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Sample records for free-living wild animals

  1. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health.

  2. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by free-living wild animals in Spain.

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    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Garayzábal, José-Francisco; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    The presence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. Samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The proportion of MSSA carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in Eurasian griffon vulture, Iberian ibex, red deer, and wild boar, respectively (P = 0.057). A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.000) were recovered from nasal samples (78.51%) than skin samples (21.49%), but the 9.26% of red deer and 18.25% of wild boar would have been undetected if only nasal samples had been tested. Sixty-three different spa types were identified, including 25 new spa types. The most common were t528 (43.59%) in Iberian ibex, t548 and t11212 (15.79% and 14.04%) in red deer, and t3750 (36.11%) in wild boar. By MLST, 27 STs were detected, of which 12 had not been described previously. The most frequent were ST581 for Iberian ibex (48.72%), ST425 for red deer (29.82%), and ST2328 for wild boar (42.36%). Isolates from Eurasian griffon vulture belong to ST133. Host specificity has been observed for the most frequent spa types and STs (P = 0.000). The highest resistance percentage was found against benzylpenicillin (average, 22.2%), although most of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested. Basically, MSSA isolates were different from those MRSA isolates previously detected in the same animal species.

  3. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by Free-Living Wild Animals in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Garayzábal, José-Francisco; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. Samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The proportion of MSSA carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in Eurasian griffon vulture, Iberian ibex, red deer, and wild boar, respectively (P = 0.057). A higher proportion of isolates (P = 0.000) were recovered from nasal samples (78.51%) than skin samples (21.49%), but the 9.26% of red deer and 18.25% of wild boar would have been undetected if only nasal samples had been tested. Sixty-three different spa types were identified, including 25 new spa types. The most common were t528 (43.59%) in Iberian ibex, t548 and t11212 (15.79% and 14.04%) in red deer, and t3750 (36.11%) in wild boar. By MLST, 27 STs were detected, of which 12 had not been described previously. The most frequent were ST581 for Iberian ibex (48.72%), ST425 for red deer (29.82%), and ST2328 for wild boar (42.36%). Isolates from Eurasian griffon vulture belong to ST133. Host specificity has been observed for the most frequent spa types and STs (P = 0.000). The highest resistance percentage was found against benzylpenicillin (average, 22.2%), although most of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested. Basically, MSSA isolates were different from those MRSA isolates previously detected in the same animal species. PMID:24907325

  4. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

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    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  5. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

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    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  6. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  7. Wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds do not use geometric cues in a spatial task.

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    Hornsby, Mark A W; Hurly, T Andrew; Hamilton, Caitlin E; Pritchard, David J; Healy, Susan D

    2014-10-01

    In the laboratory, many species orient themselves using the geometric properties of an enclosure or array and geometric information is often preferred over visual cues. Whether animals use geometric cues when relocating rewarded locations in the wild, however, has rarely been investigated. We presented free-living rufous hummingbirds with a rectangular array of four artificial flowers to investigate learning of rewarded locations using geometric cues. In one treatment, we rewarded two of four flowers at diagonally opposite corners. In a second treatment, we provided a visual cue to the rewarded flower by connecting the flowers with "walls" consisting of four dowels (three white, one blue) laid on the ground connecting each of the flowers. Neither treatment elicited classical geometry results; instead, hummingbirds typically chose one particular flower over all others. When we exchanged that flower with another, hummingbirds tended to visit the original flower. These results suggest that (1) hummingbirds did not use geometric cues, but instead may have used a visually derived cue on the flowers themselves, and (2) using geometric cues may have been more difficult than using visual characteristics. Although hummingbirds typically prefer spatial over visual information, we hypothesize that they will not use geometric cues over stable visual features but that they make use of small, flower-specific visual cues. Such cues may play a more important role in foraging decisions than previously thought. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds from Brazil.

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    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marta Brito; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Allegretti, Luciana; Sinhorini, Juliana Anaya; Duarte, Vanessa Vertematti; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2011-01-10

    In wild and domestic birds, cryptosporidiosis is often associated with infections by Cryptosporidium galli, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In addition to these species, a number of avian Cryptosporidium species yet to be fully characterized are commonly found among exotic and wild avian isolates. The present study aimed to detect and identify samples of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the variability of this parasite in the free-living population of Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 242 birds, with the following proportions of individuals: 50 Emberizidae (20.7%), 112 Psittacidae (46.3%), 44 Cardinalidae (18.2%), 12 Turdidae (5.0%), eight Ramphastidae (3.3%), seven Icteridae (2.9%), three Estrilididae (1.2%), two Contigidae (0.8%), two Thraupidae (0.8%) and two Fringilidae (0.8%). Among the 242 fecal samples from wild birds, 16 (6.6%) were positive for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Molecular characterization of the 16 samples of Cryptosporidium, were performed with phylogenetic reconstructions employing 292 positions of 18S rDNA. None of the samples of birds was characterized as C. meleagridis. C. galli was identified in one rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris), five green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), one slate-coloured seedeater (Sporophila schistacea), one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and three saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola). One goldfinch isolate, one buffy-fronted seedeater (Sporophila frontalis), one red-cowled cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) and one other saffron finch (S. flaveola) were identified as C. baileyi. Avian genotype II was found in an isolate from a white-eyed parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma). Clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in birds have already been described and the number of wild birds which were shedding parasites was high. Therefore, further epidemiological research and disease surveillance of birds in the

  9. Using remote biomonitoring to understand heterogeneity in immune-responses and disease-dynamics in small, free-living animals.

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    Adelman, James S; Moyers, Sahnzi C; Hawley, Dana M

    2014-09-01

    Despite the ubiquity of parasites and pathogens, behavioral and physiological responses to infection vary widely across individuals. Although such variation can have pronounced effects on population-level processes, including the transmission of infectious disease, the study of individual responses to infection in free-living animals remains a challenge. To fully understand the causes and consequences of heterogeneous responses to infection, research in ecoimmunology and disease-ecology must incorporate minimally invasive techniques to track individual animals in natural settings. Here, we review how several technologies, collectively termed remote biomonitoring, enable the collection of data on behavioral and physiological responses to infection in small, free-living animals. Specifically, we focus on the use of radiotelemetry and radio-frequency identification to study fever, sickness-behaviors (including lethargy and anorexia), and rates of inter-individual contact in the wild, all of which vary widely across individuals and impact the spread of pathogens within populations. In addition, we highlight future avenues for field studies of these topics using emerging technologies such as global positioning system tracking and tri-axial accelerometry. Through the use of such remote biomonitoring techniques, researchers can gain valuable insights into why responses to infection vary so widely and how this variation impacts the spread and evolution of infectious diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

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    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent.

  11. Use of Silver Nitrate for the Assessment of Sperm Measurements in Selected Farm and Free-Living Animal Species

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    Andraszek Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on spermatozoa of selected farm and free-living animal species, isolated post mortem from the tail of the epididymis, and stained with silver nitrate - AgNO3. The material was collected from pigs, goats, wild boar, and European roe deer. Twenty morphologically normal spermatozoa randomly selected from each animal and well visible under the microscope, were analysed. The following measurements were considered: head length, width, perimeter and area, acrosome area, mid-piece length, tail length, and overall sperm length. AgNO3 staining differentiated the acrosomal (light hue and distal (dark hue part of the sperm head, and a light-hued mid-piece was visible within the sperm tail. Silver nitrate staining revealed species and variety-related differences, particularly in reference to the sperm head. Clear-cut differentiation within the head and tail area made it possible to perform detailed morphometric measurements of the spermatozoa.

  12. Monitoring of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from free-living animals using different methods.

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    Syczyło, K; Platt-Samoraj, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Lipczyńska, K; Jabłoński, A; Procajło, Z; Szweda, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor Y. enterocolitica strains from free-living animals captured during 2011-2014 hunting seasons in Poland using warm (ITC) and cold (PSB) enrichment and molecular examination. Over 1600 samples have been cultured. After ITC/PSB enrichment 237 strains presenting features characteristic for Y. enterocolitica were isolated. Molecular examination using multiplex PCR revealed 140 isolates from PSB and 78 from ITC. The concentration of pathogenic Yersinia in asymptomatic carriers is low and the PCR detection should be preceded by bacteriological examination.

  13. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.

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    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge that free-living amoebae are capable of causing human disease dates back some 50 years, prior to which time they were regarded as harmless soil organisms or, at most, commensals of mammals. First Naegleria fowleri, then Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and finally Sappinia diploidea have been recognised as etiologic agents of encephalitis; Acanthamoeba spp. are also responsible for amoebic keratitis. Some of the infections are opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitides), while others are non-opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis, and cases of Balamuthia encephalitis occurring in immunocompetent humans). The amoebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, as evidenced by antibody titers in surveyed human populations. Although, the numbers of infections caused by these amoebae are low in comparison to other protozoal parasitoses (trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, malaria, etc.), the difficulty in diagnosing them, the challenge of finding optimal antimicrobial treatments and the morbidity and relatively high mortality associated with, in particular, the encephalitides have been a cause for concern for clinical and laboratory personnel and parasitologists. This review presents information about the individual amoebae: their morphologies and life-cycles, laboratory cultivation, ecology, epidemiology, nature of the infections and appropriate antimicrobial therapies, the immune response, and molecular diagnostic procedures that have been developed for identification of the amoebae in the environment and in clinical specimens.

  14. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreas...

  15. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against myxomatosis improved their survival.

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    Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Devillard, Sébastien; Guénézan, Michel; Fouchet, David; Pontier, Dominique; Marchandeau, Stéphane

    2008-04-17

    For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment (1991-1994) in a park near Paris, France wherein 300 out of 565 seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine. After accounting for weight at first capture, age-class (juvenile/adult), "trap-happiness" and season (spring/autumn) of the capture event, vaccinated rabbits had 1.8-fold greater odds of surviving than the unvaccinated rabbits. The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0.63 (+/-0.08 S.E.) whereas it was 0.48 (+/-0.08 S.E.) for unvaccinated juvenile rabbits.

  16. Detection of zoonotic and livestock-specific assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in free-living wild lizards

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    Aurora Reboredo-Fernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasite that infects the gut of a wide range of vertebrates, including numerous wildlife species. However, little is known about this protozoan parasite in reptiles. Fecal samples from 31 wild lizards were collected in Galicia (northwest Spain and screened for the presence of Giardia by PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region in the ribosomal unit. This allowed detection of the parasite in 5 samples (16.1%, and enabled identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A2 in two samples of Iberian rock lizard (Iberolacerta monticola, G. duodenalis assemblage B in other two samples of I. monticola, and G. duodenalis assemblage E in one sample of Bocage’s wall lizard (Podarcis bocagei. The results obtained after PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA gene confirmed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblage A in two samples of I. monticola. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in free-living lizards, although further studies are needed to distinguish between actual infection and mechanical dissemination of cysts. The detection of zoonotic and livestock-specific assemblages of G. duodenalis demonstrates the wide environmental contamination by this parasite, possibly due to human activities.

  17. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

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    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  18. Structure of nucleoli in first-order spermatocytes of selected free-living animal species.

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    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Ceranka, Mariola; Larisch, Agnieszka

    2015-10-01

    Nucleoli are the product of the activity of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in certain chromosomes. Their main functions are the formation of ribosomal subunits from ribosomal protein molecules and the transcription of genes encoding rRNA. Nucleoli are present in the nuclei of nearly all eukaryotic cells because they contain housekeeping genes. The size and number of nucleoli gradually decrease during spermatogenesis. Some of the material originating in the nucleolus probably migrates to the cytoplasm and takes part in the formation of chromatoid bodies (CB). Nucleolus fragmentation and CB assembly take place at the same stage of spermatogenesis. CB are involved in the formation of the acrosome, the migration of mitochondria to the midpiece, and the formation of the sperm tail fibrous sheath. The aim of the study was to characterize the nucleoli in the early prophase of spermatogenesis in the wild boar and the roe deer. The roe deer cells have larger nucleoli and a larger cell nucleus than the wild boar cells. The area of the nucleolus as a percentage of the total area of the nucleus was larger as well. The coefficients of variation for all parameters were higher in the roe deer. In the wild boar cells the nucleoli were mainly regularly shaped. The size of the nucleolus and the nucleus of the spermatocyte is a species-specific trait associated with karyotype and the number of nucleolar organizer regions in a given species.

  19. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  20. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  1. Wild, but not too-wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    von Essen, Erica; Allen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is positioned as ‘post'-conservation through its emphasis on unleashing the autonomy of natural processes. In this paper, we argue that the autonomy of nature rhetoric in rewilding is challenged by human interventions. Instead of joining critique toward the ‘managed wilderness' approach of rewilding, however, we examine the injustices this entails for keystone species. Reintroduction case studies demonstrate how arbitrary standards for wildness are imposed on these animals as they d...

  2. Retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in Great Britain.

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    Everest, D J; Stidworthy, M F; Milne, E M; Meredith, A L; Chantrey, J; Shuttleworth, C; Blackett, T; Butler, H; Wilkinson, M; Sainsbury, A W

    2010-12-25

    Transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) across Great Britain between 2000 and 2009. Examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. In most cases, meaningful histological examination of enteric tissue was not possible due to pronounced autolysis. Two (2.9 per cent) of the samples were negative for adenovirus but were found to contain rotavirus particles, a novel finding in this species.

  3. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

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    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  4. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

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    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections.

  5. Young Woman Tames Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    ON Shanghai’s acrobatic stage, the audience held its breath while it watched a lion put its front paws on the shoulders of a dainty and beautiful young woman and licked her face with its red tongue. The girl was perfectly calm, even smiling. This legendary woman is Zhang Xiuhong, a lion-tamer in the Shanghai Acrobatic Troupe. I Fear the Lion When she was 11, Zhang Xiuhong joined the Shanghai Acrobatic Troupe Soon afterward, she was assigned to work as a lion-tamer. The first animal she tamed was a lion cub. From the

  6. Ecology of free-living metacercariae (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Neil J

    2015-06-01

    The presence of trematodes with a free-living metacercarial stage is a common feature of most habitats and includes important species such as Fasciola hepatica, Parorchis acanthus and Zygocotyle lunata. These trematodes encyst on the surface of an animal or plant that can act as a transport host, which form the diet of the target definitive host. Although these species are often considered individually, they display common characteristics in their free-living biology indicating a shared transmission strategy, yet in comparison to species with penetrative cercariae this aspect of their life cycles remains much overlooked. This review integrates the diverse data and presents a novel synthesis of free-living metacercariae using epibiosis as the basis of a new framework to describe the relationship between transport hosts and parasites. All aspects of their biology during the period that they are metabolically independent of a host are considered, from cercarial emergence to metacercarial excystment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in a Free-Living European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H V; Efstratiou, Androulla; Macgregor, Shaheed K; John, Shinto K; Hopkins, Timothy; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a common pathogen of humans, was isolated from the carcass of a free-living European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) found in northern England in June 2014. The animal had abscessation of the deep right cervical lymph node, mesenteric lymph nodes and liver. The S. pyogenes strain isolated from the lesions, peritoneal and pleural cavities was characterised as emm 28, which can be associated with invasive disease in humans. This is the first known report of S. pyogenes in a hedgehog and in any free-living wild animal that has been confirmed by gene sequencing. As close associations between wild hedgehogs and people in England are common, we hypothesise that this case might have resulted from anthroponotic infection.

  8. Wild Animals in Our Backyard : A Contextual Approach to the Intrinsic Value of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jac A. A.; Keulartz, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    As a reflection on recent debates on the value of wild animals we examine the question of the intrinsic value of wild animals in both natural and man-made surroundings. We examine the concepts being wild and domesticated. In our approach we consider animals as dependent on their environment, whether

  9. Wild Animals in Our Backyard. A Contextual Approach to the Intrinsic Value of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.A.A.; Keulartz, F.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    As a reflection on recent debates on the value of wild animals we examine the question of the intrinsic value of wild animals in both natural and man-made surroundings. We examine the concepts being wild and domesticated. In our approach we consider animals as dependent on their environment, whether

  10. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  12. [Wild animals and law and ethics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouët, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems applying to wild animals are very different depending on whether the animals are in captivity or under human control, or whether they are in the wild. Animals in captivity, like domesticated animals, are covered by protective measures for the welfare of the individual animal, but wild animals are not considered as individuals but only as members of a species, their numbers being controlled by humans and determined by human interests. In the light of contemporary scientific knowledge, such legal approaches are now inappropriate and can no longer be accepted for ethical reasons. The legal systems need to develop and must include a definition of the animal as an individual and as a sentient being.

  13. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FREE-LIVING SOUTH AMERICAN COATI (NASUA NASUA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo O S; Almeida, Lara R; Oliveira Junior, Carlos A; Lima, Paula C S; Soares, Danielle F M; Pereira, Pedro L L; Silva, Israel J; Lobato, Francisco C F

    2016-03-01

    The importance of Clostridium perfringens for most wild animal species remains unclear. This study aimed to isolate and genotype C. perfringens in stool samples from free-living South American coati (Nasua nasua) in Brazil. Forty-six free-living N. nasua were trapped and stool samples were collected. Two different protocols for C. perfringens isolation were tested: direct plating onto selective agar and pre-enrichment in broth followed by plating in selective agar. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from 15 (32.6%) animals by direct plating and 36 (78.3%) animals by broth PE, and the rate of isolation was significantly different between these two methods (P < 0.01). Twelve of the 36 (33.3%) isolated strains by the PE protocol were positive for the β-2 toxin-encoding gene (cpb2) whereas the enterotoxin-encoding gene (cpe) and necrotic enteritis like-B toxin gene (netb) were not found. These results suggest that C. perfringens is commonly part of the microbiota of free-living coatis. Additionally, the use of a PE protocol appears to be essential for studies on C. perfringens in this species.

  14. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  15. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José María; Egger, Bernhard

    2012-03-19

    Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny

  16. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Durán José

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features

  17. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny

  18. Buying time for wild animals with zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, William G

    2011-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums exhibit many rare species, but sustain few for long periods. Demanding genetic, demographic, and behavioral requirements are a part of the sustainability challenge, and historical zoo goals and limiting animal management objectives are another, but they have been overtaken by worldwide wildlife population contraction and endangerment. New policies are essential for zoo continuance and, if vanishing species are to be helped by zoo propagation, they must be given priority. However, zoos have little animal carrying capacity and propagation must be much more sharply focused. In addition, it is becoming urgent that zoos help to support parks and reserves and, where possible, manage some especially endangered species mutually with parks. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild and domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Augusto Ono; Paola Fernanda Fedatto; Tatiane Ferreira Petroni; Sandra Leite Neves

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidiodomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin América, mainly in Brazil. Although many studies have been done about the pathology and diagnosis of this mycosis little is known about the eco-epidemiology of the etiological agent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The fungus habitat also is unknown although is thought that the fungus lives as a saprobe in soil. The participation of other animal species in P. brasiliensis ecology is poorly understood and fungus isolation from...

  20. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  1. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Samiko Miyazaki Onuma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9% showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7% for S. neurona, and seven (63.6% for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  2. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  3. Animal Images in The Call of the Wild

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽; 陶阳

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of animal images in literature. What we have known about animal literature is confined into the Greek mythology, Aesop’s Fables and some fairy tales. But in the 20th century, the development of animal literary which focuses on the real animals is great. The Call of the Wild by Jack London is a representative work of describing real animals. This paper will discuss two different images of Buck by means of two archetypes based on Archetype Theory of Carl G. Jung, shadow and hero, in order to study how Buck changed from a dog to a wolf.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney Francisco; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; López-Valenzuela, José Angel; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo.

  5. Free-living flatworms under the knife: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Bernhard; Gschwentner, Robert; Rieger, Reinhard

    2007-02-01

    Traditionally, regeneration research has been closely tied to flatworm research, as flatworms (Plathelminthes) were among the first animals where the phenomenon of regeneration was discovered. Since then, the main focus of flatworm regeneration research was on triclads, for which various phenomena were observed and a number of theories developed. However, free-living flatworms encompass a number of other taxa where regeneration was found to be possible. This review aims to display and to compare regeneration in all major free-living flatworm taxa, with special focus on a new player in the field of regeneration, Macrostomum lignano (Macrostomorpha). Findings on the regeneration capacity of this organism provide clues for links between regeneration and (post-)embryonic development, starvation, and asexual reproduction. The role of the nervous system and especially the brain for regeneration is discussed, and similarities as well as particularities in regeneration among free-living flatworms are pointed out.

  6. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hosni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7% of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus and 2 (10.5% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  7. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El; Ganghish, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7%) of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus) and 2 (10.5%) of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans. PMID:26623318

  8. [Cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huai-Min

    2009-08-01

    The isolation and culture of pathogenic free-living amoebae are useful in the diagnosis and research. This review focuses on the methods of isolation and cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including sample treatment, culture conditions, passage culture, pathogen detection, and maintenance.

  9. GAPs in the study of zoo and wild animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Vinícius D; Azevedo, Pedro G; van de Schepop, Joanna A; Teixeira, Camila P; Barçante, Luciana; Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the science of animal welfare for zoo and wild animals in the period from 1966 to 2007, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of abstracts downloaded from The Web of Science((c)) database using the keyword combination "Animal welfare, Zoo* and wild" in the topic field. In total we downloaded 1,125 abstracts, which were classified into the following categories: year of publication; environment of the study (e.g., zoo) or theoretical; area of knowledge (e.g., conservation in situ); number of experimental animals used; species; addresses of authors; taxonomic classification; publication language; journal name; number of citations received. Since 1990, there has been a rapid increase in the number of articles published in this area of animal welfare. One worrying result was that published articles were predominately of a theoretical nature (58.65%, N=563). Most of the articles were published by authors either in Europe (47.43%, N=480) or North America (37.65%, N=381) and written in English (87.71%, N=971). The majority of experimental studies were conducted with mammals (75.92%, N=391), and had small sample sizes (N=7 for zoo-based studies). In terms of impact factor (IF), the journals in this study had a median factor equivalent to that for the area of biological sciences (median IF=1.013). Little knowledge cross-over from farm animal welfare was found (only four articles) in this study. In conclusion, zoo and wild animal welfare as a science may benefit from a greater interaction with farm animal welfare.

  10. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  11. Building blocks for a wild animal health business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investment in wild animal health has not kept pace with investment in health programs for agriculture or people. Previous arguments of the inherent value of wildlife or the possible public health or economic consequences of fish or terrestrial wildlife diseases have failed to motivate sufficient, sustained funding. Wildlife health programs are often funded on an issue-by-issue basis, most often in response to diseases that have already emerged, rather than being funded to protect and promote the health of wild animals on an ongoing basis. We propose that one explanation for this situation is the lack of business cases that explains the value of wild animal health programs to funders. This paper proposes a set of building blocks that inform the creation of wildlife health business cases. The building blocks are a series of questions derived from a literature review, the experience of directors of two large national wildlife health programs and lessons learned in developing a draft business case for one of those programs. The six building blocks are: (1 Know what you are trying to achieve; (2 Describe your capabilities; (3 Identify factors critical to your success; (4 Describe the value you can bring to supporters; (5 Identify who needs your services and why; and (6 Share the plan.

  12. Wild animals used as food medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  13. Wild Animals Used as Food Medicine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  14. Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-04-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

  15. Book review: Fowler's zoo and wild animal medicine (volume 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one that the editors have accomplished well. The chapters were well written and are beautifully illustrated with high-quality images and generally well referenced. Much of the information is summarized in tabular format, which I found both a blessing and a curse. Tabulation of hematologic variables and anesthetic doses is helpful; however, tabulation of information regarding infectious and parasitic diseases results in a loss of detail. For example, methods of diagnosis for some diseases are omitted from some tables. The need for succinctness results in trade-offs, and statements such as “Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis … is one of the most well described pathogens of anurans” with no further information leaves readers unsated. In addition, the book does not have any chapters on fish or invertebrates, which are notable omissions given the importance of these species. Those quibbles aside, this is a must-have book for all zoo and wild animal medicine students and practitioners. However, perhaps it is time to recognize that, during the 36 years since the first volume was published, this discipline has become too large to be contained in 1 book. This is largely because of the success of this book series, and it is a nice problem to have.

  16. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations.

  17. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  18. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  19. Interactions between environment, wild animals and human leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a worldwide distributed zoononis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira (antigenically classified into serovars, may be direct or indirectly transmitted through infected urine or environment. Several domestic and wild animals are leptospirosis reservoirs. The disease presents occupational character since it is widely reported in professionals that work in humid environments - such as sewage workers and fishermen - and in places where rodents or susceptible animals are found, like slaughterhouses and veterinary clinics. In developing countries, outbreaks are related to lack of sanitation, overcrowding in inadequate housing and climatic conditions. In developed countries, sporadic cases occur in aquatic recreational activities including swimming and triathlon. The diagnosis of leptospirosis is complex due to the variety of symptoms, disease severity and the lack of techniques that are able to early detect the infection. Thus, leptospirosis causes numerous public health problems and educational activities are very important to its control.

  20. Method for Reducing the Number of Wild Animal Monitors by Means of Kriging

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    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Method for reducing the number of wild animal monitors is proposed by means of Kriging. Through wild animal route of simulations with 128 by 128 cells, the required number of wild animal monitors is clarified. Then it is found that the number of wild animal monitors can be reduced based on Kriging by using variograms and semi-variograms among the neighboring monitors. Also, it is found that the number of wild animal monitors by the factor of a by means of the proposed method.

  1. Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae

    OpenAIRE

    Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoe...

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P

    2005-10-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the United States by the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies (NAT 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (Bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (Alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (Canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (Ursus americanus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in bison and caribou. The total absence of N. caninum antibodies in black bears indicates that bears are not a host for N. caninum and that there is no cross-reactivity between the NAT and the modified agglutination test (MAT) for Toxoplasma gondii, because more than 80% of black bears in eastern United States have MAT antibodies at a 1:25 serum solution.

  3. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  4. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, L F P; McAllister, M M; Mateus-Pinilla, N E; Pitt, W C; Mech, L D; Nelson, M E

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether deer can transmit Neospora caninum, brains of naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were fed to 4 dogs; 2 of these dogs shed oocysts. Oocysts from 1 of the dogs were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for N. caninum and negative for Hammondia heydorni. The internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence of the new strain (designated NC-deer1) was identical to N. caninum from domestic animals, indicating that N. caninum is transmitted between wild and domestic animals, often enough to prevent divergent evolution of isolated populations of the parasite. NC-deerl oocysts were administered to a calf that developed a high antibody titer, providing evidence that N. caninum from wildlife can infect cattle. In addition, N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus), 12/113 (11%) coyotes (Canis latrans), 50/193 (26%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose (Alces alces). These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. We speculate that hunting by humans favors the transmission of N. caninum from deer to canids, because deer carcasses are usually eviscerated in the field. Infection of canids in turn increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  5. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Terry L; Price, Jeff T; Hall, Kimberly R; Schneider, Stephen H; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J Alan

    2003-01-02

    Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or 'fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

  6. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain

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    Domínguez-Peñafiel G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species and domestic (n = 69; 3 species animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  7. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  8. Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, R G; Conforti, V A; Azevedo, F C; Jacomo, A T; Silveira, L; Sana, D; Nunes, A L; Guimarães, M A; Barnabe, R C

    2001-11-01

    Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals.

  9. Free-living amoebae: pathogenicity and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, A

    1991-01-01

    Free-living amoebae causes three well-defined disease entities: (i) primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, caused by Naegleria fowleri, (ii) granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and (iii) chronic amoebic keratitis, caused by species of Acanthamoeba. Both Naegleria infections and chronic amoebic keratitis occur in healthy individuals while granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is often associated with patients with acquired immunodeficiencies. The different pathogenic behaviour of these organisms is associated with differences in life cycle, amoeboidal locomotion, enzyme composition (such as phospholipase A), and cytotoxins, as well as natural host immunity. Immunity against these amoebae (whether acquired or natural) involves a combination of complement, antibody and cell-mediated immunity. Evidence suggests that the major mechanisms of immunity against these amoebae is activation of phagocytic cells, especially neutrophils, by lymphokines and opsonization of the amoebae by antibody which promote an antibody dependent cellular destruction of the organism.

  10. Monitoring the Physiology of Animals in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1979-01-01

    The use of radio telemetry as a research tool for studying the physiology of animals under natural conditions is described. Unexpected insights into animals' physiology, particularly the interaction of heart rates and breathing rates, are detailed. (BT)

  11. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild animals living in the Cascavel city park, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Snak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestive and respiratory tracts parasite’s protozoan, Cryptosporidium spp. now-a-days is a major zoonotic agent, it causes self-limiting diarrhea, remaining in the body passively until the moment immune system decreases, leading to an increase in its multiplication in the mucosa and appearance of clinical signs. As there are few studies on cryptosporidiosis in wild free-living and captive animals, especially in Brazil, this study aimed to identify the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of captive animals in Cascavel, PR Municipal Zoo. Between 2011 and 2012 there have been four collections of bird feces and five mammalian feces totaling 65 and 118 samples respectively. Samples were sent to the laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Federal University of Parana. The feces were diluted, centrifuged and the pellets were used to make blades which were stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen modified method and observed under a microscope with 1000X magnification. Then the blades containing the oocysts were observed under a capture microscope, where they were measured. Mammals showed 49.15% and birds 44.61% of positivity. Oocysts’ sizes ranged from 3,54?m to 5,81?m with an average of 4,32?m for birds and 3,11?m to 5,60?m averaging 4,63?m to mammals. As of yet, there isn’t effective treatment against this parasite and considering that it’s a zoonotic disease, preventive measures should be taken to prevent transmission to humans.

  12. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  13. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements.

