching methods in french language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhánková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.

  19. French strategy for green finance. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Ducret, Pierre; Berthaud, Cecilia; Evain, Julie; Scolan, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The authors present their report on the French Strategy for Green Finance. Green finance has expanded rapidly since 2015 but much remains to be done to make capital flows consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement. France can continue to play a pioneering role to promote the energy and ecological transition, and to support Paris's role as a financial centre. The task force is putting forward recommendations along four axes for a French strategy to foster green finance

  20. French effort in field NDT nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, R.

    1983-12-01

    For the in-service inspection of nuclear generating stations, the French Atomic Commission has built up a program first to increase the defect detection probability, secondly to increase the reliability and recently to improve the characterization of defects. Focused Ultrasound and multiple frequency eddy current techniques, developped by French Atomic Energy Commission are well known. In this paper we will present the latest developments made in relation with defect characterization

  1. Thermal hydraulic considerations in liquid-metal-cooled components of tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.

    1989-01-01

    The basic considerations of MHD thermal hydraulics for liquid-metal-cooled blankets and first walls of tokamak fusion reactors are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD program of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) dedicated to analytical and experimental investigations of reactor relevant MHD flows and development of relevant thermal hydraulic design tools is presented. The status of the experimental program and examples of local velocity measurements are given. An account of the MHD codes developed to date at ANL is also presented as is an example of a 3-D thermal hydraulic analysis carried out with such codes. Finally, near term plans for experimental investigations and code development are outlined. 20 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Water hydraulic manipulator for fail safe and fault tolerant remote handling operations at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, Peetu; Esque, Salvador; Muhammad, Ali; Mattila, Jouni; Vaeyrynen, Jukka; Siuko, Mikko; Vilenius, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation (IHA) of Tampere University of Technology has been involved in the European Fusion program since 1994 within the ITER reactor maintenance activities. In this paper we discuss the design and development of a six degrees of freedom water hydraulic manipulator with a force feedback for teleoperation tasks. The manipulator is planned to be delivered to Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) during year 2008. The paper also discusses the possibility to improve the fail safe and redundant operation of the manipulator. During the design of the water hydraulic manipulator, special provisions have been made in order to meet the safety requirements such as servo valve block for redundant operation and safety vane brakes for fail safe operation.

  3. French in the XX Century: Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya I. Skorobogatova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the disclosure of changes that occurred in the French language in the XX century. The task of the authors is to present the main features characteristic of the French language of the 20th century, taking into account external history and to give their perspective assessment. World wars, the development of communication tools and the creation of new technologies, the strengthening of cultural and economic ties between France and other countries of the world had a significant impact on the evolution of the French language. Important results of the development of the French language in the period under review include: fixing a new phoneme [ŋ] in the consonantial system of the French language; enrichment of the lexical system at the expense of internal resources and at the expense of other languages; strengthening the dynamics of the development of the non-literary part of the language; increase in the number of syntactic Anglicisms. In general, the authors of the article attempted to give a detailed answer to the question: if there was the impoverishment of the French language in the twentieth century.

  4. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  5. A new bladeless hydraulic turbine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, V.; Sedláček, M.; Maršík, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, APR 2013 (2013), s. 978-983 ISSN 0306-2619 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rolling turbine * low head hydro power * stability of flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 5.261, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.12.016

  6. Report on the behalf of the Finance, General Economy and Budgetary Control Commission on the Finance bill for 2011 (n. 2824), appendix N. 13: ecology, sustainable development and land planning, hazard prevention, management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report comments the grants awarded to two programmes, the first one concerning the prevention of hazards, and the second concerning the management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies. These two programmes are emblematic of the French government's action and ambition in the field of sustainable development and ecology. For the first one, the report comments the evolution of grants, their objectives and performance indicators. Then it addresses its various aspects: prevention of technological hazards and pollutions, prevention of natural and hydraulic hazards, nuclear safety, after-mine management. For the second programme, the report gives an assessment of the ministry reorganization, and comments the means requested for 2011

  7. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new hydraulic yaw system for wind turbines. The basic component is a new type of hydraulic motor characterized by an extraordinary high specific displacement yielding high output torque in a compact form. The focus in the paper is the volumetric efficiency of the motor, which...

  8. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  9. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  10. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness. The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  11. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2015-11-12

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  12. Experimental evaluation of the hydraulic resistance of compacted bentonite/boom clay interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Delage, Pierre; Munoz, Juan Jorge; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the in-situ PRACLAY Heater experiment to be performed in the HADES URF in Mol (Belgium), the feasibility of a hydraulic cut-off of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the Repository Components (RC) of the disposal galleries by using a horizontal seal will be examined. It has been planned to install an annular seal composed of compacted bentonite between the heated zone and the access gallery (PRACLAY seal test), so that to avoid any hydraulic shortcut towards the access gallery. According to numerical scoping calculations, heating until 80 deg C will induce a pore pressure of the order of 3.0 MPa. In order to verify the effects of this water pressure on the performance of the annular seal system and more specifically on the hydraulic resistance of the interface between the compacted bentonite and the host rock (Boom clay), laboratory percolation tests at 20 and 80 deg C were performed. The results confirm the performance of the compacted bentonite seal to avoid the hydraulic shortcut to the access gallery under the foreseen hydraulic and thermal conditions. (author)

  13. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency, but ...... the hydraulic power supply in the most energy efficient way, when considering a number of load situations. Finally an example of the approach is shown to prove its validity.}......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency...

