WorldWideScience

Sample records for freight wing trailer

  1. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are currently extensively used for trailer flooring. For manufacture, wood-based flooring is higher in energy efficiency and lower in carbon emission than steel, aluminum and plastics. Moreover, wood per se is a natural product that sequesters carbon. Accordingly, using more wood-based trailer flooring is effective to reduce global warming.

  2. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  3. Bicycle Trailers Increase Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of an exceptional parent who always takes his daughter for rides in a CycleTote special needs bicycle trailer. Dennis Foster, an exceptional parent from Commerce, Oklahoma, found that taking his twenty-eight-year-old daughter Hasha for rides has made her happy. Hasha has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

  4. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  5. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  6. Becoming Trivial: The Book Trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Voigt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of audiobooks and e-books, printed stories still are in high demand. However, in a globalized world which is more and more ruled by mass media and technology, it is increasingly difficult for writers and publishers to promote their books. The solution is almost ironic: popular media, which is assumed to decrease readership, is turned into a tool to increase the number of readers. In 2002 the book trailer emerged as a new web-based marketing strategy for the launch of new books. Since then the appearance of the book trailer has changed considerably. The article examines specific examples and highlights methods that establish the relationship between the content of the book and its representation in the book trailer. Although guidelines apply for the production of book trailers, such as constraints relating to time and content, there are no limitations for the imagination of the producers. A book trailer may be simple, supported only by music and pictures, but they may also be as complex as short films. Additionally, book trailers are not limited to the promotion of one specific genre or age group. Depending on the viral potential of social networks such as YouTube, Facebook, and Tumblr book trailers reach a global audience and, therefore, open up new markets. It can be argued, while book trailers have not yet reached the realm of the everyday, they will gradually come to the attention of academics and this article wants to present a starting point for this development.

  7. Forecasting freight flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...

  8. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  9. FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. REGGIANI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of European policy on the interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU. In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future – both international (EU and national (the Alpine countries – freight transport development. The paper is organised to briefly describe the main objectives of EU transport policy, to generally introduce the concept of intermodal transport with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport and to describe past, present and future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport. The scenarios of future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport have been particularly analysed.

  10. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  11. Concept Design of Trailor Ferry Service to Carry 150 Trailers Between Jacksonville, FL and Bridgeport, CT of USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindagi, S. C.; Sandhu, B. S.

    2015-04-01

    With the increased load on highways, today there is a need to develop alternate ways to transport goods within the sovereignty. The use of ships to transport goods has always been the primary method of transporting goods across the seas but it can also be used to transport goods within the country. This way we can reduce the load on highways which at this point of time serve as the primary method of transportation. Worldwide very few ferries are in operation which transports 100-150 Trailers between two ports. Catching on this opportunity for design, construction and operation of vessels, a survey for possible routes in United States of America which will transport 150 Trailers has been conducted by various authorities and organizations. The challenge here is to determine the parameters of the vessel and design a fleet of vessels that could carry trailers along with their tractors within the least possible time and in with least possible freight between Jacksonville, FL and Bridgeport, CT of United States of America. The primary aim of the work presented here is to propose a design with fleet in such a way that each day 150 trailers could be loaded and unloaded at each of the two mentioned ports. An analysis of the route between the ports brought out various primary parameters like the distance, weather, different load lines to be encountered and also several size constraints that the vessel needs to adhere to, in order to ply smoothly on this route. The vessel is designed as per the Guidelines for ships operating in international waters. The economic analysis of the project was performed spanning over 20 years and the best freight was found out which would be most profitable for the company as well as be a good value for money for the customers.

  12. Mickey’s Trailer and Environmental Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The influence of popular cartoons on environmental cognition is explored in this essay through readings of Mickey’s Trailer, a 1938 cartoon directed by Ben Sharpsteen for Walt Disney. Other materials considered include Ford Motor Company’s 1937-38 film coproduced by Wilder Pictures...

  13. Extra-safe tractor-trailer coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, W. P.; Sparks, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Built-in safety mechanism for tractor-trailer "fifth-wheel" coupling keeps rig together in case kingpin failure. Modified coupling utilizes all standard components, such as two wear plates, kingpin, and kingpin latch. It is modified by adding semicircular lip to top wear plate, matching semicircular slot to bottom wear plate, and two latching stop mechanisms.

  14. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  15. Road freight and the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makamo, N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  16. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: cost estimating methodology. Volume III, parts A and B. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.A.; Morlok, E.K.; Gimm, K.K.; Zandi, I.

    1976-07-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of an intercity freight pipeline, it was necessary to develop cost equations for various competing transportation modes. This volume presents cost-estimating equations for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar, truck, and freight pipeline. Section A presents mathematical equations that approximate the fully allocated and variable costs contained in the ICC cost tables for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and truck common-carrier intercity freight movements. These equations were developed to enable the user to approximate the ICC costs quickly and easily. They should find use in initial studies of costs where exact values are not needed, such as in consideration of rate changes, studies of profitability, and in general inter-modal comparisons. Section B discusses the development of a set of engineering cost equations for pneumo-capsule pipelines. The development was based on an analysis of system components and can readily be extended to other types of pipeline. The model was developed for the purpose of a feasibility study. It employs a limited number of generalized parameters and its use is recommended when sufficient detailed and specific engineering information is lacking. These models were used in the comparison of modes presented in Volume I and hence no conclusions regarding relative costs or service of the modes are presented here. The primary conclusion is that the estimates of costs resulting from these models is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  17. Experiments in autonomous reversing of a tractor-trailer system

    OpenAIRE

    Pradalier, Cédric; Usher, Kane

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Trailer reversing is a problem frequently considered in the literature, usually with fairly complex non-linear control theory based approaches. In this paper, we overview our simple method for stabilizing a tractor-trailer system to a trajectory based on the notion of controlling the hitch-angle of the trailer rather than the steering angle of the tractor. The performance of this control method, as implemented on the CSIRO Autonomous Tractor, is then experimentally com...

  18. To Forward The Freight Forwarding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's freight forwarding industry is suffering a lot as the country's foreign trade has slowed down. The dwindling overseas markets, the rising RMB exchange rates and the soaring prices of raw materials have been restraining the exports and the imports, and have thereby been depressing the freight volumes, Besides, the global leading freight forwarding companies have expanded their shares in the Chinese market. China'sfreight forwarders are losing the comparative advantages in local market and human resources,

  19. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail.......Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  20. Improving Urban Freight Governance and Stakeholder Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bech Godskesen Andersen, Christina; Figueroa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Urban freight transport is a complex field characterised by many actors and stakeholders and thus many rationalities are at stake. This paper contributes to literature on urban freight governance by approaching the field with social system theory combined with the concepts of relationship platforms...... and value co-creation. This approach facilitates an improved process to foster implementation of innovative urban freight solutions that is illustrated by means of an analysis of the Copenhagen Citylogistik-kbh demonstration project. The results of this analysis indicate that attaining a shared sense...... of value creation among stakeholders through this process is key to implementation of new urban freight solutions....

  1. Encouraging Learners to Use English: Lessons from Trailer Park ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Florin M.; Platt, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine teachers' beliefs and enactments in fostering independent functioning in English in an adult English as a Second Language program (Trailer Park ESL). The students who participated in the Trailer Park ESL program were native speakers of Spanish from Mexico, worked construction jobs in north Florida, spoke…

  2. Formation Flight: Upstream Influence of a Wing on a Streamwise Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald; Lehigh University Fluids Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    Aircraft flying together in formation can experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex of the leader wing on the trailer wing can increase the lift to drag ratio L/D and the unsteady loading on the trailer wing. These increases are sensitive to the impingement location of the vortex on the wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity and vorticity on successive crossflow planes along the vortex, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure as it approaches the trailer wing. This evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the upstream influence of the trailer wing, and is highly dependent on the location of vortex impingement. As the spanwise impingement location of the vortex moves from outboard of the wing tip to inboard, the upstream influence on the development of the vortex increases. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the in-plane vorticity; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square of both streamwise velocity and vorticity.

  3. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  4. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  5. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  6. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  7. Urban freight transportation: challenges, failures and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.J.; Peeters, R.; Woensel, T. van

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  8. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  9. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  10. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight... licensed freight forwarder shall have the option of: (1) Identifying itself as such and/or, where...

  11. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Teslenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizational structure of management of railway freight transportations based on product principle is offered that allows functioning of private operator companies and realizing of transportations on competition basis.

  13. Safeguarding Schiphol Airports accessibility for freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Ebben, Mark; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly

  14. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  15. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for Hearing... Florida, and OC is currently located at 4458 NW 74th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33166. Omar Collado is identified... its qualifying individual, Mr. Collado, lacked the requisite character to be licensed as an OTI....

  16. Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, R.A.

    1995-03-06

    The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP`s facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson`s facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified.

  17. A desconstrução audiovisual do trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Oliveira Iuva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Para além das reflexões acerca de uma dada produção audiovisual, este artigo tem por finalidade ensaiar possíveis desconstruções da noção hegemônica da publicidade no trailer. Daí que, acerca do mesmo, é importante considerar que esse não está restrito, somente, à promoção de filmes, uma vez que se observa na televisão, no jornalismo, nos videoclipes, etc., a presença de audiovisuais com construções semelhantes às dos trailers. Como chamaríamos esses audiovisuais, uma vez que o termo trailer, em princípio, estaria restrito a peças que possuem relação a um filme? De tal modo, poderia se pensar, portanto, que existem movimentos no interior do trailer, que vão além da publicidade e do cinema. Neste sentido, então, é possível pensar que o que justifica a ocorrência do trailer não é a existência de um filme, mas sim a promessa da existência de um filme, o que pode constituir, possivelmente, uma forma de linguagem emergente da produção audiovisual. Ou seja, é possível vislumbrar no trailer uma composição audiovisual adequada a um dado padrão global de produção e, ao mesmo tempo, identificar a existência de elementos fluidos que escapam aos modelos pré-concebidos. A articulação de uma dada linguagem audiovisual com referências que vêm desde a produção dos videoclipes e influências das tecnologias analógico-digitais, possibilita-nos vislumbrar um movimento de autonomia estética e político-econômica da produção trailerífica. É neste contexto teórico-metodológico, entre a semiologia de Christian Metz e o conceito de desconstrução em Derrida, que o trabalho aborda a discussão do cinema e do audiovisual no interior do objeto trailer.

  18. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  19. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C...

  20. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an ocean...

  1. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... an inventory of national freight volume conducted by the FHWA Administrator, in consultation with... optimal solution, additional input from stakeholders is critical to prioritizing the miles to achieve a 27... efficiently and effectively move freight in the United States. Consistent with the national freight policy in...

  2. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  3. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  4. Avian Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  5. Math on the Job. Tractor-Trailer Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of tractor-trailer drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…

  6. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... identification of significant freight system trends, needs, and issues with respect to the State; ] A description... transportation system; Using advanced technology, performance management, innovation, competition, and..., and what supply chains (including the transportation modes that support them) are critical to...

  7. Dynamic Multi-period Freight Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Corman, Francesco; Voβ, Stefan; Negenborn, Rudy R.

    2015-01-01

    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) offering hinterland transportation face the trade-off between efficiently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the first and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-off, freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the

  8. Dynamic multi-period freight consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) o ering hinterland transportation face the trade-o between e ciently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the rst and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-o , freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the arrival of

  9. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  11. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...

  12. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  13. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly

  14. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without

  15. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the time... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377...

  16. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading... therefor on its form with a notation showing the freight forwarder's name, then the freight forwarder, upon...

  17. Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Popovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this work is the analysis of the interaction of participants of freight forwarding activities. Research methods included analysis of scientific literature, theory of systems and systems analysis, methods of induction and deduction. As sources of information used and applied work of fundamental importance known foreign and local scientists and regulatory and legislative documents of Ukraine for the state transport policy. In the article the basic interactions of participants of freight forwarding activities. Classified components freight forwarding services. Assign the concept freight forwarding system and its aim. Established element and forms of cooperation in the freight forwarding system. The main task of forwarding companies are organizing, coordinating and ensuring the delivery from shipper to consignee. Freight forwarding company responsible for the timely delivery of the goods on the condition of preservation of the quantity and quality specified time conditions. Currently used methods are uneffective decision-making, leading to losses. These circumstances require improvement methodology management of freight forwarding companies. This is possible only using modern mathematical methods and information technologies that will improve the operation of freight forwarding companies. The article presents a theoretical exposition of the basic processes of interaction between participants in freight forwarding system. The article may be of interest to specialists of freight forwarding companies.

  18. Evaluation of Recent Trailer Contamination and Supersack Integrity Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, S.

    2012-09-17

    During the period from fiscal year (FY) 2009 to FY 2011, there were a total of 21 incidents involving radioactively contaminated shipment trailers and 9 contaminated waste packages received at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). During this time period, the EnergySolutions (ES) Clive, Utah, disposal facility had a total of 18 similar incidents involving trailer and package contamination issues. As a result of the increased occurrence of such incidents, DOE Environmental Management Headquarters (EM/HQ) Waste Management organization (EM-30) requested that the Energy Facility Contractors’ Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) conduct a detailed review of these incidents and report back to EM-30 regarding the results of this review, including providing any recommendations formulated as a result of the evaluation of current site practices involving handling and management of radioactive material and waste shipments.

  19. Audience reaction movie trailers and the Paranormal Activity franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swanson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the concept and growing practice of audience reaction movie trailers, specifically for films in the horror genre. Popularized by the Paranormal Activity series of films, these trailers primarily utilize green night-vision video footage of a movie theater audience reacting to the film being advertised, yet also consist of webcam recordings of screaming fans, documentary-style B-roll footage of audiences filing into preview screenings with high levels of anticipation, and close-up shots of spectator facial expressions, accompanied by no footage whatsoever from the film being advertised. In analyzing these audience-centric promotional paratexts, my aim is to reveal them as attempting to sell and legitimize the experiential, communal, and social qualities of the theatrical movie viewing experience while at the same time calling for increased fan investment in both physical and online spaces. Through the analysis of audience reaction trailers, this article hopes to both join and engender conversations about horror fan participation, the nature of anticipatory texts as manipulative, and the current state of horror gimmickry in the form of the promotional paratext.

  20. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    Considering the externalities of freight transport activity (energy use, accidents, congestion, its related GHG emissions, and lost oil revenues) this article reviews trends from 1990-2005 in truck freight fuel intensity (energy use per tonne-km moved), on road truck fuel economy (L/ 100 km driven......). We review changes in decoupling truck freight activity from GDP. We examine separately five manufacturing sectors using data from Statistics Denmark on vehicle performance for 1980-2006. Our four major findings are: (1) truck freight energy intensity (mj/tonne-km) continues to grow as well as CO2...... emissions; (2) decoupling has not been large enough to reduce overall energy use of truck; (3) because of the absence of fuel economy regulations, a low average vehicle load, increased hauling distance, overall energy use of truck freight will continue to expand; (4) results show that standard freight...

  1. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  2. Analysis of the incremental cost and trade-offs between energy efficiency and physical distribution effectiveness in intercity freight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.O.; Terziev, M.N.; Kneafsey, J.T.; Wilson, L.B.; Samuelson, R.D.; Chiang, Y.S.; Deephouse, C.V.

    1976-11-01

    This report describes a study of the effects of changes in national transportation policy on the traffic allocation and the energy consumption of various modes of intercity freight transportation. The study focuses on the linkages between freight transportation and industry structure. Starting from the viewpoint of the individual firm, the process of ordering and shipping supplies was analyzed in detail. Models were developed to predict the level of service associated with the transport alternatives available to a firm, and to predict the total logistics cost of each of these alternatives. These models make it possible to forecast the demand for various modal services at the disaggregate level. In order to predict total aggregate demand, a method was developed for sampling from the population of firms, and summing the demands. Using these models and methods, it is possible to make detailed forecasts of commodity flows under alternative policy options. The policy options selected for analysis include substantial rehabilitation of railroad yards and facilities, improving TOFC/COFC performance with shuttle trains, allowing unrestricted use of double trailers on the Interstate Highway System, increasing truck user charges, imposing waterway user charges, and an increase in fuel costs. The policies were investigated with a computerized model system which simulated freight flows between four pairs of major metropolitan area. Before the model could be applied, each policy had to be analyzed with regard to its effect on the key level of service determinants: waiting and travel time distributions, loss and damage, and tariff rates. The model system has been used to predict the impact of these level of service changes on the shipping patterns of a sample of individual firms. These results have been summed and expanded to produce aggregate forecasts of modal shares and energy consumption.

  3. Assessing Trailer Material Handling Tasks: Biomechanical Modeling, Posture Categorization, Physiological Measure, and Subjective Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Honaker, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    Many variations of conveyor, facility, and trailer designs are available to aid the human operator in manual materials handling (MMH). This thesis describes an investigation to determine which of four different designs used in trailer MMH place the least physical stress on the human operator when unloading materials. Each trailer MMH design was evaluated by the criteria of biomechanical loading, working posture, physiological measure, and subjective rating ...

  4. Towards a typology of video game trailers: Between the ludic and the cinematic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Švelch

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores video game trailers, their various forms and the roles they play within video game industry and culture. It offers an overview of the current practice of video game trailer differentiation and proposes a new typology of video game trailers based on their relation to ludic and cinematic aspects of a video game, combining the theory of paratexts, video game performance framework, the interface effect concept, as well as the concept of transmedia storytelling. This typology r...

  5. Towards a typology of video game trailers: Between the ludic and the cinematic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Švelch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores video game trailers, their various forms and the roles they play within video game industry and culture. It offers an overview of the current practice of video game trailer differentiation and proposes a new typology of video game trailers based on their relation to ludic and cinematic aspects of a video game, combining the theory of paratexts, video game performance framework, the interface effect concept, as well as the concept of transmedia storytelling. This typology reflects the historical evolution of a video game trailer and also takes into account current trends in the audiovisual paratexts of video games.

  6. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  7. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  8. Is freight traffic noise more annoying than passenger traffic noise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new freight-only railway route, the "Betuweroute", is being planned to carry freight traffic from Rotterdam harbour east into Germany. Inhabitants of areas near the future route are concerned about noise and vibration, and question the relevance of current legislation for a

  9. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  10. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    econometric models make use of a deterministic trend to explain fuel intensity and cannot accommodate long-run effects such as asymmetric diesel price effects and relationship between the variables in the freight demand. Our results do not confirm that decoupling truck freight has accelerated in recent years...

  11. Setting up a freight transportation model for Java in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baat, M.J.; Den Hertog, V.; De Jong, S.; De Regt, K.; Wijgergangs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The project consisted of the development of a freight transportation model for the island Java in Indonesia. A literature study concerning freight modelling has been performed to formulate an appropriate framework of such a model for the given situation. Different data sources have been identified,

  12. Design and energetical feasibility study of a refrigerated trailer with photovoltaic solar energy; Diseno y estudio de viabilidad energetica de un trailer refrigerado mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, S.; Ibanez, M.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2004-07-01

    In this study we have tried to show the energetic viability and the design of a refrigerated trailer, in which it has changed the traditional oil generator from the refrigeration system to a photovoltaic generator. Due to restrictions of design limited by trailer dimensions and the horizontal positions of modules, as one of the first conclusion has been necessary to reduce the refrigeration charge, to obtain the necessary energy savings to have technical viability of the project. The propositions to get the energy savings are to improve the thermal insulation of the trailer and to limit the kind and amount of products to transport. Finally, to apply the technology of solar refrigeration in the cooling unit of the trailer to optimise its performance. (Author)

  13. Advertising Citizen Science: A Trailer for the Citizen Sky Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Price, A.

    2012-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star epsilon Aurigae. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component, introducing participants to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. As a means of generating interest in the project, the California Academy of Sciences produced a six-minute "trailer” formatted for both traditional and fulldome planetariums as well as HD and web applications. This talk will review the production process for the trailer as well as the methods of distribution via planetariums, social media, and other venues_along with an update on the Citizen Sky Project as a whole. We will show how to use a small, professionally-produced planetarium trailer to help spread word on a citizen science project. We will also show preliminary results on a study about how participation level/type in the project affects science learning.

  14. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate housin

  15. Controlling of a mobile robot with a trailer and its nilpotent approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardentov, Andrey A.

    2016-12-01

    This work studies a number of approaches to solving the motion planning problem for a mobile robot with a trailer. Different control models of car-like robots are considered from the differential-geometric point of view. The same models can also be used for controlling a mobile robot with a trailer. However, in cases where the position of the trailer is of importance, i.e., when it is moving backward, a more complex approach should be applied. At the end of the article, such an approach, based on recent works in sub-Riemannian geometry, is described. It is applied to the problem of reparking a trailer and implemented in the algorithm for parking a mobile robot with a trailer.

  16. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  17. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  18. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... freight forwarder authority from FMCSA. Section 32918 amended the financial security requirements...

  19. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act as...

  20. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing

  1. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  2. 77 FR 17568 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G Trailers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G Trailers Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G trailers that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable... petitioned NHTSA to decide whether nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G trailers are eligible...

  3. Angel's Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Angel's wings had fallen off. It started slowly,a couple of feathers breaking loose in the wind,floating away in carefree spirals, then in clumps in the shower, matted wet and clogging the drain,until one day he woke in a thick layer of white plumage, quills snagging on the stained sheets.