  14. Spontaneous magnetic alignment behaviour in free-living lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco J.; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Pérez-Cembranos, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Several species of vertebrates exhibit spontaneous longitudinal body axis alignment relative to the Earth's magnetic field (i.e., magnetic alignment) while they are performing different behavioural tasks. Since magnetoreception is still not fully understood, studying magnetic alignment provides evidence for magnetoreception and broadens current knowledge of magnetic sense in animals. Furthermore, magnetic alignment widens the roles of magnetic sensitivity in animals and may contribute to shed new light on magnetoreception. In this context, spontaneous alignment in two species of lacertid lizards ( Podarcis muralis and Podarcis lilfordi) during basking periods was monitored. Alignments in 255 P. muralis and 456 P. lilfordi were measured over a 5-year period. The possible influence of the sun's position (i.e., altitude and azimuth) and geomagnetic field values corresponding to the moment in which a particular lizard was observed on lizards' body axis orientation was evaluated. Both species exhibited a highly significant bimodal orientation along the north-northeast and south-southwest magnetic axis. The evidence from this study suggests that free-living lacertid lizards exhibit magnetic alignment behaviour, since their body alignments cannot be explained by an effect of the sun's position. On the contrary, lizard orientations were significantly correlated with geomagnetic field values at the time of each observation. We suggest that this behaviour might provide lizards with a constant directional reference while they are sun basking. This directional reference might improve their mental map of space to accomplish efficient escape behaviour. This study is the first to provide spontaneous magnetic alignment behaviour in free-living reptiles.

  15. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2007-01-01

    A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild.

  16. Free-living amoebae: Health concerns in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are the most likely protozoa implicated in health concerns of the indoor environment. These amoebae can be the source of allergic reactions, eye infections or, on rare occasions, encephalitis. While too large to be effectively aerosolized, free- living amoebae can support the multiplication of pathogens such as Legionella which are easily aerosolized and infectious via the pulmonary route. Traditional detection methods for free-living amoebae are laborious and time consuming. Newer techniques for rapidly detecting and quantitating free-living amoebae such as monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, gene probes, and laser optics have or could be employed. 25 refs.

  17. Restless roosts: Light pollution affects behavior, sleep, and physiology in a free-living songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q.; de Jong, Maaike; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Matson, Kevin D.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Meerlo, Peter; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2017-01-01

    The natural nighttime environment is increasingly polluted by artificial light. Several studies have linked artificial light at night to negative impacts on human health. In free-living animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian, reproductive, and social behavior, but whether

  18. Care for the wild : An integrative view on wild and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2005-01-01

    Environmental ethics has to deal with the challenge of reconciling contrasting ecocentric and animal-centric perspectives. Two classic attempts at this reconciliation, which both adopted the metaphor of concentric circles, are discussed. It is concluded that the relationship between the animal and i

  19. Care for the wild : An integrative view on wild and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    Environmental ethics has to deal with the challenge of reconciling contrasting ecocentric and animal-centric perspectives. Two classic attempts at this reconciliation, which both adopted the metaphor of concentric circles, are discussed. It is concluded that the relationship between the animal and

  20. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  1. Wild animals in urban environment: Subjectivity and relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mäekivi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities prove to be hybrid environments. The concept of hybrid is derived from the writings of French philosopher Bruno Latour, who applied the concept to describe different phenomena that have embedded in them the generally made distinctions between culture and nature, human and other animal (e.g. Latour 1993.

  2. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wild animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejercito, C L; Cai, L; Htwe, K K; Taki, M; Inoshima, Y; Kondo, T; Kano, C; Abe, S; Shirota, K; Sugimoto, T

    1993-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four (26%) of 511 sera from 11 wild animal species in eight prefectures in Japan had antibody titers to Coxiella burnetii by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High prevalences were observed in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus) (78%), Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) (69%), Japanese hares (Lepus brachyurus) (63%), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis) (56%), and to some extent in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) (28%). A low prevalence (13%) was observed in nutrias (Myocastor coypus). Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), wild rats (Muroides sp.), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), wild pigs (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) had no detectable antibodies to C. burnetii. Thus, six of 11 wild animal species in Japan were exposed to C. burnetii. Based on the high prevalences in some species, they may be a potential source of infection to both domestic animal and human populations.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueplo C.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples (serum or meat juice collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49 of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30 of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29 of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25 of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64 of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8 of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa. These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, C; Halos, L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-11-01

    Samples (serum or meat juice) collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49) of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30) of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29) of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25) of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64) of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8) of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  5. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light...

  6. Molecular characterization of Trichinella species from wild animals in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; King, Roni; Markovics, Alex

    2016-11-15

    Trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus Trichinella, frequently diagnosed in Israel. However, the identity of the Israeli isolates have not been studied. Here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (Canis aureus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (Canis lupus) in central and northern Israel. Isolates were analyzed using the multiplex PCR analysis encompassing expansion segment V (ESV) and internal sequence 1 (ITS-1) markers, which identified 52 of the 58 samples. Out of the six unidentified samples, four were successfully identified using extended PCR assays for ESV and ITS-1, developed in this study. Our analysis identified 44 isolates as T. britovi, 8 as T. spiralis, four mixed infections, and two isolates were not identified. Clonal analysis of the ITS-1 sequences from six isolates confirmed the initial identification of four mixed infections. These results show that the prevalent species in Israel are T. britovi and T. spiralis, with nearly 7% (4 of 58) incidence of mixed infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The birth of a research animal : Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  8. The birth of a research animal : Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  9. Nutrient compensatory foraging in a free-living social insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Keri L.; Gallacher, Anthony P.; Martin, Lizzie; Tong, Desmond; Elgar, Mark A.

    2010-10-01

    The geometric framework model predicts that animal foraging decisions are influenced by their dietary history, with animals targeting a combination of essential nutrients through compensatory foraging. We provide experimental confirmation of nutrient-specific compensatory foraging in a natural, free-living population of social insects by supplementing their diet with sources of protein- or carbohydrate-rich food. Colonies of the ant Iridomyrmex suchieri were provided with feeders containing food rich in either carbohydrate or protein for 6 days, and were then provided with a feeder containing the same or different diet. The patterns of recruitment were consistent with the geometric framework: while feeders with a carbohydrate diet typically attracted more workers than did feeders with protein diet, the difference in recruitment between the two nutrients was smaller if the colonies had had prior access to carbohydrate than protein. Further, fewer ants visited feeders if the colony had had prior access to protein than to carbohydrates, suggesting that the larvae play a role in worker foraging behaviour.

  10. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  12. The Design of Wild Animals Monitoring System Based on 3G and Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Xiao; Chenying Zeng; Zhouyan Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the rapid growth of economy and population, the wild animals’ habitat is badly damaged by the development and utilization of wild animals living environment by people. To carry out the research on wildlife monitoring technology is of great significance. Along with the advent of the era of 3G, 3G transmission technology is more and more advanced, and the Android operating system is currently the most popular operating system. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing monitoring techn...

  13. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  14. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Durán José; Egger Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of devel...

  15. Quantifying the effect of fire disturbance on free-living nitrogen fixation in tropical ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Bomfim, B.; Silva, L. C. R.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Marimon, B.; Horwath, W. R.; Neves, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests and savannas are among the most important biomes on Earth, supporting more than half of all plant and animal species on the planet. Despite growing interest in biogeochemical processes that affect tropical forest dynamics, many, including biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), are still poorly understood. Free-living N-fixers are thought to play a key role in tropical ecosystems, alleviating N and P limitation, supporting above and below ground biomass production, as well as carbon storage in plants and soil, but this influence has yet to be quantified. Of particular interest, the spatial distribution and identity of free-living BNF under disturbance regimes that commonly lead to the conversion of forests to savannas is currently unknown. To address this critical gap in knowledge, we measured free-living BNF quantifying rates of N fixation under contrasting fire regimes in the Amazon-Cerrado transition of central Brazil. Samples were collected in 4 ha of floodable forests affected by fire and 1 ha of unburned (seasonally flooded) forest located at the Araguaia State Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Free-living N-fixation rates were measured by both 15N2 (98 atom% 15N) and acethylene reduction assay (ARA). Samples were incubated in the field and left in the dark at room temperature for 12 hours. In the next few weeks we will quantify N fixation rates that will be presented in the upcoming AGU meeting.

  16. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  17. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  19. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners. In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM, and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs derived from well

  20. An automatic weighting system for wild animals based in an artificial neural network: how to weigh wild animals without causing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Angel, Miguel Leal; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-02-28

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females.

  1. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Rollin, Pierre E

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  2. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  3. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Guillarmod, A J; Moolman, L C; de Vos, V

    1987-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near Grahamstown, eastern Cape Province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. Fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult Haemaphysalis leachi and adult Rhipicephalus simus was determined. Complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (Felis caracal) in the Cradock, Graaff-Reinet and Southwell regions in the eastern Cape Province. The animals from Cradock and Graaff-Reinet harboured 13 ixodid tick species. The caracals from Southwell were infested with 11 tick species and the seasonal abundance of Ixodes pilosus on these animals was determined. A small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) and 6 black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) from various localities in the eastern Cape Province were examined for ticks and 9 species were collected. Complete tick collections were made from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), 2 wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), a several (Felis serval), 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta), 2 leopards (Panthera pardus) and a lion (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal. Twelve ixodid tick specis were recovered from these animals.

  4. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  5. Free-living amoebae as vectors of cryptosporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick L; Schwarzenberger, Rafael

    2011-08-01

    In the present article, the study to examine the ability of free-living amoebae (FLA) to serve as vectors of cryptosporidia is presented. Ten strains of different free-living amoebae of the FLA collection of the Parasitology Lab at Koblenz were cultivated in the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. After phagocytosis and ingestion, the oocysts could be found in food vacuoles within the cytoplasm of the trophozoites of two different FLA strains. The uptake and the transport of the oocysts within the trophozoites could be demonstrated in an Acanthamoeba sp. (group II) strain (maximum, three oocysts; average, one oocyst) as well as in a Thecamoeba quadrilineata strain (maximum, 15 oocysts; average, eight oocysts), with the help of light microscopy. We found that these free-living amoebae can temporarily harbour cryptosporidia, thus supporting the suggestion that FLA may act as carriers and vehicles for cryptosporidia. However, proliferation did not take place within the host amoebae. No cryptosporidium oocysts were found within the cysts of the amoebae. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the "host range" of free-living amoebae as vectors and vehicles of cryptosporidia. Free-living amoebae appear able to act as carriers or vectors of the oocysts and thus may play a certain role in the transmission of cryptosporidia.

  6. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  7. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Dall'Acqua Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57% and 18/107 (17% animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1% and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27. The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.

  8. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Selene Dall'Acqua; Burke, Julieta Catarina; de Paula, Catia Dejuste; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations. PMID:26273273

  9. Soft gel medium solidified with gellan gum for preliminary screening for root-associating, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria inhabiting the rhizoplane of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Tada, Motohiko; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    For preliminary screening for and characterization of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria from rhizoplane microflora, we used Winogradsky's mineral mixture-based nitrogen-free medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum. The soft gel medium enabled some reference and wild free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria to grow in characteristic colonies, including their reaction to oxygen and their motility change. Gellan gum is thus likely to be a better gel matrix than agarose for the investigation of roo...

  10. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  11. Rearing conditions have long-term consequences for stress responsiveness in free-living great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landys, Mėta M; Goymann, Wolfgang; Slagsvold, Tore

    2011-11-01

    In captivity, the adrenocortical stress response can be permanently altered by events that occur during early life. Free-living animals have rarely been examined in this regard. To examine whether early-life events impact the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the natural setting, we evaluated the stress response of free-living interspecifically cross-fostered great tits (Parus major). Cross-fostered birds may show a long-term potentiation of the adrenocortical stress response because species-specific nutritional requirements may not be met in the nest and/or cross-fostered birds may experience psychosocial stress while being raised by heterospecifics. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that in the natural setting, programmed changes in HPA function would be eclipsed by reactive responses to the immediate environment. Thus, we predicted that adult cross-fostered great tits and controls would show no differences in their adrenocortical stress response. Contrary to predictions, we found that stress responsiveness (i.e., the rate of the corticosterone increase associated with capture and handling) was significantly higher in cross-fostered great tits than in controls. Further, stress responsiveness was not significantly different between mature adults and first-year juveniles. Thus, data indicate significant effects of early rearing conditions on adrenocortical reactivity in the natural setting and also suggest that effects of rearing conditions in free-living animals can last into adulthood.

  12. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  13. Detection of Hartmannella sp, a free-living amoeba from Sungai Setiu, Terengganu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Amin, Nakisah; Najmiah Mustaffa, Nurul; Md Arshad, Norlieyana

    2004-12-01

    Hartmannella sp is one of the free-living amoebae that have the ability to infect animal tissues because it has been found in human's nasal mucosa, dog's bronchial and turkey's intestine. Treatment for diseases inflicted by free-living amoebae is difficult because most of them infect and damage the host's tissues, so preventive measures are better to take rather than to cure the diseases. In this study, water taken from several stations namely Kampung Padang, Kampung Besut, Ibu Bekalan Setiu, Kampung Tasik, Kampung Guntung, Kampung Nyatoh, Kampung Penarik and Kampung Mangkok) along Sungai Setiu, Terengganu was examined for the presence of Hartmannella sp. The results of this study indicated that only Ibu Bekalan Setiu station was found positive to have the amoeba. Detail results on the water quality and nutrient contents measured in relation to the distribution of the amoeba at Ibu Bekalan Setiu station are presented and discussed.

  14. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  15. Clostridium perfringens: A review of enteric diseases in dogs, cats and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is commonly part of the microbiota of humans and animals. It is considered a common enteric pathogen, but the pathogenesis and the predisposing factors of the disease commonly differ between host species. Thus, specific research is necessary to understand the role of this pathogen, how to diagnose it, and which control measures are applicable. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of C. perfringens infections in dogs, cats and wild animals.

  16. Biosafety in wild animal management in containment areas in state of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Costa Viana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity in containment areas is fundamental to public health, especially in areas in which animals are considered attraction, as in zoos. In these places, despite all security involved in the containment and management of wild animals, can still be considered as zoonosis transmission point. The objective was to assess the degree of unsoundness of employees and the use of protective equipment against zoonotic pathogens in the workplace. The study was conducted by analyzing the data obtained through a questionnaire that the workers of wild animal containment areas, whose focus was on routine work, animal handling, health history and knowledge about zoonotic diseases. The information gathered revealed that in part the administration of the place gives employees a basic security, providing PPE and refresher courses in animal handling. However, the garments used by employees are washed in their own homes. There are still points to be fixed in biosafety in these parks, such as the construction of changing rooms and providing own uniform to work, washed in a laundry in this place.

  17. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the Fernando de Noronha, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D G C; Marvulo, M F V; Silva, J S A; Santana, S C; Magalhães, F J R; Filho, C D F Lima; Ribeiro, V O; Alves, L C; Mota, R A; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2012-06-01

    Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, which has a varied biodiversity including alien species or sinantropic animals. The objective here was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. Between July 2007 and May 2010, blood samples were collected from 764 animals (533 domestic and 231 wild animals). Sera were tested by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) or the modified agglutination test (MAT), or by both. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 80 (80.0%) of 100 chickens ( Gallus domesticus ), 3 (3.0%) of 100 cattle ( Bos taurus ), 59 (60.8%) of 97 sheep ( Ovis aries ), 9 (81.8%) of 11 goats ( Capra hircus ), 7 (43.7%) of 16 horses ( Equus caballus ), 70 (59.3%) of 118 cats ( Felis catus ), 36 (39.6%) of 91 dogs ( Canis familiaris ), 13 (38.2%) of 34 black rats ( Rattus rattus ), and 157 (79.7%) of 197 cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ). Results indicate endemic infection by this zoonotic parasite among the animal and avian fauna in this archipelago from Brazil.

  19. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  20. Inactivation and Removal of Free-Living Amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoan that are predominantly harmless to humans. There are a few genera that cause disease in humans, Balamuthia, Naegleria, and Acanthamoeba. These organisms are not easily removed by physical means or inactivated by chemic...

  1. Trichomonosis in a free-living Stock Dove (Columba oenas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegemann, Arne; Hegemann, Ernst Dieter; Krone, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In October 2004, a free-living Stock Dove (Columba oenas) was found infected with Trichomonas spp. in the district of Soest, North Rhine- Westphalia, Germany. A huge buccal nodular lesion caused an occlusion of the esophagus and an external swelling. The bone of the mandibula was already softened an

  2. Sylvatic trichinosis - role of wild animals in cycle of spread of trichinosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinosis is a parasitic zoonosis that is caused by parasitic larvae of the genus Trichinella. Serbia is among the countries in which T. spiralis is present, in addition to domestic animals, also in synanthropic and sylvatic animals. This paper presents the results of investigations of the spread of trichinosis among certain species of sylvatic and synanthropic animals, with the aim to establish the role of wild animals in the natural cycle of trichinosis in this country. A total of 155 samples of wild boar, foxes, jackals, and rats were analysed. The samples were investigated through the artificial digestion method using a magnetic stirrer in keeping with Commission Regulation (EC No 2075/2005. The isolated muscle larvae were determined using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The investigations established a relatively high prevalence of trichinosis in foxes (5% and jackals (8.33% in the territory of Vojvodina. The degree of infestation among carnivora in Serbia (10-30 larvae/10g is much higher than in countries where there is no trichinosis among domestic animals. The prevalence of trichinosis among wild boar is not high, 0.82%, but a very high degree of infestation was established in these animals (1100 larvae/g. According to our results, the prevalence of trichinosis and the degree of infestation in rats collected from pig farms with established trichinosis is extremely high, the prevalence is higher than 80% with a degree of infestation of 900 larvae/g. The isolated muscle larvae were determined as belonging to the species T. spiralis. The spread of trichinosis is affected to a large degree by poor socioeconomic conditions, inadequate education of breeders, the absence of or unsatisfactory veterinary control, irregular animal carcass removal. Trichinosis of domestic swine is widespread in Serbia and it poses a significant risk to human health. The presented data indicate that it is necessary to include measures for preventing

  3. Not all are free-living: high-throughput DNA metabarcoding reveals a diverse community of protists parasitizing soil metazoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan; Laros, I.; Vizcaíno, A.; Bonkowski, M.; de Groot, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Protists, the most diverse eukaryotes, are largely considered to be free-living bacterivores, but vast numbers of taxa are known to parasitize plants or animals. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches now commonly replace cultivation-based approaches in studying soil protists, but insights into

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  5. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF CAPTIVE AND FREE-LIVING LEMURS AND DOMESTIC CARNIVORES IN EASTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Poirotte, Clémence; Porton, Ingrid J; Freeman, Karen L M; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa; Olson, Kimberly G; Iambana, Bernard; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Fecal samples from captive and free-living lemurs at Ivoloina Zoological Park (IZP) and domestic carnivores from six villages surrounding IZP were evaluated between July and August 2012. Free-living lemurs from Betampona Natural Reserve (BNR), a relatively pristine rainforest fragment 40 km away, were also evaluated in November 2013. All 33 dogs sampled (100%) and 16 of 22 cats sampled (72.7%) were parasitized, predominantly with nematodes (strongyles, ascarids, and spirurids) as well as cestodes and protozoans. Similar types of parasites were identified in the lemur populations. Identification of spirurid nematodes and protozoans in the lemur fecal samples were of concern due to previously documented morbidity and mortality in lemurs from these parasitic agents. Twelve of 13 free-living (93%) and 31 of 49 captive (63%) lemurs sampled at IZP had a higher parasite prevalence than lemurs at BNR, with 13 of 24 (54%) being parasitized. The lemurs in BNR are likely at risk of increased exposure to these parasites and, therefore, increased morbidity and mortality, as humans and their domestic animals are encroaching on this natural area.

  6. A repeater type biotelemetry system for use on wild big game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupal, J J; Ward, A L; Weeks, R W

    1975-01-01

    A repeater type telemetry system was developed and field tested on a wild elk near laramie, Wyoming, in the summer of 1973. The telemetry system consisted of the following: (a) a heat flow rate sensing implanted transmitter, (b) a repeater type neck collar and (c) a portable receiving station consisting of a receiver, decoding circuitry and analog chart recorder. The transmitter in (a) produced relatively low frequency rf pulses whose repetition rate was directly proportional to heat flow rate through the hide of the animal. In (b), the pulses from the implant are sensed and retransmitted using a relatively high power, high frequency transmitter. A second rf pulse was generated whose pulse spacing was related to animal activity. Details of circuit design and performance are given. Field experience has shown that this method is extremely useful for the monitoring of biological data from secretive big game animals such as elk.

  7. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  8. The Design of Wild Animals Monitoring System Based on 3G and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the rapid growth of economy and population, the wild animals’ habitat is badly damaged by the development and utilization of wild animals living environment by people. To carry out the research on wildlife monitoring technology is of great significance. Along with the advent of the era of 3G, 3G transmission technology is more and more advanced, and the Android operating system is currently the most popular operating system. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing monitoring technology are summed up, then wireless multimedia sensor network monitoring technology solutions which is a collection of 3G technology, Android platform and Zigbee short-range wireless communication technology is put forward in this paper.

  9. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikre, Linda; Schwartz, Michael K; Waples, Robin S; Ryman, Nils

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild populations: (1) loss of genetic variation, (2) loss of adaptations, (3) change of population composition, and (4) change of population structure. While adverse genetic impacts are recognized and documented in fisheries, little effort is devoted to actually monitoring them. In forestry and wildlife management, genetic risks associated with releases are largely neglected. We outline key features of programs to effectively monitor consequences of such releases on natural populations.

  10. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain from a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demar, M; Ajzenberg, D; Serrurier, B; Dardé, M L; Carme, B

    2008-02-01

    Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. We report, to our knowledge, the first isolation and molecular characterization of a T. gondii strain from the heart tissue of a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana. Sequencing at six polymorphic markers indicated that the jaguar isolate had an atypical genotype, including an allele at TgM-A previously found only in isolates from South America, and an allele at GRA6, which was previously reported only in Californian sea otter isolates. These findings are consistent with the recent description of atypical T. gondii strains involved in severe toxoplasmoses in immunocompetent patients in French Guiana that seemed to be linked to a neotropical forest-based cycle involving wild cats and their prey.

  11. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  12. Rationalizing spatial exploration patterns of wild animals and humans through a temporal discounting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Levy, Joshua M; Mihalas, Stefan; Sims, David W; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-08-02

    Understanding the exploration patterns of foragers in the wild provides fundamental insight into animal behavior. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that path lengths (distances between consecutive turns) taken by foragers are well fitted by a power law distribution. Numerous theoretical contributions have posited that "Lévy random walks"-which can produce power law path length distributions-are optimal for memoryless agents searching a sparse reward landscape. It is unclear, however, whether such a strategy is efficient for cognitively complex agents, from wild animals to humans. Here, we developed a model to explain the emergence of apparent power law path length distributions in animals that can learn about their environments. In our model, the agent's goal during search is to build an internal model of the distribution of rewards in space that takes into account the cost of time to reach distant locations (i.e., temporally discounting rewards). For an agent with such a goal, we find that an optimal model of exploration in fact produces hyperbolic path lengths, which are well approximated by power laws. We then provide support for our model by showing that humans in a laboratory spatial exploration task search space systematically and modify their search patterns under a cost of time. In addition, we find that path length distributions in a large dataset obtained from free-ranging marine vertebrates are well described by our hyperbolic model. Thus, we provide a general theoretical framework for understanding spatial exploration patterns of cognitively complex foragers.

  13. Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies: Engaging Children in Nutrition Education and Physical Activity with Animal Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Offelen, Sara J.; Schroeder, Mary M.; Leines, DeeAnn R.; Roth-Yousey, Lori; Reicks, Marla M.

    2011-01-01

    The Go Wild with Fruits and Veggies! curriculum incorporates wild animal characters to motivate 3rd-5th grade children to increase fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Positive findings from a rural setting regarding a self-reported increase in intake of vegetables (n = 1,285) were verified by more intensive evaluation of vegetable…

  14. Identification of toxigenic microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available characterised by an increase in the growth of primary producers (Microcystis aeruginosa). This increase in M. aeruginosa biomass was followed by bio-intoxication incidents in wild animals...

  15. [Free-living amoebae as vehicles of pathogenic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Sułek-Stankiewicz, Anna; Hadaś, Edward

    2006-01-01

    The free-living amoebae are ubiquitous organisms. They are found in humid soil and all water reservoirs, i.e. fresh, sea, freezing and hot water. They mainly feed on bacteria. Pathogenic properties of amoebae and the mechanisms underlying pathological changes induced during human infection have not yet been fully elucidated. They are the causative agents of primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system, amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Only a few isolates are strongly and permanently pathogenic to humans. Some isolates lose their pathogenic properties after one passage. It has been assumed that such "temporary", unstable pathogenic properties of the amoebae may be caused by internal factors carried by them. It is generally known that the free-living amoebae may be naturally infected with pathogenic bacteria, which have the ability to survive for a long time and to proliferate in the amoebae cells. The role of the amoeba in the process of maintaining, propagating and transmitting human pathogens has not been well recognized. It has been suggested that some infections can be acquired by inhaling aerosols containing amoebae cells filled with bacteria. The presence of bacteria inside the free-living amoebae possess a great challenge to organisations responsible for testing and inspecting the quality and cleanliness of surface waters, swimming pools and drinking water intakes.

  16. Tetanus in a free-living Hippopotamus Hippopotamus Amphibius Capensis from the Kruger National Park

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    V de Vos

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus in a free-living hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius from the Kruger National Park is described. The animal exhibited the classical tetanus symptomatology, the most salient clinical features being trauma (skin wounds associated with exaggerated response of voluntary muscles to trivial stimuli, muscular spasms, general muscular rigidity, trismus, prolapsed third eye-lid and the preservation of consciousness. It is conjectured that the hippo's semi-aquatic way of life with its close proximity to dung-polluted water and an innate intraspecific aggression amongst males which often leads to fighting and trauma, should provide ample opportunity for infection with Clostridium tetani.

  17. Tetanus in a free-living Hippopotamus Hippopotamus Amphibius Capensis from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V de Vos

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus in a free-living hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius from the Kruger National Park is described. The animal exhibited the classical tetanus symptomatology, the most salient clinical features being trauma (skin wounds associated with exaggerated response of voluntary muscles to trivial stimuli, muscular spasms, general muscular rigidity, trismus, prolapsed third eye-lid and the preservation of consciousness. It is conjectured that the hippo's semi-aquatic way of life with its close proximity to dung-polluted water and an innate intraspecific aggression amongst males which often leads to fighting and trauma, should provide ample opportunity for infection with Clostridium tetani.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and wild animals

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    Isabela de Godoy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of veterinary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. One hundred Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates from domestic and wild animals were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to species determination. Antimicrobial susceptibility was obtained by a disk diffusion test against six antibiotics: amoxicillin (AMX, cephalexin (LEX, ciprofloxacin (CIP, erythromycin (ERY, gentamicin (GEN and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT. The most common specie was S. pseudintermedius (61%, 61/100 and resistance to ERY (57%, 57/100, SXT (50%, 50/100 and AMX (46%, 46/100 was detected most frequently. In total, 40% (40/100 of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR phenotype. Results of this study emphasize that animals are reservoir of MDR Staphylococcus spp.

  19. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

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    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  1. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang Won; Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang Hun; Lyoo, Young S

    2016-06-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period.

  2. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

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    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  3. Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, P K; Kumar, A; Singh, B

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as major animal pathogen with significant zoonotic concerns, worldwide. MAP infection is endemic in domestic and wild ruminant population in India. However, information on MAP infection in free ranging animal species and non human primates is limited. Present study aimed to estimate the status of MAP infection in free living Rhesus macaques suffering with multiple clinical conditions (coughing and loose stool). A total of 25 stool samples were collected from six colonies of Rhesus macaques from Mathura region (North India) and screened for the presence of MAP, using microscopic examination and IS900 PCR, directly from stool samples. PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Of the 25 stool samples, 10 (40.0%) and 2 (8.0%) were positive for MAP using microscopic examination and direct IS900 PCR, respectively. IS900 PCR positive DNA samples were genotyped as 'Indian Bison type', which is a major MAP genotype infecting domestic and wild ruminant species and human beings in India. Prevalence of MAP in Rhesus macaques (Indian monkeys) was moderately high and confirmed interspecies sharing of MAP between domestic livestock and non-human primates. Presence of MAP in non-human primates, support the etiological role of MAP in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Indian monkeys may serve as model for understanding the role of non-human primates in sustenance, transmission and pathogenesis of MAP infection.

  4. A useful marking method for free living mammals

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    E. Young

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

  5. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

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    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  6. Genetic Correlates of Individual Differences in Sleep Behavior of Free-Living Great Tits (Parus major

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    Erica F. Stuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within populations, free-living birds display considerable variation in observable sleep behaviors, reflecting dynamic interactions between individuals and their environment. Genes are expected to contribute to repeatable between-individual differences in sleep behaviors, which may be associated with individual fitness. We identified and genotyped polymorphisms in nine candidate genes for sleep, and measured five repeatable sleep behaviors in free-living great tits (Parus major, partly replicating a previous study in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus. Microsatellites in the CLOCK and NPAS2 clock genes exhibited an association with sleep duration relative to night length, and morning latency to exit the nest box, respectively. Furthermore, microsatellites in the NPSR1 and PCSK2 genes associated with relative sleep duration and proportion of time spent awake at night, respectively. Given the detection rate of associations in the same models run with random markers instead of candidate genes, we expected two associations to arise by chance. The detection of four associations between candidate genes and sleep, however, suggests that clock genes, a clock-related gene, or a gene involved in the melanocortin system, could play key roles in maintaining phenotypic variation in sleep behavior in avian populations. Knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying sleep behavior in the wild is important because it will enable ecologists to assess the evolution of sleep in response to selection.

  7. Genetic Correlates of Individual Differences in Sleep Behavior of Free-Living Great Tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Baumgartner, Christine; Dingemanse, Niels J; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2016-01-06

    Within populations, free-living birds display considerable variation in observable sleep behaviors, reflecting dynamic interactions between individuals and their environment. Genes are expected to contribute to repeatable between-individual differences in sleep behaviors, which may be associated with individual fitness. We identified and genotyped polymorphisms in nine candidate genes for sleep, and measured five repeatable sleep behaviors in free-living great tits (Parus major), partly replicating a previous study in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Microsatellites in the CLOCK and NPAS2 clock genes exhibited an association with sleep duration relative to night length, and morning latency to exit the nest box, respectively. Furthermore, microsatellites in the NPSR1 and PCSK2 genes associated with relative sleep duration and proportion of time spent awake at night, respectively. Given the detection rate of associations in the same models run with random markers instead of candidate genes, we expected two associations to arise by chance. The detection of four associations between candidate genes and sleep, however, suggests that clock genes, a clock-related gene, or a gene involved in the melanocortin system, could play key roles in maintaining phenotypic variation in sleep behavior in avian populations. Knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying sleep behavior in the wild is important because it will enable ecologists to assess the evolution of sleep in response to selection.