  14. French participation in the world energy council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, Ch.; Roussely, F.; Francony, M.; Ailleret, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F.; Villaron, Th.

    1999-01-01

    The Revue de l'Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m 2 , the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l'Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary's office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  15. Establishment of International Cooperative Network and Cooperative Research Strategy Between Korea and USA on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Won Pil; Song, Chul Hwa; Jeong, Jae Jun; Choi, Ki Yong; Kang, Kyoung Ho

    2004-07-01

    1. Scope and Objectives of the Project - Successful holding of the NURETH-10 - Analysis of the international trends in technology development and applications for nuclear thermal-hydraulics - Establishment of the international cooperative network and cooperative research strategy between Korea and USA on nuclear thermal-hydraulics 2. Research Results - Successful holding of the NURETH-10 - Analysis of the international trends in technology development and applications for nuclear thermal-hydraulics: - Establishment of international cooperative network and cooperative research strategy focused between Korea and USA on nuclear thermal-hydraulics: 3. Application Plan of the Research Results - Utilization as the basic data/information in establishing the domestic R and D directions and the international cooperative research strategy, - Application of the relevant experiences and data bases of NURETH-10 for holding future international conferences, - Promote more effective and productive research cooperation between Korea and USA

  16. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  17. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  18. Three-dimensional assessment of the normal Japanese glenoid and comparison with the normal French glenoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, N; Nonaka, S; Ozaki, R; Yoshida, M; Yoneda, M; Walch, G

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was approved in Japan. We were concerned that the base plate might be incompatible with Japanese who were generally smaller than Westerners. Therefore, we investigated the dimensions and morphology of the normal Japanese glenoid and compared with the normal French glenoid. One hundred Japanese shoulders without glenoid lesions (50 men and 50 women) were investigated and compared with 100 French shoulders (50 men and 50 women). Computed tomography was performed with 3-dimensional image reconstruction and images were analyzed using Glenosys software. Glenoid parameters (width, height, retroversion and inclination) were compared between Japanese and French subjects. In Japanese subjects, the mean glenoid width was 25.5mm, height was 33.3mm, retroversion was 2.3° and inclination was 11.6° superiorly. In French subjects, the mean glenoid width was 26.7mm, height was 35.4mm, retroversion was 6.0° and inclination was 10.4° superiorly. Glenoid width and height were significantly smaller in Japanese subjects than French subjects (P=0.001 and PFrench subjects (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of inclination. These findings will help surgeons to identify suitable patients for RSA and perform the procedure with appropriate preoperative planning. IV: retrospective or historical series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  20. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  1. Optimum use of CDOT French and Hamburg data (French and Hamburg tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been collecting data from the Hamburg Rutter and the : French Rutter for over 20 years. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r...

  2. Factor 4 planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bariol-Mathais, Brigitte; Lavoillotte, Philippine; Gall-Sorrentino, Florence; Malez, Marianne; Sanna, Daniela; Marsauche, Maud; Marquet, Sarah; Debergue, Sophie; Aminu, Olufunmi; Bernard, Helene; Marchand, Jean-Michel; Blin, Frederic; Grange, Jerome; Caillierez, Sophie; Muller, Dania; Clement, Bob; Desire, Jean-Charles; Metais, Benedicte; Lannuzel, Philippe; Pezet-Kuhn, Murielle; Pons, Anne; Rivoire-Meley, Benedicte; Tissot, Heloise

    2015-07-01

    Factor 4 is the goal of cutting our greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050. Achieving this objective will necessitate radical changes in our practices, in particular concerning transport and housing; the measures currently implemented, such as positive-energy buildings, low-impact mobility and eco-neighbourhoods, will not be enough to meet this goal. These measures must be conceived in the framework of broad territorial planning that integrates environmental and energy objectives far upstream. To this end, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French network of Urban Planning Agencies (FNAU), pursuing their missions in their respective areas of competence, have joined forces to make infrastructure and land use planning an integral part of the environmental and energy transition process. In 2013, the two organisations signed a partnership agreement and compiled an inventory of practices that are relevant to Factor 4 planning. This work was led by Epures, Saint-etienne urban planning agency, along with FNAU, drawing upon the expertise of a dozen urban planning agencies in precursor territories. This inventory describes the stakes, resources and strengths for each territory, which have led to cross-sectoral territorial planning exercises with ambitious environmental and energy objectives; the importance of evaluation in attaining these goals is emphasised. Current experience, questions and available methodological tools are summarised in this document, to encourage territories and help them design their planning policies along a trajectory to achieve Factor 4 goals. The compilation also aims to be a contribution to the COP21 climate conference

  3. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  4. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    Soil compaction is a major threat to sustainable soil quality and is increasing since agricultural machinery is becoming heavier and is used more intensively. Compaction not only reduces pore volume, but also modifies the pore connectivity. The inter-Nordic research project POSEIDON (Persistent...... effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...