  4. The Logistical Aspects of Freight Transportation and Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimina Anna I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the theoretical and practical aspects of freight transportation and forwarding services based on the principles of logistics. The indicators of dynamics of freight transportation in Ukraine compared to last year and the structure by types of transport have been provided. The indicators of the foreign trade performance of Ukraine have been presented, including the counter-current export and import flows, as well as the external trade balance, which directly impacts the volume and dynamics of freight transportation and forwarding services. The main parameters of the transportation and forwarding logistics system were systematized, taking into consideration the technical and operational characteristics of the rolling stock, the route of communication, and the terminals. The role and features of the functions of the inter/multimodal transportation operators – freight forwarders of the «tonnage customers» have been considered. The article determines principles for the organization of work of freight forwarders, as well as the terms of agreement of the parties when the freight forwarding contract is concluded. The conditions for developing a logistics approach to the implementation of freight transportation and forwarding services have been generalized.

  5. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  6. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  7. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  8. Coming soon : the film trailer : as text and cross-cultural marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Opstad, Silje

    1999-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to start mapping out the phenomena of American film trailers. It is looking at several aspects of the trailers; their history, how they are produced, their function as marketing tools, how they can be cross-cultural or fitted to different cultures, but the main emphasis of the thesis is on an exploration of their textual characteristics. The approach is based on a close textual analysis of the international version of the LA Confidential (1997) trailer, drawing up...

  9. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  10. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  11. Ukraine in the process of freight market globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Primacheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the entire period of state construction in Ukraine, the strategy of stable economical growth of country’s freight potential has been practically ignored. The solution to this problem requires systematic study of mechanisms and methods of growth and operation of the most important sectors of international freight market. Despite world’s freight statistics being systematic, there is practically no established methodology to assess its sustainable development in the times of globalization. Typically, all that is available are insights into certain aspects of freight market parameters formation. Thus, this article focuses on systematization of the general principles of world’s marine trade development and evaluation of the most realistic directions for establishing Ukraine as a full-scale maritime.

  12. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  13. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  14. ORGANIZATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN UKRAINE IN THE REFORMATION CONDTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the former Soviet Union carries out railroad industry reformation according to different models depending on orienting points and the goals it establishes. All railway administrations have faced the problem of considerable reduction of freight and passenger transportation volumes, aging of main assets, lack of investments for their renovation. The purpose of the paper is the development of optimal management structure of freight cars in conditions of railway transport reformation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis for research is a systematic analysis of problems of providing the competitiveness of the transport industry in the field of freight railway transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the production efficiency, market economics transformation and management of the national economy. Findings. The author has developed an improved mechanism for freight traffic management, which differs from the existing one by its adaptation to the conditions of industry being reformed and the organization of management companies. These companies together with the Ukrainian transport and logistics center centralize management of all freight cars of both domestic and foreign operating companies. Originality. Author presents the theoretical generalization and new solution of the scientific problem. It appears in the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to the management structure of the freight cars by operating companies in conditions of railway transport reforming through the management companies organization in Ukraine. The above mentioned companies will combine two types of activity – the commercial one and the cars repair of different property, it will reduce car turnover, stay time of rolling stock in the inoperative park and thereby improve the efficiency of freight transportations. Particularly, they will lease and have the right to dispose universal cars of domestic

  15. Backcasting in freight transport demand modelling – chances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Peter; Huber, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport demand models are important tools to support policy decision-making by enabling decision makers to evaluate transport policies and correlated effects. This significance puts high pressure on freight models regarding their accuracy. In order to ensure model accuracy there are different methods within the wide area of quality assurance that can be applied. Although backcasting is such a method it is, however, often neglected or implemented insufficiently. The paper presents ma...

  16. A social perceptual approach to freight transport modal choice

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, R.

    1990-01-01

    This research develops a conceptual model of freight modal choice in which the basic unit of analysis is the socio-organisational group. Research into freight modal choice at the level of the firm has tended to disregard the nature of human choice and to assume that modal choice can be explained in terms of technological phenomena or cost relationships. There is also a tendency to equate the modal choice of organisational members with the modal use of firms. The approa...

  17. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  18. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  19. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  20. Summary of NREL's Recent Class 8 Tractor Trailer Platooning Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-08-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's recent class 8 tractor trailer platooning testing, including analysis of SAE J1321 Type II fuel consumption testing, fuel consumption improvement, fuel economy and platooning position accuracy.

  1. Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot of the Gemini 8 space flight, sits in the Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up operations for the Gemini 8 mission. Suit technician Jim Garrepy assists.

  2. Analytical evaluation of technical and operational indicators impact on the transportation technology by automobile trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technological and operational indicators on the efficiency of using operational time during goods transportation by automobile trailers is analytically studied. The failure cause of automobile trailers undercarriages is analysed. The analytical dependences for the preliminary assessment of metal undercarriages performance in the design phases are developed. The proposed mathematical standard vehicle-performance test is compared with the obtained experimental data.

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For Ukraine as for a post-socialist state there is an objective need of reforming on railway transport. In order to meet the requirements of consumers both within the country and outside of it, it is necessary to solve transport problems in time and to introduce new technologies, without lagging behind the developed European states. The purpose of this article is identification of problems in the process of freight transportations and development of ways of their overcoming, formation of the principles of economic efficiency increase for the use of freight cars using the improvement of management mechanism of freight transportations in the conditions of reforming. Methodology. Methods of strategic planning, system approach for research on improvement of the management mechanism of freight transportations, as well as the organizational-administrative method for structure of management construction were used in this research. Findings. Authors have explored the problems arising in the process of transportation of goods and measures, which will increase the efficiency of goods transportation. Advanced mechanism of freight transportation management for its application in the conditions of the railway transport reforming was developed. It is based on management centralization. Originality. The major factors, which slow down process of cargo transportations, are investigated in the article. The principles of management mechanism improvement of freight transportations are stated. They are based on association of commercial and car-repair activity of depots. All this will allow reducing considerably a car turn by decrease in duration of idle times on railway transport, increasing the speed of freight delivery and cutting down a transport component in the price of delivered production. Practical value. The offered measures will improve the efficiency of rolling stock use and increase cargo volumes turnover, promote links of Ukraine with

  4. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  5. User manual for freight transportation analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Wilson, L.B.

    1976-12-01

    Under sponsorship of the Federal Energy Administration, The Center for Transportation Studies at M.I.T. developed and tested a methodology for analysis of the impacts of various government and carrier policies on the demand for freight transportation. The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the computer programs included in this methodology. The purpose of the computer software developed for this project is threefold. First, programs are used to calculate the cost of each of the transport alternatives available for the purchase of a given commodity by a receiver in a given industrial sector. Furthermore, these programs identify the least-cost alternative, and thus provide a forecasting capability at the disaggregate level. Given a description of the population of receivers in the destination city, a second group of programs applies the costing and forecasting programs to each receiver in a sample drawn from the population. The disaggregate forecasts are summed to produce an aggregate forecast of modal tonnages for the given origin/destination city-pair. Finally, a third group of programs computes fuel consumed in transportation from the aggregate modal tonnages. These three groups of programs were placed under the control of a master routine which coordinates the input and output of data.

  6. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-04-19

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  7. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  8. It’s me, Mario!: Movies, video games and pop culture in the realization of a fan made trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Schäfer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its object the fan made trailer Mario: The movie, which brings the narrative of the video game Super Mario in the form of a movie trailer. Our analysis part of this appropriation, made by fans, language and aesthetics of the movie trailer and the narrative of a video game, to think about how certain elements of pop culture and movie universe are already part of the culturaland aesthetic references of many people.

  9. Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport: Retail Distribution and Local Regulations in Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Quak (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough our urbanized civilization requires freight transport in order to sustain it, urban freight transport is especially recognized for its unsustainable impacts. To reduce the unsustainable impacts of urban freight transport, many local governments develop policies that focus someti

  10. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal area within the meaning of 49 U.S.C. 13503 of any motor carrier of property or freight forwarder... of property or motor carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder...

  11. 78 FR 78472 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders; Association of Independent Property Brokers and Agents' Exemption... brokers and freight forwarders from the $75,000 bond provision included in section 32918 of the Moving... freight forwarders. FMCSA requests comments from all interested parties on AIPBA's exemption request...

  12. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... exemption for all domestic freight forwarders which operate solely in the Department of Defense's (DOD... of all domestic freight forwarders operating solely in the DOD's HHG program, from the $75,000... property brokers and freight forwarders operating under FMCSA's jurisdiction. Public Law 112-141, Sec...

  13. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  14. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  15. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  16. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  17. Optimization for vehicle scheduling in iron and steel works based on semi-trailer swap transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yao-rong; LIANG Bo; ZHOU Mei-hua

    2010-01-01

    In order to solve internal logistics problems of iron and steel works,such as low transportation efficiency of cehicles and high transportation cost,the production process and traditional transportation style of iron and steel work were introduced.The internal transport tasks of iron and steel works were grouped based on cluster analysis according to demand time of the transportation. An improved vehicle scheduling model of semi-trailer swap transport among loading nodes and unloading nodes in one task group was set up.The algorithm was designed to silve the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and delivery (CRPSPD)problem based on semi-trailer swap transport.A solving program was written by MATLAB software and the method to figure out the optimal path of each grouping was obtainde.The dropping and pulling transportation plan of the tractor wan designed.And an decerase the numbers of semi-trailer swap transport in iron and steel works was given.The results indicate that semi-trailer swap transport can steel works,and the total distance traveled reduces by 43.5%.The semi-trailer swap transport can help the iron and steel works develop the productiong in intension.

  18. MEASURING THE MARKET RISK OF FREIGHT RATES: A VALUE-AT-RISK APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    TIMOTHEOS ANGELIDIS; GEORGE SKIADOPOULOS

    2008-01-01

    The fluctuation of shipping freight rates (freight rate risk) is an important source of market risk for all participants in the freight markets including hedge funds, commodity and energy producers. We measure the freight rate risk by the Value-at-Risk (VaR) approach. A range of parametric and non-parametric VaR methods is applied to various popular freight markets for dry and wet cargoes. Backtesting is conducted in two stages by means of statistical tests and a subjective loss function that...

  19. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  20. Enhanced methods for operating refueling station tube-trailers to reduce refueling cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Reddi, Krishna

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a refueling station including source tube-trailers and at least one compressor to reduce refueling cost. The refueling station includes a gaseous fuel supply source including a plurality of tanks on a tube trailer coupled to a first control unit, and high pressure buffer storage having predefined capacity coupled to a second control unit and the first tanks by a pressure control valve and the first control unit, and at least one compressor. The refueling station is operated at different modes depending on a state of the refueling station at the beginning of each operational mode. The refueling system is assessed at the end of each operational mode to identify the state of the system and select a next mode of operation. The operational modes include consolidating hydrogen, or any gaseous fuel, within the tubes mounted on the trailer.

  1. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., railroads, waterways, pipelines, and airways. Freight moves throughout the United States on 985,000 miles of... accommodate the large that are vehicles authorized by the `restricted' or State. `low clearance' For routes... Network, as defined in 23 CFR part 658, without restrictions or clearance issues; availability of truck...

  2. Introducing competition in urban consolidation center freight allocation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoni, M.D.; Wiegmans, B.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Urban consolidation center (UCC) represents in many cities the most chosen solution by the local governments to reduce the negative impacts of city freight distribution. In order to achieve successful results, it is important to consider also the perspective of carriers with respect to the choice of

  3. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Alvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1 improvement of the city freight distribution, (2 implementation possibility, (3 short and medium term applicability and (4 impact on the citizens of Bilbao. Findings: The paper identifies some specific problems that must be faced during the last stage of the logistics chain, where products are usually delivered to final customers in the urban environment. Research limitations/implications: Not all good urban freight distribution practices can be applied universally to all types of towns. Therefore, it is necessary to design some practices specifically to each particular city according to the physical characteristics of the city, the companies’ motivation and the citizens’ habits. Practical implications: All the agents involved in the city freight distribution should be aware of the benefits and problems that their actions cause. Originality/value: This study was carried out from a wide perspective that included researchers, logistics operators and local authorities.

  4. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  5. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  6. Operations Research for Freight Train Routing and Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven; Gorman, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the service design activities that plan and implement the rail freight operating plan. Elements of strategic service design include the setting of train frequency, the routing of cars among trains, and the consolidation of cars, called blocking. At the operational level, tr...

  7. Energy usage optimisation of heavy haul freight trains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available by a large and extensive mining industry. Integral to sustaining the mining economy is the transport of mined raw material via freight rail over large distances, typically from the mines to central distribution or processing centres. Due to the heavy...

  8. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  9. Slovenian Freight Forwarding After the Accession to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jakomin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The moment the Republic of Slovenia joins the EU all theservice offices or agencies related to cross-border operations, inparticular the freight fmwarders, will feel the consequences reflectingthese issues, or resulting therefrom:- In the field of legislation, no major direct consequences areexpected, but rather some indirect ones;- Bigger freight forwarders, better provided with capital andpresent globally will affect the operations arising from thechanged market position in the common European logisticalmarket;- As result of market changes, certain adverse financial effectswill occur in some forwarders. This will affect the social positionof employees as well;- The consequences in the macro-economic level will notonly reflect on the social area, but also on lower newlyadded value, and on some non-exploited part of the capital.The facts listed above show that the accession of Sloveniato the EU will bring about a series of adverse consequences inall freight forwarders in the first stage. The economic consequenceswill be mainly visible in the decrease of revenues offreight forwarders, whereas the social outcome will reflect in redundancies.These will lead to closing-down, liquidation orbankruptcy of minor freight forwarding agents.

  10. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while enhancin

  11. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t

  12. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  13. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical

  14. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  15. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  16. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  17. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to freigh

  18. Vortices around Dragonfly Wings

    OpenAIRE

    Kweon, Jihoon; Choi, Haecheon

    2009-01-01

    Dragonfly beats its wings independently, resulting in its superior maneuverability. Depending on the magnitude of phase difference between the fore- and hind-wings of dragonfly, the vortical structures and their interaction with wings become significantly changed, and so does the aerodynamic performance. In this study, we consider hovering flights of modelled dragonfly with three different phase differences (phi=-90, 90, 180 degrees). The three-dimensional wing shape is based on that of Aesch...

  19. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  20. Video Book Trailers: Coming to a Library Near You! Spotlight Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopke-Wilson, MariRae

    2009-01-01

    This article features two library media specialists who discovered a way to motivate high school students to read. When most people go to the movies, the "coming attractions" or movie trailers are as anticipated as the popcorn! This Americana movie tradition hooks people again and again on what they will come back to see next. So, it's no surprise…

  1. Effects of configuration parameters on lateral dynamics of tractor–two trailer combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguo Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum configuration parameters of tractor–trailer combinations for lateral stability performance are proposed by adjusting the length of dolly and the second trailer’s center of gravity. A linear yaw plane model of vehicle combinations is adopted for dynamic analysis, and the model is calibrated by TruckSim. According to the yaw rate rearward amplification ratio of lateral response index, and combining the simulation results of MATLAB/Simulink, dolly and the second trailer are the dominate factors for lateral stability of vehicle combinations. Simulation results show that the distance between articulation joints of dolly is 1.6 m; simultaneously, the rate of distance between front hitch and center of gravity of the second trailer to its front and rear wheelbase is 0.41 and may gain the best lateral performance. Compared with configuration parameters of the original vehicle combinations, the results also illustrate that the one derived from adjustment approach reduces high-speed rearward amplification ratio by 11.4%. The proposed approach might be used for identifying desired design variables of the tractor–two trailer combinations and provided theoretical basis for stability tests.

  2. Characteristics of Trailer Thermal Environment during Commercial Swine Transport Managed under U.S. Industry Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare. While previous research has explored thermal conditions during transport, the impact of extreme weather conditions on the trailer thermal environment under industry practices has not been well documented; and the critical factors impacting microclimate are not well understood. To assess the trailer microclimate during transport events, an instrumentation system was designed and installed at the central ceiling level, pig level and floor-level in each of six zones inside a commercial swine trailer. Transport environmental data from 34 monitoring trips (approximately 1–4 h in duration each were collected from May, 2012, to February, 2013, with trailer management corresponding to the National Pork Board Transport Quality Assurance (TQA guidelines in 31 of these trips. According to the TQA guidelines, for outdoor temperature ranging from 5 °C (40 °F to 27 °C (80 °F, acceptable thermal conditions were observed based on the criteria that no more than 10% of the trip duration was above 35 °C (95 °F or below 0 °C (32 °F. Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range. Measurements support relaxing boarding guidelines for moderate outdoor conditions, as this did not result in less desirable conditions. Pigs experienced extended undesirable thermal conditions for outdoor temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F or below 5 °C (40 °F, meriting a recommendation for further assessment of bedding, boarding and water application guidelines for extreme outdoor temperatures. An Emergency Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI condition was observed inside the trailer when outdoor temperature exceeded 10 °C (50 °F; although the validity of LWSI to indicate heat stress for pigs during transport is not well established. Extreme pig surface temperatures in the rear and middle zones of the trailer were more frequently experienced

  3. Characteristics of Trailer Thermal Environment during Commercial Swine Transport Managed under U.S. Industry Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yijie; Green, Angela; Gates, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare. While previous research has explored thermal conditions during transport, the impact of extreme weather conditions on the trailer thermal environment under industry practices has not been well documented; and the critical factors impacting microclimate are not well understood. To assess the trailer microclimate during transport events, an instrumentation system was designed and installed at the central ceiling level, pig level and floor-level in each of six zones inside a commercial swine trailer. Transport environmental data from 34 monitoring trips (approximately 1-4 h in duration each) were collected from May, 2012, to February, 2013, with trailer management corresponding to the National Pork Board Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) guidelines in 31 of these trips. According to the TQA guidelines, for outdoor temperature ranging from 5 °C (40 °F) to 27 °C (80 °F), acceptable thermal conditions were observed based on the criteria that no more than 10% of the trip duration was above 35 °C (95 °F) or below 0 °C (32 °F). Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range. Measurements support relaxing boarding guidelines for moderate outdoor conditions, as this did not result in less desirable conditions. Pigs experienced extended undesirable thermal conditions for outdoor temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F) or below 5 °C (40 °F), meriting a recommendation for further assessment of bedding, boarding and water application guidelines for extreme outdoor temperatures. An Emergency Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI) condition was observed inside the trailer when outdoor temperature exceeded 10 °C (50 °F); although the validity of LWSI to indicate heat stress for pigs during transport is not well established. Extreme pig surface temperatures in the rear and middle zones of the trailer were more frequently experienced than in the

  4. Location Analysis of Freight Distribution Terminal of Jakarta City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahry Nahry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently Jakarta has two freight terminals, namely Pulo Gebang and Tanah Merdeka. But, both terminals are just functioned for parking and have not been utilized properly yet, e.g. for consolidation. Goods consolidation, which is usually performed in distribution terminal, may reduce number of freight flow within the city. This paper is aimed to determine the best location of distribution terminal in Jakarta among those two terminals and two additional alternative sites, namely Lodan and Rawa Buaya. It is initialized by the identification of important factors that affect the location selection. It is carried out by Likert analysis through the questionnaires distributed to logistics firms. The best location is determined by applying Overlay Analysis using ArcGIS 9.2. Four grid maps are produced to represent the accessibility, cost, time, and environment factors as the important factors of location. The result shows that the ranking from the best is; Lodan, Tanah Merdeka, Pulo Gebang, and Rawa Buaya.

  5. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...

  6. A Novel Approach to Forecasting the Bulk Freight Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelis Tsioumas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast-paced and ever changing freight market compels maritime executives to use sound forecasting tools. This paper aims to enhance the forecasting accuracy of the Baltic Dry Index (BDI by means of developing a multivariate Vector Autoregressive model with exogenous variables (VARX. The proposed model incorporates the Chinese steel production, the dry bulk fleet development and a new composite indicator, the Dry Bulk Economic Climate Index (DBECI. The predictive power of this approach is evaluated against a univariate ARIMA framework, which serves as a benchmark model. The selection of explanatory variables and the model specification are validated using a series of pertinent tests. The results demonstrate that the VARX model outperforms the ARIMA approach, suggesting that the selected independent variables can substantially improve the accuracy of BDI forecasts. The present study is of interest to maritime practitioners, as it provides useful insights into the direction of the freight market and allows them to make informed decisions.

  7. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... into the issue. The monitoring practices are fairly similar in all four countries, with typical monitoring done manually when filling the tank and data kept on a computer. Tonne-kilometre data is rarely monitored, but some other performance measures may be used. Current level of implementation of various energy...

  8. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  9. Freight tracking cost analysis to improve logistics management operations

    OpenAIRE

    De Coning, A.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-border freight industry suffers from inefficiencies that can be addressed by implementing technology based systems. Inefficiencies cause time delays at amongst others border posts and weigh stations that in turn increase turnaround times. Higher turnaround times affect the business bottom line as it reduces the turnover generated on capital assets and therefore decrease profit levels. Efficient logistics management will also ensure increased trade in Sub Saharan...

  10. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender; Koovendhran Naidu

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service qual...