  8. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  9. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

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    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  10. Testing for salmonella spp. In released parrots, wild parrots, and domestic fowl in lowland peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butron, Oscar; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2010-07-01

    Wild animal populations face threats from pathogens from both intentionally released captive animals and domestic animals that accompany human settlements. From December 2004 through August 2005, we studied free living macaws and parrots in the Tambopata National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon and semicaptive domestic fowl in human settlements adjacent to the reserve. In 1992-1993, large macaws (Aras spp.) that were serologically positive for Salmonella Pullorum were released into this reserve, which hosts dense populations of free-living parrots and macaws. We collected cloacal swabs from 64 birds and cultured for Salmonella spp. via standard laboratory methods. All 35 psittacines tested were culture negative for Salmonella spp., while 31% of 29 domestic fowl were culture positive. Our findings suggest that the domestic fowl that accompany human settlement in this region carry and shed Salmonella spp. that could threaten wild bird populations in and around the reserve.

  11. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals : a global health concern with parallels to human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fata

  12. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals : a global health concern with parallels to human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fata

  13. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  14. Identifying endosymbiont bacteria associated with free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Pilar; Fernández, María Teresa; Rubio, Encarnación

    2014-02-01

    The association between free-living amoebae and pathogenic bacteria is an issue that has gained great importance due to the environmental and health consequences that it implies. In this paper, we analyse the techniques to follow an epidemiological study to identify associations between genera, species, genotypes and subgenotypes of amoebae with pathogenic bacteria, analysing their evolution and considering their usefulness. In this sense, we highlight the combination of microscopic and molecular techniques as the most appropriate way to obtain fully reliable results as well as the need to achieve the standardization of these techniques to allow the comparison of both environmental and clinical results.

  15. Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, H; Dendana, F; Sellami, A; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Neji, S; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2012-12-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in soil and water. Small number of them was implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Some of the infections were opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitis) while others are non opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis and some cases of Balamuthia encephalitis). Although, the number of infections caused by these amoebae is low, their diagnosis was still difficult to confirm and so there was a higher mortality, particularly, associated with encephalitis. In this review, we present some information about epidemiology, ecology and the types of diseases caused by these pathogens amoebae.

  16. Disease spread models in wild and feral animal populations: application of artificial life models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M P; Laffan, S W; Highfield, L D

    2011-08-01

    The role that wild and feral animal populations might play in the incursion and spread of important transboundary animal diseases, such as foot and mouth disease (FMD), has received less attention than is warranted by the potential impacts. An artificial life model (Sirca) has been used to investigate this issue in studies based on spatially referenced data sets from southern Texas. An incursion of FMD in which either feral pig or deer populations were infected could result in between 698 and 1557 infected cattle and affect an area of between 166 km2 and 455 km2 after a 100-day period. Although outbreak size in deer populations can be predicted bythe size of the local deer population initially infected, the resulting outbreaks in feral pig populations are less predictable. Also, in the case of deer, the size of potential outbreaks might depend on the season when the incursion occurs. The impact of various mitigation strategies on disease spread has also been investigated. The approach used in the studies reviewed here explicitly incorporates the spatial distribution and relationships between animal populations, providing a new framework to explore potential impacts, costs, and control strategies.

  17. Repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Ibtissem; Aziz, Aurore; Hoffart, Louis; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-10-29

    The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 20 of 233 (8.6 %) contact lens solution specimens collected from 16 patients were cultured. Acanthamoeba amoeba in 16 solutions (80 %) collected from 12 patients and Colpoda steini, Cercozoa sp., Protostelium sp. and a eukaryotic more closely related to Vermamoeba sp., were each isolated in one solution. Cercozoa sp., Colpoda sp., Protostelium sp. and Vermamoeba sp. are reported for the first time as contaminating contact lens solutions. The repertoire of protozoa in contact lens solutions is larger than previously known.

  18. Interaction of Pasteurella multocida with free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Matthew J; Ruffolo, Carmel G

    2005-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a highly infectious, facultative intracellular bacterium which causes fowl cholera in birds. This study reports, for the first time, the observed interaction between P. multocida and free-living amoebae. Amoebal trophozoites were coinfected with fowl-cholera-causing P. multocida strain X-73 that expressed the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, GFP expressing X-73 was located within the trophozoite. Transmission electron microscopy of coinfection preparations revealed clusters of intact X-73 cells in membrane-bound vacuoles within the trophozoite cytoplasm. A coinfection assay employing gentamicin to kill extracellular bacteria was used to assess the survival and replication of P. multocida within amoebae. In the presence of amoebae, the number of recoverable intracellular X-73 cells increased over a 24-h period; in contrast, X-73 cultured alone in assay medium showed a consistent decline in growth. Cytotoxicity assays and microscopy showed that X-73 was able to lyse and exit the amoebal cells approximately 18 h after coinfection. The observed interaction between P. multocida and amoebae can be considered as an infective process as the bacterium was able to invade, survive, replicate, and lyse the amoebal host. This raises the possibility that similar interactions occur in vivo between P. multocida and host cells. Free-living amoebae are ubiquitous within water and soil environments, and P. multocida has been observed to survive within these same ecosystems. Thus, our findings suggest that the interaction between P. multocida and amoebae may occur within the natural environment.

  19. Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Free-living amebas are widely distributed in soil and water, particularly members of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. Since the early 1960s, they have been recognized as opportunistic human pathogens, capable of causing infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Naegleria is the causal agent of a fulminant CNS condition, primary amebic meningoencephalitis; Acanthamoeba is responsible for a more chronic and insidious infection of the CNS termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as amebic keratitis. Balamuthia sp. has been recognized in the past decade as another ameba implicated in CNS infections. Cultivation of these organisms in vitro provides the basis for a better understanding of the biology of these amebas, as well as an important means of isolating and identifying them from clinical samples. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba can be cultured axenically in cell-free media or on tissue culture cells as feeder layers and in cultures with bacteria as a food source. Balamuthia, which has yet to be isolated from the environment, will not grow on bacteria. Instead, it requires tissue culture cells as feeder layers or an enriched cell-free medium. The recent identification of another ameba, Sappinia diploidea, suggests that other free-living forms may also be involved as causal agents of human infections. PMID:12097243

  20. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

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    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  1. Epizootic mortality of free-living green turtles, Chelonia mydas, due to coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A N; Kelly, W R; Lester, R J

    1993-07-01

    At least 70 wild green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, died in the Moreton Bay area of southeast Queensland, Australia over 6 wk in spring 1991. Based on the necropsy of 24 turtles, there was a severe enteritis or encephalitis associated with Caryospora cheloniae, a coccidial pathogen previously recorded only in farm-reared Ch. mydas hatchlings. Infection was characterized by the presence of coccidia in extra-intestinal lesions. Oocysts were observed to sporulate, after which sporozoites escaped into seawater to form a novel stellate configuration. We conclude that C. cheloniae is pathogenic for life stages other than hatchling Ch. mydas and that naturally-occurring coccidiosis is a significant disease of free-living Ch. mydas.

  2. Avian pox infection in a free-living crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Pei, K J C; Lee, F R; Tzeng, M P; Chang, T C

    2011-03-01

    Avian pox viruses (APVs) have been reported to cause infection in diverse avian species worldwide. Herein we report the first case of APV infection in a free-living bird, a subadult crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela), in Taiwan. In addition to the typical wart-like lesions distributed on the cere, eyelid, and face, there were also yellowish nodules below the tongue and on the hard palate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4b core protein gene showed that the APV is very close to that found in white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan recently. Because both cases are located on the same major flyway for migratory birds, the impact of this virus with regard to the wild and migratory raptor species along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and West Pacific Flyway requires immediate investigation.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO AND DNA OF LAWSONIA INTRACELLULARIS IN SAMPLES FROM WILD ANIMALS IN KOREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Mukter; Oh, Yeonsu; Cho, Ho-Seong

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in three wild animal species in Korea; the Korean water deer ( Hydropotes inermis ), Siberian roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus ), and raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides ). We collected 136 sera and 109 fecal samples from individuals in 10 Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Centers. Serum samples were tested for anti- L. intracellularis antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA), and fecal samples were subjected to a real-time PCR assay for L. intracellularis . Thirty-five (25.7%) sera and 36 (33.0%) fecal samples were positive. We found a higher proportion of positive sera (64.7%, χ(2)=15.439, P<0.01) and feces (58.8%, χ(2)=6.126, P<0.05) in raccoon dogs (χ(2)=11.855, P<0.01) than in the other species (20% positive sera and 29% positive feces in Korean water deer; 20% positive sera and 25% positive feces in Siberian roe deer). Our data indicate infection by L. intracellularis in Korean water deer, Siberian roe deer, and raccoon dogs throughout the country. It is imperative to know whether these infected animal species are natural hosts for L. intracellularis in addition to domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus).

  4. Image-based red blood cell counter for multiple species of wild and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.M. Mauricio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT RBC count plays an important role in animal diagnosis. Despite the many technologies available in different automated hematology analyzers, when it comes to the blood of wild animals it is still difficult to find an easy and affordable solution for multiple species. This study aims to evaluate the proposed automatic red blood cell counter. Blood samples (1 ocelot - Leopardus pardalis, 1 monkey - Cebus apella, 1 coati - Nasua nasua, 62 dogs - Canis familiaris, and 5 horses - Equus caballus were analyzed using three methods: 1-manual count, 2-automatic count by image, and 3-semi-automatic count by image; blood from dogs and horses were also analyzed by a fourth method: 4-automatic count by impedance. The counts in methods 2 and 3 were produced by the proposed red blood cell counter. Results were compared using Pearson's correlation and plots with different methods as the criterion standard. RBC counts in methods 1, 2, and 3 correlated very well with those in the method 4 (r ≥ 0.94. RBC counts produced by method 2 were highly correlated with method 3 (r = 0.998. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as an automatic or semi-automatic counting method in clinics that are currently using the manual method for RBC assessment.

  5. Pneumocystis and Histoplasma infections in wild animals from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Shaw, J J

    1975-01-01

    Routine examination of tissues from wild forest rodents from Amapá, north Brazil, revealed Pneumocystis carinii in lung smears from a newly captured Oryzomys capito (Cricetidae). Acute, fatal infections with this parasite are also recorded in a number of captive "coatimundis", Nasua narica (Carnivora: Procyonidae) and a sloth, Bradypus tridactylus (Edentata). Pneumocystis was also encountered in lung smears from a newly captured and apparently healthy sloth, Choloepus didactylus. The presence of infection in newly captured animals leads us to believe that the fatal, fulminating pneumocystosis seen in the captive Nasua and Bradypus was due to exacerbation of pre-existant infections acquired in their natural forest environment. Pneumocystis carinii is a well known cause of fatal, interstitial plasma-cell pneumonia in human infants and sometimes the weakened adult: the keeping of exotic pets such as the coatimundi is, therefore, not without some hazard in this respect. Histoplasma, another well known pathogen for man, was isolated from 4 rodents, Proechimys guyanensis (Echimyidae), all from virgin forest along the newly opened Trans Amazon Highway, Pará State, and from a single sloth, Choloepus didactylus, from near Belém, Pará. All these animals showed no symptoms of infection: isolation of the parasite was made by the inoculation of laboratory hamsters with saline suspensions of triturated liver and spleen.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  7. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  8. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, Govinda S; Moura, Hercules; Schuster, Frederick L

    2007-06-01

    Among the many genera of free-living amoebae that exist in nature, members of only four genera have an association with human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris are opportunistic pathogens causing infections of the central nervous system, lungs, sinuses and skin, mostly in immunocompromised humans. Balamuthia is also associated with disease in immunocompetent children, and Acanthamoeba spp. cause a sight-threatening infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact-lens wearers. Of more than 30 species of Naegleria, only one species, N. fowleri, causes an acute and fulminating meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent children and young adults. In addition to human infections, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia and Naegleria can cause central nervous system infections in animals. Because only one human case of encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea is known, generalizations about the organism as an agent of disease are premature. In this review we summarize what is known of these free-living amoebae, focusing on their biology, ecology, types of disease and diagnostic methods. We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae.

  9. Meat and carcass characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

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    Gisele A. Felix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from agricultural areas of Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil. Carcass weight, yield and measures, as well as of commercial cuts weight of five animals (2 males and 3 females, body weight between 63.4-100 kg were determined. The following parameters: moisture, protein, fat, ash, Ca, P and Fe, water holding capacity, cooking losses, shear force and color Instrumental color in CIE-Lab coordinates were determined to meat cuts (Loin, ribs, L. dorsi, chuck/brisket, ham and bottom sirloin. The dressing percentage average value was 62.47% of body weight and cold carcass yield was 57.89% of body weight, with no difference between sexes. The mean percentage of cold loss was 4.10%. Cuts yielding (ribs 24.98% and ham 27.29% were not statistically different (P>0.05. There was no significantly (P> 0.05 difference between the moisture, protein and minerals content between the different cuts, but lipids content was significantly (P< 0.05 lower in loin. The results shown that free-living capybara have characteristics appropriate for commercialization, thus it is possible to development projects for the sustainable management of rural populations.

  10. Naegleria fowleri: a free living amoeba of emerging medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Jayakeerthee, S R

    1999-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba is ubiquitous and word-wide in distribution. Infection is due to inhalation or aspiration of aerosols containing cysts found in the environment. Of late, the amoeba is emerging as a pathogen of medical importance causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. The diagnosis of the condition is mainly parasitic which depends on the detection and identification of Naegleria trophozoites in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) or biopsied brain tissue. Serological tests are not useful in the diagnosis of PAM. Most cases are fatal and various amoebicidal agents have been tried unsuccessfully. The present paper provides a review of the recent information on the biology and epidemiology of the disease caused by the amoeba Approaches in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the condition are also discussed.

  11. Genetic variation in the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélandakis, M; De Jonckheere, J F; Pernin, P

    1998-08-01

    In this study, 30 strains of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri were investigated by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. The present study confirmed our previous finding that RAPD variation is not correlated with geographical origin. In particular, Mexican strains belong to the variant previously detected in Asia, Europe, and the United States. In France, surprisingly, strains from Cattenom gave RAPD patterns identical to those of the Japanese strains. In addition, all of these strains, together with an additional French strain from Chooz, exhibited similarities to South Pacific strains. The results also confirmed the presence of numerous variants in Europe, whereas only two variants were detected in the United States. The two variants found in the United States were different from the South Pacific variants. These findings do not support the previous hypothesis concerning the origin and modes of dispersal of N. fowleri.

  12. Cocultivation of Legionella pneumophila and free-living amoebae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Domingue, E.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of the interaction of Legionella pneumophila with free-living amoebae showed that Naegleria lovaniensis and Acanthamoeba royreba could use L. pneumophia as a sole food source. However, growth of the amoebae on nonnutrient agar plates seeded with L. pneumophila was slower than growth on nonnutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. On inoculation of L. pneumophila into axenic cultures of N. lovaniensis and A. roryba, 99.9% of the L. pneumophila was destroyed within 24 h. After several weeks, however, some amoeba cultures became chronically infected and supported the growth of L. pneumophila. Amoebae exposed to L. pneumophila and containing adhered L. pneumophila, L. pneumophila antigens, or both, showed no increased pathogenic potential on intranasal inoculation of weanling mice. Similarly, L. pneumophila propagated in chronically infected amoeba cultures showed no increase in virulence on intraperitoneal inoculation of guinea pigs relative to L. pneumophila grown in yeast extract broth. 20 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  13. Using cadence to study free-living ambulatory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Rowe, David A

    2012-05-01

    The health benefits of a physically active lifestyle across a person's lifespan have been established. If there is any single physical activity behaviour that we should measure well and promote effectively, it is ambulatory activity and, more specifically, walking. Since public health physical activity guidelines include statements related to intensity of activity, it follows that we need to measure and promote free-living patterns of ambulatory activity that are congruent with this intent. The purpose of this review article is to present and summarize the potential for using cadence (steps/minute) to represent such behavioural patterns of ambulatory activity in free-living. Cadence is one of the spatio-temporal parameters of gait or walking speed. It is typically assessed using short-distance walks in clinical research and practice, but free-living cadence can be captured with a number of commercially available accelerometers that possess time-stamping technology. This presents a unique opportunity to use the same metric to communicate both ambulatory performance (assessed under testing conditions) and behaviour (assessed in the real world). Ranges for normal walking cadence assessed under laboratory conditions are 96-138 steps/minute for women and 81-135 steps/minute for men across their lifespan. The correlation between mean cadence and intensity (assessed with indirect calorimetry and expressed as metabolic equivalents [METs]) based on five treadmill/overground walking studies, is r = 0.93 and 100 steps/minute is considered to be a reasonable heuristic value indicative of walking at least at absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e. minimally, 3 METs) in adults. The weighted mean cadence derived from eight studies that have observed pedestrian cadence under natural conditions was 115.2 steps/minute, demonstrating that achieving 100 steps/minute is realistic in specific settings that occur in real life. However, accelerometer data collected in a large

  14. Viruses in close associations with free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    As both groups of organisms, free-living amoebae (FLA) and viruses, can be found in aquatic environments side by side, it appears obvious that there are multiple interactions with respect to host-endocytobiont relationships. Several relationships between viruses and protozoan hosts are described and it was the discovery of the so called "giant viruses," associated with amoebae, which gave another dimension to these interactions. Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses and Pithoviruses are examples for interesting viral endocytobionts within FLA. In the Mimivirus viral factories, viral DNA undergoes replication and transcription, and the DNA is prepared to be packed in procapsids. Theses Mimivirus factories can be considered as efficient "production lines" where, at any given moment, all stages of viral generation including membrane biogenesis, capsid assembly and genome encapsidation, are occurring concomitantly. There are some hints that similar replication factories are involved as well during the Pandoravirus development. Some scientists favour the assumption that the giant viruses have received many of their genes from their hosts or from sympatric occurring endocytobionts via lateral gene transfer. This hypothesis would mean that this type of transfer has been an important process in the evolution of genomes in the context of the intracellular parasitic or endocytobiotic lifestyle. In turn, that would migitate against hypothesizing development of a new branch in the tree of life. Based on the described scenarios to explain the presence of genes related to translation, it is also possible that earlier ancestors of today's DNA viruses were involved in the origin of eukaryotes. That possibly could in turn support the idea that cellular organisms could have evolved from viruses with growing autarkic properties. In future we expect the discovery of further (giant) viruses within free-living amoebae and other protozoa through genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

  15. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in livestock and free-living waterfowl in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirunda, Halid; Erima, Bernard; Tumushabe, Agnes; Kiconco, Jocelyn; Tugume, Titus; Mulei, Sophia; Mimbe, Derrick; Mworozi, Edison; Bwogi, Josephine; Luswa, Lukwago; Kibuuka, Hannah; Millard, Monica; Byaruhanga, Achilles; Ducatez, Mariette F; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Wurapa, Kofi; Byarugaba, Denis K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2014-02-27

    Avian influenza viruses may cause severe disease in a variety of domestic animal species worldwide, with high mortality in chickens and turkeys. To reduce the information gap about prevalence of these viruses in animals in Uganda, this study was undertaken. Influenza A virus prevalence by RT-PCR was 1.1% (45/4,052) while seroprevalence by ELISA was 0.8% (24/2,970). Virus prevalence was highest in domestic ducks (2.7%, 17/629) and turkeys (2.6%, 2/76), followed by free-living waterfowl (1.3%, 12/929) and swine (1.4%, 7/511). A lower proportion of chicken samples (0.4%, 7/1,865) tested positive. No influenza A virus was isolated. A seasonal prevalence of these viruses in waterfowl was 0.7% (4/561) for the dry and 2.2% (8/368) for the wet season. In poultry, prevalence was 0.2% (2/863) for the dry and 1.4% (24/1,713) for the wet season, while that of swine was 0.0% (0/159) and 2.0% (7/352) in the two seasons, respectively. Of the 45 RT-PCR positive samples, 13 (28.9%) of them were H5 but none was H7. The 19 swine sera positive for influenza antibodies by ELISA were positive for H1 antibodies by HAI assay, but the subtype(s) of ELISA positive poultry sera could not be determined. Antibodies in the poultry sera could have been those against subtypes not included in the HAI test panel. The study has demonstrated occurrence of influenza A viruses in animals in Uganda. The results suggest that increase in volumes of migratory waterfowl in the country could be associated with increased prevalence of these viruses in free-living waterfowl and poultry.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from forest fragments of the municipality of Natal, northeastern Brazil

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    Gislene Fátima da Silva Rocha Fournier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. In the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. Altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the Parque da Cidade. In total, 22 (53.7% non-volant wild mammals, 11 (21.5% bats and 28 (52.8% cats were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (≥ 25. It was possible to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA, by means of a molecular amplification of a B1 gene fragment (155bp, in 92 tissue samples from wild animals, including Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina. Of the 62 cats examined by the same molecular method, T. gondii DNA could be detected in 4 cats. In this study, it was observed the circulation of T. gondii in wild species and domestic cats, demonstrating the involvement of wild and domestic animals in the cycle of T. gondii.

  17. Health implications associated with exposure to farmed and wild sea turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to sea turtles may be increasing with expanding tourism, although reports of problems arising from interaction with free-living animals appear of negligible human health and safety concern. Exposure both to wild-caught and captive-housed sea turtles, including consumption of turtle products, raises several health concerns for the public, including: microbiological (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi), macrobiological (macroparasites), and organic and inorganic toxic contaminants ...

  18. Effect of vehicular traffic on wild animals in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India

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    A. Samson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a road, directly and indirectly, impacts on the ecosystems where the road is built.  Highways passing through national reserves/wildlife sanctuaries have an adverse impact on wild animals.  The present survey was conducted to estimate the road kills on the state highways passing through the Nilgiri north territorial forest division (19km and Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (15km in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India.  The road kills were monitored three times a month between July 2013 and December 2013 (six months and a total of 176 road kills belonging to 30 species were recorded.  Reptiles were the most affected taxa (39%, followed by mammals (33% and birds (21%.  Amphibians were least affected by vehicular traffic and comprised 7% of the total kills.  According to road stretch category, the overall road kill was N=135 in the forested area and N=41 in human habitations.  A total of 812 food materials were encounterd  612km with average of  1.32 food materials / km. Conservation and management implications are essential to prevent the local extinction of wildlife. 

  19. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring.

  20. The in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Arine F; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Andrew, Peter W; Kilvington, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris causes usually fatal encephalitis in humans and animals. Only limited studies have investigated the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against the organism. Assay methods were developed to assess antimicrobial efficacy against both the trophozoite and cyst stage of B. mandrillaris (ATCC 50209). Amphotericin B, ciclopirox olamine, miltefosine, natamycin, paromomycin, pentamidine isethionate, protriptyline, spiramycin, sulconazole and telithromycin had limited activity with amoebacidal levels of > 135-500 μM. However, diminazene aceturate (Berenil(®) ) was amoebacidal at 7.8 μM and 31.3-61.5 μM for trophozoites and cysts, respectively. Assays for antimicrobial testing may improve the prognosis for infection and aid in the development of primary selective culture isolation media.

  1. Animal diversity of nauradehi wild life sanctuary Sagar (M.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Napit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild life conservation includes all human efforts to preserve wildanimals from extinction. It involves the protection and wise management of wildspecies and their environment. Some species have become extinct due to naturalcauses but the greatest danger to wild life result from human activities. Thuswe ourselves have created this need for wild life conservation. The progress ofman throughout has been beneficial for the human race but it is the wild thathas suffered through the years. Invention of sophisticated weapons,industrialization, urbanization, ever increasing human population have beensome of the major causes for the dwindle of our once rich wild life resource.Hunting, clearing of forests, draining of swamps and damming of rivers forirrigation and industry, this is what we apprise of man’s progress. Theseactivities have vastly reduced the natural habitats of our wild life and manyspecies are endangered or nearly extinct

  2. Protein and Overtraining: Potential Applications for Free-Living Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Lonnie; Forsythe, Cassandra E

    2006-01-01

    Despite a more than adequate protein intake in the general population, athletes have special needs and situations that bring it to the forefront. Overtraining is one example. Hard-training athletes are different from sedentary persons from the sub-cellular to whole-organism level. Moreover, competitive, "free-living" (less-monitored) athletes often encounter negative energy balance, sub-optimal dietary variety, injuries, endocrine exacerbations and immune depression. These factors, coupled with "two-a-day" practices and in-season demands require that protein not be dismissed as automatically adequate or worse, deleterious to health. When applying research to practice settings, one should consider methodological aspects such as population specificity and control variables such as energy balance. This review will address data pertinent to the topic of athletic protein needs, particularly from a standpoint of overtraining and soft tissue recovery. Research-driven strategies for adjusting nutrition and exercise assessments will be offered for consideration. Potentially helpful nutrition interventions for preventing and treating training complications will also be presented. PMID:18500962

  3. Diagnosis of infections caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia sp. are pathogenic free-living amoebae. N. fowleri causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis, a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous encephalitis. Acanthamoeba spp. also can cause cutaneous lesions and Amoebic Keratitis, a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is associated with contact lens use or corneal trauma. Sappinia pedata has been identified as the cause of a nonlethal case of amoebic encephalitis. In view of the potential health consequences due to infection with these amoebae, rapid diagnosis is critical for early treatment. Microscopic examination and culture of biopsy specimens, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and corneal scrapings have been used in the clinical laboratory. For amoebic keratitis, confocal microscopy has been used to successfully identify amoebae in corneal tissue. More recently, conventional and real-time PCR assays have been developed that are sensitive and specific for the amoebae. In addition, multiplex PCR assays are available for the rapid identification of these pathogens in biopsy tissue, CSF, and corneal specimens.

  4. Diagnosis of Infections Caused by Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Rocha-Azevedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia sp. are pathogenic free-living amoebae. N. fowleri causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis, a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous encephalitis. Acanthamoeba spp. also can cause cutaneous lesions and Amoebic Keratitis, a sight-threatening infection of the cornea that is associated with contact lens use or corneal trauma. Sappinia pedata has been identified as the cause of a nonlethal case of amoebic encephalitis. In view of the potential health consequences due to infection with these amoebae, rapid diagnosis is critical for early treatment. Microscopic examination and culture of biopsy specimens, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF, and corneal scrapings have been used in the clinical laboratory. For amoebic keratitis, confocal microscopy has been used to successfully identify amoebae in corneal tissue. More recently, conventional and real-time PCR assays have been developed that are sensitive and specific for the amoebae. In addition, multiplex PCR assays are available for the rapid identification of these pathogens in biopsy tissue, CSF, and corneal specimens.

  5. Protein and Overtraining: Potential Applications for Free-Living Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe Cassandra E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a more than adequate protein intake in the general population, athletes have special needs and situations that bring it to the forefront. Overtraining is one example. Hard-training athletes are different from sedentary persons from the sub-cellular to whole-organism level. Moreover, competitive, "free-living" (less-monitored athletes often encounter negative energy balance, sub-optimal dietary variety, injuries, endocrine exacerbations and immune depression. These factors, coupled with "two-a-day" practices and in-season demands require that protein not be dismissed as automatically adequate or worse, deleterious to health. When applying research to practice settings, one should consider methodological aspects such as population specificity and control variables such as energy balance. This review will address data pertinent to the topic of athletic protein needs, particularly from a standpoint of overtraining and soft tissue recovery. Research-driven strategies for adjusting nutrition and exercise assessments will be offered for consideration. Potentially helpful nutrition interventions for preventing and treating training complications will also be presented.

  6. Short-term dietary compensation in free-living adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, F; Hollis, J H; Mattes, R D

    2008-03-18

    Evidence suggests that compensatory behaviors operate in infants and pre-school children, such that the high variance characteristic of single eating occasions is much reduced over the day. However, the concept has not been fully explored in adults. The present within-subject, observational study investigated short-term dietary compensation patterns in fifty, weight-stable, normal weight (n=27), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=9) free-living adults (11 M, 39 F; age 30+/-11 y; BMI 26.3+/-5.9). Twenty four-hour diet recalls were obtained for 7 consecutive days, by the multi-pass technique. Each 24-h period was divided into 7 eating occasions. The coefficient of variation for energy intake was calculated for each adult, for each eating occasion, and over each 24-h period. Sub-group variability was assessed by BMI and frequency of consumption of sweetened energy-yielding beverages. The mean coefficient of variation for energy intake for the 7 eating occasions was 110.5%, compared to 28.9% for the day as a whole. Correlations between energy intakes at successive eating events were uniformly negative. No significant differences were noted in the sub-group analyses. Significantly greater variation in energy intake was noted for snacks compared to meals (Pindividual eating occasions, similar to the pattern previously observed in children. Further studies of compensatory responses by larger sub-groups of individuals at risk for weight gain are warranted.