  5. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  6. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  7. Design of a hydraulic ash transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Discusses general design of a hydraulic ash removal system to be employed at the reconstructed six 225 MW blocks of the Mironov State Regional Power Plant in the USSR. The blocks burn low-grade solid fuel with an ash content of up to 40.5%. Large quantities of ash have to be moved from the plant (total ash production 60 t/h, using 570 t/h of water for cooling and moistening). An optimum hydraulic ash transportation system would include a two-section airlift pumping system, shown in a diagram. Technological advantages of using this airlift system are enumerated, including short pipes, reduction in required water quantity and the possibility of siting hydraulic pumps at zero level.

  8. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  9. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  10. Hydraulic Properties related to Stream Reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E. C.; Wallace, J. R. [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  11. Hydraulic properties related to stream reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E C; Wallace, J R [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  12. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  13. Hydraulic modelling of the CARA Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel O.; Juanico, Luis; Giorgi, M.; Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Zampach, Ruben; Fiori, Jose M.; Yedros, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    The CARA fuel element is been developing by the National Atomic Energy Commission for both Argentinean PHWRs. In order to keep the hydraulic restriction in their fuel channels, one of CARA's goals is to keep its similarity with both present fuel elements. In this paper is presented pressure drop test performed at a low-pressure facility (Reynolds numbers between 5x10 4 and 1,5x10 5 ) and rational base models for their spacer grid and rod assembly. Using these models, we could estimate the CARA hydraulic performance in reactor conditions that have shown to be satisfactory. (author) [es

  14. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...... district. The case study considers a novel approach to the design of district heating systems in which the diameter of the pipes used in the system is reduced in order to reduce the heat losses in the system, thereby making it profitable to provide district heating to areas with low energy demands. The new...

  15. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  16. Hydraulic efficiency of a Rushton turbine impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Z.; Kysela, B.; Fort, I.

    2017-07-01

    Based on CFD simulations hydraulic efficiency of a standard Rushton turbine impeller in a baffled tank was determined at a Reynolds number of ReM=33330. Instantaneous values of pressure and velocity components were used to draw up the macroscopic balance of the mechanical energy. It was shown that the hydraulic efficiency of the Rushton turbine impeller (energy dissipated in a bulk volume) is about 57%. Using this result we estimated a length scale in a non-dimensional equation of kinetic energy dissipation rate in the bulk volume as L=D/2.62.

  17. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Barbier, D.; Caruso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  18. Hydraulic regenerative system for a light vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Orpella Aceret, Jordi; Guinart Trayter, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is based in a constructed light vehicle that must be improved by adding a hydraulic energy recovery system. This vehicle named as TrecoLiTH, participated in the Formula Electric and Hybrid competition (Formula EHI) 2009 in Italy -Rome- and won several awards. This system consists in two hydraulic motors hub mounted which are used to store fluid at high pressure in an accumulator when braking. Through a valve the pressure will flow from the high pressure accumulator to the low press...

  19. A hydraulic device for unloading coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretinin, M.V.; Abizgildin, U.M.; Kirillov, T.S.; Makarov, M.I.; Prokopov, O.I.; Solov' ev, A.M.

    1979-07-15

    A hydraulic device for unloading petroleum coke from slow carbonization chambers is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to increase the output of large size coke by controlling the increment of the cutting line of the coke, the mechanism used to move the rod in the hydraulic cutter is built in the form of a rod rotation rotor; a gear wheel is mounted on the immobile section of this rotor, and on the mobile section a multi-stage regulator is installed. The drive gear of the regulator is engaged with the gear wheel, while the driven gear is connected to the rack, which is fastened to the rod.

  20. Health Priorities in French-Speaking Swiss Cantons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chastonay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, the federal authorities, the cantons, and the communes share the responsibility of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion policies. Yet, the cantons are in most health matters independent in their decisions, thus defining as a matter of fact their own health priorities. We examined and analysed the content of the disease prevention and health promotion plans elaborated during the last decade in six French-speaking cantons with different political contexts and resources, but quite similar population health data, in order to identify the set health priorities. The plans appear significantly inhomogeneous in their structure, scope and priorities. Most of the formal documents are short, in the 16 to 40 pages range. Core values such as equity, solidarity and sustainability are explicitly put forward in 2/6 cantonal plans. Priority health issues shared by all 6 cantons are “physical activity/sedentariness” and “nutrition/food.” Mental health is explicitly mentioned in 5 cantonal plans, whereas tobacco and alcohol consumptions are mentioned 4 times. Less attention has been given to topics that appear as major public health challenges at present and in the future in Switzerland, eg, ageing of the population, rise of social inequalities, increase of vulnerable populations. Little attention has also been paid to issues like domestic violence or healthy work environments. Despite some heterogeneity, there is a common base that should make inter-cantonal collaborations possible and coordination with national strategies easily feasible.