  11. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  12. Economic Valorisation of the Freight Transport Centre Kutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Badanjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the conditions for constructing a freight- transp01t centre in Kutilza with special emphasis on the positiveinfluences that such a project could have for the town ofKutina and the Moslavina region. The analysis of the locationhas shown that the conditions for its establishment have beenmet, provided that town administration determines the ways inwhich the project will be realised regarding the necesswy financialscheme.

  13. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  14. Prediction of Freight Transport Impacts on Urban Road Volumes: A Case Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Oral

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning paradigms, which aim to overcome urban transport problems, have to evaluate the mobility prediction of goods besides the mobility of individuals. This is a requirement and it comes up with different scales and features in the cities which contain high density of regional interactions. Urban roads respond from freight transport due to economy besides relation of productions and consumptions. This study is an instance to generate solutions for future which tries to evaluate respective interaction in the process of urban planning and transport planning. Study area has been stated as the city Izmir, TURKEY. The exact area is the legal responsibility border of the law 3030. The location and impact of freight transport generation stations cause total freight transport demands to rise up. Concurrently, there is a high ratio of freight transport in the transit traffic. Freight vehicles may be seen in every level of roads due to features of the road network. Therefore, it has been aimed to correlate freight transport moves with the location and impacts of the freight generation stations. This study also assumes that freight transport moves may have some measurable reasons and may contain usable parameters, for this purpose. The measurement of freight transport in Izmir, the density of the vehicles which interacts with the several aggregation areas and the location or impacts of the freight transport generation stations in those areas have been tried to evaluate simultaneously. The stages of the paradigm are determined as below: • To determine the categories of the freight transport generation stations and measurement values on urban roads,• To draw the borders of several aggregations areas and CBD area borders by determining enumeration points,• To measure density of freight vehicles move in terms of inner traffic,

  15. New approaches to enhancing efficiency of freight railway stations performance within industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ваагн Емілійович Парунакян

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time freight stations operation is complicated by raised dynamics of production and transport processes. Under the given handling capacity, this circumstance affects duration of processing of inbound and internal flow of freight cars. In connection with the abovementioned, the article covers new approaches to the analysis and evaluation of operating characteristics, and designing of railway freight stations within industrial enterprises. These approaches base on the system adaptation of the railway freight stations structural layouts and parameters of technical facilities to new working conditions and production demands. As the criterion of optimization of freight station operation, the index of “transportation work” (freight car-hour was offered. It allows differentiating the elemental flows of freight cars from the overall flow of freight cars at the freight station. It also allows identifying structure, volumes and other parameters of train operation (duration of processing measured in freight car-hours, interpretational and technological idle time denoting the location and the reason for their occurrence. Moreover, the analysis and evaluation of yard operation is offered to be carried out via handling capacity balance, which illustrates the relation between the overall volume of transportation work and the amount of trains handled at the station. This allows establishing additional transportation work and makes it possible to evaluate the real (objective necessity in throughput and handling capacity of station facilities in particular, and the station in general. The operating characteristics that have been examined determine the new methodical approaches to designing of composition-and-structural layouts and parameters of industrial freight stations. As the basis for optimization of the station, the certain method of morphological analysis and synthesis of technical decisions can be accepted, with its modification due to the

  16. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  17. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  18. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D. [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  19. South Africa’s freight rail reform: A demand-driven perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, freight transport in South Africa was employed to attain politicoeconomic ideals, resulting in the overprotection of rail and overregulation of road transport. Increasing industry pressure, combined with the international deregulation trend, led to deregulation in 1988. Myopia resulted in a rail investment hiatus and exponential growth in high-value, long-distance road transport, causing excessive logistics and externality costs for the country. The aim of this study was to propose a freight rail reform agenda based on, (1 lessons from past freight transport policy efforts and (2 the results of freight transport market segmentation driven by models developed over the past two decades. For the study, freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravitymodelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. The standard management approach of founding strategy development on market-driven segmentation provides a neutral input to steer rail reform discussions in South Africa. Market segmentation points to a dualistic rail reform agenda, enabling both a profit-driven core and a development-driven branch line network. Freight flow insights are steering the policy reform debate towards long-term freight strategy development and optimal freight logistics network design.

  20. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2017-02-28

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21st century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  1. THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ROAD FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi YOSHIMOTO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying the recent trend toward e-commerce and computerization in the trucking industry, this paper establishes a framework for analyzing the impact of information and communication technology on road freight transportation in terms of commerce, logistics and fleet management, and proposes hypothetical mechanisms of influence. The authors note that the rapid growth of e-commerce and freight fleet management systems make it difficult to arrive at firm, statistics-based conclusions about their impact on road freight transportation, but suggest that more sophisticated government management of transportation demand as well as freight fleet management systems could cancel out the negative impact of e-commerce on road transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Comparative injury, adipose fin mark quality, and tag retention of spring Chinook Salmon marked and coded wire tagged by an automated trailer and manual trailer at Carson National Fish Hatchery: October 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service’s Columbia River Fisheries Program Office has been marking and tagging salmon with automated trailers consistently since...

  4. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  5. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  6. Maximum forces sustained during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers and trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, F A; Cotnam, J P

    2000-02-01

    Many commercial vehicles have steps and grab-rails to assist the driver in safely entering/exiting the vehicle. However, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to compare impact forces experienced during various exit methods from commercial equipment. The study investigated impact forces of ten male subjects while exiting two tractors, a step-van, a box-trailer, and a cube-van. The results showed that exiting from cab-level or trailer-level resulted in impact forces as high as 12 times the subject's body weight; whereas, fully utilizing the steps and grab-rails resulted in impact forces less than two times body weight. An approach that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids coupled with driver training and education is expected to minimize exit-related injuries.

  7. Uncovering document fraud in maritime freight transport based on probabilistic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A. F.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  8. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing

  9. Incorporating Logistics in Freight Transport Demand Models: State-of-the-Art and Research Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ruijgrok, K.; Davydenko, I.

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport demand is a demand derived from all the activities needed to move goods between locations of production to locations of consumption, including trade, logistics and transportation. A good representation of logistics in freight transport demand models allows us to predict the effects

  10. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-indiv

  11. A cointegration approach to forecasting freight rates in the dry bulk shipping sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a vector autoregressive model is developed for a sample of ocean dry bulk freight rates. Although the series of freight rates are themselves found to be non-stationary, thus precluding the use of many modelling methodologies, evidence provided by cointegration tests points

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MARINE PORT SERVICE WORK DISTRIBUTION AT THE TERMINAL ON FREIGHT STATION WORK PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Muzykina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of rational distribution at the terminal of sorting work with the local cars on selecting them by the destinations of freight fronts of marine trade port is conditioned. The results of analysis of the basic operation indices of the terminal freight station and marshalling yard are presented.

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  14. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  15. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing restric

  16. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the... (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS EXEMPTIONS § 1319.1 Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's...

  17. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities... freight forwarder subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B, at any unincorporated community having a post... carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder, within which transportation...

  18. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders....14 Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition... commerce under 49 CFR 386.83. (b) A broker, freight forwarder, or for-hire motor carrier that has failed to...

  19. From freight partnerships to city logistics living labs - Giving meaning to the elusive concept of living labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Lindholm, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Browne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the growing importance of urban freight research given the increasing urban population trends. The complexity of urban freight systems means that it is essential for the public and private sectors to work together - one way to achieve this has been through freight partnerships. A

  20. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate Indices for U.S. Agricultural... received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and release container freight indices... Containerized Freight Index (SCFI, 2009), Container Trade Statistics Index (CTS Index, 2009), the...

  1. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  2. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  3. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  4. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  5. The essential guide to chartering and the dry freight market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents a complete picture of the modern chartering and dry freight market. The different types of ships are explained, what they carry and why. The supply and demand constituents of the market are analysed in detail. How the market is measured and the advantages of controlling freight are discussed and the elements of a voyage calculation are explained. The mechanics of the market, the dangers and pitfalls for the inexperienced, the importance of information and its analysis and the central role of the broker in its dissemination as well as negotiation and strategic advice are all examined in a clear and concise way. Charter parties, their detailed terms and conditions and their legal interpretation are explained from a practical point of view. Examples are given of some charter party forms for grain, coal, ore, fertilisers, salt, sugar, cement and timber. The subjects that owners and charterers argue about, why they are important and how they are dealt with in different charter party forms are analysed. The implication of new legislation, the nature of today's challenges and issues, including e-business and the changing role of the Baltic Exchange, are addressed. 56 figs., 4 apps.

  6. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  7. A study on single lane-change manoeuvres for determining rearward amplification of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi; He, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers issued a test procedure, SAE-J2179, to determine the rearward amplification (RA) of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles (MTAHVs). Built upon the procedure, the International Organization for Standardization released the test manoeuvres, ISO-14791, for evaluating directional performance of MTAHVs. For the RA measures, ISO-14791 recommends two single lane-change manoeuvres: (1) an open-loop procedure with a single sine-wave steering input; and (2) a closed-loop manoeuvre with a single sine-wave lateral acceleration input. For an articulated vehicle with active trailer steering (ATS), the RA measure in lateral acceleration under the open-loop manoeuvre was not in good agreement with that under the closed-loop manoeuvre. This observation motivates the research on the applicability of the two manoeuvres for the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS. It is reported that transient response under the open-loop manoeuvre often leads to asymmetric curve of tractor lateral acceleration [Winkler CB, Fancher PS, Bareket Z, Bogard S, Johnson G, Karamihas S, Mink C. Heavy vehicle size and weight - test procedures for minimum safety performance standards. Final technical report, NHTSA, US DOT, contract DTNH22-87-D-17174, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Report No. UMTRI-92-13; 1992]. To explore the effect of the transient response, a multiple cycle sine-wave steering input (MCSSI) manoeuvre is proposed. Simulation demonstrates that the steady-state RA measures of an MTAHV with and without ATS under the MCSSI manoeuvre are in excellent agreement with those under the closed-loop manoeuvre. It is indicated that between the two manoeuvres by ISO-14791, the closed-loop manoeuvre is more applicable for determining the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  10. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  11. Safety and Hazard Analysis for the Coherent/Acculite Laser Based Sandia Remote Sensing System (Trailer B70).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-09-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis is presented, for the Coherent(r) driven Acculite(r) laser central to the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS). The analysis is based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The trailer (B70) based SRSS laser system is a mobile platform which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The trailer based SRSS laser system is generally operated on the United State Air Force Starfire Optical Range (SOR) at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. The laser is used to perform laser interaction testing inside the laser trailer as well as outside the trailer at target sites located at various distances. In order to protect personnel who work inside the Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) from hazardous laser exposures, it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength (wavelength bands) and calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (ODmin) necessary for the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel. Also, the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and The Extended Ocular Hazard Distance (EOHD) are calculated in order to protect unauthorized personnel who may have violated the boundaries of the control area and might enter into the laser's NHZ for testing outside the trailer. 4Page intentionally left blank

  12. Sequence analysis of leader and trailer regions of rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus and characterization of their in vivo transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 陈晓英; 罗宗礼; 方荣祥

    1999-01-01

    The 3’ leader and the 5’ trailer of the rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus (RYSV) genomic RNA have been cloned and sequenced. Sequence data indicate that the RYSV leader region is composed of 203 nucleotides (nt) and the trailer region 191 nt. The terminal 9 nt of the two regions are complementary and capable of forming a putative panhandle structure common to rhabdovirus genomes. In comparison with the leader or trailer sequences of other rhab-doviruses reported so far, both the leader and trailer of RYSV are the longest and there is no obvious sequence homolo-gy between the counterparts except for a few terminal nt and the UGUU motif in the leader sequences. Polyadenylated plus-strand leader RNA has been detected in RYSV-infected rice plants by 3’ RACE. This is the second example in rhabdoviruses following the report for sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) for existence of a polyadenylated leader RNA. No polyadenylated plus-strand transcripts of the RYSV trailer have been found using the similar method.

  13. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21,834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6 degrees C to 23.3 degrees C to a range of 23.4 degrees C to 26.1degreesC, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2 degrees C to 28.9 degrees C to 29.0 degrees C to 30.5 degrees C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1degreesC over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir.

  14. Wing Warping, Roll Control and Aerodynamic Optimization of Inflatable Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew

    2005-11-01

    The research presents work on aerodynamic control by warping inflatable wings. Inflatable wings are deformable by their nature. Mechanical manipulation of the wing's shape has been demonstrated to alter the performance and control the vehicle in flight by deforming the trailing edge of the wing near the wing tip. Predicting and correlating the forces required in deforming the wings to a particular shape and the deformation generated for a given internal pressure were conducted through the use of photogrammetry. This research focuses on optimizing the roll moments and aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, given the current level of wing warping ability. Predictions from lifting line theory applied to wing shape changes are presented. Comparisons from the experimental results are made with lifting line analysis for wings with arbitrary twist and the solutions are used to determine rolling moment and optimum L/D. Results from flight tests will also be presented.

  15. O trailer e o processo de sedução no cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langie, Cíntia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca compreender de que forma um trailer pode ajudar o espectador a escolher o filme a que ele irá assistir. Para tanto, algumas de suas características serão estudadas, tais como a música, a montagem e o protagonista. O objetivo é entender como esse formato se apresenta e quais as estratégias utilizadas para que se efetive um possível processo de sedução entre o objeto e a platéia

  16. Active Control of Flapping Wings Using Wing Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutake, Hiroshi; Sunada, Shigeru; Ohtsuka, Yukio

    A new method for the attitude control of a flapping-wing aircraft is proposed. In this method, the variations in wing deformation, that is, the feathering angle and the camber, are controlled by pulling the wing at a certain point with a thread connected to a servomotor. The experimental setup for verifying the practicability of this method was developed, and aerodynamic forces and wing deformation were measured. It was concluded that thread control caused effective wing deformation, and the variation in the deformation generated the pitching moment that controls the attitude of a flapping-wing aircraft.

  17. Ergonomic analysis of working postures using OWAS in semi-trailer assembly, applying an individual sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Christopher; Mertens, Alexander; Schlick, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    In semi-trailer assembly, workers are exposed to several physical risk factors. Awkward working postures have not yet been investigated in semi-trailer assembly, although they are known to be a major risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders. We therefore conducted a comprehensive ergonomic analysis of working postures using the Ovako working posture analysing system (OWAS), with an individual sampling strategy. The postural load in semi-trailer assembly was assessed on the basis of 20,601 observations of 63 workers executing a representative set of nine work tasks. According to the OWAS, the postural load of various working postures and body part positions may have a harmful effect on the musculoskeletal system. We therefore give examples of corrective measures that could improve awkward working postures. Applying an individual sampling strategy was revealed to have advantages over a collective strategy, so this is recommended for future ergonomic analyses.

  18. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  19. Models of travel time and reliability for freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Roberts, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    The model produces a probability distribution of the trip time associated with the shipment of freight between a given origin and destination by a given mode and route. Using distributions of the type produced by the model, it is possible to determine two important measures of the quality of service offered by the carrier. These measures are the main travel time and the reliability of delivery. The reliability measure describes the spread of the travel-time distribution. The model described herein was developed originally as part of the railroad rationalization study conducted at MIT and sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration. This work built upon earlier research in railroad reliability models. Because of the predominantly rail background of this model, the initial discussion focuses on the problem of modeling rail-trip-time reliability. Then, it is shown that the model can also be used to study truck and barge operations.

  20. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  1. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  2. Solving the Tractor and Semi-Trailer Routing Problem Based on a Heuristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the tractor and semi-trailer routing problem (TSRP, a variant of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. In the TSRP model for this paper, vehicles are dispatched on a trailer-flow network where there is only one main depot, and all tractors originate and terminate in the main depot. Two types of decisions are involved: the number of tractors and the route of each tractor. Heuristic algorithms have seen widespread application to various extensions of the VRP. However, this approach has not been applied to the TSRP. We propose a heuristic algorithm to solve the TSRP. The proposed heuristic algorithm first constructs the initial route set by the limitation of a driver’s on-duty time. The candidate routes in the initial set are then filtered by a two-phase approach. The computational study shows that our algorithm is feasible for the TSRP. Moreover, the algorithm takes relatively little time to obtain satisfactory solutions. The results suggest that our heuristic algorithm is competitive in solving the TSRP.

  3. THE IMPROVEMENT OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CALCULATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Vnukova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested to bring in changes into the Rules of Complex Payments applied by the states-participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States in payments for international freight transportations.

  4. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yong Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  5. Real time simulation of auctioning and re-scheduling processes in hybrid freight markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    In the freight logistics business, supply chains are under strong pressure to provide customized goods and services. Individualized product deliveries, modifications in product specification, late orders and volume changes need to be accommodated within strict delivery time frames. This uncertainty

  6. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  7. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  8. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurab Bhowmick; Gunjan,

    2013-01-01

    EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds...

  9. Avoiding congestion in freight transport planning : a case study in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in transport intensity for passenger and freight traffic has been observed during the last decades and research confirms that this trend will continue in the years to come. Economic centres have turned into heavily congested areas. The freight transport sector incurs excessive waiting times on the road as well as at intermediate stops (e.g. sea terminals, loading or unloading points). This may cause economic losses and environmental damages. Waiting times may be avoided...

  10. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  11. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  12. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  13. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  14. Description, analysis and calculation of pneumatic brake system used in a freight train using a specific example

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A freight train or goods train is a group of freight cars (US) or goods wagons (UIC) hauled by a locomotive on a railway, ultimately transporting cargo between two points as part of the logistics chain. Trains may haul bulk, intermodal containers or specialized cars. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. This kind of trains needs to have a good drive eq...

  15. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  16. Safety analysis report: packages. 232-H Byproduct Trailer (packaging of radioactive material). Final report. [Helium containing some tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalfant, G.G. (comp.)

    1975-12-01

    Helium containing some tritium is shipped at low pressure in banks of cylinders mounted on a truck trailer in compliance with 49 CFR 178.350, Specification 7A. The shipping package is not a radiological hazard under normal or accident conditions.

  17. 78 FR 22941 - Sidump'r Trailer Company, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... interpretation letter to Jason Backs (CPS Trailers, May 28, 1998). \\3\\ Finite element analysis can be used as a... element model analysis \\3\\ to make a determination that the guard like structure would meet the performance requirements. Finite element modeling is a mature science and appropriately accurate for...

  18. 26 CFR 145.4051-1 - Imposition of tax on heavy trucks and trailers sold at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sold at retail. 145.4051-1 Section 145.4051-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... trailers sold at retail. (a) Imposition of tax—(1) In general. Section 4051(a)(1) imposes a tax on the first retail sale (as defined in § 145.4052-1(a)) of the following articles (including in each...

  19. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  20. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  1. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  2. Combining Facility Location and Routing Decisions in Sustainable Urban Freight Distribution under Horizontal Collaboration: How Can Shippers Be Benefited?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanan Ouhader; Malika El Kyal

    2017-01-01

      This article investigates the potential economic, environmental, and social effects of combining depot location and vehicle routing decisions in urban road freight transportation under horizontal collaboration...

  3. Cycle Time Analysis Of Tipping Trailer Frame: A Case Study In A Heavy Equipment Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsudi, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A key element with which manufacturing industries should concern themselves in respect of cost and efficiency of operation is the cycle time for preparing their products. A reduction in operational time can result in dramatic improvements in both cost and efficiency. Unfortunately, cycle time problems are sometimes difficult to analyse: there are many factors related to this parameter. This paper presents a cycle time analysis of a tipping trailer frame in a heavy equipment industry. The cycle time analysis, based on the cycle time data collected by a time study, together with the use of an Arena software simulation, is outlined. From the results of this study, it was found that the manufacturing cycle time was 56 hours, and that resources were under-utilised.

  4. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L. [Univ. of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for National Truck Statistics

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  5. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  6. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  7. Model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Vehicles, ul. Narbutta Warszawa (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    The paper presents a model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons with emphasis on its longitudinal and lateral characteristics, which influence the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The functioning of the suspension in the horizontal plane is realised by a number of technical (pivoted) pendulums composing linkages. The main feature of the joints of linkages is internal rolling/sliding in the presence of dry friction. The dissipation of energy by dry friction in the joints is the only source of damping, which influences the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. After detailed modelling of the technical pendulum, phenomenological models of the suspension are built, which reproduce the characteristics of the suspension using simple elements. A three-parameter model with one dry-friction slider and two linear springs reproduces the lateral characteristic of the suspension. A nine-parameter model with four dry-friction sliders and five springs reproduces the longitudinal characteristic. The models, using a method of non-smooth mechanics, may be directly implemented to vehicle/track dynamic simulations. (orig.)

  8. Volatility Spillovers in Capesize Forward Freight Agreement Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate spillovers in the Capesize forward freight agreements (FFAs markets before and after the global financial crisis. The paper chooses four Capesize voyage routes FFAs (C3, C4, C5, and C7, two time-charter routes FFAs (BCIT/C average, BPI T/C average, and spot rates as research subjects, covering the periods 3 January 2006 to 24 December 2015. This paper applies Volatility Spillover Multivariate Stochastic Volatility (VS-MSV model to analyze volatility spillover effects and estimates the parameters via software of Bayesian inference using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS, the deviance information criterion (DIC used for goodness-of-fit model. The results suggest that there are volatility spillover effects in certain Capesize FFAs routes, and the effects from spot rates to FFAs take place before crisis, yet they are bilateral after crisis. With the development of shipping markets, the correlations between FFAs and spot rate are enhanced, and it seems that the effects depend on market information and traders’ behavior. So practitioners could make decisions according to the spillovers.