  7. Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2015-11-01

    Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowly with age in slow-aging animals than in fast-aging ones. We assembled all studies that have quantified cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) telomere rates of change (TROC) over the lifespans of wild animals. This included 22 estimates reflecting absolute TROC (TROCabs, bp/yr, primarily measured using the terminal restriction fragment length method), and 10 estimates reflecting relative TROC (TROCrel, relative telomere length/yr, measured using qPCR), from five classes (Aves, Mammalia, Bivalvia, Reptilia, and Actinopterygii). In 14 bird species, we correlated between-individual (i.e. cross-sectional) TROCabs estimates with both maximum lifespan and a phylogenetically-corrected principle component axis (pcPC1) that reflected the slow-fast axis of life-history variation. Bird species characterized by faster life-histories and shorter maximum lifespans had faster TROCabs. In nine studies, both between-individual and within-individual TROC estimates were available (n=8 for TROCabs, n=1 for TROCrel). Within-individual TROC estimates were generally greater than between-individual TROC estimates, which is indicative of selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres. However, the difference between within- and between-individual TROC estimates was only significant in two out of nine studies. The relationship between within-individual TROCabs and maximum

  8. Not all are free-living: high-throughput DNA metabarcoding reveals a diverse community of protists parasitizing soil metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, S; Laros, I; Vizcaíno, A; Bonkowski, M; de Groot, G A

    2015-09-01

    Protists, the most diverse eukaryotes, are largely considered to be free-living bacterivores, but vast numbers of taxa are known to parasitize plants or animals. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches now commonly replace cultivation-based approaches in studying soil protists, but insights into common biases associated with this method are limited to aquatic taxa and samples. We created a mock community of common free-living soil protists (amoebae, flagellates, ciliates), extracted DNA and amplified it in the presence of metazoan DNA using 454 HTS. We aimed at evaluating whether HTS quantitatively reveals true relative abundances of soil protists and at investigating whether the expected protist community structure is altered by the co-amplification of metazoan-associated protist taxa. Indeed, HTS revealed fundamentally different protist communities from those expected. Ciliate sequences were highly over-represented, while those of most amoebae and flagellates were under-represented or totally absent. These results underpin the biases introduced by HTS that prevent reliable quantitative estimations of free-living protist communities. Furthermore, we detected a wide range of nonadded protist taxa probably introduced along with metazoan DNA, which altered the protist community structure. Among those, 20 taxa most closely resembled parasitic, often pathogenic taxa. Therewith, we provide the first HTS data in support of classical observational studies that showed that potential protist parasites are hosted by soil metazoa. Taken together, profound differences in amplification success between protist taxa and an inevitable co-extraction of protist taxa parasitizing soil metazoa obscure the true diversity of free-living soil protist communities.

  9. Microbiome of free-living amoebae isolated from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafont, Vincent; Brouke, Amélie; Bouchon, Didier; Moulin, Laurent; Héchard, Yann

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that can be found in water networks where they prey on bacteria within biofilms. Most bacteria are digested rapidly by phagocytosis, however some are able to survive within amoebae and some are even able to multiply, as it is the case for Legionella pneumophila. These resisting bacteria are a potential health problem as they could also resist to macrophage phagocytosis. Several publications already reported intra-amoebal bacteria but the methods of identification did not allow metagenomic analysis and are partly based on co-culture with one selected amoebal strain. The aim of our study was to conduct a rRNA-targeted metagenomic analysis on amoebae and intra-amoebal bacteria found in drinking water network, to provide the first FLA microbiome in environmental strains. Three sites of a water network were sampled during four months. Culturable FLA were isolated and total DNA was prepared, allowing purification of both amoebal and bacterial DNA. Metagenomic studies were then conducted through 18S or 16S amplicons sequencing. Hartmannella was by far the most represented genus of FLA. Regarding intra-amoebal bacteria, 54 genera were identified, among which 21 were newly described intra-amoebal bacteria, underlying the power of our approach. There were high differences in bacterial diversity between the three sites. Several genera were highly represented and/or found at least in two sites, underlying that these bacteria could be able to multiply within FLA. Our method is therefore useful to identify FLA microbiome and could be applied to other networks to have a more comprehensive view of intra-amoebal diversity.

  10. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2012-12-01

    Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer.

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  12. Diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living amoebae are known to facilitate the growth of water associated pathogens. This study, for the first time, explored the diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system in Rouse Hill NSW, Australia. Water and biofilm samples w...

  13. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Guillot, Jacques; Arné, Pascal; de Hoog, G Sybren; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    The importance of aspergillosis in humans and various animal species has increased over the last decades. Aspergillus species are found worldwide in humans and in almost all domestic animals and birds as well as in many wild species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic responses to inhaled conidia. Some prevalent forms of animal aspergillosis are invasive fatal infections in sea fan corals, stonebrood mummification in honey bees, pulmonary and air sac infection in birds, mycotic abortion and mammary gland infections in cattle, guttural pouch mycoses in horses, sinonasal infections in dogs and cats, and invasive pulmonary and cerebral infections in marine mammals and nonhuman primates. This article represents a comprehensive overview of the most common infections reported by Aspergillus species and the corresponding diseases in various types of animals.

  14. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Helen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Hammond, John A; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Hall, Ailsa J

    2015-07-19

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis.

  15. Free-living fungal symbionts (Lepiotaceae) of fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tanya L; Mueller, Ulrich G; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    Surveys of leucocoprinaceous fungi (Lepiotaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in the rainforests of Panama and Brazil revealed several free-living counterparts of fungi cultivated by primitive attine ants (the lower Attini, Formicidae, Hymenoptera), adding to two such collections identified in a survey by Mueller et al (1998). The accumulated evidence supports the hypothesis that perhaps all fungi of lower attine ants have close free-living relatives. Free-living counterparts of ant-cultivated fungi are collected most readily during the early rainy season; in particular these are free-living mushrooms of fungal counterparts that are cultivated as yeasts in gardens of ants in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group. Free-living and symbiotic fungi of these yeast-cultivating ant species might represent a promising study system to compare the biology of sympatric, conspecific fungi existing outside versus inside the attine symbiosis.

  16. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  17. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  18. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals.

  19. Essential veterinary education in the virology of domestic animals, wild animals and birds: diagnosis and pathogenesis of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, C R; Fenwick, S G

    2009-08-01

    An education in veterinary virology should establish a basis for life-long learning and enable veterinary graduates to address professionally the control and eradication of viral diseases, both locally and globally. It is therefore more important that the curriculum focuses on a sound understanding of the nature and behaviour of viruses and their interactions with animal hosts, rather than imparting detailed information on an ever-increasing number of individual viral diseases in a widening range of animal species. Graduate veterinarians should be prepared with a comprehensive knowledge of the nature of viruses and their close dependence on the hosts thatthey infect, as well as a good understanding of pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and control options. All these are necessary if the profession is successfully to meet familiar and new challenges in viral diseases in a wide range of host species, under different management conditions, in various geographic areas of the world.

  20. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources.

  1. Detection and Identification of Free-living Amoeba from Environmental Water in Taiwan by PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; She, C. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tseng, S. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Hartmannella all belong to free-living amoebae that are present ubiquitously in the environment including water, soil, and air. Free-living amoebae are parasites which can infect humans and can lead to serious illness and even death. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of free-living amoebae in aquatic environment in Taiwan, and to compare the differences between Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in diverse cultivation methods and conditions. In this study, we used molecular method by PCR amplification with specific primers to analyze the occurrence of free-living amoebae. We collected 176 samples from environmental water including drinking water treatment plants, stream water, and hot spring recreational areas in Taiwan. Based on the results of PCR, 43 water samples (24.4%) were detected positive for free-living amoebae. The most common Acanthamoeba genotype isolated from samples including T2, T4, T5, T12, and T15. N. australiensis and N. lovaniensis were also identified by molecular biology techniques. Furthermore, we found that both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria can be cultured by PYG in 30° C, but not all free-living amoebae can be isolated and enriched by using storage-cultivation method. Because of the widespread presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in aquatic environments, the water quality and safety of aquatic environments should be more conscious in Taiwan and worldwide. Keywords: free-living amoebae; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; Balamuthia; Hartmannella; PCR

  2. An emerging public health problem: acquired carbapenemase-producing microorganisms are present in food-producing animals, their environment, companion animals and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Helmuth, Reiner

    2014-07-16

    Worldwide, the emergence and global spread of microorganisms with acquired carbapenemases is of great concern. The reservoirs for such organisms are increasing, not only in hospitals, but also in the community and environment. A new and important development is the presence of such organisms in livestock, companion animals and wildlife. During the last three years, carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. (VIM-1 producers) and Acinetobacter spp. (producing OXA-23 and NDM-1) in livestock animals (poultry, cattle and swine) and their environment have been reported. In addition, the isolation of NDM-1-producing E. coli, OXA-48 in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae or OXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. from companion animals (cats, dogs or horses) has also been observed. Other reports have described the presence of NDM-1-producing Salmonella isolated from wild birds, as well as OXA-23-like-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in ectoparasites. However, until now carbapenemase producers from foods have not been detected. For humans in contrast carbapenem-producing Salmonella isolates are increasingly reported. The real prevalence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in zoonotic bacteria or commensals from animals is unknown. Consequently, there is a need for intensified surveillance on the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the food chain and other animal sources in order to assist in the formulation of measures to prevent their potential spread.

  3. Conserved miRNAs are candidate post-transcriptional regulators of developmental arrest in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rina; Chang, Zisong; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Langnick, Claudia; Li, Na; Chen, Wei; Brattig, Norbert; Dieterich, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Animal development is complex yet surprisingly robust. Animals may develop alternative phenotypes conditional on environmental changes. Under unfavorable conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae enter the dauer stage, a developmentally arrested, long-lived, and stress-resistant state. Dauer larvae of free-living nematodes and infective larvae of parasitic nematodes share many traits including a conserved endocrine signaling module (DA/DAF-12), which is essential for the formation of dauer and infective larvae. We speculated that conserved post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism might also be involved in executing the dauer and infective larvae fate. We used an unbiased sequencing strategy to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) gene complement in C. elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Strongyloides ratti. Our study raised the number of described miRNA genes to 257 for C. elegans, tripled the known gene set for P. pacificus to 362 miRNAs, and is the first to describe miRNAs in a Strongyloides parasite. Moreover, we found a limited core set of 24 conserved miRNA families in all three species. Interestingly, our estimated expression fold changes between dauer versus nondauer stages and infective larvae versus free-living stages reveal that despite the speed of miRNA gene set evolution in nematodes, homologous gene families with conserved "dauer-infective" expression signatures are present. These findings suggest that common post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are at work and that the same miRNA families play important roles in developmental arrest and long-term survival in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

  4. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  5. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  6. Trap gun: an unusual firearm, aimed at wild animals but causing a silent epidemic of human fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Kudagama, Muditha

    2014-03-01

    Among a variety of uncommon firearms of different origin used worldwide, the trap gun used in Sri Lanka is underreported. This is an illegal, locally made, smooth-bore, long-barreled, muzzle-loading firearm with a victim-activated simple trigger mechanism. It is mainly used to protect crops and livestock from the potential harm by wild animals. Trap gun is mounted horizontally on pegs of sticks fixed to the ground. Miscellaneous metal pieces are used as ammunition. A small metal container filled with powdered matchstick heads/firecrackers covered by the striker surface of the matchstick box is used as the percussion cap. A metal hammer is set to hit the percussion cap. Through a lever mechanism, the hammer is kept under tension. The lever mechanism is connected to a trigger cord, which runs across the animal path. The first passerby, a human being or a wild animal, who accidentally trips the trigger cord and activates the trigger mechanism is critically injured. This characteristically damages the lower limbs of the human being. This communication highlights a death due to trap gun injury. The injury pattern caused by trap gun could overlap with that of shotgun and rifled firearm. A meticulous autopsy could sort it out.

  7. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp. and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 268/1626 ticks, 136 fleas, 11 Nycteribiidae flies and 16 spleens of domestic and/or wild animals from the El Tarf and Souk Ahras areas. For the first time in Algeria, Bartonella tamiae was detected in 12/19 (63.2%) Ixodes vespertilionis ticks, 8/11 (72.7%) Nycteribiidae spp. flies and in 6/10 (60%) bat spleens (Chiroptera spp.). DNA from Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, was also identified in 3/19 (15.8%) I. vespertilionis from bats. Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy, was detected in 1/1 (100%) Haemaphysalis punctata and 2/3 (66.7%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from two boars (Sus scrofa algira) respectively. Ri. massiliae, an agent of spotted fever, was detected in 38/94 (40.4%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from cattle, sheep, dogs, boars and jackals. DNA of Ri. aeschlimannii was detected in 6/20 (30%) Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and 6/20 (30%) Hy. scupense from cattle. Finally, Ri. felis, an emerging rickettsial pathogen, was detected in 80/110 (72.7%) Archaeopsylla erinacei and 2/2 (100%) Ctenocephalides felis of hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus). In this study, we expanded knowledge about the repertoire of ticks and flea-borne bacteria present in ectoparasites and/or tissues of domestic and wild animals in Algeria.

  8. Follow-up research of moose and other wild animals at Pernaja European Highway E18

    OpenAIRE

    Vare, Seija

    2001-01-01

    The follow up study at Pernaja has continued now for nearly three years. The follow up research has been started before the road was built, it continued during the construction period 1995 -1998. The amounts of animals and the traces of animals were examined. The semi -motorway was opened to traffic in the year 1998, and then started the follow - up research at under passages. At the road there were 11 under passages, which were built for local traffic, but they were suitable also for animals...

  9. Similarity and differentiation between bacteria associated with skin of salamanders (Plethodon jordani) and free-living assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Allison, Amanda L

    2014-06-01

    All animals and plants have intimate associations with microbes. Opinion has shifted from viewing microbes primarily as pathogens to the idea that healthy animals and plants carry specialized communities of coevolving microorganisms. However, the generality of this proposition is unknown because surveys rarely compare host-associated microbes with samples from relevant microhabitats. Symbiotic communities might be assembled from local environments with little evolutionary specialization. We evaluated the specificity of bacteria associated with salamander skin in comparison with surfaces in their immediate environments using 16S rRNA sequences. Host-associated and free-living samples were significantly different. However, relative abundances were strongly correlated; the most abundant taxa on salamander skin were also most abundant on moist debris on the forest floor. Thus, although bacterial assemblages on salamander skin are statistically differentiated from those on inanimate surfaces, they are not entirely 'distinct'. Candidate salamander specialists were few in number and occurred at low relative abundances. Within some OTUs, differences in allele frequency suggested genetic specialization at finer levels. Although host-associated and free-living assemblages were similar, a range of more or less specialized symbiotes was evident and bacteria on salamander skin were often specific genotypes of OTUs commonly found on other moist surfaces in the environment.

  10. Food chromium content, dietary chromium intake and related biological variables in French free-living elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roussel, Anne-Marie; Andriollo-Sanchez, Maud; Ferry, Monique; Bryden, Noella A; Anderson, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    .... We measured the food Cr content and daily Cr intake of freely chosen diets for 3 d in twelve French free-living elderly people and their Cr excretion and plasma hormonal related variables, leptin, insulin and cortisol...

  11. Interaction of a Free-Living Soil Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, with Surrogates of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson G.L; Caldwell K.N; Beuchat L.R; Williams P.L

    2003-01-01

    .... In this study, we evaluated the associations between a free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Escherichia coli, an avirulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria welshimeri, and Bacillus cereus...

  12. Free-living copepods of the Arabian Sea: Distributions and research perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    11500 known species in this subclass. This paper briefly outlines the distribution, abundances and general feeding habitats of free-living copepods from the Arabian Sea. The role of taxonomy in biodiversity studies, estimates of grazing and production...

  13. Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    Life history of a free-living meiobenthic nematode Daptonema normandicum (DeMan, 1890) was studied in the laboratory. Live specimens were primarily collected from the sewage outlet site near the mouth of the Mandovi estuary, Goa. This species...

  14. Screening of Swiss hot spring resorts for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Christian; Schild, Marc; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Wüthrich, Fritz; Nüesch, Irina; Ryter, Regula; Schürch, Nadia; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) belonging to Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia pedata are known to cause infections in humans and animals leading to severe brain pathologies. Worldwide, warm aquatic environments have been found to be suitable habitats for pathogenic FLA. The present study reports on screening for potentially pathogenic FLA in four hot spring resorts in Switzerland. Water samples were taken from water filtration units and from the pools, respectively. Amoebae isolated from samples taken during, or before, the filtration process were demonstrated to be morphologically and phylogenetically related to Stenoamoeba sp., Hartmannella vermiformis, Echinamoeba exundans, and Acanthamoeba healyi. With regard to the swimming pools, FLA were isolated only in one resort, and the isolate was identified as non-pathogenic and as related to E. exundans. Further investigations showed that the isolates morphologically and phylogenetically related to A. healyi displayed a pronounced thermotolerance, and exhibited a marked in vitro cytotoxicity upon 5-day exposure to murine L929 fibroblasts. Experimental intranasal infection of Rag2-immunodeficient mice with these isolates led to severe brain pathologies, and viable trophozoites were isolated from the nasal mucosa, brain tissue, and lungs post mortem. In summary, isolates related to A. healyi were suggestive of being potentially pathogenic to immunocompromised persons. However, the presence of these isolates was limited to the filtration units, and an effective threat for health can therefore be excluded.

  15. Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Reyes-López, Magda; Ortiz-Estrada, Guillermo; de la Garza, Mireya

    2013-01-01

    The standard reference for pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoebae is the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica; a direct correlation between virulence and protease expression has been demonstrated for this amoeba. Traditionally, proteases are considered virulence factors, including those that produce cytopathic effects in the host or that have been implicated in manipulating the immune response. Here, we expand the scope to other amoebae, including less-pathogenic Entamoeba species and highly pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this paper, proteases that affect mucin, extracellular matrix, immune system components, and diverse tissues and cells are included, based on studies in amoebic cultures and animal models. We also include proteases used by amoebae to degrade iron-containing proteins because iron scavenger capacity is currently considered a virulence factor for pathogens. In addition, proteases that have a role in adhesion and encystation, which are essential for establishing and transmitting infection, are discussed. The study of proteases and their specific inhibitors is relevant to the search for new therapeutic targets and to increase the power of drugs used to treat the diseases caused by these complex microorganisms.

  16. Observations on the free-living stages of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiel, C A; Fernández, A S; Rodríguez, E M; Fusé, L A; Steffan, P E

    2012-06-08

    A 4-year study on the free-living stages of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes was conducted to determine (a) the development time from egg to infective larvae (L3) inside the faecal pats, (b) the pasture infectivity levels over time, and (c) the survival of L3 on pasture. Naturally infected calves were allowed to contaminate 16 plots on monthly basis. Weekly monitoring of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) values and faecal cultures from these animals provided data for the contamination patterns and the relative nematode population composition. At the same time, faecal pats were shaped and deposited monthly onto herbage and sampled weekly to determine the development time from egg to L3. Herbage samples were collected fortnightly over a 16-month period after deposition to evaluate the pasture larval infectivity and survival of L3 over time. The development time from egg to L3 was 1-2 weeks in summer, 3-5 weeks in autumn, 4-6 weeks in winter, and 1-4 weeks in spring. The levels of contamination and pasture infectivity showed a clear seasonality during autumn-winter and spring, whilst a high mortality of larvae on pasture occurred in summer. Ostertagia spp., Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were predominant and a survival of L3 on pasture over a 1-year period was recorded in this study.

  17. Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Reyes-López, Magda; Ortiz-Estrada, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    The standard reference for pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoebae is the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica; a direct correlation between virulence and protease expression has been demonstrated for this amoeba. Traditionally, proteases are considered virulence factors, including those that produce cytopathic effects in the host or that have been implicated in manipulating the immune response. Here, we expand the scope to other amoebae, including less-pathogenic Entamoeba species and highly pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this paper, proteases that affect mucin, extracellular matrix, immune system components, and diverse tissues and cells are included, based on studies in amoebic cultures and animal models. We also include proteases used by amoebae to degrade iron-containing proteins because iron scavenger capacity is currently considered a virulence factor for pathogens. In addition, proteases that have a role in adhesion and encystation, which are essential for establishing and transmitting infection, are discussed. The study of proteases and their specific inhibitors is relevant to the search for new therapeutic targets and to increase the power of drugs used to treat the diseases caused by these complex microorganisms. PMID:23476670

  18. Evidence for free-living Bacteroides in Cladophora along the shores of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A.; Nevers, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides is assumed to be restricted to the alimentary canal of animals and humans and is considered to be non-viable in ambient environments. We hypothesized that Bacteroides could persist and replicate within beach-stranded Cladophora glomerata mats in southern Lake Michigan, USA. Mean Bacteroides concentration (per GenBac3 Taqman quantitative PCR assay) during summer 2012 at Jeorse Park Beach was 5.2 log calibrator cell equivalents (CCE) g-1 dry weight (dw), ranging from 3.7 to 6.7. We monitored a single beach-stranded mat for 3 wk; bacterial concentrations increased by 1.6 log CCE g-1 dw and correlated significantly with ambient temperature (p = 0.003). Clonal growth was evident, as observed by >99% nucleotide sequence similarity among clones. In in vitro studies, Bacteroides concentrations increased by 5.5 log CCE g-1 after 7 d (27°C) in fresh Cladophora collected from rocks. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of 36 clones from the incubation experiment showed highly similar genotypes (≥97% sequence overlap). The closest enteric Bacteroides spp. from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were only 87 to 91% similar. Genomic similarity, clonality, growth, and persistence collectively suggest that putative, free-living Bacteroides inhabit Cladophora mats of southern Lake Michigan. These findings may have important biological, medical, regulatory, microbial source tracking, and public health implications.

  19. Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Serrano-Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard reference for pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoebae is the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica; a direct correlation between virulence and protease expression has been demonstrated for this amoeba. Traditionally, proteases are considered virulence factors, including those that produce cytopathic effects in the host or that have been implicated in manipulating the immune response. Here, we expand the scope to other amoebae, including less-pathogenic Entamoeba species and highly pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this paper, proteases that affect mucin, extracellular matrix, immune system components, and diverse tissues and cells are included, based on studies in amoebic cultures and animal models. We also include proteases used by amoebae to degrade iron-containing proteins because iron scavenger capacity is currently considered a virulence factor for pathogens. In addition, proteases that have a role in adhesion and encystation, which are essential for establishing and transmitting infection, are discussed. The study of proteases and their specific inhibitors is relevant to the search for new therapeutic targets and to increase the power of drugs used to treat the diseases caused by these complex microorganisms.

  20. Relevance of free-living amoebae as hosts for phylogenetically diverse microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    In addition to their role as parasites, free-living amoebae (FLA) can act as hosts of and vehicles for phylogentically diverse microorganisms while some of them replicate intracellularly. These microorganisms are adapted to the intracellular conditions in the amoeba, find suitable conditions and protection from negative environmental influences and take advantage of the dispersal in the environment by their amoebic host. It is expedient to call these organisms "endocytobionts", at least during the initial steps of any studies. By doing so, it is not necessary to go into potential characteristics of these relationships such as parasitism, phoresy, zoochory, or mutualism at an early stage of study. Among those organisms resisting the lysis within their amoebic host, there are obligate and facultative pathogenic microorganisms affecting the health of humans or animals. FLA-endocytobiont relationships are not only important for the tenacity of the involved microorganisms. Especially if FLA are present in biofilms and there are close ties with many other microorganisms, the odds are for some of these microorganisms to develop human pathogenic properties. Here, the amoebic passage seems to be a prerequisite for the development of virulence factors and it may have an impact on evolutionary processes.

  1. Free-living turtles are a reservoir for Salmonella but not for Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Clara; Ingresa-Capaccioni, Sofia; González-Bodi, Sara; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Different studies have reported the prevalence of Salmonella in turtles and its role in reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans, but there is a lack of scientific literature related with the epidemiology of Campylobacter in turtles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in free-living native (Emys orbicularis, n=83) and exotic (Trachemysscripta elegans, n=117) turtles from 11 natural ponds in Eastern Spain. In addition, different types of samples (cloacal swabs, intestinal content and water from Turtle containers) were compared. Regardless of the turtle species, natural ponds where individuals were captured and the type of sample taken, Campylobacter was not detected. Salmonella was isolated in similar proportions in native (8.0 ± 3.1%) and exotic (15.0 ± 3.3%) turtles (p=0.189). The prevalence of Salmonella positive turtles was associated with the natural ponds where animals were captured. Captured turtles from 8 of the 11 natural ponds were positive, ranged between 3.0 ± 3.1% and 60.0 ± 11.0%. Serotyping revealed 8 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 21), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 3), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 1). Two serovars were predominant: S. Thompson (n=16) and S. typhimurium (n=3). In addition, there was an effect of sample type on Salmonella detection. The highest isolation of Salmonella was obtained from intestinal content samples (12.0 ± 3.0%), while lower percentages were found for water from the containers and cloacal swabs (8.0 ± 2.5% and 3.0 ± 1.5%, respectively). Our results imply that free-living turtles are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out turtles as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results.

  2. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic measurements of the wild animals hunted by the Norse and the Neo-Eskimo people of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, D. Erle; Møhl, Jeppe; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Isotopic measurements of the terrestrial and marine wild animal species of greatest importance to Greenlandic Norse and Neo-Eskimo people were obtained to provide a solid basis for undertaking isotopic dietary analyses of these two human groups. The samples studied were animal bones from archaeol......Isotopic measurements of the terrestrial and marine wild animal species of greatest importance to Greenlandic Norse and Neo-Eskimo people were obtained to provide a solid basis for undertaking isotopic dietary analyses of these two human groups. The samples studied were animal bones from...

  3. Free-Living Tube Worm Endosymbionts Found at Deep-Sea Vents▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Tara L.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Nussbaumer, Andrea D.; Bright, Monika; Ng, Andrew W.; DeChaine, Eric G.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep-sea vestimentiferan tube worms acquire their endosymbiotic bacteria from the environment each generation; thus, free-living symbionts should exist. Here, free-living tube worm symbiont phylotypes were detected in vent seawater and in biofilms at multiple deep-sea vent habitats by PCR amplification, DNA sequence analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. These findings support environmental transmission as a means of symbiont acquisition for deep-sea tube worms. PMID:18408062

  4. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  5. Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae Isolated From Contact Lenses of Keratitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham HAJIALILO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoeba (FLA-related keratitis is a progressive infection of the cornea with poor prognosis. The present study aimed to investigates the con­tact lenses of patients with keratitis for pathogenic free-living amoebae.Methods: Overall, 62 contact lenses and their paraphernalia of patients with kerati­tis cultured and tested for the presence of free-living amoebae using morphological criteria. Unusual plates including plates containing mix amoebae and Vermamoeba were submitted to molecular analysis. Results: Out of 62 plates, 11 revealed the outgrowth of free living amoeba of which 9 were Acanthamoeba, one plates contained mix amoebae including Acan­thamoeba and Vermamoeba and one showed the presence of Vermamoeba. These two latter plates belonged to patients suffered from unilateral keratitis due to the mis­used of soft contact lenses. One of the patients had mix infection of Acanthamoeba (T4 and V. vermiformis meanwhile the other patient was infected with the V. vermiformis. Conclusion: Amoebic keratitis continues to rise in Iran and worldwide. To date, various genera of free-living amoebae such as Vermamoeba could be the causative agent of keratitis. Soft contact lens wearers are the most affected patients in the country, thus awareness of high-risk people for preventing free-living amoebae re­lated keratitis is of utmost importance.

  6. Endocannabinoids inhibit the growth of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Rafik; Pernin, Pierre; Bodennec, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    The cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits the growth of some pathogenic amoebae in vitro and exacerbates amoebic encephalitis in animal models. However, the effects of endogenous cannabinoids on amoebae remain unknown. Therefore, we tested several endocannabinoids (N-acyl ethanolamines and 2-O-acyl glycerol) on different genera of amoebae. The results showed that all of the endocannabinoids tested inhibit amoebic growth at subpharmacological doses, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 15 to 20 microM. A nonhydrolyzable endocannabinoid had similar effects, showing that the inhibition seen results from endocannabinoids per se rather than from a catabolic product.

  7. Giardia duodenalis genotypes in domestic and wild animals from Romania identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the gdh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriana, Gyӧrke; Zsuzsa, Kalmár; Mirabela Oana, Dumitrache; Mircea, Gherman Călin; Viorica, Mircean

    2016-02-15

    Sixty Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic (n=49) and wild (n=11) animals (dogs, cats, deers, wolves, raccoon dog and muskrat) were analysed by PCR-RFLP at glutamate dehydrogenase locus (gdh). The isolates were obtained from positive feces samples for Giardia cysts analysed by flotation technique with saturated sodium chloride solution (specific gravity 1.28). Three G. duodenalis genotypes were identified: C (10/60; 16.7%); D (42/60; 70.0%); and E (7/60; 11.7%). In dogs all three genotypes were found, with the following prevalences: 76.9% genotype D (30/39); 23.1% C (9/39); 2.6% genotype E (1/39). One dog was co-infected with C and D genotypes. In cats we identified only G. duodenalis genotype D. Wolves and raccoon dog harbored infection with G. duodenalis genotype D, deers with E type and muskrat C type. This is the first study regarding genotyping of G. duodenalis in cats and wild animals from Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblages E in roe deers; assemblage C in wolves and muskrat; and assemblage D in raccoon dog.

  8. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under a sport or a commercial fishing license; and (iii) Fish or eggs of the family Salmonidae when... certain northern States of Mexico may be imported only under a permit from the Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture. (4) Psittacine...

  9. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  10. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  11. Wild Animals and Justice : The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial representatives of the animal kingdom, are highorder mammals with complex ethology and social dynamics, looming large both in natural landscapes and cultural settings in diverse locations.1 Elephants are “wonderful or terrible, depending on where or who you are.”2

  12. Free-living protozoa in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of pigs: Exploration of an unknown world and towards a protocol for the recovery of free-living protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-07-30

    Associations with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food-related environments. To date however no information is available on the presence of FLP in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs, which represents an important reservoir for zoonotic foodborne bacteria and hence a potential location for associations with FLP. This is at least partly due to the lack of adequate protocols to recover FLP from intestinal content and feces. In the present study different protocols to recover FLP from the porcine GIT and feces were tested. The most effective protocols were then applied to explore the presence of live FLP in the pig GIT and feces. A filtration based protocol was identified as the most suitable method to recover viable FLP from the porcine GIT and feces. Cultivable FLP were recovered from different parts of the GIT, suggesting at least a transient presence of FLP in this habitat. Free-living amoebae species (Acanthamoeba spp., Hyperamoeba sp., Vannella sp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, hartmannellids and vahlkampfiids) but also ciliates (Colpoda sp. and Tetrahymena/Glaucoma lookalike) and flagellates (cercomonads, bodonids and glissomonads) were recovered and cultured from pig intestinal content. Acanthamoeba hatchetti and Filamoeba sinensis were isolated for the first time from pig intestinal content. Despite high gastric acidity, non-cyst forming amoeba species were also detected which suggests survival of their trophozoites in the animal GIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RAPD-based genotyping of Malassezia pachydermatis from Domestic and wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Cristina Kagueyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis is a fungus of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Although a part of the normal microbiota, it can sometimes be present in its pathogenic form, particularly causing otitis and dermatitis in animals. Among human beings, it mainly affects immune compromised patients and newborns, causing simple pustulosis, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor or fungemia. This study aimed to analyze the genomic polymorphism in M. pachydermatis samples isolated from Canis familiaris (domestic dog, Felis catus (domestic cat, and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater. Two hundred and fourteen samples were collected and cultured in Sabouraud agar with chloranphenicol (100mg L-1 and incubated at 37 °C for a period of 7 to 10 days. One hundred and sixty six samples that appeared morphologically comparable to yeast cultures were processed for DNA extraction and PCR was performed for a specific region in the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS of M. pachydermatis. Among these, seven (4.21% were negative and 159 (95.79% were positive. Of the 159 positive samples, 102 (64.15% were from animals with clinical signs and 57 (35.85% without clinical signs. Fifty-seven samples were selected at random for RAPD-PCR based genotyping and distributed into four genetic groups. Types I and II were more frequent in animals with clinical signs while type III was frequent in healthy animals. Type IV occurred evenly across animals with or without clinical signs. These results indicate differences in pathogenicity of the fungus based on the genotype.

  14. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals.

  16. Monitoring wild animal communities with arrays of motion sensitive camera traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kays, Roland; Kranstauber, Bart; Jansen, Patrick A; Carbone, Chris; Rowcliffe, Marcus J; Fountain, Tony; Eggert, Jay; He, Zhihai

    2010-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a broad range of species providing location -specific information on movement and behavior. Modern digital camera traps that record video present new analytical opportunities, but also new data management challenges. This paper describes our experience with a terrestrial animal monitoring system at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our camera network captured the spatio-temporal dynamics of terrestrial bird and mammal activity at the site - data relevant to immediate science questions, and long-term conservation issues. We believe that the experience gained and lessons learned during our year long deployment and testing of the camera traps as well as the developed solutions are applicable to broader sensor network applications and are valuable for the ad...

  17. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  18. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  19. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  20. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-09-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-06-16

    Artificial selection is the selection of advantageous natural variation for human ends and is the mechanism by which most domestic species evolved. Most domesticates have their origin in one of a few historic centers of domestication as farm animals. Two notable exceptions are cats and dogs. Wolf domestication was initiated late in the Mesolithic when humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Those wolves less afraid of humans scavenged nomadic hunting camps and over time developed utility, initially as guards warning of approaching animals or other nomadic bands and soon thereafter as hunters, an attribute tuned by artificial selection. The first domestic cats had limited utility and initiated their domestication among the earliest agricultural Neolithic settlements in the Near East. Wildcat domestication occurred through a self-selective process in which behavioral reproductive isolation evolved as a correlated character of assortative mating coupled to habitat choice for urban environments. Eurasian wildcats initiated domestication and their evolution to companion animals was initially a process of natural, rather than artificial, selection over time driven during their sympatry with forbear wildcats.

  2. Performance of Activity Classification Algorithms in Free-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Hickey, Amanda M; Staudenmayer, John W; John, Dinesh; Kent, Jane A; Freedson, Patty S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare activity type classification rates of machine learning algorithms trained on laboratory versus free-living accelerometer data in older adults. Thirty-five older adults (21 females and 14 males, 70.8 ± 4.9 yr) performed selected activities in the laboratory while wearing three ActiGraph GT3X+ activity monitors (in the dominant hip, wrist, and ankle; ActiGraph, LLC, Pensacola, FL). Monitors were initialized to collect raw acceleration data at a sampling rate of 80 Hz. Fifteen of the participants also wore GT3X+ in free-living settings and were directly observed for 2-3 h. Time- and frequency-domain features from acceleration signals of each monitor were used to train random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) models to classify five activity types: sedentary, standing, household, locomotion, and recreational activities. All algorithms were trained on laboratory data (RFLab and SVMLab) and free-living data (RFFL and SVMFL) using 20-s signal sampling windows. Classification accuracy rates of both types of algorithms were tested on free-living data using a leave-one-out technique. Overall classification accuracy rates for the algorithms developed from laboratory data were between 49% (wrist) and 55% (ankle) for the SVMLab algorithms and 49% (wrist) to 54% (ankle) for the RFLab algorithms. The classification accuracy rates for SVMFL and RFFL algorithms ranged from 58% (wrist) to 69% (ankle) and from 61% (wrist) to 67% (ankle), respectively. Our algorithms developed on free-living accelerometer data were more accurate in classifying the activity type in free-living older adults than those on our algorithms developed on laboratory accelerometer data. Future studies should consider using free-living accelerometer data to train machine learning algorithms in older adults.

  3. Blood chemistry and hematologic values in free-living nestlings of Montagu's harriers (Circus pygargus) in a natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limiñana, Ruben; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Gallardo, Miguel; Fordham, Margaret; Urios, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    The establishment of reference intervals for hematologic and blood chemistry values in a given species is essential for subsequent diagnosis of disease at rehabilitation facilities and in captive breeding programs. In this study, blood samples were obtained from nestlings (18 males and 22 females) of a natural-vegetation breeding population of Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus) in eastern Spain in order to establish reference intervals for blood values. This is the first study documenting hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for free-living Montagu's harriers. The studied population may reflect typical blood values for the species, since it is a free-living population that seems not to be constrained by food availability, as it is the population of Montagu's harriers with the highest productivity within Europe. Differences related to sex, year, clutch size, brood size, and number of fledglings were analyzed. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin were significantly lower from nests with five chicks compared to values from nests with fewer chicks, indicating that the cost of rearing more than four chicks in this species may be excessive. Total protein, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) were significantly lower in the year with lowest mean rainfall, which correlates with the worst breeding success rate since the population has been monitored. No gender differences were found; this is likely a result of the prepubertal age of the animals sampled.

  4. Artificial light at night affects body mass but not oxidative status in free-living nestling songbirds: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Casasole, Giulia; Costantini, David; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN. Because it is very difficult to generalise the oxidative status from one or two measures we relied on a multi-biomarker approach. We determined multiple metrics of both antioxidant defences and oxidative damage: molecular antioxidants GSH, GSSG; antioxidant enzymes GPX, SOD, CAT; total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and damage markers protein carbonyls and TBARS. Light exposed nestlings showed no increase in body mass, in contrast to unexposed individuals. None of the metrics of oxidative status were affected. Nonetheless, our study provides experimental field evidence that ALAN may negatively affect free-living nestlings’ development and hence may have adverse consequences lasting throughout adulthood.

  5. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context.

  6. A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Otero-Abad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE and alveolar echinococcosis (AE, are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and

  7. Helminth Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Shrikhande

    Full Text Available The health status of Zoo animals varies with different factors such as management, feeding, environment, sanitation and season. The fecal sample of two male and three female white tiger, Four male and three female tiger and one female Wolf was examined for parasites as per standard technique. The faecal sample of one white tiger was found positive for Spirometra sp., Faecal sample of six tigers were positive for Toxoascaris sp. and fecal sample one wolf was positive for Paragonimus sp. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 207-207

  8. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  9. Animal welfare indicators and environmental enrichment programs in species of wild mammals in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Jiménez, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    [spa] En la actualidad, los cuatro objetivos de los zoos modernos son la educación, la investigación, la conservación y el ocio. Esta tesis se centró en la evaluación de algunos indicadores de bienestar animal en cuatro especies de mamíferos en condiciones de cautividad (el patrón de actividad diario, la ocurrencia de conductas aberrantes, el uso del espacio y las interacciones sociales). Los principales resultados obtenidos en este estudio pueden resumirse en: 1) Las conductas aberrantes en ...

  10. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild and domestic animals/ Paracoccidiodomicose em animais silvestres e domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Ono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidiodomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin América, mainly in Brazil. Although many studies have been done about the pathology and diagnosis of this mycosis little is known about the eco-epidemiology of the etiological agent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The fungus habitat also is unknown although is thought that the fungus lives as a saprobe in soil. The participation of other animal species in P. brasiliensis ecology is poorly understood and fungus isolation from animals as bat and penguin were not reproducible. The armadillos Dasypus novencinctus probably play a role in the fungus eco-epidemiology taking into account that several isolates were obtained from these animals. Seroepidemiologic studies have shown that dogs are infected by P. brasiliensis mainly in rural areas and recently was reported the first case o natural paracoccidioidomycosis in dogs. The role of other animal species in the eco-epidemiology of P. brasiliensis remains doubtful.A paracoccidioidomicose é a micose sistêmica mais prevalente na América Latina, principalmente no Brasil. Apesar de existirem vários estudos sobre o diagnóstico e patologia dessa micose, pouco se conhece sobre a ecologia do agente etiológico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Seu habitat ainda não foi determinado, mas provavelmente o fungo vive saprofiticamente no solo. Há também pouca informação quanto a participação de outras espécies de animais na eco-epidemiologia do fungo e os isolamentos obtidos de animais como morcego e pingüim não foram reprodutíveis. Até o presente, o fungo tem sido isolado com maior freqüência do tatu, Dasypus novencinctus. Estudos soroepidemiológicos demonstraram que a infecção é freqüente em cães, principalmente da área rural e recentemente foi relatado o primeiro caso de paracoccidiodomicose natural em cão. O papel de outras espécies de animais na eco-epidemiologia do fungo ainda não está esclarecido.

  11. Detection and identification of free-living amoeba from aquatic environment in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiun Tzeng, Kai; Che Tung, Min; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsiu Feng; Huang, Po Hsiang; Hao Huang, Kuan; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Free-living amoebae including Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Hartmannella are widely distributed in water, soil, and air. They can infect humans and can lead to serious illness even death. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of free-living amoebae from aquatic environment in Taiwan, and to compare the differences between Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in different cultivation methods and conditions. In this study, we used molecular method with specific primers by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify and to analyze the occurrence of free-living amoebae in aquatic environment. We collected 92 samples from environmental water in Taiwan. The results show that 33 water samples (35.9%) and 11 water samples (12.0%) were detected positive for Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, respectively. Furthermore, both Acanthamoeba and Naegleria can be cultured by PYG in 30° C, but not all free-living amoebae can be enriched and isolated by using storage-cultivation method. Due to the presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in aquatic environment, the water quality monitoring should be more conscious. Keywords: free-living amoebae; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; Balamuthia; Hartmannella; PCR

  12. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia.

  13. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  14. High frequency of albinism and tumours in free-living birds around Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Mousseau, T A

    2013-09-18

    The effects of radioactive contamination on the phenotype of free-living organisms are poorly understood, mainly because of the difficulty of capturing the large numbers of individual specimens that are required to quantify rare events such as albinism and tumour formation. We hypothesized that the frequency of abnormalities like albinism and the frequency of radiation-induced diseases like cancer would increase with the level of background radiation, that the two markers of radiation would be positively correlated, and that the reduction in abundance of animals would be greater in species with a higher frequency of albinism and tumour formation, if these markers reliably reflected poor viability. Here we analyzed the frequency of albinistic feathers and tumours in a sample of 1669 birds captured during 2010-2012 at eight sites around Chernobyl that varied in level of background radiation from 0.02 to more than 200μSv/h. We recorded 111 cases of partial albinism and 25 cases of tumour formation. Nominal logistic models were used to partition the variance into components due to species and background radiation. Radiation was a strong predictor of the two markers in birds, with a small, but significant effect of species for albinism. The slope of the relationship between abundance and radiation in different bird species was significantly inversely correlated with the frequency of albinism and tumours, as was to be expected if a common underlying cause (i.e. radiation) affects both variables. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that background radiation is a cause of albinism and tumours, that albinism and tumours are biomarkers of radiation exposure, and that high frequencies of albinism and tumours were present despite the low viability of birds with these conditions.

  15. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

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    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  16. Functional ecology of free-living nitrogen fixation: A contemporary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is thought to frequently limit terrestrial ecosystem processes, and explicit consideration of N biogeochemistry, including biological N2 fixation, is central to understanding ecosystem responses to environmental change. Yet, the importance of free-living N2 fixation—a process that occurs on a wide variety of substrates, is nearly ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, and may often represent the dominant pathway for acquiring newly available N—is often underappreciated. Here, we draw from studies that investigate free-living N2 fixation from functional, physiological, genetic, and ecological perspectives. We show that recent research and analytical advances have generated a wealth of new information that provides novel insight into the ecology of N2 fixation as well as raises new questions and priorities for future work. These priorities include a need to better integrate free-living N2 fixation into conceptual and analytical evaluations of the N cycle's role in a variety of global change scenarios.

  17. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  19. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  20. Free-living amoebae: Biological by-passes in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, Jean-François; Greub, Gilbert

    2010-06-01

    Free-living amoebae constitute reservoirs for many bacteria including not only well-known pathogens but also emerging pathogens responsible for respiratory diseases, and contribute to the protection, survival and dissemination of these bacteria in water systems, despite the application of disinfection or thermal treatments. In this article we review the available information on the presence of free-living amoebae and amoebae-resisting bacteria in drinking water systems, on the factors that contribute to their presence in the water and/or the biofilms, on the possible control measures and their effectiveness, and we identify some gaps in current knowledge needing further research.

  1. Relationships between free living amoebae and Exophiala dermatitidis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateau, Estelle; Mergey, Tiphaine; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Rodier, Marie-Helene

    2009-02-01

    Free living amoebae can play a role as reservoirs for pathogens isolated from hospital water. We have investigated the potential interactions between two protozoa (Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmanella vermiformis) that may be recovered from hospital water tips and Exophiala dermatitidis, a black yeast often recovered from water sources. We showed that the presence of trophozoites or supernatants of culture of H. vermiformis increased fungal growth, whereas the same phenomenon was observed only with the supernatant of A. castellanii cultures. These preliminary results highlight the fact that the recovering of free-living amoebae in hospital water taps could lead to the development of fungal nosocomial pathogens.

  2. An outbreak of Newcastle disease in free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Ahrens, Peter;

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian paramyxo......The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian...

  3. Unraveling fabrication and calibration of wearable gas monitor for use under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue Deng; Cheng Chen; Tsow, Francis; Xiaojun Xian; Forzani, Erica

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals that have high vapor pressure at regular conditions. Some VOC could be dangerous to human health, therefore it is important to determine real-time indoor and outdoor personal exposures to VOC. To achieve this goal, our group has developed a wearable gas monitor with a complete sensor fabrication and calibration protocol for free-living conditions. Correction factors for calibrating the sensors, including sensitivity, aging effect, and temperature effect are implemented into a Quick Response Code (QR code), so that the pre-calibrated quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensor can be used with the wearable monitor under free-living conditions.

  4. Free-living marine nematodes from San Antonio Bay (Río Negro, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. In total 7,743 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to two classes, eight orders, 37 families, 94 genera and 104 species were collected.

  5. The Sinorhizobium meliloti sensor histidine kinase CbrA contributes to free-living cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Craig S; Wilson, Daniel; Schallies, Karla B; Walker, Graham; Gibson, Katherine E

    2013-08-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is alternately capable of colonizing the soil as a free-living bacterium or establishing a chronic intracellular infection with its legume host for the purpose of nitrogen fixation. We previously identified the S. meliloti two-component sensor histidine kinase CbrA as playing an important role in regulating exopolysaccharide production, flagellar motility and symbiosis. Phylogenetic analysis of CbrA has highlighted its evolutionary relatedness to the Caulobacter crescentus sensor histidine kinases PleC and DivJ, which are involved in CtrA-dependent cell cycle regulation through the shared response regulator DivK. We therefore became interested in testing whether CbrA plays a role in regulating S. meliloti cell cycle processes. We find the loss of cbrA results in filamentous cell growth accompanied by cells that contain an aberrant genome complement, indicating CbrA plays a role in regulating cell division and possibly DNA segregation. S. meliloti DivK localizes to the old cell pole during distinct phases of the cell cycle in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Loss of cbrA results in a significantly decreased rate of DivK polar localization when compared with the wild-type, suggesting CbrA helps regulate cell cycle processes by modulating DivK phosphorylation status as a kinase. Consistent with a presumptive decrease in DivK phosphorylation and activity, we also find the steady-state level of CtrA increased in cbrA mutants. Our data therefore demonstrate that CbrA contributes to free-living cell cycle regulation, which in light of its requirement for symbiosis, points to the potential importance of cell cycle regulation for establishing an effective host interaction.

  6. Identification of toxigenic Microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, Paul J; Myburgh, Jan G; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy; Botha, Anna-Maria

    2009-05-01

    The eutrophic process potentially caused by a high urine and faecal load resulting from an unusually high hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious) density in the Nhlanganzwane Dam, Kruger National Park, South Africa, triggered a chain of events characterised by an increase in the growth of primary producers (Microcystis aeruginosa). This increase in M. aeruginosa biomass was followed by bio-intoxication incidents in wild animals. In this study, we determine if a M. aeruginosa bloom with a total microcystin level of 23,718microgl(-1) have been responsible for mortalities of megaherbivores in the Nhlanganzwane Dam. We further use microcystin molecular markers derived from the mcy gene cluster to identify potentially toxigenic environmental Microcystis strains in the dam during the occurrence of animal intoxications. The estimated total microcystin-LR daily intake by an adult male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from cyanobacterial-contaminated water of the dam during the toxic event was an order of magnitude higher (754.29microgkg(-1)bw) in comparison with the lowest observed adverse effecting level (LOAEL) value measured for pigs in a previous study by other authors. In this study the presence of toxic cyanobacterial strains was confirmed with the use of molecular markers that detected the presence of the mcy gene cluster responsible for the production of toxin by M. aeruginosa.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  8. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  9. Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardiawild animals along the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A.; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

  10. Sensitivity of free-living amoeba trophozoites and cysts to water disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Berne, Florence; Herbelin, Pascaline; Binet, Marie; Berthelot, Nelsie; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Soreau, Sylvie; Héchard, Yann

    2014-03-01

    Free-living amoebae are naturally present in water. These protozoa could be pathogenic and could also shelter pathogenic bacteria. Thus, they are described as a potential hazard for health. Also, free-living amoebae have been described to be resistant to biocides, especially under their cyst resistant form. There are several studies on amoeba treatments but none of them compare sensitivity of trophozoites and cysts from different genus to various water disinfectants. In our study, we tested chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide on both cysts and trophozoites from three strains, belonging to the three main genera of free-living amoebae. The results show that, comparing cysts to trophozoites inactivation, only the Acanthamoeba cysts were highly more resistant to treatment than trophozoites. Comparison of the disinfectant efficiency led to conclude that chlorine dioxide was the most efficient treatment in our conditions and was particularly efficient against cysts. In conclusion, our results would help to adapt water treatments in order to target free-living amoebae in water networks.

  11. TOXOPLASMA GONDII : UPTAKE AND SURVIVAL OF OOCYSTS IN FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne transmission of the oocyst stage of Toxoplasma gondii can cause outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and infection of marine mammals. In water-related environments and soil, free-living amoebae are considered potential carriers of various pathogens, but knowledge on interactions ...

  12. Biofilms augment the number of free-living amoebae in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, J; Buhler, T

    2001-10-01

    Freshwater amoebae are ubiquitous. Some species can cause infections in humans while others can ingest and protect opportunistic bacteria. Although the presence of free-living amoebae in various water sources has been reported, few studies have looked at their concentration, which may be clinically relevant, especially if they are present in healthcare devices. A simple technique was used to detect, observe, and evaluate the concentration of free-living amoebae in dental unit and tap water samples. Fifty-three water samples were collected from 35 dental units (air/water syringes) and 18 water taps. The technique was based on the ability of waterborne bacteria to create a biofilm and serve as substratum for the development of amoebae naturally present in the water samples. Laboratory-grown freshwater biofilms support the proliferation of a wide variety of free-living amoebae. All the dental unit water samples tested contained amoebae at concentrations up to 330/mL, or more than 300 times the concentration in tap water from the same source. Hartmanella, Vanella, and Vahlkampfia spp. were the most frequently encountered. Naegleria and Acanthamoeba spp. were also present in 40% of the samples. Four of the samples collected from dental units, but none from water taps, contained amoebae able to proliferate at 44 degrees C. Biofilms that form inside some dental instruments can considerably increase the concentration of free-living amoebae, some of which are potential human pathogens.

  13. Persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt; Verstraete, Tine; Vaerewijck, Mario; Sabbe, Koen

    2011-03-01

    The introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. To date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipeline, water, and miscellaneous samples) in three commercial poultry houses across three rearing cycles by using the molecular fingerprinting technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our study provides strong evidence for the long-term (ca. 6-month) persistence of protozoa in broiler houses across consecutive rearing cycles. Various free-living protozoa (flagellates, ciliates, and amoebae), including known vectors of bacterial pathogens, were observed during the down periods in between rearing cycles. In addition, multivariate analysis and variation partitioning showed that the protozoan community structure in the broiler houses showed almost no change across rearing cycles and remained highly habitat and farm specific. Unlike in natural environments, protozoan communities inside broiler houses are therefore not seasonal. Our results imply that currently used biosecurity measures (cleaning and disinfection) applied during the down periods are not effective against many protozoans and therefore cannot prevent potential cross-contamination of bacterial pathogens via free-living protozoa between rearing cycles.

  14. A linear programming model of diet choice of free-living beavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; VanderVeer, PJ; Evers, EGJ; Ottenheim, MM

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming has been remarkably successful in predicting the diet choice of generalist herbivores. We used this technique to test the diet choice of free-living beavers (Castor fiber) in the Biesbosch (The Netherlands) under different Foraging goals, i.e. maximization of intake of energy,

  15. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in contact lenses of the asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae (FLA including Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmannella spp. are the causative agents of serious corneal infection especially within contact lens wearers. Thus contact lenses and their storage case could be a suitable niche for potentially pathogenic amoebae. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the contamination of contact lenses to free living amoebae using morphological and sequencing based methods.Overall, 90 volunteers provided their contact lenses. All volunteers wore soft contact lenses. Both lenses were cultured in the same plate. Forty-eight of the volunteers were medical and dentistry student and 42 were ophthalmology attendees of hospitals in Tehran, Iran. All of the samples were inoculated to non-nutrient medium and monitored daily for the outgrowth of the amoebae. PCR and sequencing were performed using various primer pairs.Of the 90 volunteers, 9 (10% were positive for free-living amoebae outgrowth. Morphological analysis revealed that 3 isolates were belonged to Hartmannella genus according to small round cysts and 6 isolates were belonged to Acanthamoeba genus based on the star shape of endocysts. Sequencing revealed that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4, T3 and T5 genotype. Hartmannella were also belonged to vermiformis species.The presence of potentially pathogenic free living amoebae including Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella could be a high risk for people using soft contact lenses. These results revealed that improved clarification and professional recommendations for contact lens wearers is of utmost importance.

  16. Endosymbiotic heterocystous cyanobacteria synthesize different heterocyst glycolipids than free-living heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, S.; Villareal, T.A.; Hopmans, E.C.; Mets, A.; Swanson, K.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocysts of limnetic nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria contain unique glycolipids in their cell wall that create the distinctive gas impermeability of the heterocyst cell wall as well as serve as biomarker lipids for these microbes. It has been assumed that marine free-living and

  17. ENERGY BUDGETS IN FREE-LIVING GREEN IGUANAS IN A SEASONAL ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; WESSELINGH, RA; VOGEL, JT; ALBERS, KBM

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of techniques we estimated energy expenditure and allocation of energy in free-living green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in a seasonal environment on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. 1) Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by means of the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, using O

  18. Endosymbiotic heterocystous cyanobacteria synthesize different heterocyst glycolipids than free-living heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, S.; Villareal, T.A.; Hopmans, E.C.; Mets, A.; Swanson, K.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocysts of limnetic nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria contain unique glycolipids in their cell wall that create the distinctive gas impermeability of the heterocyst cell wall as well as serve as biomarker lipids for these microbes. It has been assumed that marine free-living and endo

  19. Biogeography of free-living soil nematodes from the perspective of plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, V R; Goseco, C G; Ferris, J M

    1976-08-01

    In this first biogeographical synthesis based on the morphology and known distribution of a group of free-living soil nematodes, data indicate a pre-Jurassic origin followed by West Gondwanaland radiation for some genera and Laurasian radiation for others.

  20. Comparison of Yamax pedometer and GT3X accelerometer steps in a free-living sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to compare steps detected by the Yamax pedometer (PEDO) versus the GT3X accelerometer (ACCEL) in free-living adults. Daily PEDO and ACCEL steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (18 females; mean +/- sd: age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; body mass index = 3...

  1. A linear programming model of diet choice of free-living beavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; VanderVeer, PJ; Evers, EGJ; Ottenheim, MM

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming has been remarkably successful in predicting the diet choice of generalist herbivores. We used this technique to test the diet choice of free-living beavers (Castor fiber) in the Biesbosch (The Netherlands) under different Foraging goals, i.e. maximization of intake of energy, nit

  2. People, dogs and wild game: evidence of human-animal relations from Middle Neolithic burials and personal ornaments in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernabò Brea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to review evidence of human-animal relations, the paper offers an overview of the customs and funerary traditions of the Square Mouthed Pottery culture, between c. 5000 and 4300 calBC. We focus on the importance of domestic and wild animals on the basis of an analysis of grave-goods, funerary rites and personal ornaments. We also consider recent discoveries of peculiar offerings of animals and some dog burials. The evidence testifies to a diffusion of a wild component, symbolically emphasising the importance of the hunter identity in a society where subsistence actually depends primarily on domestic animals. Therefore, a contrast is drawn between the everyday and the symbolic worlds.

  3. Tree species control rates of free-living nitrogen fixation in a tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2008-10-01

    Tropical rain forests represent some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth, yet mechanistic links between tree species identity and ecosystem function in these forests remains poorly understood. Here, using free-living nitrogen (N) fixation as a model, we explore the idea that interspecies variation in canopy nutrient concentrations may drive significant local-scale variation in biogeochemical processes. Biological N fixation is the largest "natural" source of newly available N to terrestrial ecosystems, and estimates suggest the highest such inputs occur in tropical ecosystems. While patterns of and controls over N fixation in these systems remain poorly known, the data we do have suggest that chemical differences among tree species canopies could affect free-living N fixation rates. In a diverse lowland rain forest in Costa Rica, we established a series of vertical, canopy-to-soil profiles for six common canopy tree species, and we measured free-living N fixation rates and multiple aspects of chemistry of live canopy leaves, senesced canopy leaves, bulk leaf litter, and soil for eight individuals of each tree species. Free-living N fixation rates varied significantly among tree species for all four components, and independent of species identity, rates of N fixation ranged by orders of magnitude along the vertical profile. Our data suggest that variations in phosphorus (P) concentration drove a significant fraction of the observed species-specific variation in free-living N fixation rates within each layer of the vertical profile. Furthermore, our data suggest significant links between canopy and forest floor nutrient concentrations; canopy P was correlated with bulk leaf litter P below individual tree crowns. Thus, canopy chemistry may affect a suite of ecosystem processes not only within the canopy itself, but at and beneath the forest floor as well.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  5. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brivio

    Full Text Available The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex: during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation. Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid

  6. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  7. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations.

  8. High prevalence of pathogenicLeptospira in wild and domesticated animals in an endemic area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yalin; Zeng Lingbing; Yang Hongliang; Xu Jianmin; Zhang Xiangyan; Guo Xiaokui; Pal Utpal; Qin Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence ofLeptospira detected in wildlife and domesticated animals in Jiangxi Province, China, in2009.Methods:Urine samples from 28 buffaloes and kidney samples from50 pigs,50 dogs and38 rats were collected from Fuliang and Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province, China, in October2009. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and culture analyses were used to detectLeptospira. The cultured isolates were typed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT).Results:The results showed that rats potentially serve as the main reservoir of leptospiral infection, followed by dogs. Although16% of rats (6/38) were positive using culture analysis, PCR analysis using the diagnostic primersG1/G2 and B64I/B64II or lipL32 showed identification as50% and24%, respectively, of the rat samples as positive for the presence of leptospiralDNA.Conclusions:PCR-based detection of leptospiralDNA in infected kidney tissues of reservoirs is more efficient when usingG1/G2 primers thanlipL32 primers. However, the latter primers have a potential application for detection in urine samples. The alarmingly high prevalence of leptospiralDNAin the wild rat population near human habitation underscores the utility of routineLeptospira surveillance, preferably usingPCR methods, which are more sensitive than traditional culture-based methods.

  9. Detection and identification of free-living amoeba from aquatic environment in different seasons in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, K.; Hsu, B.; Tsai, H.; Huang, P.; Tsai, J.; Kao, P.; Huang, K.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba includes Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which are widely distributed in water and soil. Human infection with free-living amoeba leads to serious illness, even lethal. For example, central nervous system infection will cause amoebic meningoencephalitis, and infections will cause amoebic keratitis. The presence of free-living amoeba in environment water can be used as a water quality indicator in ecosystem assessment. In Taiwan, reservoirs are indispensable because of the water source are limited by the steep terrain and the short river flow. Therefore, we need to pay more attention in the quality control of reservoirs water. The aims of this study are to investigate the presence of free-living amoeba in Taiwan reservoirs, and to compare the differences among seasons. At last, the identification and genotyping of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are investigated. In this study, we use polymerase chain reaction with specific primers to analyze the presence of free-living amoeba in aquatic environment. We collected total 60 samples from reservoirs in Taiwan. The water samples are divided into two parts for both direct concentration method and culture method. The results show the different detection rates among seasons. For Acanthamoeba, the detection rates were 28.3% (17 of 60 water samples), 21.7% (13 of 60 water samples) and 8.3% (5 of 60 water samples) in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. For Naegleria, the detection rates were 6.7% (4 of 60 water samples), 0% (0 of 60 water samples) and 0% (0 of 60 water samples) were detected positive in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the major genotypes in Acanthamoeba were T3, T4, T10 and T11 in autumn, T2, T4 and T10 in winter, T4 in spring. Due to the presences of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in reservoirs, we should pay more attention in water quality monitoring to prevent the potential risks of diseases. Keywords: free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, polymerase

  10. Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila
    Free-living protozoa, which feed on bacteria, play an important role in the communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in drinking water supplies and in (warm) tap water i

  11. Free-living amoebae isolated from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca

    2010-09-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in aquatic environments and their hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man are increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to isolate free-living amoebae from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes) and the water of an urban lake in Mexico City. Five grams of wet root were seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE). Water samples were concentrated by centrifugation at 1200g for 15min and the pellet was seeded on NNE. Of the 16 isolated genera, 10 were detected in both habitats. The most frequent were Vannella in root and Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in water. The total number of isolates and genera isolated from root was higher than that isolated from water. The differences between root and water are probably due to the morphological characteristics of water-hyacinth root, which provides a large habitat and refuge area for many organisms.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: uptake and survival of oocysts in free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Dubey, J P; Barragan, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Waterborne transmission of the oocyst stage of Toxoplasma gondii can cause outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and infection of marine mammals. In water-related environments and soil, free-living amoebae are considered potential carriers of various pathogens, but knowledge on interactions with parasitic protozoa remains elusive. In the present study, we assessed whether the free-living Acanthamoeba castellanii, due to its phagocytic activity, can interact with T. gondii oocysts. We report that amoebae can internalize T. gondii oocysts by active uptake. Intracellular oocysts in amoebae rarely underwent phagocytic lysis, retained viability and established infection in mice. Interaction of T. gondii with amoebae did not reduce the infectivity and pathogenicity of oocysts even after prolonged co-cultivation. Our results show that uptake of oocysts by A. castellanii does not restrain the transmission of T. gondii in a murine infection model.