  9. When wings touch wakes: understanding locomotor force control by wake wing interference in insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of force control in flying insects requires the exploration of how oscillating wings interact with the surrounding fluid. The production of vorticity and the shedding of vortical structures within the stroke cycle thus depend on two factors: the temporal structure of the flow induced by the wing's own instantaneous motion and the flow components resulting from both the force production in previous wing strokes and the motion of other wings flapping in close proximity. These wake-wing interactions may change on a stroke-by-stroke basis, confronting the neuro-muscular system of the animal with a complex problem for force control. In a single oscillating wing, the flow induced by the preceding half stroke may lower the wing's effective angle of attack but permits the recycling of kinetic energy from the wake via the wake capture mechanism. In two-winged insects, the acceleration fields produced by each wing may strongly interact via the clap-and-fling mechanism during the dorsal stroke reversal. Four-winged insects must cope with the fact that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. In these animals, a phase-shift between the stroke cycles of fore- and hindwing modulates aerodynamic performance of the hindwing via leading edge vortex destruction and changes in local flow condition including wake capture. Moreover, robotic wings demonstrate that phase-lag during peak performance and the strength of force modulation depend on the vertical spacing between the two stroke planes and the size ratio between fore- and hindwing. This study broadly summarizes the most prominent mechanisms of wake-wing and wing-wing interactions found in flapping insect wings and evaluates the consequences of these processes for the control of locomotor forces in the behaving animal.

  10. PASS-THROUGH FREIGHT MODELING AT THE STATEWIDE AND METROPOLITAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine the volumes of freight (specifically trucks passing through a state or metropolitan area is difficult to determine/forecast because transportation professionals have no direct survey mechanism to collect this data. This paper documents various procedures developed to utilize the Freight Analysis Framework Version 2 Database to determine the number of trucks passing through the entire state and an urban area in Alabama. The procedures developed in this research focus on national level pass through data, trips from one state to another that pass through a state only because of that state’s location; pass through from a port of entry to the country where an urbanized area is located on a major corridor; and statewide level through trip data, trips from one part of a state to another that pass through an urbanized area because of its geographic location. The need for, and application of, the pass through freight forecasting is evident in the transportation planning models each metropolitan area and state are expected to develop and maintain for evaluating transportation projects. The ability to accurately forecast the pass through freight movements will benefit transportation planners by identifying freight volumes that must be accommodated by existing and proposed infrastructure, but for which the state or metropolitan area has no direct method to survey.

  11. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  12. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  13. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Affordable Freight Logistics Transport Information Management Optimisation and Asset Tracking Solution Using Smartphone GPS Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Joseph T.; Prescott, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, freight transport and telematics solutions that exploit the GPS capabilities of in- vehicle devices to provide innovative Location Based Services (LBS) including track and trace transport systems have been the preserve of a select cluster of transport operators and organisations with the financial resources to develop the requisite custom software and hardware on which they are deployed. The average cost of outfitting a typical transport vehicle or truck with the latest Intelligent Transport System (ITS) increases the cost of the vehicle by anything from a couple to several thousand Euros, depending on the complexity and completeness of the solution. Though this does not generally deter large fleet transport owners since they typically get Return on Investment (ROI) based on economies of scale, it presents a barrier for the smaller independent entities that constitute the majority of freight transport operators [1].The North Sea Freight Intelligent Transport Solution (NS FRITS), a project co-funded by the European Commission Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme, aims to make acquisition of such transport solutions easier for those organisations that cannot afford the expensive, bespoke systems used by their larger competitors.The project addresses transport security threats by developing a system capable of informing major actors along the freight logistics supply chain, of changing circumstances within the region's major transport corridors and between transport modes. The project also addresses issues of freight volumes, inter-modality, congestion and eco-mobility [2].

  15. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  16. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  17. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation... name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. (a) Scope. These...

  18. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers: Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more eff

  19. Improving urban freight transport sustainability by carriers - Best practices from The Netherlands and the EU project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carriers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport mor

  20. THE EFFICIENCY FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE VARIABLE NATURE OF DEMANDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Smyrnova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  1. Flexibility of Freight Transport Sectors : An Exploration of Carriers’ Responses to External Pressure on Prices and Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der; Kuipers, Bart

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how government policies in the field of transport may affect future freight rates, transit times, and delivery reliability. In particular, attention is paid to the ‘absorptive capacity’ of freight carriers, i.e. the extent to which they can reduce the effects of such polici

  2. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  3. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  4. Synthetic Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Station Location and Wagon Flow Organization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization in railway transport are interconnected, and each of them is complicated in a large-scale rail network. In this paper, a two-stage method is proposed to optimize railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization together. The location model is present with the objective to minimize the operation cost and fixed construction cost. Then, the second model of wagon flow organization is proposed to decide the optimal train service between different freight center stations. The location of the stations is the output of the first model. A heuristic algorithm that combined tabu search (TS with adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA is proposed to solve those two models. The numerical results show the proposed solution method is effective.

  5. An Operation Optimization for Express Freight Trains Based on Shipper Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supreme goal of railway express freight transportation is to meet the various demands of shippers. This paper considers the optimization problem of the operation plan for express freight trains based on shipper demands, including transport volume, service frequency, and transit time. An integer programming model that takes maximum shipper demands as optimized objective is proposed to realize the assignment of trains to candidate paths. In this model, the number of marshalling cars for express freight train is set as a decision variable rather than a constant to better satisfy the demand characteristics. A heuristic solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is then designed. Finally, a numerical case is applied to verify the feasibility of the model and the algorithm.

  6. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  7. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the leak from a railcar/tank trailer at the 204-ar waste unloading facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Leak from Railcar/Tank Trailer. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  8. Application of an Intelligent Fuzzy Regression Algorithm in Road Freight Transportation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Najaf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Road freight transportation between provinces of a country has an important effect on the traffic flow of intercity transportation networks. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the road freight transportation for provinces of a country is so crucial to improve the rural traffic operation in a large scale management. Accordingly, the focused case study database in this research is the information related to Iran’s provinces in the year 2008. Correlation between road freight transportation with variables such as transport cost and distance, population, average household income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP of each province is calculated. Results clarify that the population is the most effective factor in the prediction of provinces’ transported freight. Linear Regression Model (LRM is calibrated based on the population variable, and afterwards Fuzzy Regression Algorithm (FRA is generated on the basis of the LRM. The proposed FRA is an intelligent modified algorithm with an accurate prediction and fitting ability. This methodology can be significantly useful in macro-level planning problems where decreasing prediction error values is one of the most important concerns for decision makers. In addition, Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN is developed to evaluate the prediction capability of the models and to be compared with FRA. According to the final results, the modified FRA estimates road freight transportation values more accurately than the BPNN and LRM. Finally, in order to predict the road freight transportation values, the reliability of the calibrated models is analyzed using the information of the year 2009. Results show higher reliability for the proposed modified FRA.

  9. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  10. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  11. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberger, Jörn

    2005-01-01

    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  12. Temperature and Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading and Transport in Cold and Mild Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bedding levels and trailer compartment on internal trailer temperature and relative humidity (RH during loading and transport of finishing pigs was evaluated in cold and mild weather. Three levels of bedding were used in each experiment: 0.6 m3, 1.2 m3, and 2.4 m3. In mild weather, internal temperatures were lower when 1.2 m3 or 2.4 m3 of bedding were used during loading and transport compared to 0.6 m3 (P < 0.05. Internal trailer temperature increased in a quadratic fashion in the top front compartment when 1.2 m3 was used (P < 0.05, and in a linear fashion in the top rear compartment when 2.4 m3 were used in cold weather (P < 0.05. In mild weather, temperature increased linearly in the top front compartment with heavy bedding levels. Relative humidity increased in a linear fashion in the top front compartment with 0.6 m3, bottom front with 1.2 m3, and top front with 1.2 m3 in cold weather (P < 0.05. In general, temperature and RH increased as bedding levels increased in both cold and mild temperatures. Excess bedding can absorb more moisture, resulting in transport loss and decreased animal welfare.

  13. Automated measurement of Drosophila wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezey Jason

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because of the many interesting questions in evolution and development that can be addressed with them, and because of their simple structure. Results We have developed an automated image analysis system (WINGMACHINE that measures the positions of all the veins and the edges of the wing blade of Drosophilid flies. A video image is obtained with the aid of a simple suction device that immobilizes the wing of a live fly. Low-level processing is used to find the major intersections of the veins. High-level processing then optimizes the fit of an a priori B-spline model of wing shape. WINGMACHINE allows the measurement of 1 wing per minute, including handling, imaging, analysis, and data editing. The repeatabilities of 12 vein intersections averaged 86% in a sample of flies of the same species and sex. Comparison of 2400 wings of 25 Drosophilid species shows that wing shape is quite conservative within the group, but that almost all taxa are diagnosably different from one another. Wing shape retains some phylogenetic structure, although some species have shapes very different from closely related species. The WINGMACHINE system facilitates artificial selection experiments on complex aspects of wing shape. We selected on an index which is a function of 14 separate measurements of each wing. After 14 generations, we achieved a 15 S.D. difference between up and down-selected treatments. Conclusion WINGMACHINE enables rapid, highly repeatable measurements of wings in the family Drosophilidae. Our approach to image analysis may be applicable to a variety of biological objects that can be represented as a framework of connected lines.

  14. Experimental and computational studies of active flow control on a model truck-trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanmiri Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control is probably the most challenging research area in vehicle aerodynamics. Being able to manipulate a flow field in order to achieve desired results beneficial to engineering is the only way to meet today’s demands for competitive and efficient solutions in the automotive industry. The current work studies the flow control on a semi detailed model truck by using detached-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments aiming at reducing the aerodynamic drag. This study combines both passive and active flow control applied on the rear end of the trailer. An indigenous fluidic actuator (loudspeaker in cavity with slots is used as a synthetic jet in the experiment. Both experiments and computations demonstrate that the active flow control works successfully and results in flow reattachment to the flaps. The numerical simulations show that the drag coefficient, CD decreased by 3.9% when AFC was activated compared to the baseline case without flaps. The corresponding decrease when AFC was deactivated (with flaps was only 0.7%. The experimental results show a decrease of CD by 3.1% for the case with activated AFC compared to the baseline case. When AFC was deactivated the corresponding decrease in CD was 1.8%. A detailed flow analysis made in computations and experiments is used to explain these results.

  15. Calculated disturbances for evaluation of dynamical properties of freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashchenko

    2013-08-01

    defining the standardized factors of the dynamical properties of empty and loaded open cars. Comparison of the calculated factors and experimental data demonstrated its assurance. Originality. The three models of the calculated disturbances that can be used for calculating estimation of the maximal values of the standardized dynamical factors of freight vehicles are proposed. Practical value. The research results ensure an acceptable predicted evaluation of the dynamical properties factors for the designed or refitted vehicles of railway rolling stock, refinement of the values of the certain system parameters at the stage of prototypes, reduction of the expenses for performance trials, etc.

  16. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  17. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  18. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  19. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  20. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Niels; Jansen, Jan; Pieters, Reinder; Weijers, Stef; Woodburn, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in Logisti

  1. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  2. Modelling of Freight Trains Classification Using Queueing System Subject to Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Dorda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model and a simulation model of the freight trains classification process. We model the process as a queueing system with a server which is represented by a hump at a marshalling yard. We distinguish two types of shunting over the hump; primary shunting represents the classification of inbound freight trains over the hump (it is the primary function of marshalling yards, and secondary shunting is, for example, represented by the classification of trains of wagons entering the yard via industrial sidings. Inbound freight trains are considered to be customers in the system, and all needs of secondary shunting are failures of the hump because performing secondary shunting occupies the hump, and therefore inbound freight trains cannot be sorted. All random variables of the model are considered to be exponentially distributed with the exception of customer service times which are Erlang distributed. The mathematical model was created using method of stages and can be solved numerically employing a suitable software tool. The simulation model was created using coloured Petri nets. Both models are tested in conditions of a marshalling yard.

  3. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  4. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  5. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  6. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  7. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  8. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  9. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  10. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  11. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... of the Army, DoD. ] SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is... each year. This will affect domestic motor TSPs only (common, contract, logistics, freight forwarders... Deployment and Distribution Command, ATTN: AMSSD-SBD-QA, 1 Soldier Way, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5006. Request for...

  12. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... registration system, discloses the cumulative information to be collected in the URS, and provides a... January 13, 2014, to solicit ideas and information concerning sections 32101 and 32916 of the Moving Ahead... authority as motor carriers (property, passenger, and household goods (HHG)), freight forwarders and brokers...

  13. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  14. RETRACK. Final report. REorganization of Transport networks by advanced RAil freight Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the RETRACK project (038552/ May 2007-August 2012) was to demonstrate that a fully privately owned and operated international “open” rail freight service was achievable using the freedoms endowed by the Railway Reform measures introduced by the EC. The project has successfully achie

  15. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  16. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Huyen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  17. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Bhowmick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds.In this study, the purpose of the carriage is to be self-propelled using highly efficient traction motors powering each carriage made of high strength Aluminum having individual and independent wheel set. Also, the wagon will harness the waste braking energy using regenerative braking technique to power the traction motors partially. This study addresses the problem of severe line congestion, unwanted holding of freight trains to make passageway for passenger trains, light weight wagons, harnessing the wastage braking energy which are generally removed as heat. Therefore, study of the methodologies suggested has to be done in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods both in terms of technology and financially. To achieve this detailed analysis is carried out to understand the modification of normal freight wagon to self-propelled EMU type wagon.

  18. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may...

  19. New SP-values of time and reliability for freight transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G. de; Kouwenhoven, M.; Bates, J.; Koster, P.; Verhoef, E.; Tavasszy, L.; Warffemius, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods used in a study on the values of time and reliability in freight transport in the Netherlands. SP surveys were carried out among more than 800 shippers and carriers. A novel feature is that both for the value of time and reliability two additive components are

  20. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  1. Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Lin, Boliang; Wang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Siqi; Wu, Jianping; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  3. A freight transport optimization model for integrated network, service, and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Janic, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a freight transport optimization model that simultaneously incorporates multimodal infrastructure, hub-based service network structures, and the various design objectives of multiple actors. The model has been calibrated and validated using real-life data from the case study of

  4. The economic performance of supply chain(s) served by the mega freight transport vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic performances of supply chain(s) served by different including the mega freight transport vehicles. These performances are considered as a dimension of the supply chain’s sustainability together with the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational,

  5. The Dynamics of a Railway Freight Wagon Wheelset with dry friction Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Asmund, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a simple model of a wheelset that supports one end of a railway freight wagon by springs with linear characteristics and dry friction dampers. The wagon runs on an ideal, straight and level track with constant speed. The lateral dynamics in dependence on the speed...

  6. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  7. What drives the high price of road freight transport in Central America ?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, the...

  8. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  9. Model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. SLOBODYANYUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered a model of informational system for freight insurance automation based on digital signature, showed architecture, macro flowchart of information flow in model, components (modules and their functions. Described calculation method of costs on interactive cargo insurance via proposed system, represented main characteristics and options of existing transport management systems, conceptual cost models.

  10. Opportunities for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Multi-Modal Intra-City Freight Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2017-07-06

    This poster focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's analysis of opportunities for freight movement energy savings via optimization and integration of existing/emerging intra-city goods delivery modes as well as an assessment of the efficacy and energy consumption impact of new technologies.

  11. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Jansen; Reinder Pieters; Allan Woodburn; Niels Meijer; Stef Weijers

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in

  12. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    the experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building...

  13. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general average. 141.112 Section 141.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are... connected with the transportation of the goods. (3) General average. “General average” means the...

  14. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Egba Ubogu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  15. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  16. A Road Network for Freight Transport in Flanders: Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Assessment of Alternative Ring Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Macharis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though road transport is an essential part of freight distribution, there is a lack of customized routing networks to convey freight over the road. The present paper addresses this deficit by proposing general principles to elaborate a regional freight route network in Flanders. However, assigning regional freight traffic to a particular road network involves complex trade-offs between multiple interests, such as corporate accessibility, communal livability, additional network links and available space. The paper recommends the multi-actor multi-criteria assessment tool (MAMCA to incorporate stakeholder objectives in the evaluation of possible freight network scenarios. The tool is applied for the specific case of Anzegem, a road village amid regional freight attraction poles that suffers particularly from heavy freight flows. The impact of four alternative ring ways is assessed according to the interests of the involved parties and compared to the reference scenario. Results show that transport companies advocate supra-local accessibility, while governmental and citizen stakeholders value traffic safety and livability. Since the reference scenario does not comply with these critical stakeholder objectives, an alternate scenario is proposed. As such, MAMCA applications assist policy-makers in building consensus among multiple actors in the realization of transportation projects.

  17. Private–public partnerships: A mechanism for freight transport infrastructure delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Ittmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors.Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa.Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa.Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable.Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.

  18. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  19. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  20. Dual-use Freight Trailers for Road/Railway, the Continental Through-traffic Means of the New Generation%公铁两用货挂车新一代大陆联运工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立新; 季令; 林燮荫

    2001-01-01

    根据我国公路与铁路货物运输现状,阐述了公铁两用贷挂车在我国运用的前提条件、技术特点和管理体制模式,并分析了公铁两用贷挂车运输需要解决的相关问题.

  1. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  2. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, L.C.; Steers, L.L.

    1974-12-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  3. Event-triggered H∞ control for T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems and its application to truck-trailer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Park, Ju H; Wang, Hailing

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of event-triggered H∞ control for a class of T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems. An improved event-triggered scheme (ETS) characterized by discrete sampling is proposed, where the time-derivative of the membership function is not required. To get conservative conditions, the deviation bound of asynchronous normalized membership functions is considered. By utilizing the non-quadratic fuzzy line-integral Lyapunov functions and a free-matrix-based integral inequality, novel criteria for stabilization analysis of T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems are established. Finally, a truck-trailer system is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed theories.

  4. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...

  5. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...

  6. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  7. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  8. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.;

    2014-01-01

    Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90......% for J ≲ 20.5 and K ≲ 19.4. The IR subsample with a Sersic fit comprises 71 687 objects. A morphological classification is available for 39 923 galaxies. We publish spectroscopic data, including 6132 redshifts, 5299 star formation histories, and 4381 equivalent widths. Finally, a calculation of local...

  9. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  10. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  11. Dry bulk freight rates and chartering: players, strategy and the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report focuses on three vital areas of the dry bulk charter market: strategic chartering choices; roles of key players; and market cycles. It gives an overview of the bulk shipping and charter market and discusses the mechanics of bulk chartering methods and options. It goes on to consider the strategic choices available for bulk chartering decisions. The next section identifies market players amongst cargo owners, charterers and bulk shipping operations. This includes the coal, iron ore, foods, petroleum coke, steel, and cement industries. Past trends in the dry bulk market and freight rates are analyzed and the driving forces and potential for change in the bulk charter market are discussed. Appendices include data on seaborne trade, fleet development, chartering activity, freight rates, and time charter fixtures.

  12. Fuel conservation opportunities through changes in mode of freight transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.M.; Moon, A.E.

    1979-06-01

    The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. These industry personnel identified unreliable delivery times and equipment shortages as the key issues in their decision not to use the railroads. A range of actions that railroad management could take to improve transit time reliability is identified. Barriers to implementing changes include (in increasing order of difficulty) changes in operating practices, capital outlays, increased operating costs, and changes in work rules. Ranked by increased order of difficulty to implement actions to improve reliability are as follows: rationalize train schedules, yard crew assignments in terminal areas, system blocking plan, and configuration of complex terminal areas; schedule freight cars from door to door; and operate freight trains more frequently.

  13. Static aeroelastic analysis of composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Hong, Chang Sun; Miura, Hirokazu; Kim, Seung KO

    1990-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can predict aerodynamic loads for the deformed shape of the composite wing has been developed. The finite element method (FEM) was used for composite plate structural analysis, and the linear vortex lattice method (VLM) was used for steady aerodynamic analysis. The final deformed shape of the wing due to applied forces is determined by iterative manner using FEM and VLM. FEM and VLM analysis are related by a surface spline interpolation procedure. The wing with Gr/Ep composite material has been investigated to see the wing deformation effect. Aerodynamic load change due to wing flexibility has been investigated. Also, the effect of fiber orientation and sweep angle on the deformation pattern and aerodynamic coefficients are examined. For a certain fiber orientation, the deflection and aerodynamic loading of the composite wing is very much reduced. The swept forward wing has more significant effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic coefficient than the swept back wing does.

  14. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215...) Wheel chip or gouge in flange: (1) 11/2″ length and 1/2″ in width or more; (2) 15/8″ length and 5/8″ in.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill is...