  13. Free-living amoebae, a training field for macrophage resistance of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, I B; Ghigo, E; Drancourt, M

    2009-10-01

    Mycobacterium species evolved from an environmental recent common ancestor by reductive evolution and lateral gene transfer. Strategies selected through evolution and developed by mycobacteria resulted in resistance to predation by environmental unicellular protists, including free-living amoebae. Indeed, mycobacteria are isolated from the same soil and water environments as are amoebae, and experimental models using Acanthamoeba spp. and Dictyostelium discoideum were exploited to analyse the mechanisms for intracellular survival. Most of these mechanisms have been further reproduced in macrophages for mycobacteria regarded as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. Amoebal cysts may protect intracellular mycobacteria against adverse conditions and may act as a vector for mycobacteria. The latter hypothesis warrants further environmental and clinical studies to better assess the role of free-living amoebae in the epidemiology of infections caused by mycobacteria.

  14. Mercury poisoning in a free-living northern river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Cristol, Daniel A; White, Ariel E; Evers, David C; Gerhold, R W; Keel, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    A moribund 5-year-old female northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) was found on the bank of a river known to be extensively contaminated with mercury. It exhibited severe ataxia and scleral injection, made no attempt to flee, and died shortly thereafter of drowning. Tissue mercury levels were among the highest ever reported for a free-living terrestrial mammal: kidney, 353 microg/g; liver, 221 microg/g; muscle, 121 microg/g; brain (three replicates from cerebellum), 142, 151, 151 microg/g (all dry weights); and fur, 183 ug/g (fresh weight). Histopathologic findings including severe, diffuse, chronic glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were the presumptive cause of clinical signs and death. This is one of a few reports to document the death of a free-living mammal from presumed mercury poisoning.

  15. Comparison of three generations of ActiGraph activity monitors under free-living conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, May; Hansen, Bjørge Herman; Ried-Larsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    + in children in free-living conditions. The generations GT1M and GT3X+ provided comparable outputs. The differences between the old and the newer monitors were more complex when investigating time spent at different intensities. Comparisons of data assessed by the AM7164 with data assessed by newer generations......BACKGROUND: A recent review concludes that the agreement of data across ActiGraph accelerometer models for children and youth still is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of three generations of ActiGraph accelerometers in children in a free-living condition. METHODS......: Sixteen 9-year-olds wore the ActiGraph AM7164, GT1M and GT3X+ simultaneously for three consecutive days. We compared mean counts per minute (mcpm) and time spent at different intensities from the three generations of monitors, and the agreement of outputs were evaluated by intra-class correlation...

  16. A new pentaplex-nested PCR to detect five pathogenic bacteria in free living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L; Gregorio, I; García, A; Fernández, M T; Goñi, P; Clavel, A; Peleato, M L; Fillat, M F

    2013-02-01

    Changes in water use and anthropogenic activity have major impacts on the quality of natural aquatic ecosystems, water distribution and wastewater plants. One of the main problems is the presence of some pathogenic microorganisms that are resistant to disinfection procedures when they are hosted by free living amoeba and that in many cases are hardly detectable by culture-based procedures. In this work we report a sensitive, low-cost procedure consisting of a pentaplex-nested PCR that allows simultaneous detection of Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae and the microcystin-producing cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. The method has been used to detect the presence of these pathogenic bacteria in water and inside free living amoeba. Its validation in 72 samples obtained from different water sources from Aragon (Spain) evidences that Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas spp are prevailing as amoeba-resistant bacteria.

  17. Hip and Wrist Accelerometer Algorithms for Free-Living Behavior Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Staudenmayer, John; Lanckriet, Gert

    2016-05-01

    Accelerometers are a valuable tool for objective measurement of physical activity (PA). Wrist-worn devices may improve compliance over standard hip placement, but more research is needed to evaluate their validity for measuring PA in free-living settings. Traditional cut-point methods for accelerometers can be inaccurate and need testing in free living with wrist-worn devices. In this study, we developed and tested the performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms for classifying PA types from both hip and wrist accelerometer data. Forty overweight or obese women (mean age = 55.2 ± 15.3 yr; BMI = 32.0 ± 3.7) wore two ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers (right hip, nondominant wrist; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) for seven free-living days. Wearable cameras captured ground truth activity labels. A classifier consisting of a random forest and hidden Markov model classified the accelerometer data into four activities (sitting, standing, walking/running, and riding in a vehicle). Free-living wrist and hip ML classifiers were compared with each other, with traditional accelerometer cut points, and with an algorithm developed in a laboratory setting. The ML classifier obtained average values of 89.4% and 84.6% balanced accuracy over the four activities using the hip and wrist accelerometer, respectively. In our data set with average values of 28.4 min of walking or running per day, the ML classifier predicted average values of 28.5 and 24.5 min of walking or running using the hip and wrist accelerometer, respectively. Intensity-based cut points and the laboratory algorithm significantly underestimated walking minutes. Our results demonstrate the superior performance of our PA-type classification algorithm, particularly in comparison with traditional cut points. Although the hip algorithm performed better, additional compliance achieved with wrist devices might justify using a slightly lower performing algorithm.

  18. Distribution of free-living amoebae in a treatment system of textile industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca; Ayala, Reynaldo; Sainz, Guadalupe; Martinez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Maria Elena

    2014-11-01

    Free-living amoebae have been found in soil, air and a variety of aquatic environments, but few studies have been conducted on industrial wastewater and none on wastewater from the textile industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of free-living amoebae in a biological treatment system that treats textile industrial wastewater. Samples were taken from input, aeration tank, sedimentation tank and output. Samples were centrifuged at 1200g for 15min, the sediment was seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE) and the plates were incubated at 30 and 37°C. Free-living amoebae were present in all stages of the treatment system. The highest number of amoebic isolates was found in the aeration tank and no seasonal distribution was observed during the year. A total of 14 amoeba genera were isolated: Acanthamoeba, Echinamoeba, Korotnevella, Mayorella, Naegleria, Platyamoeba, Saccamoeba, Stachyamoeba, Thecamoeba, Vahlkampfia, Vannella, Vermamoeba, Vexillifera and Willaertia. The most frequently found amoebae were Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba which were found in all treatment system stages. The constant presence and diversity of free-living amoebae in the treatment system were important findings due to the characteristics of the wastewater from the textile plant in terms of the residue content from colorants, fixers, carriers, surfactants, etc., used in fabric dyeing and finishing processes. The factors that determined the presence and distribution of amoebae in the activated sludge system were their capacity to form cysts, which allowed them to resist adverse conditions; food availability; an average temperature of 27-33°C; dissolved oxygen in average concentrations above 2mg/L, and pH in a range of 5.9-7.1.

  19. Genome-wide identification of pathogenicity factors of the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    OpenAIRE

    Zysset-Burri, Denise Corinne; Müller, Norbert; Beuret, Christian; Heller, Manfred; Schürch, Nadia; Gottstein, Bruno; Wittwer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the rapidly progressing and typically fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. Despite the devastating nature of this disease, which results in > 97% mortality, knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of the amoeba is incomplete. This work presents a comparative proteomic approach based on an experimental model in which the pathogenic potential of N. fowleri trophozoites is influenced by the com...

  20. Free-living monitoring of Parkinson's disease: Lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Din, Silvia; Godfrey, Alan; Mazzà, Claudia; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Wearable technology comprises miniaturized sensors (eg, accelerometers) worn on the body and/or paired with mobile devices (eg, smart phones) allowing continuous patient monitoring in unsupervised, habitual environments (termed free-living). Wearable technologies are revolutionizing approaches to health care as a result of their utility, accessibility, and affordability. They are positioned to transform Parkinson's disease (PD) management through the provision of individualized, comprehensive, and representative data. This is particularly relevant in PD where symptoms are often triggered by task and free-living environmental challenges that cannot be replicated with sufficient veracity elsewhere. This review concerns use of wearable technology in free-living environments for people with PD. It outlines the potential advantages of wearable technologies and evidence for these to accurately detect and measure clinically relevant features including motor symptoms, falls risk, freezing of gait, gait, functional mobility, and physical activity. Technological limitations and challenges are highlighted, and advances concerning broader aspects are discussed. Recommendations to overcome key challenges are made. To date there is no fully validated system to monitor clinical features or activities in free-living environments. Robust accuracy and validity metrics for some features have been reported, and wearable technology may be used in these cases with a degree of confidence. Utility and acceptability appears reasonable, although testing has largely been informal. Key recommendations include adopting a multidisciplinary approach for standardizing definitions, protocols, and outcomes. Robust validation of developed algorithms and sensor-based metrics is required along with testing of utility. These advances are required before widespread clinical adoption of wearable technology can be realized. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Accuracy of three Android-based pedometer applications in laboratory and free-living settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jia Yan; Wong, Jyh Eiin

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of three popular, free Android-based pedometer applications (apps), namely, Runtastic (RT), Pacer Works (PW), and Tayutau (TY) in laboratory and free-living settings. Forty-eight adults (22.5 ± 1.4 years) completed 3-min bouts of treadmill walking at five incremental speeds while carrying a test smartphone installed with the three apps. Experiment was repeated thrice, with the smartphone placed either in the pants pockets, at waist level, or secured to the left arm by an armband. The actual step count was manually counted by a tally counter. In the free-living setting, each of the 44 participants (21.9 ± 1.6 years) carried a smartphone with installed apps and a reference pedometer (Yamax Digi-Walker CW700) for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that TY produced the lowest mean absolute percent error (APE 6.7%) and was the only app with acceptable accuracy in counting steps in a laboratory setting. RT consistently underestimated steps with APE of 16.8% in the laboratory. PW significantly underestimated steps when the smartphone was secured to the arm, but overestimated under other conditions (APE 19.7%). TY was the most accurate app in counting steps in a laboratory setting with the lowest APE of 6.7%. In the free-living setting, the APE relative to the reference pedometer was 16.6%, 18.0%, and 16.8% for RT, PW, and TY, respectively. None of the three apps counted steps accurately in the free-living setting.

  2. Free-living marine nematodes from San Antonio Bay (Río Negro, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. I...

  3. On the cultivation of free-living marine and estuarine nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    T. Moens; Vincx, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on the systematics and ecology of free-living marine and brackish-water nematodes, key questions on the nature and magnitude of interactions between nematodes and other organisms in the benthos remain unanswered. Relatively few authors have investigated live nematodes in food web studies or in experiments dealing with the nematodes' response to a varying environment. It is mainly for the latter purpose that attempts have been made to maintain, rear a...

  4. Causes of morbidity and mortality in free-living birds in an urban environment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkat, Julia; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Free-living birds are often presented to veterinarians at rehabilitation centers as well as in private practice. Information about disease processes and causes of death of indigenous free-living birds can aid the clinician in establishing proper treatment and in the assessment of potential zoonotic risks. For the present study, pathogens as causes of morbidity and mortality were determined by performing a complete necropsy on free-living birds presented to the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles of the University of Leipzig (Germany) that died shortly after admission or were euthanized due to an unfavorable prognosis. Over a 2-year period, 251 birds representing 13 families (Accipitridae, Apodidae, Columbidae, Corvidae, Falconidae, Fringillidae, Hirundinidae, Paridae, Passeridae, Picidae, Strigidae, Sturnidae and Turdidae) were examined. Trauma (62%), including several bite injuries inducing bacterial septicemia caused by Pasteurella multocida, was the most common cause of morbidity. Parasitic disease (18%) was mainly caused by Trichomonas gallinae, Eucoleus dispar and Syngamus trachea. Metabolic disease (13%), including fibrous osteodystrophy, was almost exclusively limited to juvenile specimens. Different Enterobacteriaceae including E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium DT040 as well as Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium were identified as causal agents of primary bacterial disease (5%). Primary bacterial infection as cause of death or disease was of major importance in nestlings. Viral infections, mycoses and intoxication had minor significance as causes of morbidity.

  5. Cooling and freezing of sperm from captive, free-living and endangered squirrel monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karol G; Santos, Regiane R; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Lima, Julianne S; Sampaio, Wlaísa V; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2016-06-01

    Germoplasm banking is an important tool for the preservation of genetic material from Neotropical primates in captivity, and from free living species, especially the endangered ones like Saimiri vanzolinii (Black-headed squirrel monkey), a primate with a low incidence area (870 km(2) of floodplains) in the southern part of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Brazil. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to develop a sperm cryopreservation protocol comparing sperm cooling in presence (T1) and absence (T2) of egg yolk, and to test freezing protocols to preserve semen from captive (Saimiri collinsi), and free-living (Saimiri vanzolinii, Saimiri cassiquiarensis and Saimiri macrodon) New World primates. Cooling preserved sperm of S. collinsi in all evaluated microscopic parameters, except for sperm motility. No differences were observed among the treatments, indicating that semen of this species can be cooled without egg yolk. Freezing did not affect sperm quality of S. collinsi, except plasma membrane integrity that was negatively affected. Generally, a good maintenance rate was observed between cooling and thawing of semen for the four species, showing the positive translational application of protocols from S. collinsi to the free-living species. Developed freezing protocol proved to be useful for sperm cryopreservation of S. collinsi and in field conditions.

  6. Evolutionary analysis of mitogenomes from parasitic and free-living flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Eduard; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids.

  7. Evolutionary analysis of mitogenomes from parasitic and free-living flatworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Solà

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata. Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida: the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae. Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae. This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids.

  8. Characterization of Salmonella isolated from captive and free-living snakes in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stenkat, Julia; Szabo, Istvan; Ortlieb, Falk; Blindow, Irmgard; Neul, Ann-Kathrin; Pees, Michael; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are well-known reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and cases of reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) are increasing since reptiles are becoming more popular as pets. In the present study, the presence, distribution and prevalence of serovars of Salmonella was investigated in captive snakes (n = 87) and in free-living snakes (n = 87) in Germany. A total of 43 S. enterica-isolates were recovered from organ samples and cloacal swabs, predominantly belonging to the subspecies diarizonae (IIIb) (n = 27), enterica (I) (n = 7) and houtenae (IV) (n = 6). S. enterica subsp. enterica (I) serovar Paratyphi B (n = 4) and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serovar 47:l,v:z (n = 3) were the most frequently isolated serotypes. Nevertheless, the fact that most serotypes were only represented by a single isolate points out the high diversity of Salmonella present among snakes. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serotype 40:i:z53, which was isolated twice from two free-living Eurasian adders (Vipera berus) captured at different locations, has not been previously described. Our results confirm the role of both free-living and captive snakes as reservoirs of S. enterica in Germany.

  9. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity.

  10. Evolutionary Analysis of Mitogenomes from Parasitic and Free-Living Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids. PMID:25793530

  11. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  12. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds.

  13. 关于野生动物防疫检疫管理的思考%Thinking on Management of Prevention and Quarantine of the Wild Animal Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 郑利莎; 陈海良

    2016-01-01

    随着《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》的修订颁布,检疫证明成为野生动物经检疫合格的唯一法律凭证,没有检疫证明的动物不得经营和运输。为了加强对野生动物的保护,明晰动物防疫检疫工作职责,本文从野生动物监管涉及的部门、名录、防疫、检疫等方面进行阐述,为兽医主管部门提供思路和建议,以促进国家建立内检与外检、陆生动物与水生动物、养殖动物与野生动物协调统一的管理体制。%With the issuance of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife(revised), quarantine certificate is the only legal evidence which can guarantee the conformity ,hence animals without quarantine certificates shall not be sold or transported. In order to strengthen the protection for wild animals and clarify responsibilities of animal epidemic prevention and quarantine services,the departments,disease lists,epidemic prevention,animals inspection and quarantine and other aspects involved in wild animal supervision were introduced in this article,so as to provide veterinary competent authorities with thoughts and suggestions,which would contribute to the building of a coordinated and unified management system for interior and exterior inspection and quarantine, terrestrial and aquatic animals,as well as farmed and wild animals,etc.

  14. 野生动物生境景观连通性综述%The Overview of Habitat Landscape Connectivity of Wild Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娅楠; 王金亮; 习晓环; 王成

    2015-01-01

    分析了野生动物生境景观连通性的国内外研究进展,如生境景观连通性在生境破碎化分析、保护区规划和空间格局分析中的应用等,并对基于图论和渗透理论以及模型模拟等方法,开展连通性研究的方法进行深入分析。探讨了当前在生境景观连通性研究中存在的问题,认为要合理设置并建立生物廊道,这不仅是保护野生动物生境的重要手段,也是野生动物生境生态网络研究的重要方向。%Habitat is the basis of biological survival.Habitat quality plays an important role in animal population size and individual quality.Habitat landscape connectivity explains wild animal movement for migrations and food in the landscape.It can be used as the index to analyze habitat network ecological functions and measure ecological processes for wild animal.In this paper,the progress of applications and methods of habitat landscape connectivity forwild animal was reviewed.The problems in current research were pointed out as well as the future research fields,such as ecological corridors for wild animals.Building a series of reasonable ecological corridors for wild an-imalswas suggested.

  15. The effect of elevated temperature and substrate on free-living Symbiodinium cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, M. R.; Davy, S. K.; Cribb, T. H.; Ward, S.

    2015-03-01

    Elevated temperatures can produce a range of serious, deleterious effects on marine invertebrate— Symbiodinium symbioses. The responses of free-living Symbiodinium to elevated temperature, however, have been little studied, especially in the context of their natural habitat. In this study, we investigated physiological responses of two Symbiodinium cultures to elevated temperature, an exclusively free-living ITS2 clade A (strain HI-0509) and the symbiosis-forming ITS2 type A1 (strain CCMP2467). Free-living Symbiodinium strains have recently been isolated from benthic sediments, and both cultures were therefore grown with or without a microhabitat of carbonate sediment at 25, 28 or 31 °C. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II ( F v/ F m) and specific growth rate were measured as response variables. In culture, Symbiodinium cells exhibit motility in a helical swimming pattern, and therefore, revolutions per minute (RPM) were also measured with video microscopy. The exclusively free-living clade A was physiologically superior to Symbiodinium A1 across all measured variables and treatment combinations. F v/ F m remained relatively stable through time (at approximately 0.55) and was not substantially affected by temperature or the presence or the absence of sediment. Populations of the exclusively free-living Symbiodinium A reproduced faster with sediment than without and exhibited high levels of motility across all treatments (surpassing 300 RPM). In contrast, the F v/ F m of A1 dropped to 0.42 in sediment (relative to cultures without sediment) and exhibited dramatic declines in cell concentration, most severely at 31 °C. A > 50 % reduction in motility was also observed at 31 °C. Even in the absence of sediment, elevated temperature was observed to reduce population growth and cell motility of type A1. We suggest that vital behaviours linked to motility (such as vertical migration and the locating of potential hosts) may become impaired during future thermal

  16. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  17. Discussion on Information Construction of Wild Animal Museums%野生动物标本馆信息化建设的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费宜玲

    2015-01-01

    利用计算机和网络技术进行信息化建设有助于进一步拓展野生动物标本馆的科普作用、科研价值和教学意义.文章主要对野生动物标本馆信息化体系的建设途径、功能和意义进行了阐述和初步探讨,为国内野生动物标本馆的信息化建设提供参考.%The informatization of wild animal museum based on the computer and network technology is helpful to further expand the value of science,research and education. This paper mainly discussed the method and advantage of information construction on wild animal museums ,which may provide relevant reference for reforming traditional museums in China.

  18. Content of 137Cs in organism of commercial wild ungulate animals procured on the alienation area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulakov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of 14-years research of the content and distribution of radionuclide 137Cs in wild animals in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear power-station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs content in the muscle tissue for the period of supervision are noted. Results of the research have the great practical value for the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  19. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    TWO STRATEGIES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED TO AVOID NEGATIVE GENETIC EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIALLY PROPAGATED INDIVIDUALS ON WILD POPULATIONS: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10-20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations.

  20. Investigating the role of free-living amoebae as a reservoir for Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, still remain a mystery. It has been suggested that M. ulcerans persists with difficulty as a free-living organism due to its natural fragility and inability to withstand exposure to direct sunlight, and thus probably persists within a protective host environment.We investigated the role of free-living amoebae as a reservoir of M. ulcerans by screening the bacterium in free-living amoebae (FLA cultures isolated from environmental specimens using real-time PCR. We also followed the survival of M. ulcerans expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP in Acanthameoba castellanii by flow cytometry and observed the infected cells using confocal and transmission electron microscopy for four weeks in vitro. IS2404 was detected by quantitative PCR in 4.64% of FLA cultures isolated from water, biofilms, detritus and aerosols. While we could not isolate M. ulcerans, 23 other species of mycobacteria were cultivated from inside FLA and/or other phagocytic microorganisms. Laboratory experiments with GFP-expressing M. ulcerans in A. castellani trophozoites for 28 days indicated the bacteria did not replicate inside amoebae, but they could remain viable at low levels in cysts. Transmission electron microscopy of infected A. castellani confirmed the presence of bacteria within both trophozoite vacuoles and cysts. There was no correlation of BU notification rate with detection of the IS2404 in FLA (r = 0.07, n = 539, p = 0.127.This study shows that FLA in the environment are positive for the M. ulcerans insertion sequence IS2404. However, the detection frequency and signal strength of IS2404 positive amoabae was low and no link with the occurrence of BU was observed. We conclude that FLA may host M. ulcerans at low levels in the environment without being directly involved in the transmission to humans.

  1. SYMBIODINIUM NATANS SP. NOV.: A "FREE-LIVING" DINOFLAGELLATE FROM TENERIFE (NORTHEAST-ATLANTIC OCEAN)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-02-01

    We examined a free-living Symbiodinium species by light and electron microscopy and nuclear-encoded partial LSU rDNA sequence data. The strain was isolated from a net plankton sample collected in near-shore waters at Tenerife, the Canary Islands. Comparing the thecal plate tabulation of the free-living Symbiodinium to that of S. microadriaticum Freud., it became clear that a few but significant differences could be noted. The isolate possessed two rather than three antapical plates, six rather than seven to eight postcingular plates, and finally four rather than five apical plates. The electron microscopic study also revealed the presence of an eyespot with brick-shaped contents in the sulcal region and a narrow anterior plate with small knob-like structures. Bayesian analysis revealed the free-living Symbiodinium to be a member of the earliest diverging clade A. However, it did not group within subclade AI (=temperate A) or any other subclades within clade A. Rather, it occupied an isolated position, and this was also supported by sequence divergence estimates. On the basis of comparative analysis of the thecal plate tabulation and the inferred phylogeny, we propose that the Symbiodinium isolate from Tenerife is a new species (viz. S. natans). To elucidate further the species diversity of Symbiodinium, particularly those inhabiting coral reefs, we suggest combining morphological features of the thecal plate pattern with gene sequence data. Indeed, future examination of motile stages originating from symbiont isolates will demonstrate if this proves a feasible way to identify and characterize additional species of Symbiodinium and thus match ribotypes or clusters of ribotypes to species.

  2. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, G; Hulbert, D; Hood, G R; Smith, J J; Forbes, A A

    2016-09-01

    Host shifts by specialist insects can lead to reproductive isolation between insect populations that use different hosts, promoting diversification. When both a phytophagous insect and its ancestrally associated parasitoid shift to the same novel host plant, they may cospeciate. However, because adult parasitoids are free living, they can also colonize novel host insects and diversify independent of their ancestral host insect. Although shifts of parasitoids to new insect hosts have been documented in ecological time, the long-term importance of such shifts to parasitoid diversity has not been evaluated. We used a genus of flies with a history of speciation via host shifting (Rhagoletis [Diptera: Tephritidae]) and three associated hymenopteran parasitoid genera (Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes) to examine cophylogenetic relationships between parasitoids and their host insects. We inferred phylogenies of Rhagoletis, Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes and used distance-based cophylogenetic methods (ParaFit and PACo) to assess congruence between fly and parasitoid trees. We used an event-based method with a free-living parasitoid cost model to reconstruct cophylogenetic histories of each parasitoid genus and Rhagoletis. We found that the current species diversity and host-parasitoid associations between the Rhagoletis flies and parasitoids are the primary result of ancient cospeciation events. Parasitoid shifts to ancestrally unrelated hosts primarily occur near the branch tips, suggesting that host shifts contribute to recent parasitoid species diversity but that these lineages may not persist over longer time periods. Our analyses also stress the importance of biologically informed cost models when investigating the coevolutionary histories of hosts and free-living parasitoids.

  3. Diversity of free-Living nitrogen fixing Streptomyces in soils of the badlands of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Bibha; NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Perkins, Lora; Brözel, Volker S

    2017-01-01

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation is critical for ecosystem productivity. Select members of Bacteria and Archaea express a nitrogenase enzyme complex that reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Several nitrogen fixing bacteria form symbiotic associations with plants, but free-living diazotrophs also contribute a substantial amount of nitrogen to ecosystems. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize free-living diazotrophs in arid lands of South Dakota Badlands. Samples were obtained from sod tables and the surrounding base in spring and fall. Diazotrophs were isolated on solid nitrogen free medium (NFM) under hypoxic conditions, and their16S rRNA and nifH genes sequenced. nifH was also amplified directly from soil DNA extracts. The 16S rRNA gene data indicated a diversity of putative free-living diazotrophs across 4 phyla (Actinomycetes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes), but ∼50% of these clustered with Streptomyces. These Streptomyces isolates grew in liquid NFM in an ammonia-depleted environment. Only 5 of these yielded a nifH gene product using the PolF/PolR primer set. Four of these aligned with nifH of the cyanobacteria Scytonema and Nostoc, and the other one aligned with nifH of Bradyrhizobium. Six selected Streptomyces isolates, three of which were nifH positive by PCR, all indicated (15)N2 incorporation, providing strong support of nitrogen fixation. All nifH amplicons from soil DNA extract resembled Cyanobacteria. This is the first known report of diazotrophic Streptomyces, other than the thermophilic, autotrophic S. thermoautotrophicus. nifH genes of these Streptomyces were related to those from Cyanobacteria. It is possible that the cyanobacteria-like nifH amplicons obtained from soil DNA were associated with Streptomyces.

  4. Biofilm formation enables free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Anming; Elmerich, Claudine; Ma, Luyan Z

    2017-07-01

    The multicellular communities of microorganisms known as biofilms are of high significance in agricultural setting, yet it is largely unknown about the biofilm formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here we report the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a free-living rhizospheric bacterium, capable of fixing nitrogen under microaerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. P. stutzeri A1501 tended to form biofilm in minimal media, especially under nitrogen depletion condition. Under such growth condition, the biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (termed as pellicles) and the colony biofilms on agar plates exhibited nitrogenase activity in air. The two kinds of biofilms both contained large ovoid shape 'cells' that were multiple living bacteria embedded in a sac of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). We proposed to name such large 'cells' as A1501 cyst. Our results suggest that the EPS, especially exopolysaccharides enabled the encased bacteria to fix nitrogen while grown under aerobic condition. The formation of A1501 cysts was reversible in response to the changes of carbon or nitrogen source status. A1501 cyst formation depended on nitrogen-limiting signaling and the presence of sufficient carbon sources, yet was independent of an active nitrogenase. The pellicles formed by Azospirillum brasilense, another free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium, which also exhibited nitrogenase activity and contained the large EPS-encapsuled A1501 cyst-like 'cells'. Our data imply that free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria could convert the easy-used carbon sources to exopolysaccharides in order to enable nitrogen fixation in a natural aerobic environment.

  5. Clinical utility of a complete diagnostic protocol for the ocular evaluation of free-living raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Whittington, Julia K; Breaux, Carrie B; Labelle, Philippe; Mitchell, Mark A; Zarfoss, Mitzi K; Schmidt, Stephanie A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

      To describe a protocol for the examination of free-living raptors and report the ophthalmic examination findings of seven raptor species native to central Illinois, namely the barred owl, Cooper's hawk, eastern screech owl, great horned owl, American kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and turkey vulture and to determine if the findings relative to visual prognosis affected eligibility for future release.   Seventy-nine free-living raptors.   Under manual restraint, complete ophthalmic examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect funduscopy, applanation tonometry, rebound tonometry, ocular morphometrics, B-mode ultrasound, and electroretinography (ERG) were performed on each bird. Histopathology of enucleated globes was performed after euthanasia or death in selected cases.   The examination protocol was easily performed using manual restraint alone on all birds. Ocular lesions were detected in 48.1% of birds, with 47.3% affected unilaterally and 52.6% affected bilaterally. Ocular lesions were considered to be vision threatening in 29.0% of the unilaterally affected birds and 29.0% of the bilaterally affected birds. The most common case outcomes were discharge from hospital to rehabilitation facility (45.6%) followed by euthanasia (43.0%). The presence of an ocular lesion or a vision-threatening ocular lesion was not significantly associated with outcome. Reference ranges are reported for B-mode ultrasound, ocular morphometrics, and horizontal corneal diameter in all species.   Complete ophthalmic examination can be supplemented by the use of ocular morphometrics, ultrasound, and ERG in the manually restrained raptor. These advanced diagnostic techniques may be useful in developing more objective criteria for evaluating eligibility for release following rehabilitation of free-living birds of prey. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Rybak, Mario; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Millán, Javier

    2016-10-10

    Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa. However, the number of piroplasmid species is likely higher than currently accepted due to the reported existence of DNA sequences that may correspond to new species and the lack of studies on many host species and biogeographical areas. Indeed, many species have been recognized in the last few years with the advancement of molecular analyses. Disease and mortality have been documented in some wild carnivores, whereas other species appear to act as natural, subclinical reservoirs. Various factors (e.g. unnatural hosts, stress due to captivity, habitat degradation, climate fluctuation or immunosuppression) have been associated with disease susceptibility to piroplasmid infections in some species in captivity. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the epidemiology of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores and associated tick vectors. Emphasis is given to the role of wild carnivores as reservoirs of clinical piroplasmosis for domestic dogs and cats, and to the importance of piroplasmids as disease agents for endangered carnivores.

  7. 野生动植物物种鉴定的标准化研究%Research on Standardization of Species Identification of Wild Animals and Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周用武; 韩焕金

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals and plants are an important part of the natural environment, wildlife resources conservation is also an important part of the ecological civilization construction. In the law enforcement activities of wild animals and plants, the most basic and urgent task is the identification of wild animals and plants, because identification result plays a vital role in decision the nature of case. By specializing in wildlife identification mechanism is just at the beginning stage, methods and standards of identification authentication institutions act as their own ways. The paper expounds the necessary of wild animals and plants identification standardization from the following aspects, such as the guidance of wildlife protection law enforcement forensics work, the need of building the rule of law, the identification work of nationwide wildlife identification agencies, and other similar aspects promote proceeding of standard of wild animals and plant species identification. Some corresponding advices are suggested in this paper: the standards of animal and plant species identification should include the laboratory standards of wildlife identification, the method standards of wild animals and plants identification, standard methods of wildlife sampling and transporting, the quality control standards of wild animals and plants identification.%野生动植物是自然环境中的重要组成部分。加强野生动植物资源保护是生态文明建设中的重要一环。在野生动植物的保护执法活动中,目前最基础也最急迫的工作是野生动植物的鉴定工作。它对案件的定性起着至关重要的作用。由于专门从事野生动植物鉴定的机构刚刚处于起步阶段,各鉴定机构的鉴定方法和规范各行其是。笔者从建设法治国家的需要、指导野生动植物保护执法机关的取证工作,规范全国野生动植物鉴定机构的鉴定工作等方面阐述了野生动植物物种鉴定标准化

  8. [Structure of the glial cells in the nervous system of parasitic and free-living flatworms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biserova, N M; Gordeev, I I; Korneva, Zh V; Sal'nikova, M M

    2010-01-01

    This study is devoted to ultrastructural and immunosytochemical investigation of the nervous system in parasitic and free-living platyhelminthes to learn if glial cells exist in the nervous system of flatworms. We described the ultrastructure of different types of glial cells and the peculiarities of myelinization of gigantic axons; immunoreactivity to the S100b protein is revealed. Comparative analysis of the glia structure of annelids and platods is given; structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of myelinization of gigantic axons, which are revealed in cestodes, are discussed.

  9. Ultrastructural analysis and identification of membrane proteins in the free-living amoeba Difflugia corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Martínez-Hernández, Sandra Luz; Adabache-Ortíz, Araceli; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Salinas, Eva; Quintanar, J Luis

    2007-08-01

    Syntaxin-1 and 25-kDa Synaptosome-associated Protein (SNAP-25) are present in the plasma membrane of several different secretory cell types and are involved in the exocytosis process. In this work, the free-living amoeba Difflugia corona was studied in relation to ultrastructure, structural membrane proteins, and proteins such as Syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25. Our results obtained by scanning electron microscopy in the amoeba without its theca, showed many membrane projections and several pore-like structures. Using immunocytochemistry, we found structural proteins Syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25.

  10. Free-living amoebae in Egypt. 1. Naegleria gruberi and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, N N; Youssef, F G; Mansour, N S

    1991-04-01

    Two Naegleria species were isolated and identified from various water sources in Lower and Upper Egypt. Identification was based on the morphology, nuclear division and the excystation and flagellation tests. The trophic, cystic and flagellate forms of N. gruberi are larger than those of N. fowleri and the cyst of the former species has one or more pores while that of the latter species has no pores and has an outer gelatinous layer. The size and the morphological characteristics of these two free-living amoebae from Egypt were in complete agreement with those previously described for amoebae of this same genus and species endemic to other geographical areas.

  11. One new species of free-living marine nematodes (Enoplida, Anticomidae, Cephalanticoma) from the Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan

    2007-01-01

    One new species of free-living marine nematodes Cephalanticoma filicaudata sp. nov. from the Huanghai Sea, China is described and illustrated. Cephalanticoma filicaudata sp. nov. is characterized by well developed cephalic capsule, three teeth at the anterior of oesophagus, excretory pore opens posterior to cervical setae, only two cervical setae per file, body length longer than 5 200 μm, tail long and no ventral-lateral seta between the supplement and the cloacal opening. Types are deposited in the College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China.

  12. Five New Records of Free -living Marine Nematodes in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five species of free-living marine nematodes are redescribed and illustrated as new records in the Yellow Sea of China. These species include one monhysterid, Campylaimus gerlachi in the family Diplopeltidae and four enoplids species, Oxystomina elongata, Oxystomina elegans, Halalaimus lutarus and Halalaimus wodjanizkii in the family Oxystominidae. Ecological and taxonomic remarks are provided and discussed in comparison with the original description. The key to all known species of the genus Campylaimus is given. Our findings have offerred the taxonomic information of nematodes to the benthic ecology and biodiversity studies of the Yellow Sea.

  13. Cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes during encystment of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Emilie; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Thomas, Vincent; Hartemann, Philippe; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Héchard, Yann

    2012-04-01

    Free-living amoebae are protozoa found in soil and water. Among them, some are pathogenic and many have been described as potential reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria. Their cell cycle is divided into at least two forms, the trophozoite and the cyst, and the differentiation process is named encystment. As cysts are more resistant to disinfection treatments than trophozoites, many studies focused on encystment, but until recently, little was known about cellular, biochemical, and molecular modifications operating during this process. Important signals and signaling pathways at play during encystment, as well as cell responses at the molecular level, have been described. This review summarizes our knowledge and focuses on new findings.

  14. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  15. Spatiotemporal and Ecological Patterns of Mycobacterium microti Infection in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M; Ferrari, N; Giardiello, D; Avisani, D; Pacciarini, M L; Alborali, L; Zanoni, M; Boniotti, M B

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium microti has recently been described as the causative agent of tuberculosis-like lesions in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a reservoir specie of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in some European Mediterranean ecosystem. Through a five-year survey on tuberculosis in free-living wild boars, the epidemiological trend of M. microti infections and the host and population risk factors linked with its occurrence were described. Retropharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes of 3041 hunted wild boars from six different districts were macroscopically inspected. The sex and age of each animal were registered, as well as the animal abundance in each district. Lesions compatible with tuberculosis (190) were collected and analysed using a gyrB PCR-RFLP assay. M. microti was identified directly in 99 tissue samples (Prev = 3.26%; 95% CI: 2.67-3.97%), while neither Mycobacterium bovis, nor other members of the MTBC were detected. The probability of being M. microti positive showed spatio-temporal variability, with 26% of increase of risk of being infected for each year. Moreover, a positive effect of wild boar abundance and age on the prevalence was detected. The generalized increase in the European wild boar population, coupled with its sensitivity to M. microti infection, poses a future concern for the identification and management of MTBC members in wild boar.

  16. A preliminary check list of the free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary check list is given of terrestrial free- living and plant-parasitic nematodes of the Kruger National Park. Twenty families, comprising 33 genera and some 50 species are recorded.

  17. Validity of the SenseWear armband step count measure during controlled and free-living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Allen Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The SWA underestimates steps during treadmill walking and appears to overestimate steps during free-living compared to the DIGI pedometer. Caution is warranted when using the SWA to count steps. Modifications are needed to enhance step counting accuracy.

  18. Effectiveness of Cleaners and Sanitizers in Killing Salmonella Newport in the Gut of a Free-Living Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J. Kenney; Gary L. Anderson; Phillip L. Williams; Patricia D. Millner; Larry R. Beuchat

    2004-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode found in soil, has been shown to ingest human enteric pathogens, thereby potentially serving as a vector for preharvest contamination of fruits and vegetables...

  19. Reports on the impact of Caulerpa lentillifera by alien free-living isopod Paracerceis sculpta (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    太田, 悠造

    2014-01-01

    Unidentified free-living isopods (Crustacea, Sphaeromatidae) occurring in an important commercial seaweed bed of Caulerpa lentillifera at Miyako-jima island, southern Japan, are identified herein Paracerceis sculpta (Holmes, 1904...

  20. Mukilteo water sensor time series - Field work coupling measurements of carbon chemistry and distribution of free-living organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate the carbon chemistry conditions experienced by free-living organisms, we will conduct coupled biological/carbon chemistry sampling for key zooplankton...

  1. The astacin metalloprotease moulting enzyme NAS-36 is required for normal cuticle ecdysis in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Birnie, Andrew J; Page, Antony P

    2011-02-01

    Nematodes represent one of the most abundant and species-rich groups of animals on the planet, with parasitic species causing chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide. The prevalence and success of the nematodes is a direct consequence of the exceptionally protective properties of their cuticle. The synthesis of this cuticle is a complex multi-step process, which is repeated 4 times from hatchling to adult and has been investigated in detail in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. This process is known as moulting and involves numerous enzymes in the synthesis and degradation of the collagenous matrix. The nas-36 and nas-37 genes in C. elegans encode functionally conserved enzymes of the astacin metalloprotease family which, when mutated, result in a phenotype associated with the late-stage moulting defects, namely the inability to remove the preceding cuticle. Extensive genome searches in the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep, Haemonchus contortus, and in the filarial nematode of humans, Brugia malayi, identified NAS-36 but not NAS-37 homologues. Significantly, the nas-36 gene from B. malayi could successfully complement the moult defects associated with C. elegans nas-36, nas-37 and nas-36/nas-37 double mutants, suggesting a conserved function for NAS-36 between these diverse nematode species. This conservation between species was further indicated when the recombinant enzymes demonstrated a similar range of inhibitable metalloprotease activities.

  2. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  3. Initial reactivity and magnitude of the acute stress response associated with personality in wild great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Alexander T; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc; Hau, Michaela

    2013-08-01

    Phenotypic correlations, such as those between functionally distinct behavioral traits, can emerge through the action of selection on individual traits, on trait combinations, and through pleiotropic mechanisms. Steroid hormones are known to have pleiotropic effects on a suite of behavioral and physiological traits, including stable individual differences in coping with stress. Characterizing the stress axis in relation to personality, however, has typically focused on estimating baseline and peak levels of glucocorticoids, principally in captive animals. In contrast, the reactivity of the stress response-how quickly it turns on and persists-may better indicate the ability of an individual to cope with challenges, particularly in free-living animals. Using wild great tits (Parus major) we tested the hypothesis that cautious individuals respond to a standardized stressor with a more reactive stress response compared to bolder individuals. Wild birds were captured and tested for exploration behavior in a novel environment-an operational measure of personality in this species-and assessed separately for their glucocorticoid response to a standardized stressor. Slower explorers exhibited a greater elevation in glucocorticoid levels within the first three minutes after capture. Further, slower explorers reached a higher maximum CORT concentration and had higher total exposure to glucocorticoids during the stressor period. These data provide evidence that the temporal reactivity of the endocrine stress response, specifically its speed and magnitude, is associated with stable behavioral traits in free-living animals.

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. A model of extracellular enzymes in free-living microbes: which strategy pays off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traving, Sachia J; Thygesen, Uffe H; Riemann, Lasse; Stedmon, Colin A

    2015-11-01

    An initial modeling approach was applied to analyze how a single, nonmotile, free-living, heterotrophic bacterial cell may optimize the deployment of its extracellular enzymes. Free-living cells live in a dilute and complex substrate field, and to gain enough substrate, their extracellular enzymes must be utilized efficiently. The model revealed that surface-attached and free enzymes generate unique enzyme and substrate fields, and each deployment strategy has distinctive advantages. For a solitary cell, surface-attached enzymes are suggested to be the most cost-efficient strategy. This strategy entails potential substrates being reduced to very low concentrations. Free enzymes, on the other hand, generate a radically different substrate field, which suggests significant benefits for the strategy if free cells engage in social foraging or experience high substrate concentrations. Swimming has a slight positive effect for the attached-enzyme strategy, while the effect is negative for the free-enzyme strategy. The results of this study suggest that specific dissolved organic compounds in the ocean likely persist below a threshold concentration impervious to biological utilization. This could help explain the persistence and apparent refractory state of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM). Microbial extracellular enzyme strategies, therefore, have important implications for larger-scale processes, such as shaping the role of DOM in ocean carbon sequestration.

  6. A pharmacological study of NLP-12 neuropeptide signaling in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Lise; Janssen, Tom; De Haes, Wouter; Beets, Isabel; Meelkop, Ellen; Grant, Warwick; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-03-01

    NLP-12a and b have been identified as cholecystokinin/sulfakinin-like neuropeptides in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are suggested to play an important role in the regulation of digestive enzyme secretion and fat storage. This study reports on the identification and characterization of an NLP-12-like peptide precursor gene in the rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. The S. ratti NLP-12 peptides are able to activate both C. elegans CKR-2 receptor isoforms in a dose-dependent way with affinities in the same nanomolar range as the native C. elegans NLP-12 peptides. The C-terminal RPLQFamide sequence motif of the NLP-12 peptides is perfectly conserved between free-living and parasitic nematodes. Based on systemic amino acid replacements the Arg-, Leu- and Phe- residues appear to be critical for high-affinity receptor binding. Finally, a SAR analysis revealed the essential pharmacophore in C. elegans NLP-12b to be the pentapeptide RPLQFamide.

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Free-Living Amoebae from Different Water Sources in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa ubiquitous in Nature, isolated from a variety of environments worldwide. In addition to their natural distribution, some species have been found to be pathogenic to humans. In the present study a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence and to characterize at molecular level the isolates of amoebic organisms collected from different water sources in Italy. A total of 160 water samples were analyzed by culture and microscopic examination. FLA were found in 46 (28.7% of the investigated water samples. Groundwater, well waters, and ornamental fountain waters were the sources with higher prevalence rates (85.7%, 50.0%, and 45.9%, respectively. Identification of FLA species/genotypes, based on the 18S rDNA regions, allowed to identify 18 (39.1% Acanthamoeba isolates (genotypes T4 and T15 and 21 (45.6% Vermamoeba vermiformis isolates. Other FLA species, including Vahlkampfia sp. and Naegleria spp., previously reported in Italy, were not recovered. The occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in habitats related to human population, as reported in the present study, supports the relevance of FLA as a potential health threat to humans.

  8. Soil Contamination With Free-Living Amoeba in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaghegh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Free-living amoebas are very abundant in nature, especially in water and soil. Some species of amoebas cause serious and sometimes fatal infections such a keratitis in people with normal and suppressed immune systems. Based on the prevalence of amoebic keratitis in Iran, it is important to consider the free-living amoeba. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. in soil samples of Sari, North of Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 96 soil samples from three areas of Sari were collected to be examined for soil contamination with Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of these parasites by Sheather’s flotation technique and Gimsa staining method. The identification of Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. at the genus level in this study was based on distinctive features of double walled cysts. Results Of the 96 studied samples, from different environmental locations in Sari, 38 (39.6% Acanthamoeba and 5 (5.2% Hartmannella species were identified. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed that soil resources of these areas were contaminated with opportunistic amoebas such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. and this may lead to severe diseases in high-risk people, such as immunocompromised patients.

  9. Survey of pathogenic free-living amoebae and Legionella spp. in mud spring recreation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Lin, Che-Li; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria are free-living amoebae, ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Several species within these genera are recognized as potential human pathogens. These free-living amoebae may facilitate the proliferation of their parasitical bacteria, such as Legionella. In this study, we identified Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, Naegleria, and Legionella using various analytical procedures and investigated their occurrence at a mud spring recreation area in Taiwan. We investigated factors potentially associated with the prevalence of the pathogens, including various water types, and physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 34 sites and Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, Naegleria, and Legionella were detected in 8.8%, 35.3%, 14.7%, and 47.1%, respectively. The identified species of Acanthamoeba included Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Nearly all the Hartmannella isolates are identified as Hartmannella vermiformis. The Naegleria species included Naegleria australiensis and its sister groups, and two other isolates referred to a new clade of Naegleria genotypes. The Legionella species identified included unnamed Legionella genotypes, Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, uncultured Legionella spp., Legionella lytica, Legionella drancourtii, and Legionella waltersii. Significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, Pfree-living amoebae and Legionella are prevalent in this Taiwanese mud spring recreation area. The presence of pathogens should be considered a potential health threat when associated with human activities in spring water.

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of free-living amoebae from different water sources in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano Di Filippo, Margherita; Santoro, Maristella; Lovreglio, Piero; Monno, Rosa; Capolongo, Carmen; Calia, Carla; Fumarola, Luciana; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David

    2015-03-24

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa ubiquitous in Nature, isolated from a variety of environments worldwide. In addition to their natural distribution, some species have been found to be pathogenic to humans. In the present study a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence and to characterize at molecular level the isolates of amoebic organisms collected from different water sources in Italy. A total of 160 water samples were analyzed by culture and microscopic examination. FLA were found in 46 (28.7%) of the investigated water samples. Groundwater, well waters, and ornamental fountain waters were the sources with higher prevalence rates (85.7%, 50.0%, and 45.9%, respectively). Identification of FLA species/genotypes, based on the 18S rDNA regions, allowed to identify 18 (39.1%) Acanthamoeba isolates (genotypes T4 and T15) and 21 (45.6%) Vermamoeba vermiformis isolates. Other FLA species, including Vahlkampfia sp. and Naegleria spp., previously reported in Italy, were not recovered. The occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in habitats related to human population, as reported in the present study, supports the relevance of FLA as a potential health threat to humans.

  11. Growth ability of Gram negative bacteria in free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeybek, Zuhal; Binay, Ali Rıza

    2014-11-01

    When bacteria and free-living amoebae (FLAs) live both in natural waters and man-made aquatic systems, they constantly interact with each other. Some bacteria can survive and grow within FLAs. Therefore, it has recently been thought that FLAs play an important role in spreading pathogenic bacteria in aquatic systems. In this study we investigated the intracellular growing ability of 7 different Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Aeromonas salmonicida, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, L. pneumophila serogroup 3, L. pneumophila serogroup 6) in four different FLA isolates (A1-A4). Among these, four bacterial isolates (P. fluorescens, P.putida, P.pneumotropica, A.salmonicida) and two free-living amoebae isolates (A3, A4) were isolated from the tap water in our city (Istanbul). It was found that 4 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A1, 2 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A2, 4 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A3, 1 Gram-negative bacterium could grow in A4. In conclusion, we think that this ability of growth could vary according to the characteristics of both bacteria and FLA isolates. Also, other factors such as environmental temperature, bacterial concentration, and extended incubation period may play a role in these interactions. This situation can be clarified with future studies.

  12. Survey of Danish Free Living Otters Lutra lutra - a Consecutive Collection and Necroscopy of Dead Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen A.B.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1979-1993 194 dead Danish otters Lutra lutra were received. Of these, 145 were necropsied and the cause of death, sex, age and body condition determined. Traffic mortality (45.4% and drowning (32.5% constituted the major cause of death. Shot-gun lead pellets were detected in 5% of the otters. Inclusion bodies indicating distemper virus infection were found for the first time in a free living otter population. Angistrongylus vasorum larvae were found in the lungs of free living otters for the first time. No ectoparasites were found. Infectious agents were detected in 22.1 % of the otters although only few otters appeared to have died from infections. The age distribution was not significantly different between the two sexes. Body condition for otters, which died violently in Denmark was comparable to findings in Shetland, where thriving populations exist. The results showed a considerable decrease in number of otters found drowned in fish traps coinciding with the introduction of stop grids in fish traps in 1986. The results suggest that the existing otter population in Denmark is healthy and in good condition but it cannot be excluded that the large number of otters killed by traffic threatens the continued expansion of the species.

  13. Eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Megan A; Howarth, Nancy C; Roberts, Susan B; Huang, Terry T-K

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of eating frequency to weight control is poorly understood. This review examines the evidence to date on the role of eating frequency in weight control in free-living adults. The majority of cross-sectional studies in free-living adults show an inverse relationship between eating frequency and adiposity; however, this is likely an artifact produced by the underreporting of eating frequency concurrent with underreporting of energy intake. When implausible energy intake reporting (which is mostly underreporting) is taken into account, the association between eating frequency and adiposity becomes positive. In studies in which eating frequency is prescribed and food intake is mostly self-selected, there is either no effect or a minor positive effect of eating frequency on energy intake. Most of those studies have been short-term and lack the necessary dietary biomarkers to validate reported energy intakes and eating frequencies. In conclusion, there is some suggestion from cross-sectional studies in which energy intake underreporting is taken into account and from experimental studies to date that greater eating frequency may promote positive energy balance. However, experimental studies of longer-term duration that include objective dietary biomarkers are necessary before firm conclusions about the relative importance of eating frequency in weight control can be made.

  14. Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Mahboob, Tooba; Mong, Brandon G. J.; Jaturas, Narong; Richard, Reena Leeba; Tian-Chye, Tan; Phimphila, Anusorn; Mahaphonh, Panomphanh; Aye, Kyaw Nyein; Aung, Wai Lynn; Chuah, Joon; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yasiri, Atipat; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-01-01

    Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature. Morphological identification was conducted for both trophozoites and cysts via microscopic stains (Giemsa and immunofluorescence). The presence of Naegleria-like structures was the most frequently encountered in both treated and untreated water samples, followed by Acanthamoeba-like and Vermamoeba-like features. To identify the pathogenic isolates, species-specific primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba. The pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba lenticulata and A. triangularis were detected from untreated water samples, while Vermamoeba vermiformis was found in both treated and untreated water samples. Our results suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples. Regular monitoring and examination of water qualities are necessary in order to control the growth, hence, further preventing the widespread of FLA infections among the public. PMID:28212409

  15. Differential expression of disulfide reductase enzymes in a free-living platyhelminth (Dugesia dorotocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Juárez, Álvaro Miguel; Martínez-González, José de Jesús; del Arenal Mena, Irene Patricia; Flores-Herrera, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    A search of the disulfide reductase activities expressed in the adult stage of the free-living platyhelminth Dugesia dorotocephala was carried out. Using GSSG or DTNB as substrates, it was possible to obtain a purified fraction containing both GSSG and DTNB reductase activities. Through the purification procedure, both disulfide reductase activities were obtained in the same chromatographic peak. By mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified fraction, the presence of glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR), and a putative thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) was detected. Using the gold compound auranofin to selectively inhibit the GSSG reductase activity of TGR, it was found that barely 5% of the total GR activity in the D. dorotocephala extract can be assigned to GR. Such strategy did allow us to determine the kinetic parameters for both GR and TGR. Although It was not possible to discriminate DTNB reductase activity due to TrxR from that of TGR, a chromatofocusing experiment with a D. dorotocephala extract resulted in the obtention of a minor protein fraction enriched in TrxR, strongly suggesting its presence as a functional protein. Thus, unlike its parasitic counterparts, in the free-living platyhelminth lineage the three disulfide reductases are present as functional proteins, albeit TGR is still the major disulfide reductase involved in the reduction of both Trx and GSSG. This fact suggests the development of TGR in parasitic flatworms was not linked to a parasitic mode of life. PMID:28787021

  16. Compromised immune competence in free-living tree swallows exposed to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Dana M; Hallinger, Kelly K; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant and a well-documented immunosuppressor. However, little is known about the effects of mercury contamination on health of free-living vertebrate populations. The South River in Virginia, USA was heavily contaminated with industrial mercury from 1929 to 1950, and recent studies have documented high levels of circulating mercury in riparian songbirds breeding below the site of contamination. Here we used two standardized immune assays, mitogen-induced swelling in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), to test for effects of mercury toxicity on the immune system of female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) which feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects along the contaminated waterway. We found that females breeding at mercury-contaminated sites mounted significantly weaker PHA-induced swelling responses than those at reference sites in both years of study. However, among females on the contaminated sites, individual bloodstream mercury concentration did not predict the extent of mitogen-induced swelling. We did not detect any differences between reference and contaminated females in the strength of antibody responses to SRBCs, but sample sizes for this assay were significantly smaller. Overall, our results suggest that mercury toxicity can exert sub-lethal immunosuppression in free-living, insectivorous songbirds. The potential fitness consequences of the detected differences in immunocompetence caused by mercury toxicity warrant further study.

  17. Granulomatous encephalitis, intracranial arteritis, and mycotic aneurysm due to a free-living ameba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A J; Sotelo-Avila, C; Alcalá, H; Willaert, E

    1980-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis are well recognized clinicopathological entities caused by free-living amebas. Associated arteritis and "mycotic aneurysms" with infiltration of intracranial arteries by lymphocytes, amebic trophozoites and cysts have not been previously reported. A 26-month-old girl had a 3-week history of encephalitis, characterized, initially, by vomiting and low-grade fever. Subsequently, she developed ataxia, generalized weakness, lethargy, and esotropia. The first CSF showed 490 RBC/microliters, 705 WBC/microliters with 90% mononuclears. Her pupils reacted briskly to light. Moderate nuchal rigidity, nystagmus, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, bilateral 6th nerve palsy, left arm monoparesis and left Babinski were present. CAT scan revealed slight symmetrical dilatation of anterior horns of lateral ventricles and an area of abnormal enhancement above the 3rd ventricle. She died 14 days after admission, 5 weeks after onset of symptoms. The brain showed focal necrotizing encephalopathy, involving thalami, cerebellum, brain stem, and cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. Numerous free-living amebic trophozoites and cysts were present within a chronic granulomatous encephalitis. There were trombosis of basilar, posterior cerebral, and vertebral arteries with profuse chronic panarteritis, fibrinoid necrosis, and mycotic aneurysms.

  18. Free-living amoebae used to isolate consortia capable of degrading trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Katz, D.S.; Little, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kennedy, J.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The interaction of protozoa with prokaryotes is well documented. These interactions can be either ecto- or endosymbiotic. An example of photosynthetic symbiosis is the well-defined interaction between paramecium and entrapped Chlorella. Paramecium can also form symbiotic relationships with gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria. Jeon has described an interaction between amoebae and engulfed bacteria, that eventuated into a dependency of the amoebae on the presence of the engulfed bacterium. Free-living amoebae and tetrahymena can engulf and subsequently provide the necessary niche for the replication of Legionella. Acanthamoebae trophozoites and cysts can harbor and support the replication of unidentified gram-negative bacteria. King has recently shown that bacteria associated with free-living amoebae are more resistant to toxic environments. Assuming that methylotrophic bacteria in situ are a part of a mixed community, and based on our observations that bacteria associated with protozoa may not be easily isolated by standard techniques, we attempted to use protozoa as a tool to isolate TCE-degrading bacteria.

  19. Presence of free-living amoebae in portable and stationary eye wash stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Lyle, M.M.; Ironside, K.S.

    1987-11-01

    Portable and stationary eye wash stations were tested for the presence of free-living amoebae. Such amoebae may be found in potable waters, and at least one genera, the Acanthamoebae, can cause severe infections when introduced into traumatized eyes. Concentrates or filtrates of water from eye wash stations were placed on nonnutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Resultant outgrowths of free-living amoebae, which were morphologically identified as mixtures of Hartmannella and Acanthamoebae, were inoculated intranasally into weanling mice. Subsequently, brain and lung tissues from inject mice were tested for amoebae as an indication of persistent infection. Acanthamoebae and Hartmannella were detected in some eye wash stations at each of four test sites. Both portable and stationary stations harbored Acanthamoebae. Some of the isolates caused persistent pulmonary infection but were not isolated from brain tissue. Flushing stationary eye wash stations temporarily reduced the number of stations positive for amoebae. Treatment of portable stations with 25 ppm of free chlorine also reduced the number of stations harboring amoebae but caused corrosion in some of the stations.

  20. A Model of Extracellular Enzymes in Free-Living Microbes: Which Strategy Pays Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, Uffe H.; Riemann, Lasse; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    An initial modeling approach was applied to analyze how a single, nonmotile, free-living, heterotrophic bacterial cell may optimize the deployment of its extracellular enzymes. Free-living cells live in a dilute and complex substrate field, and to gain enough substrate, their extracellular enzymes must be utilized efficiently. The model revealed that surface-attached and free enzymes generate unique enzyme and substrate fields, and each deployment strategy has distinctive advantages. For a solitary cell, surface-attached enzymes are suggested to be the most cost-efficient strategy. This strategy entails potential substrates being reduced to very low concentrations. Free enzymes, on the other hand, generate a radically different substrate field, which suggests significant benefits for the strategy if free cells engage in social foraging or experience high substrate concentrations. Swimming has a slight positive effect for the attached-enzyme strategy, while the effect is negative for the free-enzyme strategy. The results of this study suggest that specific dissolved organic compounds in the ocean likely persist below a threshold concentration impervious to biological utilization. This could help explain the persistence and apparent refractory state of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM). Microbial extracellular enzyme strategies, therefore, have important implications for larger-scale processes, such as shaping the role of DOM in ocean carbon sequestration. PMID:26253668

  1. Free-living nematodes in the freshwater food web: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Nabil; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Free-living nematodes are well-recognized as an abundant and ubiquitous component of benthic communities in inland waters. Compelling evidence from soil and marine ecosystems has highlighted the importance of nematodes as trophic intermediaries between microbial production and higher trophic levels. However, the paucity of empirical evidence of their role in freshwater ecosystems has hampered their inclusion in our understanding of freshwater food web functioning. This literature survey provides an overview of research efforts in the field of freshwater nematode ecology and of the complex trophic interactions between free-living nematodes and microbes, other meiofauna, macro-invertebrates, and fishes. Based on an analysis of the relevant literature and an appreciation of the potential of emerging approaches for the evaluation of nematode trophic ecology, we point out research gaps and recommend relevant directions for further research. The latter include (i) interactions of nematodes with protozoans and fungi; (ii) nonconsumptive effects of nematodes on microbial activity and the effects of nematodes on associated key ecosystem processes (decomposition, primary production); and (iii) the feeding selectivity and intraspecific feeding variability of nematodes and their potential impacts on the structure of benthic communities.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental performance of wild-caught North Sea whitefish : A comparison with aquaculture and animal husbandry using LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Taal, C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bakker, T.; Viets, T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel om de kwaliteiten van wild gevangen witvis uit de Noordzee in kaart te brengen en te vergelijken met de kwaliteiten van geïmporteerde, gekweekte vis en van vlees. We richten ons daarbij in het bijzonder op de milieuprestaties. In dit onderzoek doorlopen we de volgende st

  4. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    Full Text Available Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  5. Telomere dynamics in free-living edible dormice (Glis glis): the impact of hibernation and food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, Franz; Cornils, Jessica S; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    We studied the impact of hibernation and food supply on relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator for aging and somatic maintenance, in free-living edible dormice. Small hibernators such as dormice have ∼50% higher maximum longevity than non-hibernators. Increased longevity could theoretically be due to prolonged torpor directly slowing cellular damage and RTL shortening. However, although mitosis is arrested in mammals at low body temperatures, recent evidence points to accelerated RTL shortening during periodic re-warming (arousal) from torpor. Therefore, we hypothesized that these arousals during hibernation should have a negative effect on RTL. Here, we show that RTL was shortened in all animals over the course of ∼1 year, during which dormice hibernated for 7.5-11.4 months. The rate of periodic arousals, rather than the time spent euthermic during the hibernation season, was the best predictor of RTL shortening. This finding points to negative effects on RTL of the transition from low torpor to high euthermic body temperature and metabolic rate during arousals, possibly because of increased oxidative stress. The animals were, however, able to elongate their telomeres during the active season, when food availability was increased by supplemental feeding in a year of low natural food abundance. We conclude that in addition to their energetic costs, periodic arousals also lead to accelerated cellular damage in terms of RTL shortening. Although dormice are able to counteract and even over-compensate for the negative effects of hibernation, restoration of RTL appears to be energetically costly.