  17. Promoting Freight Carrier EDI Participation with the Defense Finance and Accounting Service - Indianapolis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and three Army regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing Activities (MIPAs) that...environment (now 49 mainframe computers at 22 different locations) into four regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing...15.4 5 0.1 Yes (LGAQ) Freightways Yellow Freight 676 14.1 0 0 Yes System G. I. Trucking 512 10.7 0 0 Yes Danzas - Northern 485 10.1 0 0 No Air Condor

  18. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  19. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  20. The rebound effect on road freight transport: Empirical evidence from Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Fernando J.F., E-mail: fjmatos@uac.p [University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Silva, Francisco J.F., E-mail: fsilva@uac.p [CEEAplA - University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Because a large proportion of total operating costs for transportation companies goes towards energy, a reduction in energy operating costs, brought about by an increase in fleet fuel efficiency, or an increase in operational efficiency, results in a change in the relative cost of road freight transportation. This fact could result in an increase in the demand for such services. If this is true, the result would be an increase in total fuel consumption. Consequently, that part of the energy savings obtained through the increased energy efficiency would be lost. The existence of a 'Rebound Effect' is especially important in the road freight transportation sector and is crucial for the definition of a national energy policy. In this study, data from the road freight transportation sector in Portugal for the years of 1987 through 2006 was analyzed. It was determined that an increase in energy efficiency did not cause a backfire, but did cause a total direct rebound effect of 24.1%. In addition, fleet operators were more inclined to adopt operational efficiencies than technological fuel efficiencies as a means of increasing the total operational efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate a direct rebound effect for road freight transportation in Portugal. {yields} The functional form chosen was a log-log model and the estimation method used was the two stage least squares model. {yields} Increasing energy efficiency by 1% results in a reduction of 0.759% in energy consumption (a direct rebound effect of about 24.1%). {yields} Estimates of reduced fuel consumption without considering the direct rebound effect may be overestimated by about 0.87 million liters of diesel per year for each percentage point increase in energy efficiency.

  1. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  2. Welfare of Pigs Being Transported over Long Distances Using a Pot-Belly Trailer during Winter and Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,145 pigs were transported for 8 h in summer (six trips and winter (five trips using a pot-belly trailer accommodating pigs in four locations (upper deck or UD, bottom-nose or BN, middle deck or MD and bottom deck or BD. Heart rate of pigs during loading and transportation and lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations in exsanguination blood were measured. Meat quality was evaluated in the Longissimus thoracis (LT, Semimembranosus (SM and Adductor (AD muscles. During summer, pigs loaded in the UD and MD had higher (P < 0.05 heart rate at loading compared to those located in the BD and BN. Blood lactate and CK concentrations were higher (P < 0.001 in winter than in summer. Lactate concentration was higher (P = 0.01 in the blood of pigs transported in the BN. Pigs transported in the BN had higher pHu values in the LT, SM and AD muscles (P = 0.02, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively and lower (P = 0.002 drip loss values in the SM muscle. This study confirms that some locations within the PB trailer have a negative impact on the welfare of pigs at loading and during transport with more pronounced effects in the winter due to the additive effect of cold stress.

  3. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  4. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Nan; Meng Qingfeng; Zheng Bin [Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute, Xi' an Jiaotong University Xi' an, 710049 (China); Li Tong; Ma Qinghai, E-mail: heroyoyu.2009@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi' an Rail Bureau, Xi' an, 710054 (China)

    2011-07-19

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  5. The importance of disaggregated freight flow forecasts to inform transport infrastructure investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comprehensive disaggregated commodity flow model for South Africa. The wealth of data available enables a segmented analysis of future freight transportation demand in order to assist with the prioritisation of transportation investments, the development of transport policy and the growth of the logistics service provider industry. In 2011, economic demand for commodities in South Africa’s competitive surface-freight transport market amounted to 622 million tons and is predicted to increase to 1834m tons by 2041, which is a compound annual growth rate of 3.67%. Fifty percent of corridor freight constitutes break bulk; intermodal solutions are therefore critical in South Africa. Scenario analysis indicates that 80%of corridor break-bulk tons can by serviced by four intermodal facilities – in Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. This would allow for the development of an investment planning hierarchy, enable industry targeting (through commodity visibility, ensure capacity development ahead of demand and lower the cost of logistics in South Africa.

  6. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. The Impact of the Airline Freight Transportation on GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okşan Kibritçi Artar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of passenger and freight transportation has been increasing tremendously each day due to the globalization process. Therefore, the acceleration in the transportation demand has a natural impact on the distances that the freights have been carried through in overall. In this prospect, international logistics provides an economic utility from the sustainability viewpoint in the global competition arena. World-wide supply and distribution channels have become so sophisticated, resulting in having vitality in the field therefore boosting its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. High impact of liberalization in the air transportation markets has been affecting the market of Turkey as well as USA and EU. Moreover, it is one of the industries that have survived from the global financial crises which is also critical from the competition based strategies. In this study, the relation between the GDP and the air freight traffic of Turkey has been analyzed by using an econometric model. As a result, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between those parameters.

  9. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.

  10. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  11. SKF Freight Transports and CO{sub 2} emissions. A Study in Environmental Management Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Helen; Stenqvist, Christian

    2007-11-15

    In this study of CO{sub 2} emissions accounting, freight transports of the SKF company are examined. The identification of emission sources, the handling of transport activity data, the application of proper calculation methodologies, organizational aspects and questions of liability are all integrated parts of the study. Emission calculations are carried out for two specific logistics systems managed by SKF Logistics Services; the Daily Transport System (DTS) and the Global Air Freight Program. The DTS, which is based on road freight transports, operates the European distribution of finished products. It is estimated to contribute with 9 700 tonnes CO{sub 2} during 2007. Since the system is optimized to a reasonable degree, the CO{sub 2} impact per tonne-km is relatively low. Over the same period the air freight's estimated emissions are 40 000 tonnes. Together these transport activities contributes to about ten percent of the SKF total CO{sub 2} equivalents based on the reporting of 2006. Adding the emissions from the remaining transport activities that SKF utilizes will make this share increase considerably, particularly if also inbound transports are accounted for. The potential for CO{sub 2} reductions is covered by two change-oriented case studies. It can be concluded that short-sea transportation seldom is an alternative to road transports. Intermodal transports combining road and rail can, depending on the circumstances, reduce the CO{sub 2} impact considerably compared to only using road transports. Reducing transportation work by optimizing a transport activity is seen as the best option for CO{sub 2} reductions. Efforts should be put into reducing the need for air freight transports, considering the high emission levels per tonne-km. Monitoring emissions for all transport activities that falls under SKF responsibility will reduce the risk of sub optimization. Introducing system changes in order to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions will have a range of

  12. DETERMINATION OF FRICTION PERFORMANCE INFLUENCE IN THE SYSTEM "BODY–BOGIE" ON THE FREIGHT CAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main requirements for the design of a new generation of cars, according to the Program of rolling stock renovation, are the requirements reducing the operating costs and increasing the cost-effectiveness of their use, taking into account the achievements of scientific and technical thought. Due to the urgency of this subject the paper is devoted to the study of the friction coefficient influence in the bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers»of freight cars on their main dynamic parameters – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, body acceleration, frame strength, derailment stability factor. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. Investigations have shown that the safety movement parameters are influenced by both the friction parameters in bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers» of freight cars in empty and loaded state with bogies TSNII-X3 (model 18-100. Effect have other components of freight car dynamics, namely: radii of curved track sections, height of outer rail, etc. Originality. The author investigated the friction influence on the car dynamic loading using new approaches to solving the problem of predicting the rolling stock dynamics. Prediction was carried out on the basis of significantly updated theoretical material that covers all history of the friction theory and includes the results of recent experimental studies because of the speed on the straights and curves of small-and medium-range sections of the road.Practical value. The obtained results have practical orientation. During the research and after modeling with the improved method of accounting of friction processes dependencies of main dynamic parameters of a four-freight gondola on the value of the friction coefficient in the "body

  13. A model for development of freight transport; En model for godstransportens udvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kveiborg, O. [National Environmental Res., Systems Analysis Dept. Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of a large project conducted in a corporation between Statistics Denmark and the Danish National Environmental Research Institute. The main objective of the project has been to analyse the possibilities of prescribing the development in the Danish freight transport in a more appropriate and precise way than it is done by existing models. A secondary objective of the project was to develop a model based on the findings of the analysis. The intention was to be able to describe all areas of freight transport. The analysis has proven it impossible to improve the existing calculations in some areas of transport. Hence, the project has been narrowed down to focus exclusively on road freight transport. The developed model distinguishes itself from existing models by a much higher level of detail in the calculations. This enables the model to describe the structural relations between transport and economic activity, which has previously been subsumed in the aggregate calculations of existing models. The work carried out in the process of developing a model for the freight transport has encountered many difficulties. The findings described in this report are merely one step towards a better understanding of the relation between economic development and transport. The descriptions on the following pages will describe some of the difficulties we have had in achieving an appropriate statistical description of the different linkages. Furthermore, the calculations carried out with the model point at other unsolved problems. There is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the developments in freight transport. In this respect, the very disaggregate calculations of the model can be seen as both an advantage and as a disadvantage because each extra calculation gives rise to further uncertainties in the overall result. Even though we have had great difficulties finding adequate descriptions of the development in the factors in the model

  14. A computational study of the wing-wing and wing-body interactions of a model insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Yu; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction between the contralateral wings and between the body and wings of a model insect are studied, by using the method of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations over moving overset grids, under typical hovering and forward flight conditions. Both the interaction between the contralateral wings and the interaction between the body and wings are very weak, e.g. at hovering, changes in aerodynamic forces of a wing due to the present of the other wing are less than 3% and changes in aerodynamic forces of the wings due to presence of thebody are less than 2%. The reason for this is as following. During each down-or up-stroke, a wing produces a vortexring, which induces a relatively large jet-like flow inside the ring but very small flow outside the ring. The vortex tings of the left and right wings are on the two sides of the body. Thus one wing is outside vortex ring of the other wing and the body is outside the vortex rings of the left and right wings, resulting in the weak interactions.

  15. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  16. Insect Evolution: The Origin of Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew

    2017-02-06

    The debate on the evolution of wings in insects has reached a new level. The study of primitive fossil insect nymphs has revealed that wings developed from a combination of the dorsal part of the thorax and the body wall.

  17. Span morphing using the GNATSpar wing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Rigid wings usually fly at sub-optimal conditions generating unnecessary aerodynamic loses represented in flight time, fuel consumption, and unfavourable operational characteristics. High aspect ratio wings have good range and fuel efficiency, but lack manoeuvrability. On the other hand, low aspect ratio wings fly faster and are more manoeuvrable, but have poor aerodynamic performance. Span morphing technology allows integrating both features in a single wing design and allows continuously ad...

  18. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned for carrying these loads, is however not fully understood. To study this we made a three-dimensional scan of a dragonfly (Sympetrum vulgatum) fore- and hindwing with a micro-CT scanner. The scans c...

  19. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...

  20. The Energy-Efficient Operation Problem of a Freight Train Considering Long-Distance Steep Downhill Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the energy consumption rising in rail transport, the railway sector is showing increasing interest in the energy-efficient operation of freight trains. Freight trains require more complicated driving strategies than ordinary passenger trains do due to their heavy loads, especially in the long-distance steep downhill (LDSD sections that are very common in freight rail lines in China. This paper studies the energy-efficient operation of a freight train considering LDSD sections. An optimal control model including regenerative and pneumatic braking is developed for the freight train. Then, when a train leaves/enters the LDSD section, we verify the uniqueness of control transitions and discuss the speed profile linkage between LDSD and its adjacent sections, which indicates that the periodic braking should be applied on LDSD sections for optimality. Additionally, given the same running time for the entire journey, our analysis shows that electrical braking-full braking strategy is more energy-efficient than coasting-full braking strategy on LDSD sections. Finally, a numerical algorithm for the optimal driving solution is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate that the driving strategies generated by the proposed algorithm performs better than those from fuzzy predictive control and field operation regarding energy saving.

  1. Bat flight with bad wings: is flight metabolism affected by damaged wings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C

    2013-04-15

    Infection of North American bats with the keratin-digesting fungus Geomyces destructans often results in holes and ruptures of wing membranes, yet it is unknown whether flight performance and metabolism of bats are altered by such injuries. I conducted flight experiments in a circular flight arena with Myotis albescens and M. nigricans individuals with an intact or ruptured trailing edge of one of the plagiopatagial membranes. In both species, individuals with damaged wings were lighter, had a higher aspect ratio (squared wing span divided by wing area) and an increased wing loading (weight divided by wing area) than conspecifics with intact wings. Bats with an asymmetric reduction of the wing area flew at similar speeds to conspecifics with intact wings but performed fewer flight manoeuvres. Individuals with damaged wings showed lower metabolic rates during flight than conspecifics with intact wings, even when controlling for body mass differences; the difference in mass-specific metabolic rate may be attributable to the lower number of flight manoeuvres (U-turns) by bats with damaged wings compared with conspecifics with intact wings. Possibly, bats compensated for an asymmetric reduction in wing area by lowering their body mass and avoiding flight manoeuvres. In conclusion, it may be that bats suffer from moderate wing damage not directly, by experiencing increased metabolic rate, but indirectly, by a reduced manoeuvrability and foraging success. This could impede a bat's ability to gain sufficient body mass before hibernation.

  2. The Wings for Angels Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Liberty; McMillan, Ellen; Ayers, Ann

    2012-01-01

    How can the spirits of critically ill children be raised? Alexis Weisel (co-president of the Monarch High School National Art Honor Society, 2010-2011) had this question in mind when she initiated and developed the Wings for Angels Project after hearing about the Believe in Tomorrow (BIT) organization through her art teacher, Ellen McMillan. The…

  3. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  4. FLEXIBLE WING INDIVIDUAL DROP GLIDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of the paraglider concept as a means of descent for individual airborne troops is presented. Full-scale 22-foot inflatable wings and...in an effort to achieve system reliability. The feasibility of using the paraglider as a means of controlled delivery of airborne paratroopers was successfully demonstrated.

  5. [Winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, V; Königshausen, M; Gessmann, J; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. This disease can be very delimitating in daily life. If non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option.

  6. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM) and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combin...

  7. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other.... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the GBL, Optional Forms 1103 or 1203, to...

  9. 美军铁路货车发展研究%On Development of US Army Railway Freights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世坚; 路慧湘; 张印

    2012-01-01

    US army plays importance on the development of railway transportation. According to the main type of railway freights ,the primary characteristics of freights development are analyzed from the 2 aspects of ownership quantity and composition. The management and operation of US army freights is also studied. Considering the military demand of common flatcar in materials and equipments transportation, the main measures adopted are analyzed.%美军重视发展铁路运输。根据美军铁路货车的主要车型,从保有量和构成方面,分析了美军货车发展的主要特点,研究了其管理运营方式。鉴于物资装备运输对通用平车的军事需求,分析了美军采取的主要措施。

  10. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  11. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  12. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 858 Freight Government Bill of Lading Shipment Information (Version 003010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    shipper orders dromedary , the carrer may supply a trailer to convey the dromedary equipment. The trailer is con- sidered secondary equipment. The...Qualify in REF01. The tractor num- ber carried in this data element is the power unit for the trailer described in the N7 segment of the same equipment loop...1248 TTS 8 The identifying marks assigned to a power unit (tractor). REF03 352 Description C AN 1/80 10.7.50 930210 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GOVERNMBENT

  13. Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.

  14. Periodic and Chaotic Flapping of Insectile Wings

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the desired energy level, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating condit...

  15. Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-04-01

    An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

  16. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  17. A Price Index Model for Road Freight Transportation and Its Empirical analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhishuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of price index for road freight transportation (RFT is to reflect the changes of price in the road transport market. Firstly, a price index model for RFT based on the sample data from Alibaba logistics platform is built. This model is a three levels index system including total index, classification index and individual index and the Laspeyres method is applied to calculate these indices. Finally, an empirical analysis of the price index for RFT market in Zhejiang Province is performed. In order to demonstrate the correctness and validity of the exponential model, a comparative analysis with port throughput and PMI index is carried out.

  18. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping

    2011-12-01

    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  19. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  20. A Revolution in Freight Train Br aking Technology%货物列车制动技术的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno; Guillaumin; 陈旭华

    2001-01-01

    The main causes to the revo luti on in freight train braking technology,a s well as measures taken to reduce noise in freight train braking,are described. The future of application of the braking technology are prospected.%介绍了导致货物列车制动技术变革的主要原因以及对降低货物 列车制动噪声所采取的措施,并展望了制动技术的应用前景。

  1. Formulation of Equations of Motion for a Simply Supported Bridge under a Moving Railway Freight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy approach, the equations of motion in matrix form for the railway freight vehicle-bridge interaction system are derived, in which the dynamic contact forces between vehicle and bridge are considered as internal forces. The freight vehicle is modelled as a multi-rigid-body system, which comprises one car body, two bogie frames and four wheelsets. The bogie frame is linked with the car body through spring-dashpot suspension systems, and the bogie frame is rigidly linked with wheelsets. The bridge deck, together with railway track resting on bridge, is modelled as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam and its deflection is described by superimposing modes. The direct time integration method is applied to obtain the dynamic response of the vehicle-bridge interaction system at each time step. A computer program has been developed for analyzing this system. The correctness of the proposed procedure is confirmed by one numerical example. The effect of different beam mode numbers and various surface irregularities of beam on the dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge interaction system are investigated.

  2. Analysis on logistic company action toward the access restriction policy on freight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Muhammad; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Nahry, Nahdalina

    2017-06-01

    The high volume of freight vehicles that enters, leaves or passes through the urban areas, especially Jakarta, has caused traffic congestion. Local authority plans to perform the access restriction on freight vehicles on the Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR) to reduce the congestion on that toll road. The study aims to analyze the alternative solutions of the logistics companies to overcome the impact of such policy. The data collection is done by interviewing 102 truck drivers and 7 staffs of logistic companies that use JORR. The results show that the most preferred action is shifting the operating time. Based on the open test, access restriction policy on JORR may cause a significant impact on the operational costs of delivery. Shifting the operational time will increase the operating cost by 1.71%, while turning the route will increase the operating costs by 4.35%. Moreover, changing the mode will reduce the operating expenses by 50%, and the combination action of shifting the route and the time will increase the operating costs by 5.39%.

  3. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  4. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao

    2012-09-01

    Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.

  5. Real-time monitoring of brake shoe keys in freight cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZOU; Zhen-ying XU; Jin-yang LI; Fu-qiang ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring ensures the safety of freight railroad operations. With the development of machine vision technology, visual inspection has become a principal means of condition monitoring. The brake shoe key (BSK) is an important component in the brake system, and its absence will lead to serious accidents. This paper presents a novel method for automated visual inspection of the BSK condition in freight cars. BSK images are first acquired by hardware devices. The subsequent in-spection process is divided into three stages:first, the region-of-interest (ROI) is segmented from the source image by an im-proved spatial pyramid matching scheme based on multi-scale census transform (MSCT). To localize the BSK in the ROI, cen-sus transform (CT) on gradient images is developed in the second stage. Then gradient encoding histogram (GEH) features and linear support vector machines (SVMs) are used to generate a BSK localization classifier. In the last stage, a condition classifier is trained by SVM, but the features are extracted from gray images. Finally, the ROI, BSK localization, and condition classifiers are cascaded to realize a completely automated inspection system. Experimental results show that the system achieves a correct inspection rate of 99.2%and a speed of 5 frames/s, which represents a good real-time performance and high recognition accuracy.

  6. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  7. A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Alwyn J.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.

  8. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  9. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  10. Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.

  11. Experimental Study on the Wing Formation of a Paraglider Canopy Cell (Inflatable Wing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Keitaro; Umemura, Akira; Hishida, Manabu

    This study focuses on the formation mechanism of para-foil canopy. Three types of model wing, which represent each cell of para-foil canopy (a rigid wing with air intake, an inflatable wing and a cassette model) were prepared to explore the effects of air intake on inflatable wing formation in wind tunnel experiments. The flow fields both outside and inside of the wings were investigated, together with the process that the flexible wing inflates to form a wing. It was found that the robust nature of canopy is derived from the concaving deformation of the leading edge at small angles of attack, and the enhanced outward suction pressure acting on the leading edge, which are caused by the flexibility of the wing as well as the pressure of air intake in sacrifice of increased drag coefficient.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Limit Cycle Wing Rock Effect on Wing Body Configuration Induced by Forebody Vortices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rong, Zhen; Deng, Xueying; Ma, Baofeng; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    ...° swept wing configuration undergoing a limit cycle oscillation using a synchronous measurement and control technique of wing rock/particle image velocimetry/dynamic pressure associated with the time...

  13. Model analasis on front bracket of semi-trailer suspension%半挂车悬架前支架的模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁华; 商高高; 李辉

    2011-01-01

    A finite element model for the front bracket of semi-trailer suspension is biut by using the three-dime nsional graphics CATIA software ,and the stifftness and strength characteristics of front bracket is simulated with the model,and its stress and deformation under the load is got;Through the model analysis,the dynamic parameters of the front bracket of semi-trailer suspension are obtained%应用三维软件CATIA建立了半挂车悬架前支架的有限元模型,对前支架的刚度和强度特性进行了仿真模拟,获得了前支架的应力应变分布情况;找到了前支架应力集中的部位,在此基础上求得了前支架的固有振动特性.

  14. Provincial logistics costs in South Africa’s Western Cape province: Microcosm of national freight logistics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country.Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges.Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers.Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.

  15. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North..., Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under...

  16. Towards zero emission urban logistics: Challenges and issues for implementation of electric freight vehicles in city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.; Nesterova, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Electric freight vehicles (EFVs) are one of the solutions to improve city logistics’ sustainability. EFVs, that are electric powered light and heavy vehicles with a number plate, have the potential to make zero emission city logistics possible within the urban area. However, although trials

  17. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 95116, 95122, 95112, 95133 and 94533. \\1\\ According to petitioners, VTA purchased the line from UP in December 2002, with UP retaining an operating... freight operating easement on, and for VTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common...

  18. To the question of flowing processes interaction in the logistics of transport-freight complexes of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina SIZOVA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of identification of structure and parameters of material flow and associate with it documentary and informative flows are considered and the principles of their co-operation, representing a basis for optimization of process of material traffic in the logistic transport-freight complexes of enterprises, are exposed.

  19. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  20. Morphing fixed wing MAV modeling using VAM

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of a morphing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) wing using a smart composite is attempted in this research work. Control surfaces actuated by traditional servos are difficult to instrument and fabricate on thin composite-wings of MAVs. Piezoelectric Fiber Reinforced Composites (PFRCs) are the chosen smart structural materials in the current work for incorporation onto fixed-wing MAVs to simultaneously perform the dual functions of structural load-bearing and actuatio...

  1. Simple Calculation of Tank Semi-trailer Bearing Coefficient%液罐半挂车承载系数的简易计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彦华; 袁斌; 王新义

    2011-01-01

    利用Excel表格的计算功能,对液罐半挂车纵向重心位置及承载系数进行了简易计算,从而节约了大量手工计算的时间,提高了设计效率。%The longitudinal center and bearing coefficient of tank semi-trailer was simply calculated by Excel. Time was saved and efficient was improved compared with manual calculation.

  2. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  3. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  4. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings.

  5. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE DEFINITION OF EMPTY CARS STABILITY FROM SQUEEZING THEIR LONGITUDINAL FORCES IN THE FREIGHT TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite of the implementation various programs to improve the safety of train traffic problem of reducing gatherings rolling stock off the rails is still relevant. The study aims to clarify the existing method of determining the factor of stability from the tire longitudinal forces to ensure the sustainability of cars with increasing speeds of the rolling stock. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved track sections. Findings. Analysis of the results shows that, for all selected freight cars for the calculation, the value of the safety factor by squeezing is smaller than the formulas of Standards. Corrections made to the formula for determining the safety factor by squeezing longitudinal forces, would achieve: 1 a higher safety factor of lightweight cars, excluding them squeezing longitudinal forces in the entire range of speeds of freight trains; 2 to develop and implement measures to prevent squeezing of cars in the entire range of motion; 3 to determine the degree of stability of the empty car in the head, middle and tail laden trains; 4 to offer optimal scheme of mixed trains formation. Originality. The analysis of existing methods for determining stability coefficient cars in freight trains from squeezing their longitudinal forces is presented in studies. Proposals are developed for the refinement of the design phase, construction and operation. Practical value. This study clarifies the existing method of determining the safety factor of stability from the squeezing longitudinal forces, as well as the influence on the magnitude of the coefficient of speed of movement of the rolling stock. Developed proposals for the refinement of existing methods for determining stability coefficient of longitudinal forces squeezing cars in a train, can reduce the number of retirements cars derailed by taking into account in the

  7. Projection moire interferometry measurements of micro air vehicle wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-11-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat's wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  9. Cost Optimisation in Freight Distribution with Cross-Docking: N-Echelon Location Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influence the economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks and a unified notation for the N-echelon location routing problem. A literature review is also presented, in order to list the main problems and methods that can be helpful for scientists and transportation practitioners.

  10. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . We find that it is necessary to account for changing composition of production across industries, but that the commodity mix within each industry safely can be regarded as constant. Changing value densities account for almost a third of transport growth; however, this is attributable to the first......A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  11. A review of some critical assumptions in the relationship between economic activity and freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . We find that it is necessary to account for changing composition of production across industries, but that the commodity mix within each industry safely can be regarded as constant. Changing value densities account for almost a third of transport growth; however, this is attributable to the first......A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  12. Analysis of Freight Trip Generation Model for Food and Beverage in Belo Horizonte (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise Kelli de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the main challenges faced in urban logistics is the distribution of goods. In Brazil, mid to large cities have experienced consequences of unplanned urban sprawl and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. The relationship between urban planning and transport stands out the attractiveness of some urban activities with direct impacts on the movement of people and goods and other component elements of urban space. The segment of bars and restaurants falls within this context, therefore is a vital activity responsible for significant percentage of jobs and revenue in a city. Altogether, foods & beverages commercial activities move daily large volumes of goods to meet the need of customers. This paper presents the results of a freight trip generation model developed for pubs and restaurants in Belo Horizonte (Brazil. Once performed the model determined the number of trips generated per day per establishment. In order to expand the discrete result to a continuous one, the results were geographically interpolated to a continuous surface and extrapolated within the city limits. The data for the freight trip generation model were obtained by survey. For this, we designed a structured questionnaire to obtain information about goods, frequency, operational time, place of performance of the loading/unloading of goods, establishment size and the number of employees. Besides these information, we investigated the acceptance of alternative practices in the delivery of goods, such as off-peak delivery. To accomplish the proposed models, we applied a simple linear regression, correlating the following variables: (i Number of trips versus area of the establishment; (ii Number of trips versus number of employees; (iii Number of trips versus operation day of the establishment. With the results of the linear regression for travel generations, conducted the data interpolation based on the standard deviation of the results to define the sample

  13. The Influence of Freight Trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadala Hassan Alfadala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by countries who are moving continually towards economic development and stability, Kuwait has moved to establishing freight trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport to meet the ever changing and increasing number of both passenger and cargoes going in and out of the country. As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC it is clearly seen that as most of its member countries drive towards a collective effort to connect together by means of railroad networks, Kuwait’s effort to move transportation of cargoes to and from the Kuwait International Airport by linking with the GCC’s project to create railroad networks, the proposed ―Cargo City‖ becomes a major part of the realization of the development of the KIA which shall help with the aim to widen trade within and across GCC countries.

  14. Increasing the Efficiency of Railway Transport by Improvement of Suspension of Freight Wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Petrović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Railway transport has a very important role in economy of every country. The efficiency of railway transport depends both on the quality of transport organization and on the technical reliability of the railway rolling stock. During operation of the railway freight wagons in the last years, a large number of breaks of suspension system elements have been noticed. This feature is especially reported at four-axle double wagon for coal transport (designated Fbd and three-axle wagon for transport of cars (designated DDam. Frequent breaks of suspension system elements reduce the efficiency of transport and in some cases cause derailment of wagons and lead to large economic losses. In this paper, the causes of breakage of suspension on both wagons (Fbd and DDam have been analyzed, but also the possibilities of how to resolve these problems, i.e. how to reduce them to a minimum or avoid them completely.

  15. Air freight in the Stockholm region with focus on Eskilstuna Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell-Åke Allan Brorsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conditions for commencing air freight operations at the regional Eskilstuna Airport in Sweden, which require investments in airport infrastructure of at least SEK 140 –180 million. Design/ methodology: The qualitative data collection for the study was carried out through open-ended interviews with representatives of airport management, staff, representatives of residents, and actors and stakeholders in the field. In addition, much written material was collected from different authorities. Document analysis was used to systematically evaluate and review the collected documents. Content analysis was applied to organize collected data into categories. Based on the reports, decisions, environmental scanning and interviews, the data have been coded and categorized in tables via thematic analysis. Findings: The major findings of the study are that Eskilstuna Airport lacks cargo facilities and has limited apron space, and that there is strong competition from four other airports in the Stockholm region. The prospects for permanent air freight operations at Eskilstuna Airport are therefore not favourable in the current situation. However, if the development of Eskilstuna Logistics Park and the concept of inter modal highway-rail transportation are successful, they could serve as a major driving force for the development of air cargo. Furthermore, with sustainable development as a guiding principle, there is great potential to develop an airport with a high standard of environmental profile. Originality/ value: My findings are of great value to managers of airports and cargo airlines, as they highlight some of the competition aspects associated with engaging in air cargo at regional airports. The study fills a gap in existing research whose main focus is environmental issues concerning airports in general.

  16. Effect of leading edge roundness on a delta wing in wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wing leading-edge roundness on wing rock was investigated using flow visualization in a water tunnel. Eighty degree delta wing models were tested on free-to-roll and forced oscillation rigs. The onset of wing rock was delayed by increasing the roundness of the leading edges. The wing rock amplitude and frequency results suggested that damping was increased at lower angles of attack but reduced at higher angles of attack. Vortex lift-off and vortex breakdown, especially during dynamic situations, were strongly affected by the leading edge roundness. Different forms of wing rock motion could be sustained by combinations of vortex breakdown and vortex lift-off. Behaviors of the wing and vortex motions were explained by the influence of leading edge roundness on the separation location, vortex trajectory, and vortex breakdown.

  17. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  18. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-04-21

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance.

  19. Winglets on low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Liaw, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The drag reduction potentially available from the use of winglets at the tips of low aspect ratio (1.75-2.67) wings with pronounced (45-60 deg) leading edge sweep is assessed numerically for the case of a cruise design point at Mach of 0.8 and a lift coefficient of 0.3. Both wing-winglet and wing-alone design geometries are derived from a linear-theory, minimum induced drag design methodology. Relative performance is evaluated with a nonlinear extended small disturbance potential flow analysis code. Predicted lift coefficient/pressure drag coefficient increases at equal lift for the wing-winglet configurations over the wing-alone planform are of the order of 14.6-15.8, when boundary layer interaction is included.

  20. INTEGRATION OF LOW EQUIPMENT AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF CONTROL FREIGHT TRAIN THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PASSENGER TRAFFIC, CONNECTING IT TO A SINGLE SYSTEM SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Ivchenko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the integration of nodes of data transfer network for automated control systems of freight and passenger traffic is proposed. It allows more efficient using the network equipment and communication channels.

  1. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Harten, van A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly au

  2. On railway freight transportation regulations information construction%浅谈铁路货运规章信息化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2012-01-01

    铁路货运规章是铁路货物运输的基本"法",但现行的铁路规章数量众多、修改频繁、不便于现场使用。文章对目前铁路货运规章管理存在问题进行分析,提出采用信息化手段管理规章,并对货运规章管理系统建设提出建议。%Railway freight transportation regulations are railway freight transport basic "method",but the current railway rules and numerous,frequently modified,do not facilitate the field use.This paper discusses the present railway freight transportation rules and management problems for the analysis,the paper proposes the informationization means management rules and regulations to the freight transportation management system construction are proposed.

  3. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Hargrove, Stephanie [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  4. O trailer, o filme e a serialidade no modelo dos blockbusters do cinema hollywoodiano contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Carneiro dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre trailer e filme, dentro do atual modelo de produção e comercialização da indústria do cinema americano, perpassa o simples binômio “peça de divulgação x produto divulgado”, para criar uma nova lógica de intertextualidades a partir da reconfiguração da narrativa original, em diversos paratextos fílmicos que se adéquam aos muitos canais de comunicação utilizados nas campanhas de lançamento dos grandes filmes hollywoodianos. Nesse cenário, que começa a se consolidar a partir das três últimas décadas do século XX, uma lógica de serialidade é estabelecida entre os diversos elementos produzidos com essa finalidade, que inclui as vezes também, nos casos de grande sucesso de bilheteria, as próprias sequencias dos filmes originais e que, no conjunto, se utilizam de vários recursos característicos das séries ficcionais, tais como a construção do suspense e o uso de ganchos, agora não apenas para garantir a manutenção do interesse do espectador  a espera do próximo episódio, mas sim para fazê-lo acompanhar todo o desenvolvimento do produto filme, desde os seus primeiros momentos de produção até sua comercialização em mercados secundários, como o de games, licenciamento, parques temáticos e outros.

  5. Habitat variation and wing coloration affect wing shape evolution in dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outomuro, D; Dijkstra, K-D B; Johansson, F

    2013-09-01

    Habitats are spatially and temporally variable, and organisms must be able to track these changes. One potential mechanism for this is dispersal by flight. Therefore, we would expect flying animals to show adaptations in wing shape related to habitat variation. In this work, we explored variation in wing shape in relation to preferred water body (flowing water or standing water with tolerance for temporary conditions) and landscape (forested to open) using 32 species of dragonflies of the genus Trithemis (80% of the known species). We included a potential source of variation linked to sexual selection: the extent of wing coloration on hindwings. We used geometric morphometric methods for studying wing shape. We also explored the phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes. We found that wing shape showed a phylogenetic structure and therefore also ran phylogenetic independent contrasts. After correcting for the phylogenetic effects, we found (i) no significant effect of water body on wing shape; (ii) male forewings and female hindwings differed with regard to landscape, being progressively broader from forested to open habitats; (iii) hindwings showed a wider base in wings with more coloration, especially in males; and (iv) evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes across species. Hence, our results suggest that natural and sexual selection are acting partially independently on fore- and hindwings and with differences between the sexes, despite evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between males and females.

  6. Design, fabrication, and characterization of multifunctional wings to harvest solar energy in flapping wing air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Gehlhar, Rachel D.; Nolen, Savannah; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a., ornithopters or robotic birds) sustain very short duration flight due to limited on-board energy storage capacity. Therefore, energy harvesting elements, such as flexible solar cells, need to be used as materials in critical components, such as wing structures, to increase operational performance. In this paper, we describe a layered fabrication method that was developed for realizing multifunctional composite wings for a unique robotic bird we developed, known as Robo Raven, by creating compliant wing structure from flexible solar cells. The deformed wing shape and aerodynamic lift/thrust loads were characterized throughout the flapping cycle to understand wing mechanics. A multifunctional performance analysis was developed to understand how integration of solar cells into the wings influences flight performance under two different operating conditions: (1) directly powering wings to increase operation time, and (2) recharging batteries to eliminate need for external charging sources. The experimental data is then used in the analysis to identify a performance index for assessing benefits of multifunctional compliant wing structures. The resulting platform, Robo Raven III, was the first demonstration of a robotic bird that flew using energy harvested from solar cells. We developed three different versions of the wing design to validate the multifunctional performance analysis. It was also determined that residual thrust correlated to shear deformation of the wing induced by torsional twist, while biaxial strain related to change in aerodynamic shape correlated to lift. It was also found that shear deformation of the solar cells induced changes in power output directly correlating to thrust generation associated with torsional deformation. Thus, it was determined that multifunctional solar cell wings may be capable of three functions: (1) lightweight and flexible structure to generate aerodynamic forces, (2

  7. Interval Finite Element Analysis of Wing Flutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Qiu Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    The influences of uncertainties in structural parameters on the flutter speed of wing are studied. On the basis of the deterministic flutter analysis model of wing, the uncertainties in structural parameters are considered and described by interval numbers. By virtue of first-order Taylor series expansion, the lower and upper bound curves of the transient decay rate coefficient versus wind velocity are given. So the interval estimation of the flutter critical wind speed of wing can be obtained, which is more reasonable than the point esti- mation obtained by the deterministic flutter analysis and provides the basis for the further non-probabilistic interval reliability analysis of wing flutter. The flow chart for interval finite element model of flutter analysis of wing is given. The proposed interval finite element model and the stochastic finite element model for wing flutter analysis are compared by the examples of a three degrees of freedorn airfoil and fuselage and a 15° swepthack wing, and the results have shown the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented model. The prominent advantage of the proposed interval finite element model is that only the bounds of uncertain parameters axe required, and the probabilistic distribution densities or other statistical characteristics are not needed.

  8. In the wings of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Maurice René Michel

    1995-01-01

    In physics research, many activities occur backstage or to continue the theatrical metaphor, in the wings of physics. This book focuses on two such activities: the editing of physics journals and the operation of physical societies. The author was editor of Physics Letters B for particle physics and then of Physics Reports for a total of 18 years, as well as being president of the French Physical Society and later of the European Physical Society. This book puts together papers dealing with such activities which he has written at various times in his career. It takes the reader into the inner circles of scientific editing and of physical societies. Each introduced by a foreword, these papers can be read separately.

  9. WHAT WAY DETERMINE THE CORRECT ALLOCATION AND LAYOUT FOR THE NEEDS OF PARKING FREIGHT DESIGN IN CONCRETE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of building a network parking strategies for freight transport may be considered two variants: a building (completing car parks on abandoned of border crossings, respectively building a whole new network of parks. Creating a network of parks for freight is in the interest of the Slovak Republic as well as the European Union. The subsequent optimization is dependent on the quality of road infrastructure and the traffic intensity in the monitored sections. It is therefore important selection of suitable candidates, administrators and their subsequent assessment of the appropriateness and services provided in selected locations. Identification of parking in the SR enables to choose the effective solution for intelligent networking and secure parking.

  10. RESEARCHES ON URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE MEXICAN CITY OF QUERETARO: FROM CENTRAL TO PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While in developed countries the effects of urban freight transport on congestion levels, environment and quality of life of the population have been recognized and studied, in Latin American countries a limited amount of reports have been produced on this issue, focusing only on major urban agglomerations and capital cities. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the results and the key analytical concepts supporting a research work carried out in the Queretaro Metropolitan Area, within the 2003−2014 period. The methodological approach considered includes a multi-year research effort for creating analytical tools and evaluation methods. As a result of this effort, urban freight related issues have been characterized in a context of urban and peri-urban interacting environments for a medium-sized city. The resulting methods and tools can now be used for studying metropolitan areas on a nation-wide basis.

  11. Induce Drag Reduction of an Airplane Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the aerodynamic characteristics for aircraft wing model with and without slotted winglet. When an aircraft moves forward with a high speed then a small circulatory motion of air is created at the wingtip due to the pressure difference between the upper and lower surface of the wing is called vortices. This circulatory fluid tends to leak from lower to upper surface of wing which causes downward motion is called “downwash” and generates a component of the local lift force in the direction of the free stream called induced drag. Downwash causes reduction of lift and contribute induced drag to the total drag. Drag reduction for aerial vehicles has a range of positive ramifications: reduced fuel consumption, larger operational range, greater endurance and higher achievable speeds. An experimental study is conducted to examine the potentiality of slotted winglet for the reduction of induced drag, and for the improvement of lift coefficient without increasing the span of aircraft wing. The model composed of a swept wing built from NACA 0012 airfoil. The test conducted in subsonic wind tunnel of 1m×1m rectangular test section at flow speed 25m/s placing the wing without winglet, wing with winglet at 30° inclination, wing with winglet at 60° inclination, and wing with winglet at 70° inclination at angle of attack ranging from 0 to 16 degree. The test result shows 20- 25% reduction in drag coefficient and 10-20% increase in lift coefficient by using slotted winglet.

  12. Fairness and Freight-Handlers : Local Labor-Market Conditions and Wage-Fairness Perceptions in a Trucking Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoogen, Eric A.; Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from an internal attitude survey in the freight-handling terminals of a unionized trucking firm to investigate the effect of local labor market conditions on employee wage-fairness perceptions. The key element of our research design is that local managers have no discretion to vary wage rates in response to local labor market conditions; local economic shocks thus generate exogenous variation in the attractiveness of the wage paid by the firm relative to employees...

  13. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  14. CineVersum BlackWing Four

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    从BlackWing One到现在最新推出的BlackWing Four,一直以来C1ndVersum所带来的投影机都受到了不少投影机爱好者的关注,其帅气的外形搭配独特的欧美系画面风格,让人印象深刻。BlackWingFour是Cine Versum最为强悍的家庭影院投影机之一,

  15. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  16. Active Dihedral Control System for a Torisionally Flexible Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor); Griecci, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  17. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  18. Analysis of Indicators of Corporate Responsibility in Road Freight Transport: Results of Transport Companies and FMCG Retailers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đuranović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of indicators of corporate responsibility in road freight transport, with special emphasis on freight transport and delivery to Fast Moving Consumers Goods (FMCG retailers and final consumer. The main task is to rank the importance of corporate responsibility indicators in freight transport from the perspective of the management of transport companies, as well as management of retail stores. In this context, empirical research was conducted on a sample of 124 managers of transport enterprises and 181 managers of FMCG retailers in Serbia. The results showed that the impact of indicators does not depend on the region, transport company and retail store. The indicators show a statistically significant dependence on FMCG type that is being transported. The conducted analysis and achieved results are important in practice as they show to the management of transport companies which indicators should be developed, so that customers (retailers, and thus the users of final products are satisfied. Disadvantages of the existing research and suggestions for future studies are provided in the paper.

  19. An empirical analysis of freight rate and vessel price volatility transmission in global dry bulk shipping market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global dry bulk shipping market is an important element of global economy and trade. Since newbuilding and secondhand vessels are often traded as assets and the freight rate is the key determinant of vessel price, it is important for shipping market participants to understand the market dynamics and price transmission mechanism over time to make suitable strategic decisions. To address this issue, a multi-variate GARCH model was applied in this paper to explore the volatility spillover effects across the vessel markets (including newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets and freight market. Specifically, the BEKK parameterization of the multi-variate GARCH model (BEKK GARCH was proposed to capture the volatility transmission effect from the freight market, newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets in the global dry bulk shipping industry. Empirical results reveal that significant volatility transmission effects exist in each market sector, i.e. capesize, panamax, handymax and handysize. Besides, the market volatility transmission mechanism varies among different vessel types. Moreover, some bilateral effects are found in the dry bulk shipping market, showing that lagged variances could affect the current variance in a counterpart market, regardless of the volatility transmission. A simple ratio is proposed to guide investors optimizing their portfolio allocations. The findings in this paper could provide unique insights for investors to understand the market and hedge their portfolios well.

  20. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  1. Railway and road discrete choice model for foreign trade freight between Antioquia and the Port of Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Pineda-Jaramillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Colombian freight is transported on roads with barely acceptable conditions, and although there is a speculation about the need for a railway for freight transportation, there is not a study in Colombia showing the variables that influence the modal choice by the companies that generate freight transportation. This article presents the calculation of demand for a hypothetical railway through a discrete choice model. It begins with a qualitative research through focus group techniques to identify the variables that influence the choice of persons responsible for the transportation of large commercial companies in Antioquia (Colombia. The influential variables in the election were the cost and service frequency, and these variables were used to apply a Stated Preference (SP and Revealed Preference (RP survey, then to calibrate a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL, and to estimate the influence of each of them. We show that the probability of railway choice by the studied companies varies between 67% and 93%, depending on differences in these variables.

  2. Current Trends and Problems of Development of the Arctic Marine Freight Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Selin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the trends and evaluates the prospects of functioning of the Northern Sea Route. It shows that after the change of its management model its freight traffic has dropped 4-fold, and in the Eastern sector (outside the Vilkitsky Strait – 40-fold. In the recent years there has been a certain revival of transportation, including transit, which reached its maximum of 1.27 million tons in 2012. However, over the next two years they declined again; the drop was particularly significant in 2014 and amounted to a total of 240 thousand tons. The main problem is that this rather complex system is influenced by many factors, often contradictory and poorly predictable. Thus, the growing need for energy resources determines the overall need for developing the Arctic shelf. However, the possibility of climate cooling and the deterioration of ice situation can influence the possibility of transporting these resources. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis followed by the “war of sanctions” will cause a significant decline, especially in the medium term, the attractiveness of the European oil and gas market, which will cause the shift of strategic interests of Russian companies to the Asia-Pacific region. This necessitates the modernization of the Arctic transport and logistics system and introduction of new technical solutions. For instance, even nuclearpowered icebreakers series LA-60Ya that are currently under construction will not be able to escort linear tankers and gas carriers with a deadweight of more than 100 thousand tons along the eastern sector of the Northern Sea Route. It is necessary to create more powerful vessels of the classical type or to design new models. All these driving forces and constraints are not always predictable within the framework of standard economic and statistical approaches. In this regard, the study reflected in the article used expert approaches along with the methods of factor and economic analysis. The

  3. DrawWing, a program for numerical description of insect wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tofilski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available There is usually a pattern of veins on an insect wing. This pattern is species-specific and is used taxonomically. For example, the coordinates of some characteristic points on the wing are used to compare vein patterns. The characteristic points are often vein junctions or vein ends. A tool is presented that enables automatic identification of vein junctions. An image of an insect wing is used to determine the wing outline and veins. The vein skeleton is obtained using a thinning algorithm. Bezier splines are fitted to both the wing outline and the vein skeleton. The splines are saved in an encapsulated postscript file. Another output file in text format contains the coordinates of vein junctions. Both the program and its source code are available under GNU General Public License at [www.cyf-kr.edu.pl/~rotofils/drawwing.html]. The program presented in this paper automatically provides a numerical description of an insect wing. It converts an image of an insect wing to a list of coordinates of vein junctions, and a wing diagram that can be used as an illustration. Coordinates of the vein junctions extracted by the program from wing images were used successfully to discriminate between males of Dolichovespula sylvestris and Dolichovespula saxonica.

  4. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots.

  5. Resilin in dragonfly and damselfly wings and its implications for wing flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, Seth; Crall, James D; Merz, Rachel A; Combes, Stacey A

    2011-12-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that passive mechanical dynamics of insect wings play an integral role in insect flight, our understanding of the structural details underlying insect wing flexibility remains incomplete. Here, we use comparative morphological and mechanical techniques to illuminate the function and diversity of two mechanisms within Odonata wings presumed to affect dynamic wing deformations: flexible resilin vein-joints and cuticular spikes. Mechanical tests show that joints with more resilin have lower rotational stiffness and deform more in response to a load applied to an intact wing. Morphological studies of 12 species of Odonata reveal that resilin joints and cuticular spikes are widespread taxonomically, yet both traits display a striking degree of morphological and functional diversity that follows taxonomically distinct patterns. Interestingly, damselfly wings (suborder Zygoptera) are mainly characterized by vein-joints that are double-sided (containing resilin both dorsally and ventrally), whereas dragonfly wings (suborder Epiprocta) are largely characterized by single-sided vein-joints (containing resilin either ventrally or dorsally, but not both). The functional significance and diversity of resilin joints and cuticular spikes could yield insight into the evolutionary relationship between form and function of wings, as well as revealing basic principles of insect wing mechanical design.

  6. Parametric weight evaluation of joined wings by structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Shyu, Albert T.; Wolkovitch, Julian

    1988-01-01

    Joined-wing aircraft employ tandem wings having positive and negative sweep and dihedral, arranged to form diamond shapes in both plan and front views. An optimization method was applied to study the effects of joined-wing geometry parameters on structural weight. The lightest wings were obtained by increasing dihedral and taper ratio, decreasing sweep and span, increasing fraction of airfoil chord occupied by structural box, and locating the joint inboard of the front wing tip.

  7. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  8. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  9. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  10. Trajectory Optimization Design for Morphing Wing Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruisheng Sun; Chao Ming; Chuanjie Sun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new particle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm to optimize the trajectory of morphing⁃wing missile so as to achieve the enlargement of the maximum range. Equations of motion for the two⁃dimensional dynamics are derived by treating the missile as an ideal controllable mass point. An investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of morphing⁃wing missile with varying geometries is performed. After deducing the optimizing trajectory model for maximizing range, a type of discrete method is put forward for taking optimization control problem into nonlinear dynamic programming problem. The optimal trajectory is solved by using PSO algorithm and penalty function method. The simulation results suggest that morphing⁃wing missile has the larger range than the fixed⁃shape missile when launched at supersonic speed, while morphing⁃wing missile has no obvious range increment than the fixed⁃shape missile at subsonic speed.

  11. Molecular determinants of bat wing development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, K E

    2008-01-01

    The specialization of the forelimb into a wing allowed bats to become the only mammals to achieve powered flight. Recent studies in developmental biology have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind elements of this important morphological transformation. Specifically, researchers have identified molecular changes contributing to: the formation of the bat wing membrane, the elongation of skeletal elements of the bat wing and the reduction of the bat ulna. The general picture emerging from this research is that small changes in the expression of genes critical to many aspects of development have driven large changes in bat wing morphology. Thus, bats can be added to the growing list of groups in which expression changes in key developmental genes have been linked to the evolution of morphological innovations (e.g. early bilaterians, cetaceans, insects).

  12. Analysis of the Wing Tsun Punching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Webb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The three punching techniques of Wing Tsun, while few in number, represent an effective approach to striking with the closed fist. At first glance, the rather short stroke of each punch would seem disproportionate to the amount of power it generates. Therefore, this article will discuss the structure and body mechanics of each punch, in addition to the various training methods employed for developing power. Two of the Wing Tsun punches, namely the lifting punch and the hooking punch, are often confused with similar punches found in Western boxing. The key differences between the Wing Tsun and boxing punches, both in form and function, will be discussed. Finally, the strategy for applying the Wing Tsun punches will serve as the greatest factor in differentiating them from the punches of other martial arts styles.

  13. PROBLEM OF THE DEFINITION THE «RELIABILITY» TERM. METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY THE RELIABILITY OF FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific paper is aimed at disclosing the existing problem of the «reliability» definition and provides a reasoned definition of the term. The study assumes the development of a complex that includes the methodology and appropriate terminology that will be true. Methodology. Currently there is reliability theory in the special case of the probabilistic and statistical theory, which is used to determine or predict the occurrence of object failures. Within the existing theories the term «reliability» is formulated, the parameters related to it are described. Findings. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of reliability and personal considerations of the authors, they formulated a definition of the term «reliability». The methodology and study of the object reliability on the example of a freight car was proposed. Originality. The authors proposed a new definition of the «reliability» term. Namely: reliability is an assessment of the ability of an object to maintain the original property within the established limits and temporary space, in the conditions of storage and transportation, as well as to perform the required functions in predetermined modes of operation with maintenance and repair facility. The reliability parameters include: reliability, durability, maintainability and safety that characterize the object. Also a methodology for developing and study the reliability of a freight car was developed, which comprises: 1 design, technological and operational reliability; 2 scientific experiment, including the modeling of the freight car in different conditions and operating modes; 3 the reliability theory is presented as combined or modified, covering the mathematical and physical foundations; 4 Bayesian statistics that describe the different states of a freight car with a breakdown of its basic components and with the appropriate probability for each component to describe the

  14. Cross Service Fixed-Wing Cost Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    clarify the costing methods for O&S costs for fixed-wing delivery platforms with the intent of extending the research to other cross- service mission costs...proof-of-concept, this project will concentrate on equating equitable cross- service costs for fixed-wing munitions delivery platforms. The method of... delivery is an essential part of the AoA, especially when the project proposed is the replacement of current missile systems. The services have

  15. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  16. Wetting Characteristics of Insect Wing Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doyoung Byun; Jongin Hong; Saputra; Jin Hwan Ko; Young Jong Lee; Hoon Cheol Park; Bong-Kyu Byun; Jennifer R. Lukes

    2009-01-01

    Biological tiny structures have been observed on many kinds of surfaces such as lotus leaves, which have an effect on the coloration of Morpho butterflies and enhance the hydrophobicity of natural surfaces. We investigated the micro-scale and nano-scale structures on the wing surfaces of insects and found that the hierarchical multiple roughness structures help in enhancing the hydrophobicity. After examining 10 orders and 24 species of flying Pterygotan insects, we found that micro-scale and nano-scale structures typically exist on both the upper and lower wing surfaces of flying insects. The tiny structures such as denticle or setae on the insect wings enhance the hydrophobicity, thereby enabling the wings to be cleaned more easily. And the hydrophobic insect wings undergo a transition from Cassie to Wenzel states at pitch/size ratio of about 20. In order to examine the wetting characteristics on a rough surface, a biomimetic surface with micro-scale pillars is fabricated on a silicon wafer,which exhibits the same behavior as the insect wing, with the Cassie-Wenzel transition occurring consistently around a pitch/width value of 20.

  17. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-08-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  18. Numerical study of the trailing vortex of a wing with wing-tip blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hock-Bin

    1994-01-01

    Trailing vortices generated by lifting surfaces such as helicopter rotor blades, ship propellers, fixed wings, and canard control surfaces are known to be the source of noise, vibration, cavitation, degradation of performance, and other hazardous problems. Controlling these vortices is, therefore, of practical interest. The formation and behavior of the trailing vortices are studied in the present research. In addition, wing-tip blowing concepts employing axial blowing and spanwise blowing are studied to determine their effectiveness in controlling these vortices and their effects on the performance of the wing. The 3D, unsteady, thin-layer compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a time-accurate, implicit, finite difference scheme that employs LU-ADI factorization. The wing-tip blowing is simulated using the actuator plane concept, thereby, not requiring resolution of the jet slot geometry. Furthermore, the solution blanking feature of the chimera scheme is used to simplify the parametric study procedure for the wing-tip blowing. Computed results are shown to compare favorably with experimental measurements. It is found that axial wing-tip blowing, although delaying the rolling-up of the trailing vortices and the near-field behavior of the flowfield, does not dissipate the circulation strength of the trailing vortex farther downstream. Spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of displacing the trailing vortices outboard and upward. The increased 'wing-span' due to the spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of lift augmentation on the wing and the strengthening of the trailing vortices. Secondary trailing vortices are created at high spanwise wing-tip blowing intensities.

  19. Improvement of Structure and Properties of Cast Ferrite-Pearlite Steels for Freight Railway Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rabinovich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As it i s known For increasing of propcnics (YTS 2 380 MPa of cast stcds i t is c f k ~ i v tco incrcasc conlcnt o f alhsti~uiionaal lloyingclcrncnts, (Si, Mn, Cr, Ni. 1 lowevcr it lcads to rising in pricc olstccl ton. lncrcasing of Si and Mn conrcnl only is limitcd hy decreasing o lductility and weld nhility. As a rule silicon contcnt at ~hcsca ccls is not highcr than 0.4-0.67'0 and Si:Mn ratio is not highcr khan 1:2. Nowfor grain rcfincmcnt ~wc sin oculation of stcct by nitrogcn and clcincnrs with high chcmical affinity to nltmgcn. Mostly vanadium i s usd.howcvcr niobium sornctime is uscd. Dissldvantagcs of this arc high cost of alloying clcmcnrs and low thcrrnodynamic stability OFvanadium and niobium nitridcs. Parlicles of V(C,N and Nh(C.N dissolvc during hcating fnr licnt trcatmcnt or during wclding. It [cads lodccrcasing of grain refinement elfcc!.Adaptat ion or this microalloying stratcgy Tor casts producing For rrcight mil way cars let cstirnatc possibility of application thcsc casts in ancw gcnerazion freight railway cars.

  20. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Static and modal numerical analyses for the roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analyses by finite element method and experimental tests are used to determine static and dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles. Experimental measurements are very time consuming and expensive, so they cannot be used at all stages of design. Numerical simulations do not have the disadvantages of experimental methods, but it is necessary to verify them by experiments to obtain realistic results. Fullwidth/ full-length, half-width/full-length and half-width/half-length modeling approaches can be used to determine static and vibrational behaviours of railway vehicles depending or not on the symmetry of roof structure and applied load. Different static loading cases defined in standards such as EN 12663, UIC CODE OR 577 and ERRI B12/RP17 have to be considered in FE analyses. Evaluation of stress states, buckling and vibrational behaviours for a roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car are presented. To highlight the vibrational behaviour of the structure normal mode (free vibration analyses are performed. As a result of the relevant simulations, structural characteristics and structural weaknesses of the design are determined.

  2. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  3. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.

  4. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  5. 中心型甩挂运输车辆调度的启发式算法%A Heuristic Algorithm for Tractor and Trailer Transport Scheduling of Center-type Depot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振华; 贾淑娟; 顾九春

    2014-01-01

    Tractor and trailer transport of center-type depot refers to a single-depot center of tractors and trailers,and the scheduling problem means assigning tractors among tasks,including empty trailers and loaded trailers.Based on the different consumption of a tractor under travelling alone,with an empty trailer or a loaded trailer,travelling cost was defined to evaluate all kinds of scheduling proposals.Pulling tasks were classified into four types.Under the definition of task chain,virtual task,inter-chain crossover and intra-chain crossover,we proposed a heuristic algorithm to solve this kind of scheduling problem without time windows,including empty trailer scheduling,initial proposal,inter-chain crossover,empty trailer crossover,tractor quantity verification and intra-chain crossover.In the simulating instance given in this paper,the final proposal was absolutely better than the initial one,which verifying the effectiveness and feasibility of the algorithm.%中心型甩挂运输是指以单车场为集疏中心的一拖一挂甩挂,其车辆调度则是指各任务之间的牵引车调度。文中综合考虑牵引车空驶、带空挂车行驶和带重挂车行驶所引起的不同成本,定义了牵引车运行成本的概念,并将其作为调度方案优劣的判别指标。将牵引任务分为四种类型,定义了任务链、虚拟任务、链内交叉和链间交叉的概念,提出了一种求解该类车辆调度无时间窗约束的启发式算法,包括空车调运、初始调运方案、链内交叉、空车调运交叉、牵引车数量检验和链间交叉。最后给出了仿真算例,所计算的最终方案效果明显好于初始方案,验证了算法的有效性和可行性。

  6. Populists in Parliament : Comparing Left-Wing and Right-Wing Populism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Louwerse, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In parliament, populist parties express their positions almost every day through voting. There is great diversity among them, for instance between left-wing and right-wing populist parties. This gives rise to the question: is the parliamentary behaviour of populists motivated by their populism or by

  7. Aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, K. B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, X. H.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a fundamental investigation on the aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration in forward flight. Of particular interest are the effects of phase angle (φ) and center-to-center distance (L) between the front wing and the rear wing on the aerodynamic force generation at a Reynolds number of 5000. Both experimental and numerical methods were employed. A force sensor was used to measure the time-history aerodynamic forces experienced by the two wings and digital particle image velocimetry was utilized to obtain the corresponding flow structures. Both the front wing and the rear wing executed the same simple harmonic motions with φ ranging from -180° to 180° and four values of L, i.e., 1.5c, 2c, 3c, and 4c (c is the wing chord length). Results show that at fixed L = 2c, tandem wings perform better than the sum of two single wings that flap independently in terms of thrust for phase angle approximately from -90° to 90°. The maximum thrust on the rear wing occurs during in-phase flapping (φ = 0°). Correlation of transient thrust and flow structure indicates that there are generally two types of wing-wake interactions, depending on whether the rear wing crosses the shear layer shed from the front wing. Finally, increasing wing spacing has similar effect as reducing the phase angle, and an approximate mathematical model is derived to describe the relationship between these two parameters.

  8. Research on Forecasting Model of Urban Road Freight%城市公路货运交通预测模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪智勇; 郗海洋

    2016-01-01

    城市货运交通预测一直为城市规划所忽视,成为综合规划的薄弱环节。与客运交通相比,货运交通的预测理论发展滞后,难以满足精细化的城市规划需求。文中首先概述了主要的货运交通预测方法,进而以基于货物的预测框架为基础对货运生成预测、货运分布预测、货运量与货运交通的转换以及货运交通分配预测进行了研究,提出了基于用地的货运生成预测方法、基于产业联系的货运分布重力模型和基于货运组织模式的货运量和货车交通的转换模型。最后,总结了货运分配模型和客运分配模型的主要区别。%The forecasting of urban freight traffic have been always neglected for urban planning,becoming the weak link. Compared to passenger transport,the predict theory of freight transport which is constructed on passenger four-phase approach is always lagging behind and lack of grasp of the differences between passenger and freight characteristics,making it difficult to meet the sophisticated needs of urban planning.This paper outlines the main freight traffic forecasting methods first.Then based on the framework of the cargo forecast this paper predicts freight generation forecast method based on land,forecast freight distribution based on industries relationship and conversion model of freight and truck traffic based on freight wagons organization mode. Finally,this paper summarizes the main differences between passenger and freight assignment model.

  9. 城际间快捷货物运输系统的探索%An Approach to Express Freight Transportation System in Intercity Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申月; 苏顺虎; 胡思继

    2001-01-01

    The article analizes the present railway freight transportation, and p oints out the main problems that have effected on the railway freight transpo rtation products. According to these problems, the author suggests that the organization way must be reformed, and that is to establish the express freight transportation syste m of economic center areas in China. By this, we could speed up the freight tran spo rtation, make the allotted time of freight arrival in knowing, enhance the compe tence of the railway in the market and thus bring the railway with economic resuits.%分析了我国铁路货物运输的现状,指出了影响铁路货物运输产品质量的主要因素并针对这些问题提出了在我国进行铁路货物运输组织方式的改革,建立城际间快捷货物运输体系的建议,切实提高货物送达速度,提高铁路货物运输的市场竞争力,为铁路带来经济效益.

  10. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  11. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  12. Antifatigue properties of dragonfly Pantala flavescens wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liang, Yun-Hong; Ren, Lu-Quan; Jie, Meng; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-05-01

    The wing of a dragonfly is thin and light, but can bear high frequent alternating stress and present excellent antifatigue properties. The surface morphology and microstructure of the wings of dragonfly Pantala flavescens were observed using SEM in this study. Based on the biological analysis method, the configuration, morphology, and structure of the vein were studied, and the antifatigue properties of the wings were investigated. The analytical results indicated that the longitudinal veins, cross veins, and membrane of dragonfly wing form a optimized network morphology and spacially truss-like structure which can restrain the formation and propagation of the fatigue cracks. The veins with multilayer structure present high strength, flexibility, and toughness, which are beneficial to bear alternating load during the flight of dragonfly. Through tensile-tensile fatigue failure tests, the results were verified and indicate that the wings of dragonfly P. flavescens have excellent antifatigue properties which are the results of the biological coupling and synergistic effect of morphological and structural factors.

  13. Elastic deformation and energy loss of flapping fly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing deformation by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential energy that converts into a mean wing deformation power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential energy cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain energy increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain energy density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical energy loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing deformation power and energy expenditure in flapping insect wings.

  14. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  15. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  16. Potentials for Platooning in U.S. Highway Freight Transport: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Holden, Jacob; Lammert, Michael; Duran, Adam; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2017-03-15

    Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption - and related emissions - while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. A statistical analysis was performed based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning. In particular, our analysis focuses on estimating 'platoonable' mileage based on overall highway vehicle use and prolonged high-velocity traveling, establishing that about 65% of the total miles driven by combination trucks could be driven in platoon formation, leading to a 4% reduction in total truck fuel consumption. This technical potential for 'platoonable' miles in the U.S. provides an upper bound for scenario analysis considering fleet willingness to platoon as an estimate of overall benefits of early adoption of CAV technologies. A benefit analysis is proposed to assess the overall potential for energy savings and emissions mitigation by widespread implementation of highway platooning for trucks.

  17. The Design of Web-based Freight Management System%基于Web的货运管理系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑蓉; 王全

    2011-01-01

    针对货运管理中目前存在的实际问题,设计并实现了基于Web的货运管理系统,以提高货运管理的效率.文章介绍了基于Web的货运管理系统的设计过程,包括需求分析,系统功能模块设计等.%To the problem existing in freight management, Based-Web Freight Management System is designed and implemented to improve the management efficiency. The process of designing Based-Web Freight Management System is introduced in this paper, including requirement analysis, system design, functional modules etc.

  18. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  19. Aeroelastic Analysis of Modern Complex Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.; Reichenbach, Eric; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1996-01-01

    A process is presented by which aeroelastic analysis is performed by using an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with an advanced computational structural dynamics (CSD) code. The process is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East CFD code) coupled with NASTRAN. The process is also demonstrated on an aeroelastic research wing (ARW-2) using ENSAERO (an in-house NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) coupled with a finite element wing-box structures code. Good results have been obtained for the F/A-18 Stabilator while results for the ARW-2 supercritical wing are still being obtained.

  20. Transonic flow theory of airfoils and wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, P R

    1976-01-01

    Supercritical wing technology is expected to have a significant influence on the next generation of commercial aircraft. Computational fluid dynamics is playing a central role in the development of new supercritical wing sections. One of the principal tools is a fast and reliable code that simulates two-dimensional wind tunnel data for transonic flow at high Reynolds numbers. This is used widely by industry to assess drag creep and drag rise. Codes for the design of shockless airfoils by the hodograph method have not been so well received because they usually require a lot of trial and error. However, a more advanced mathematical approach makes it possible to assign the pressure as a function of the arc length and then obtain a shockless airfoil that nearly achieves the given distribution of pressure. This tool should enable engineers to design families of transonic airfoils more easily both for airplane wings and for compressor blades in cascade.

  1. Active Aeroelastic Tailoring of High-Aspect-Ratio Composite Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    34 - 26000 , ......... . . . ...... . . .... .. .......................... ... - - ----------- 21000 ... ........... ~0 50 LOAD... ISO 5: B s mission....f Figure 5: Basic mission profile 7 Figure 6: Baseline single-wing and joined-wing vehicles 3.1 Baseline vehicles Three sets

  2. Realistic Design Loads as a Basis for Semi-trailer Weight reduction, 5th International Scientific Conference „Theoretical and Practical Issues in Transport : 5th International Scientific Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, Joop; Visscher, J.; Merts, M.; Horn, R.

    2010-01-01

    One way to reduce the fuel consumption to payload ratio of heavy vehicle combinations is to reduce the empty trailer weight. This requires an understanding of the vehicle structure, assembly techniques and production process, and of special materials (e.g. high strength steel) with emphasis on stren

  3. Diseño y realización de una breve animación basada en una novela gráfica preexistente como trailer de presentación

    OpenAIRE

    CORRECHER MARTÍN, PAULA

    2012-01-01

    Correcher Martín, P. (2012). Diseño y realización de una breve animación basada en una novela gráfica preexistente como trailer de presentación. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/16033. Archivo delegado

  4. Decoupler pylon: wing/store flutter suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from a support such as an aircraft wing and more specifically for increasing the flutter speed of an aircraft flying with attached store and reducing the sensitivity of flutter to changes in the pitch inertia and center of gravity location of the store is described. It comprises softspring where the store pitch mode is decoupled from support modes and a low frequency active control mechanism which maintains store alignment. A pneumatic suspension system both isolates the store in pitch and, under conditions of changing mean load, aligns the store with the wing to which it is attached.

  5. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  6. Design and aerodynamic characteristics of a span morphing wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuemin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-03-01

    Flight vehicles are often designed to function around a primary operating point such as an efficient cruise or a high maneuverability mode. Performance and efficiency deteriorate rapidly as the airplane moves towards other portions of the flight envelope. One solution to this quandary is to radically change the shape of the aircraft. This yields both improved efficiency and a larger flight envelope. This global shape change is an example of morphing aircraft . One concept of morphing is the span morphing wing in which the wingspan is varied to accommodate multiple flight regimes. This type of design allows for at least two discreet modes of the aircraft. The original configuration, in which the extensible portion of the wing is fully retracted, yields a high speed dash mode. Fully extending the wing provides the aircraft with a low speed mode tailored for fine tracking and loiter tasks. This paper discusses the design of a span morphing wing that permits a change in the aspect ratio while simultaneously supporting structural wing loads. The wing cross section is maintained by NACA 4412 rib sections . The span morphing wing was investigated in different configurations. The wing area and the aspect ratio of the span morphing wing increase as the wings pan increases. Computational aerodynamics are used to estimate the performance and dynamic characteristics of each wing shape of this span morphing wing as its wingspan is changed. Results show that in order to obtain the same lift, the conventional wing requires a larger angle of attach(AOA) than that of the span morphing wing.The lift of the span morphing wing increases as the wing span ,Mach number and AOA increases.

  7. Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.

  8. Ornithopter type flapping wings for autonomous micro air vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings a...

  9. Titanium honeycomb structure. [for supersonic aircraft wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. A.; Elrod, S. D.; Lovell, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brazed titanium honeycomb sandwich system for supersonic transport wing cover panels provides the most efficient structure spanwise, chordwise, and loadwise. Flutter testing shows that high wing stiffness is most efficient in a sandwich structure. This structure also provides good thermal insulation if liquid fuel is carried in direct contact with the wing structure in integral fuel tanks.

  10. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muller, U. K.; Stamhuis, E. J.; de Kat, R.; van Gestel, W.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenstrom, A.; Videler, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings(1-6), presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance(7-9). That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models(2,10), which extr

  11. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of Joined Wing Scissor Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    wing stalls when the rear wing stalls [23]. While this improves efficiency it also decreases the wetted area while maintaining the same lifting...Analysis and Optimization on Joined-Wing Configurations. Dir. Dong-Hwan Lee and P. C. Chen. Slide Program. Zona Technology. 2. Bagwill, Tracy L., and

  12. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Müller, U.K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Kat, de R.; Gestel, van W.J.H.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenström, A.; Videler, J.J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance7, 8, 9. That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models2, 10

  13. 组合式全挂车液压动力机组研制%The Development of the Hydraulic Powerplant Module of the Combinable Full Trailer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗灯明; 司鹏; 梅彦利

    2001-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the composition of the powerplantmodule hydraulic loop of the combinable full trailer,analyzes the pressure distribution and calculates the pressure of hydraulic suspension system with fullload,and on the basis of the above analysis,we have chosen the model of hydraulic pump and diesel engine.%主要介绍组合式全挂车动力机组液压回路组成,对满载时的液压悬挂进行受力分析和工作压力计算,并以此为依据对液压泵和柴油机进行选型。

  14. A review of modeling issues and analysis methods for the thermal response of cargoes transported in the Safe Secure Trailer subjected to fire environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Larsen, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). High Consequence Assessment and Technology Dept.

    1998-05-01

    This paper discusses thermal analysis in support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to predict the heating of cargoes shipped in vehicles like the Safe Secure Trailer. Fire environments contribute very significantly to the risk associated with ground transport of special nuclear materials. The tradeoff between thermal model complexity and the affordable number of scenarios used to represent the hazard space is discussed as it impacts PRA. The relevant heat transfer mechanisms are discussed along with the applicability of methods from the literature for analysis of these mechanisms. Many of the subject`s real problems remain too complex for affordable and rigorous analysis. Available models are generally restricted to idealizations that are quickly obviated by real effects. Approximate treatment methods, striving to produce conservative, realistic estimates are also discussed.

  15. The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings of Drosophila: implications for anterior wing margin formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daxiang Yang

    2007-01-01

    It has long been noted that high temperature produces great variation in wing forms of the vestigial mutant of Drosophila. Most of the wings have defects in the wing blade and partially formed wing margin, which are the result of autonomous cell death in the presumptive wing blade or costal region of the wing disc. The vestigial gene ($vg$) and the interaction of Vg protein with other gene products are well understood. With this biochemical knowledge, reinvestigations of the high-temperature-induced vestigial wings and the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying the large-scale variation of the wing forms may provide insight into further understanding of development of the wing of Drosophila. As a first step of such explorations, I examined high-temperature-induced (29°C) vestigial wings. In the first part of this paper, I provide evidences to show that the proximal and distal costae in these wings exhibit regular and continuous variation, which suggests different developmental processes for the proximal and distal costal sections. Judging by the costae presenting in the anterior wing margin, I propose that the proximal and distal costal sections are independent growth units. The genes that regulate formation of the distal costal section also strongly affect proliferation of cells nearby; however, the same phenomenon has not been found in the proximal costal section. The distal costal section seems to be an extension of the radius vein. vestigial, one of the most intensely researched temperature-sensitive mutations, is a good candidate for the study of marginal vein formation. In the second part of the paper, I regroup the wing forms of these wings, chiefly by comparison of venation among these wings, and try to elucidate the variation of the wing forms according to the results of previous work and the conclusions reached in the first part of this paper, and provide clues for further researches.

  16. Numerical Research on Aerodynamic Noise of Trailer Bogie%拖车转向架气动噪声数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚东; 张继业; 李田; 张亮

    2016-01-01

    As one of the main aerodynamic noise source of high-speed train, the trailer bogie is a complex structure containing many components and the distribution of the flow field around a vortex disorders, for trailer bogie aerodynamic forces and noise are poorly understood. According to the models of steady-state RNGk-ε turbulence and the broadband noise source, carry on a preliminary study for the trailer bogie aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic lift and aerodynamic noise source, and combine with the large eddy simulation of transient state and the theory of acoustic analogy, analyze the far-field aerodynamic noise. The results show that: the larger vortex exists between the air spring and anti-yaw vibration absorber, nearby the adjacent area of windward’ axle box and the frame’ side; The aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic lift are proportional to the square of running speed; The largest component of total resistance are frame(24.02%), wheel set(19.30%), corbel(18.08%), brake pad, antiroll torsion bar, brake disc, frame bracket and air spring, what’s more corbel lift is the maximum which is about 157.88% of the total lift; Wheel set, aframe, brake pad, brake disc, corbel, vertical shock absorber, antiroll torsion bar and other parts which is windward side surface are the noise source of trailer bogie. In addition that frame has the largest contribution for the bogie’s total noise, second is the wheel set, then are the brake discs and corbel. Antiroll torsion bar, vertical shock absorber, air spring and horizontal shock absorber have less contribution to the total noise. Far-field noise of trailer bogie is broadband noise that has noise directivity, attenuation characteristic and amplitude characteristic. The main energy is concentrated in the range of 28-56 kHz. Lowfrequency energy of aerodynamic noise of trailer bogie main exist 50 Hz, 100 Hz and 160 Hz, and it’s distribution’s regular does not change with the speed of change.%拖车转向架作为高速列车最

  17. Computational wing optimization and comparisons with experiment for a semi-span wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Haney, H. P.; Ballhaus, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A computational wing optimization procedure was developed and verified by an experimental investigation of a semi-span variable camber wing model in the NASA Ames Research Center 14 foot transonic wind tunnel. The Bailey-Ballhaus transonic potential flow analysis and Woodward-Carmichael linear theory codes were linked to Vanderplaats constrained minimization routine to optimize model configurations at several subsonic and transonic design points. The 35 deg swept wing is characterized by multi-segmented leading and trailing edge flaps whose hinge lines are swept relative to the leading and trailing edges of the wing. By varying deflection angles of the flap segments, camber and twist distribution can be optimized for different design conditions. Results indicate that numerical optimization can be both an effective and efficient design tool. The optimized configurations had as good or better lift to drag ratios at the design points as the best designs previously tested during an extensive parametric study.

  18. DETERMINATION ALGORITHM OF OPTIMAL GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS FOR COMPONENTS OF FREIGHT CARS ON THE BASIS OF GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Presentation of features and example of the use of the offered determination algorithm of optimum geometrical parameters for the components of freight cars on the basis of the generalized mathematical models, which is realized using computer. Methodology. The developed approach to search for optimal geometrical parameters can be described as the determination of optimal decision of the selected set of possible variants. Findings. The presented application example of the offered algorithm proved its operation capacity and efficiency of use. Originality. The determination procedure of optimal geometrical parameters for freight car components on the basis of the generalized mathematical models was formalized in the paper. Practical value. Practical introduction of the research results for universal open cars allows one to reduce container of their design and accordingly to increase the carrying capacity almost by100 kg with the improvement of strength characteristics. Taking into account the mass of their park this will provide a considerable economic effect when producing and operating. The offered approach is oriented to the distribution of the software packages (for example Microsoft Excel, which are used by technical services of the most enterprises, and does not require additional capital investments (acquisitions of the specialized programs and proper technical staff training. This proves the correctness of the research direction. The offered algorithm can be used for the solution of other optimization tasks on the basis of the generalized mathematical models.

  19. Galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester for wireless sensors to be installed on freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Gisella; Giappino, Stefano; Costa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Energy harvesting from galloping oscillations of a bluff body can be used to supply power to a wireless sensor. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use a galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester to supply power to a wireless sensors network installed on a freight train to measure the accelerations in correspondence of axle boxes. The monitoring system will be used to detect possible deteriorations of the running conditions that, in the worst cases, can lead to the vehicle derailment. Unlike other applications in this case the air speed relative to the body is due to the train motion and, for typical freight trains and standard running conditions, is equal to about 20 m/s. In the paper we discuss the design of the harvester on the basis of the constrains due to the application. Preliminary aerodynamic tests shows the limitation of the classical quasi-steady theory of galloping as a consequence of the interaction with the vortex shedding phenomenon.

  20. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  1. 蒙华铁路货车段修能力探讨%Discussion on Freight Train Maintenance Capacity in Depot for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆礼伦; 缪东

    2014-01-01

    阐述客货分线后铁路货运能力增强、货车保有量增长的特征,以及铁路货物高效率高质量的运输需求,必然会对货车段修能力提出新的要求。采用调研货车保有量、货车段修台位方法,结合货车保有量预测,分析全路及蒙西至华中煤运通道铁路(简称“蒙华铁路”)沿线区域内货车保有量增长与货车段修能力的矛盾,提出新建(或扩建)车辆段、加强检修工艺装备、优化组织管理、修程修制改革等货车段修能力增强措施,提出蒙华铁路货车车辆段(检修车间)设施布局方案,分析沿线区域货车段修能力增强措施。%This paper pointed out that after separated operation between railway passenger and freight transportations, the railway freight transportation capacity would be improved and the reserves of freight trains would be increased; and then the need of high efficiency and high quality of railway freight transportation would be bound to make demand on the freight train maintenance capacity in depot. In this paper, by means of investigation on the reserves of freight trains and depot repair bays, and in combination with the prediction on the reserves of freight trains, the conflicts between the freight train's growth and the freight train maintenance capacity in depot was analyzed for the whole railways and for the Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway which would be used for coal transportation. Furthermore, this paper proposed the measures to improve the freight train maintenance capacity in depot, such as building new ( or expanding ) freight train depots, enhancing repairing technical equipment, optimizing organization management, reforming repair schedule and repair regulations, and so on. Finally, this paper proposed a scheme of facility layout in the freight train depots ( or repairing workshops) for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway, and analyzed the measures for improving the

  2. Aerodynamic Interactions Between Contralateral Wings and Between Wings and Body of a Model Insect at Hovering and Small Speed Motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bin; SUN Mao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we study the aerodynamic interactions between the contralateral wings and between the body and wings of a model insect,when the insect is hovering and has various translational and rotational motions,using the method numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations over moving overset grids.The aerodynamic interactional effects are identified by comparing the results of a complete model insect,the corresponding wing pair,single wing and body without the wings.Horizontal,vertical and lateral translations and roll,pitch and yaw rotations at small speeds are considered.The results indicate that for the motions considered,both the interaction between the contralateral wings and the interaction between the body and wings are weak.The changes in the forces and moments of a wing due to the contralateral wing interaction,of the wings due to the presence of the body,and of the body due to the presence of the wings are generally less than 4.5%.Results show that aerodynamic forces of wings and body can be measured or computed separately in the analysis of flight stability and control of hovering insects.

  3. Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.

  4. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  5. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  6. Conceptual Study of Rotary-Wing Microrobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-27

    xx  I.  Introduction ...Edge TPV Thermo-Photovoltaic CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF ROTARY-WING MICROROBOTICS I. Introduction Flying micro-robots offer unimaginable military...Tweezers 1989 1 cm3 inch robot 1991 Magnetostrictive mover in pipe 1992 Insect-based robot 1993 Ciliary-motion conveyor 1994 Pipe inspection robot

  7. Mother Nature inspires new wind turbine wing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    The sight of a bird of prey hanging immobile in the air while its wings continuously adjust themselves slightly in relation to the wind in order to keep the bird in the same position in the air, is a sight that most of us have admired, including the windenergy scientists at Risø DTU. They have st...

  8. Can Wing Tip Vortices Be Accurately Simulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    additional tail buffeting.2 In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize vortex formation and reduce lift...air. In military applications, wing tip In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize increases with downstream distances.

  9. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  10. Aerodynamics of a rigid curved kite wing

    CERN Document Server

    Maneia, Gianmauro; Tordella, Daniela; Iovieno, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary numerical study on the aerodynamics of a kite wing for high altitude wind power generators is proposed. Tethered kites are a key element of an innovative wind energy technology, which aims to capture energy from the wind at higher altitudes than conventional wind towers. We present the results obtained from three-dimensional finite volume numerical simulations of the steady air flow past a three-dimensional curved rectangular kite wing (aspect ratio equal to 3.2, Reynolds number equal to 3x10^6). Two angles of incidence -- a standard incidence for the flight of a tethered airfoil (6{\\deg}) and an incidence close to the stall (18{\\deg}) -- were considered. The simulations were performed by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes flow model using the industrial STAR-CCM+ code. The overall aerodynamic characteristics of the kite wing were determined and compared to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flat rectangular non twisted wing with an identical aspect ratio and section (Clark Y profil...

  11. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  12. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    baseline products were built in Solidworks prior to the optimization process. Loading on the wing was applied for multiple aerodynamic profiles generating...redesign and placement of the fuel tank was desired. A simple model of the baseline tank was built in Solidworks to estimate the total volume. Overall

  13. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  14. Testing of Composite Panels Used as Components of a Freight Wagon by Thermovision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper research methods for detection of laminate panels damage were presented. The most common damage is: matrix cracking laminate interlayer damage to joints, connecting cracks, delamination and fiber breakage. The tested laminates will be used as assemblies and sub-assemblies of freight wagon. Other methods of modeling of machines by means of transducers are shown in Płaczek (2012, 2015 and Białas (2010. As part of the project authors were collaborated with specialists from other research centers and scientific research (Bocian and Kulisiewicz, 2013. As a part of future work the places where we will be able to replace the standard materials by parts made of laminate will be shown. Layered composites despite many advantages have also disadvantages. From last mentioned it is a relatively low resistance to transverse impact. When the laminate is used as a decorative element, its small damage is not a problem. The problems start when the composite satisfies more responsible tasks such as: is a part of the technical means for example of a railway wagon. Aspect of continuous monitoring of the technical state of the laminate is very important. Current technology provides numerous opportunities for non-destructive methods of technical inspections. In this paper method for testing of large areas, completely non-contact, based on the methods of thermography, was presented. It consists heating by using the composite tubes and examining it through a thermal imaging camera. Length of heating, and consequently the temperature to which the laminate is heated mostly were chosen experimentally. During the measurements, the camera measures the intensity of radiation, not temperature. Received thermogram is not always a precise representation of the actual temperature, because the camera does not reach only the radiation from tested object, but also reaches the radiation coming from the environment and reflected objects etc. As part of the research

  15. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  16. Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, V.

    1982-01-01

    The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.

  17. Investigation and design of a C-Wing passenger aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Karan BIKKANNAVAR; Scholz, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    A novel nonplanar wing concept called C-Wing is studied and implemented on a commercial aircraft to reduce induced drag which has a significant effect on fuel consumption. A preliminary sizing method which employs an optimization algorithm is utilized. The Airbus A320 aircraft is used as a reference aircraft to evaluate design parameters and to investigate the C-Wing design potential beyond current wing tip designs. An increase in aspect ratio due to wing area reduction at 36m span results in...

  18. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  19. Multiple cues for winged morph production in an aphid metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrparvar

    Full Text Available Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare. We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues.

  20. Mimicking unfolding motion of a beetle hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Azhar; PARK Hoon C; HWANG Do Y; BYUN Doyoung; GOO Nam S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research aiming to realize an artificial hind wing that can mimic the wing unfolding motion of Allomyrina dichotoma, an insect in coleopteran order. Based on the understanding of working principles of beetle wing folding/unfolding mechanisms, the hind wing unfolding motion is mimicked by a combination of creative ideas and state-of-art artificial muscle actuator. In this work, we devise two types of artificial wings and the successfully demonstrate that they can be unfolded by actuation of shape memory alloy wires to provide actuation force at the wing base and along the leading edge vein. The folding/unfolding mechanisms may provide an insight for portable nano/micro air vehicles with morphing wings.