  6. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  7. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Samiko Miyazaki ONUMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2% jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01. All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  8. Twelve-year proximity relationships in a captive group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Onishi, Kenji; Silldorf, April; Sexton, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Proximity data were collected in a captive breeding group of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park (currently called the San Diego Zoo Safari Park) twice a year (spring and fall periods) for over 12 years, by using a convenient method in which individuals less than 5 m from each animal in the group were recorded by scan sampling, approximately once per hour. Immature females from infancy to young adulthood maintained relatively frequent proximity to both their mothers and the silverback male and spent little time alone (no animals within 10 m), with relatively large individual differences. On the other hand, immature males decreased the time spent near their mothers and the silverback male and increased the time spent alone with increasing age. Therefore, sex differences in proximity to mothers and the silverback male became apparent after late juvenility. Some adult females maintained increased frequency of proximity to the silverback male than that by other females over the 12-year period, indicating the presence of long-term, stable proximity relationships between the silverback male and the adult females. Such long-term, stable proximity relationships were also observed among adult females. Some association patterns reported in wild gorillas, such as frequent proximity between adult females with dependent offspring and the silverback male and close relationships between related females, were not observed in the present study. The idiosyncratic or individual factors influencing some association patterns were easily reflected in captive situations.

  9. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  10. Is there a link between free-living nitrogen fixation rates and nitrogen mineralization rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smercina, D.; Tiemann, L. K.; Friesen, M.; Evans, S. E.; West, W.

    2016-12-01

    Plant accessible nitrogen (N) is controlled by the rates of N fixation (N-fix) and N mineralization (N-min), yet the relationship between these two processes is relatively unexplored. In particular, we know relatively little about the rates of free-living N-fix, thought to be supported mainly by plant root exudates. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the link between N-fix and N-min rates in terrestrial soil systems. To address this knowledge gap, we are using a three-pronged approach, including a meta-analysis, a greenhouse study and field experiments. Following an extensive literature search, we found 12 papers that simultaneously reported N-fix and N-min rates. Surprisingly, these data indicated a positive relationship between N-fix and N-min rates; however, the scarcity of data limits our ability to draw any strong conclusions. We have explored the relationship between N-fix and N-min in a controlled greenhouse experiment using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) because recent evidence suggests switchgrass may support free-living N-fix when N limited. Indeed, in our study, switchgrass and soils exposed to N limiting conditions experienced no adverse effects, namely no differences in plant growth or tissue chemistry (C:N), or soil enzyme activities compared to non-N limiting conditions. Soils used in this study are from marginal lands, low in soil organic matter and N, so it is likely N deficits are compensated for via N-fix. Analysis of 15N2 -fix and gross N-min rates, determined via 15N pool dilution, will elucidate this source of N. Finally, our field experiment encompasses six marginal land sites across MI and WI, part of the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center. In 2016, we measured N-fix and N-min rates in switchgrass monoculture plots at all six sites once, at the peak of growing season, and bi-weekly, from April to September, at two MI field sites. Data collected to date from two MI sites show no difference in N-min rates in N fertilized versus

  11. Purifying selection in mitochondria, free-living and obligate intracellular proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadin Konstantin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of elimination of slightly deleterious mutations depends mainly on drift and recombination frequency. Here we analyze the influence of these two factors on the strength of the purifying selection in mitochondrial and proteobacterial orthologous genes taking into account the differences in the organism lifestyles. Results (I We found that the probability of fixation of nonsynonymous substitutions (Kn/Ks in mitochondria is significantly lower compared to obligate intracellular bacteria and even marginally significantly lower compared to free-living bacteria. The comparison of bacteria of different lifestyles demonstrates more effective elimination of slightly deleterious mutations in (II free-living bacteria as compared to obligate intracellular species and in (III obligate intracellular parasites as compared to obligate intracellular symbionts. (IV Finally, we observed that the level of the purifying selection (i.e. 1-Kn/Ks increases with the density of mobile elements in bacterial genomes. Conclusion This study shows that the comparison of patterns of molecular evolution of orthologous genes between ecologically different groups of organisms allow to elucidate the genetic consequences of their various lifestyles. Comparing the strength of the purifying selection among proteobacteria with different lifestyles we obtained results, which are in concordance with theoretical expectations: (II low effective population size and level of recombination in obligate intracellular proteobacteria lead to less effective elimination of mutations compared to free-living relatives; (III rare horizontal transmissions, i.e. effectively zero recombination level in symbiotic obligate intracellular bacteria leads to less effective purifying selection than in parasitic obligate intracellular bacteria; (IV the increased frequency of recombination in bacterial genomes with high mobile element density leads to a more effective

  12. Patterns of physical activity in free-living adults in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, M S; Acra, S; Majchrzak, K M; Sun, M; Chen, K Y

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the amount and patterns of physical activity (PA), body fatness, and age in a heterogeneous adult population in the free living. Cross-sectional study of the amount of PA over a 1-week period. The amount of body movements during PA (PA counts*10(3)) and time spent on various PA intensity categories were calculated from a triaxial accelerometer and compared with subject characteristics, including body fat from hydrodensitometry. Adult healthy men (n=48) and women (n=72) were recruited from the Nashville, Tennessee area and their PA was monitored in their free-living environment. The average weekday PA counts (176.5+/-60.3, P=0.002, r(2)=0.294), PA counts day-to-day variability (47.3+/-32.7, P=0.002, r(2)=0.286), daily maximum PA counts (241.9+/-89.2, P=0.001, r(2)=0.327), minute-to-minute variability on weekdays (0.281+/-0.091, P=0.001, r(2)=0.362), and the difference between maximum and minimum daily PA counts (130.6+/-78.3, P=0.008, r(2)=0.243) were significantly and negatively correlated with body fatness. During awake time, both men and women spent 10-12 h on low intensity (1.0-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)) PA, approximately 1 h on moderate (3.0-5.9 MET), and less than 10 min on vigorous (>6.0 MET) PA each day. On weekends, men and women spent more time at rest (1 MET), less time on low-intensity PA, and men spent more time on moderate PA than on weekdays. In adults living in the Southern US the amount of free-living PA was negatively correlated with body fatness. Both men and women spent the majority of active time on low and moderate PA. PA patterns on weekends were different than on weekdays and were related to sex and age, but not to body fatness. National Institutes of Health, US.

  13. Concurrent Validity of Wearable Activity Trackers Under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Skyler M; An, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Noble, John M; Berg, Kris E; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Brooke, SM, An, H-S, Kang, S-K, Noble, JM, Berg, KE, and Lee, J-M. Concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers under free-living conditions. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1097-1106, 2017-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers in energy expenditure (EE) and sleep period time (SPT) under free-living conditions. Ninety-five (28.5 ± 9.8 years) healthy men (n = 34) and women (n = 61) participated in this study. The total EE and SPT were measured using 8 monitors: Nike+ FuelBand SE (NFB), Garmin VivoFit (VF), Misfit Shine (MF), Fitbit Flex (FF), Jawbone UP (JU), Polar Loop (PL), Fitbit Charge HR (FC), and SenseWear Armband Mini (SWA) (criterion measures: SWA for EE and a sleep log for SPT). The mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for EE was 13.0, 15.2, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2, 22.8, and 24.5% for PL, MF, FF, NFB, FC, JU, and VF, respectively. Mean absolute percent errors were calculated for SPT to be 4.0, 8.8, 10.2, 11.5, 12.9, 13.6, 17.5, and 21.61% for VF, FF, JU, FC, MF, SWA laying down, PL, and SWA, respectively. Concurrent validity was examined using equivalence testing on EE (equivalence zone: 2,889.7-3,531.9 kcal); 2 trackers fell short of falling in the zone: PL (2,714.4-3,164.8 kcal) and FC (2,473.8-3,066.5 kcal). For SPT (equivalence zone: 420.6-514.0 minutes), several monitors fell in the zone: PL (448.3-485.6 minutes), MS (442.8-492.2 minutes), and FF (427.7-486.7 minutes). This study suggests that the PL and FC provide a reasonable estimate of EE under free-living conditions. The PL, FC, and MF were the most valid monitors used for measuring SPT.

  14. Identification, using isoenzyme electrophoresis and monoclonal antibodies, of Leishmania isolated from humans and wild animals of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimori, T; Grimaldi, G; Kreutzer, R D; Gomez, E A; McMahon-Pratt, D; Tesh, R B; Hashiguchi, Y

    1989-02-01

    Six strains of Leishmania isolated from wild mammals and humans on the Pacific Coast of Ecuador were identified by isoenzyme electrophoresis and by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. Single isolates from Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla were identified as Leishmania amazonensis. Three other strains, isolated from cutaneous lesions of humans, were identified as Leishmania panamensis.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma sp. in Free-Living Gray Brockets (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongruel, Anna Claudia Baumel; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; André, Marcos Rogério; Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Seki, Meire Christina

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria in the genus Anaplasma are responsible for diseases in animals and humans. Studies carried out in Brazil have demonstrated that Brazilian deer are able to act as hosts of agents in the family Anaplasmataceae and are possibly potential reservoirs of these pathogens. Molecular and phylogenetic studies have been carried out on samples of two gray brocket specimens (Mazama gouazoubira) from the city of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Brazil, for the detection of Anaplasma sp. in these animals. Partial nucleotide sequences of the genes 16S rRNA and groESL were used for phylogenetic analyses and compared with other 13 and 17 partial sequences of the respective genes obtained in GenBank. These assessments showed topological incongruence among the trees generated in the phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis based on the gene 16S rRNA of the genotypes amplified in the samples of this study was similar to those of A. bovis detected in dogs and wild deer in Japan, whereas studies carried out on gene groESL indicated proximity with sequences of Anaplasma sp. that were also isolated in deer in Japan and allocated in the same clade of partial sequences of A. phagocytophilum. As the 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved, with few polymorphic positions, it may show low reliability for studies on phylogenetic positioning. The present study detected an Anaplasma sp. genotype in two specimens of M. gouazoubira in southern Brazil, which may mean that this agent possibly circulates in deer populations, and demonstrated the need for studies related to the possible role of deer in enzootic cycles of Anaplasmataceae in Brazil.

  16. [Regulation of cortical cytoskeleton dynamics during migration of free-living amoebae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Wasik, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Amoeba proteus and smaller by an order of magnitude (and evolutionary younger) Acanthamoeba castellanii have been for many years model cells for studies of amoeboidal (crawling) type of movement, characteristic also for some of metazoan cells such as fibroblasts, granulocytes and macrophages. Amoeboidal migration is indispensable of organization and dynamics of actin-based cytoskeleton. While there is a number of data on molecular mechanisms of motility of A. castellanii, there is very little known about bases of migration of A. proteus. Noteworthy, a large A. proteus (length approximately 600 microm) have been from over a century an object for studies on biology and physiology of cellular migration. This review describes the current knowledge on molecular aspects of force generation required for migration of these two amoebae and attempts to compare the functioning and regulation of actin cytoskeleton in these free-living unicellular species.

  17. Free-living amoebae in sediments from the Lascaux Cave in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lascaux Cave in France is an old karstic channel where the running waters are collected in a pool and pumped to the exterior. It is well-known that water bodies in the vicinity of humans are suspected to be reservoirs of amoebae and associated bacteria. In fact, the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba astronyxis, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba sp. and Hartmannella vermiformis were identif ied in the sediments of the cave using phylogenetic analyses and morphological traits. Lascaux Cave sediments and rock walls are wet due to a relative humidity near saturation and water condensation, and this environment and the presence of abundant bacterial communities constitute an ideal habitat for amoebae. The data suggest the need to carry out a detailed survey on all the cave compartments in order to determine the relationship between amoebae and pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F; Shaw, Jenny C; Whitney, Kathleen L; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Boch, Charlie A; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunham, Eleca J; Fredensborg, Brian L; Huspeni, Todd C; Lorda, Julio; Mababa, Luzviminda; Mancini, Frank T; Mora, Adrienne B; Pickering, Maria; Talhouk, Nadia L; Torchin, Mark E; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2008-07-24

    Parasites can have strong impacts but are thought to contribute little biomass to ecosystems. We quantified the biomass of free-living and parasitic species in three estuaries on the Pacific coast of California and Baja California. Here we show that parasites have substantial biomass in these ecosystems. We found that parasite biomass exceeded that of top predators. The biomass of trematodes was particularly high, being comparable to that of the abundant birds, fishes, burrowing shrimps and polychaetes. Trophically transmitted parasites and parasitic castrators subsumed more biomass than did other parasitic functional groups. The extended phenotype biomass controlled by parasitic castrators sometimes exceeded that of their uninfected hosts. The annual production of free-swimming trematode transmission stages was greater than the combined biomass of all quantified parasites and was also greater than bird biomass. This biomass and productivity of parasites implies a profound role for infectious processes in these estuaries.

  19. Examination of thermally polluted water for free living amoebae and testing for their possible pathogenic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janitschke, K.; Lichy, S.; Westphal, C.

    1982-05-01

    Water and mud samples were collected from canals and rivers which were adjacent to outlets discharging warm water of 3 power plants in Berlin. Downstream samples from 1 bathing resort were also collected. Free living amoebae were isolated from 138 water and 69 mud samples. From these respectively 156 and 73 strains could be cultured and were administered intranasally to mice for pathogenicity tests. Two Acanthamoeba strains from water and 7 from mud could be reisolated from mouse brain and or lungs, although no pathological disorders could be observed. Five Naegleria strains were negative in mouse inoculation tests. Four Acanthamoeba strains which were positive in mice were cultured at + 45 degrees C; no cytopathogenic effects were observed in tissue cultures. Acanthamoeba infective for mice could also be isolated from samples at low water temperatures. Further investigations have to show, whether changes in virulence of amoebic strains are of significance and therefore for epidemiology and pathogenicity in man.

  20. Bioinformatic exploration of RIO protein kinases of parasitic and free-living nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Bert; Jex, Aaron R; Korhonen, Pasi K; Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D; Sternberg, Paul W; Boag, Peter R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-10-01

    Despite right open reading frame kinases (RIOKs) being essential for life, their functions, substrates and cellular pathways remain enigmatic. In the present study, gene structures were characterised for 26 RIOKs from draft genomes of parasitic and free-living nematodes. RNA-seq transcription profiles of riok genes were investigated for selected parasitic nematodes and showed that these kinases are transcribed in developmental stages that infect their mammalian host. Three-dimensional structural models of Caenorhabditis elegans RIOKs were predicted, and elucidated functional domains and conserved regions in nematode homologs. These findings provide prospects for functional studies of riok genes in C. elegans, and an opportunity for the design and validation of nematode-specific inhibitors of these enzymes in socioeconomic parasitic worms.

  1. Free-living amoebae: what part do they play in healthcare-associated infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateau, E; Delafont, V; Hechard, Y; Rodier, M H

    2014-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa that do not require a host organism for survival. They are found in natural environments such as water or soil, and man-made environments including tap water or swimming pools, where they may interact with other micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. FLA can harbour micro-organisms including those found in hospital water systems, offering them protection against hostile conditions, providing a vehicle of dissemination, and enabling them to prepare for subsequent survival in macrophages. The interaction between Legionella pneumophila and FLA has been studied extensively; subsequent investigations have shown that FLA may serve as a reservoir for other bacteria including mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, or even fungi and viruses. Amoebae found in hospital water systems can serve as a reservoir of potential pathogens and thus be indirectly related to healthcare-associated infections.

  2. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.

  5. Ecologically Relevant Cooling Early in Life Alters Prefledging Adrenocortical Response in Free-Living Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Kern, Michael D

    In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks. Thus, natural variation in maternal brooding patterns can result in differential exposure of offspring to cooling, and also to glucocorticoids, very early in development. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to repeated bouts of cooling (mimicking those that occur normally when females leave the nest) would alter the activity of the chicks' HPA axis later in life. We exposed free-living chicks to either four 18-min bouts of cooling or brooding temperatures (control) during the first week after hatching. Then, just before fledging (i.e., at least 7 d after the cooling treatments had ceased), we assessed their corticosterone responses to restraint. Repeatedly cooled chicks had a significantly lower corticosterone response to restraint than did control chicks but did not differ from controls in other measures of growth and development. Our data suggest that natural variation in maternal brooding patterns, and hence natural variation in the chicks' body temperature, can alter the activity of the HPA axis well beyond the brooding period.

  6. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas Gustavo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thioredoxin and/or glutathione pathways occur in all organisms. They provide electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, function as antioxidant defenses, in detoxification, Fe/S biogenesis and participate in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Instead, they possess a linked thioredoxin-glutathione system with the selenocysteine-containing enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR as the single redox hub that controls the overall redox homeostasis. TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available. Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum. Results We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub. In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems. We identify TGR variants in Schistosoma spp. derived from a single gene, and demonstrate their expression. We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites. Conclusions Our results indicate that thioredoxin and glutathione pathways differ in parasitic and free-living flatworms and

  7. Hox genes and the parasitic flatworms: new opportunities, challenges and lessons from the free-living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P D

    2008-03-01

    Research into the roles played by Hox and related homeotic gene families in the diverse and complex developmental programmes exhibited by parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes) can hardly be said to have begun, and thus presents considerable opportunity for new research. Although featured in some of the earliest screens for homeotic genes outside Drosophila and mice, surveys in parasitic flatworms are few in number and almost nothing is yet known of where or when the genes are expressed during ontogeny. This contrasts sharply with a significant body of literature concerning Hox genes in free-living flatworms which have long served as models for the study of regeneration and the maintenance of omnipotent cell lines. Nevertheless, available information suggests that the complement of Hox genes and other classes of homeobox-containing genes in parasitic flatworms is typical of their free-living cousins and of other members of the Lophotrochozoa. Recent work on Schistosoma combined with information on Hox gene expression in planarians indicates that at least some disruption of the clustered genomic arrangement of the genes, as well as of the strict spatial and temporal colinear patterns of expression typical in other groups, may be characteristic of flatworms. However, available data on the genomic arrangement and expression of flatworm Hox genes is so limited at present that such generalities are highly tenuous. Moreover, a basic underlying pattern of colinearity is still observed in their spatial expression patterns making them suitable as cell or region-specific markers. I discuss a number of fundamental developmental questions and some of the challenges to addressing them in relation to each of the major parasitic lineages. In addition, I present newly characterized Hox genes from the model tapeworm Hymenolepis and analyze these by Bayesian inference together with >100 Hox and ParaHox homeodomains of flatworms and select lophotrochozoan taxa, providing a

  8. A year long study of the presence of free living amoeba in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, A; Fenoy, S; Galván, A L; Izquierdo, F; Rueda, C; Fernandez Vadillo, C; Del Aguila, C

    2013-12-01

    Free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris can act as opportunistic parasites on a wide range of vertebrates and they are becoming a serious threat to human health due to the resistance of their cysts to harsh environmental conditions, disinfectants, some water treatment practices and their ubiquitous distribution. This work was carried out in order to study the presence of these free-living amoebae (FLA) and their possible seasonality in a continental-Mediterranean climate in different types of water. For this purpose, a total of 223 water samples were collected during one year from four drinking water treatment plants (DWTP), seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and six locations of influence (LI) on four river basins from Spain. Water samples were concentrated using the IDEXX Filta-Max(®) system and analyzed by a triplex real time PCR that detects Acanthamoeba, B. mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri. Agar plates were also seeded for Acanthamoeba culture. From the three FLA studied, N. fowleri was not detected in any sample while B. mandrillaris was found at the entrance of a DWTP; this being, to our knowledge, the first report of these protozoa in water worldwide. On the other hand, the presence of Acanthamoeba observed was higher, 94.6% of the studied points were positive by real time PCR and 85.2% by culture, resulting in 99.1% positive for Acanthamoeba with both methods. All genetically analyzed Acanthamoeba were genotype T4 but nine different T4/DF3 sequences were observed, three of them being described for the first time, assigning new codes. No seasonal distribution of Acanthamoeba was found. These facts should serve as a warning to contact lens wearers of the risk of a poor hygiene when handling their contact lenses. It should also serve as a signal to physicians to consider FLA as a possible causative agent of nervous system infections as well as Acanthamoeba keratitis due to their high environmental presence shown in this

  9. Coexistence of free-living amoebae and bacteria in selected South African hospital water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchesa, P; Leifels, M; Jurzik, L; Hoorzook, K B; Barnard, T G; Bartie, C

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, eye and skin human infections. They also allow the survival, growth and transmission of bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria and Vibrio species in water systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and their associated bacteria in hospital water networks in Johannesburg, South Africa. A total of 178 water (n = 95) and swab (n = 83) samples were collected from two hospital water distribution systems. FLA were isolated using the amoebal enrichment technique and identified using PCR and 18S rDNA sequencing. Amoebae potentially containing intra-amoebal bacteria were lysed and cultured on blood agar plates. Bacterial isolates were characterized using the VITEK®2 compact System. Free-living amoebae were isolated from 77 (43.3 %) of the samples. Using microscopy, PCR and 18S rRNA sequencing, Acanthamoeba spp. (T3 and T20 genotypes), Vermamoeba vermiformis and Naegleria gruberi specie were identified. The Acanthamoeba T3 and T20 genotypes have been implicated in eye and central nervous system infections. The most commonly detected bacterial species were Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Delftia acidovorans, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Comamonas testosteroni. These nosocomial pathogenic bacteria are associated with systematic blood, respiratory tract, the urinary tract, surgical wounds and soft tissues infections. The detection of FLA and their associated opportunistic bacteria in the hospital water systems point out to a potential health risk to immune-compromised individuals.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  11. Mechanical and free living comparisons of four generations of the Actigraph activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried-Larsen Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies include multiple generations of the Actigraph activity monitor. So far no studies have compared the output including the newest generation and investigated the impact on the output of the activity monitor when enabling the low frequency extension (LFE option. The aims were to study the responses of four generations (AM7164, GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ of the Actigraph activity monitor in a mechanical setup and a free living environment with and without enabling the LFE option. Methods The monitors were oscillated in a mechanical setup using two radii in the frequency range 0.25-3.0 Hz. Following the mechanical study a convenience sample (N = 20 wore three monitors (one AM7164 and two GT3X for 24 hours. Results The AM7164 differed from the newer generations across frequencies (p -1 were attenuated (p > 0.05 for differences between generations thus attenuated the difference in mean PA (p > 0.05 when the LFE option was enabled. However, it did not attenuate the difference in time spend in vigorous PA and it introduced a difference in time spend in moderate PA (+ 3.0 min (95% CI 0.4 to 5.6 between the generations. Conclusion We observed significant differences between the AM7164 and the newer Actigraph GT-generations (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ in a mechanical setup and in free-living. Enabling the LFE option attenuated the differences in mean PA completely, but induced a bias in the moderate PA intensities.

  12. Community structure and biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; XU Man; ZHANG Jinghuai; LIU Dan; LI Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative study on the community structure and biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes and their relationship with environmental factors in the northern South China Sea were carried out based on the samples collected at five stations in the deep sea (from 313 to 1 600 m) and one station in shallow waters (87 m) during the cruise in September, 2010. Results showed that the abundance of marine nematodes ranged from 224 to 1 996 ind./(10 cm2). A total of 69 free-living marine nematode genera, belonging to 26 families and three orders, were identified. The most dominant genera wereSabatieria,Linhystera,Aegialoalaimus andDaptonema according to SIMPER analysis. Results of CLUSTER analysis revealed four types of marine nematode community (or station groups) in the sampling area. In terms of trophic structure, non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and selective deposit feeders (1A) were the dominant trophic types with highest genera numbers and abundances, which implied that organic detritus was the main food source of marine nematodes in the northern South China Sea. The percentage of male nematode was low, ranging from 2.22% to 17.81%, while those of juvenile individuals ranged from 36.99% to 82.09%. For genera level diversity of marine nematodes, Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') ranged from 3.76 to 4.57 and had highly significant negative correlation with water depth. In general, diversity indicesH' at the five stations in deep sea (over 200 m) were lower than that at the station in shallow waters (87 m). BIOENV analysis showed that the most important environmental factor controlling marine nematode communities was water depth.

  13. Climate changes influence free-living stages of soil-transmitted parasites of European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexander D; Poole, Adam; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming has been suggested to augment the risk of infectious disease outbreaks by extending the seasonal window for parasite growth and by increasing the rate of transmission. Understanding how this occurs in parasite-host systems is important for appreciating long-term and seasonal changes in host exposure to infection and to reduce species extinction caused by diseases. We investigated how free-living stages of two soil-transmitted helminths of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) responded to experimental changes in temperature by performing laboratory experiments with environmental chambers and field manipulations using open-top-chambers. This study was motivated by our previous observations that air temperature has increased over the last 30 years in our field site and that during this period intensity of infection of Graphidium strigosum but not Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was positively associated with this temperature increase. Laboratory and field experiments showed that both parasites accelerated egg development and increased hatching rate and larval survival in response to accumulating thermal energy. Both parasites behaved similarly when exposed to diverse temperature regimes, decadal trends, and monthly fluctuations, however, T. retortaeformis was more successful than G. strigosum by showing higher rates of egg hatching and larval survival. Across the months, the first day of hatching occurred earlier in warmer conditions suggesting that climate warming can lengthen the period of parasite growth and host exposure to infective stages. Also, T. retortaeformis hatched earlier than G. strigosum. These findings showed that seasonal changes in intensity, frequency, and duration of daily temperature are important causes of variability in egg hatching and larva survival. Overall, this study emphasizes the important role of climate warming and seasonality on the dynamics of free-living stages in soil-transmitted helminths and their

  14. Occurrence of free-living amoebae in communities of low and high endemicity for Buruli ulcer in southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddyani, Miriam; De Jonckheere, Johan F; Durnez, Lies; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Leirs, Herwig; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    Buruli ulcer or Mycobacterium ulcerans disease occurs mainly in areas in proximity to standing or slowly running freshwater, habitats in which free-living amoebae occur. For this reason, a possible link between the habitat of M. ulcerans and free-living amoebae was investigated. Free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated from water and biofilm specimens taken from protected and unprotected sources of water in villages known to have either high or low endemicity for Buruli ulcer in Benin. Amoebae were isolated from 78.8% of samples. A greater proportion of water bodies in areas of high endemicity had amoebae than in areas of low endemicity (83.3% versus 66.7%). Protected sources of water were significantly more likely to contain amoebae in areas of high endemicity than in areas of low endemicity (88.0% versus 11.1%). Several pathogenic free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated. However, no M. ulcerans was isolated and no specimen was positive for IS2404 PCR. Our results show that the study area has a water hygiene problem, which is greater in areas of high Buruli ulcer endemicity than in areas of low endemicity. Our observations indicate that additional studies are required to explore the possible link between free-living amoebae and mycobacteria.

  15. Study on Identification of 6 Wild Animal Fur Types%6种野生杂皮动物毛皮种类鉴别的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维红; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the scale structure and elemental composition, and the cross-section microstructures by electron microscope of 6 kinds of wild animal fibers (Macro-pus, Lepus sinensis , Castor fiber, Meles meles , Canis lupus and Martes flavigula) . The results indicate that the physicochemical properties of fibers of 6 kinds of wild animals were significantly different (P<0. 05), in which the cross-section microstructures were different too. The height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale of hair fibers in the 6 kinds of wild miscellaneous leathe animals were different each other. To the same animal, the height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale were different between hair fibers and cashmere fibers. Both of the needle and wool contained 4 kinds of elements, such as C, O, S, Ca. The ratios of C and O were not significantly different. The Ca content of needle was higher than wool, but the content of S was lower. Based on that, it can identify the 6 kinds of animal fur category by microstructure characteristic of wool fiber.%以6种野生杂皮类动物毛纤维为试验材料,测定其鳞片结构及元素组成,并利用扫描电镜比较其超微结构特征.结果显示:6种动物的鳞片结构均有差异(P<0.05),其横截面特征各异.6种野生杂皮动物毛纤维的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标各异,同一种动物的毛纤维和绒纤维的鳞片层的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标也不尽相同;针、绒毛中均含C、O、S、Ca,而C、O的含量比例均差异不大,针毛所含的Ca较多,而S元素较少,绒毛所含的S较多,而Ca元素较少.可依据毛纤维超微结构特征进行6种动物毛皮种类的鉴别.

  16. Modelling spread of foot-and-mouth disease in wild white-tailed deer and feral pig populations using a geographic-automata model and animal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Highfield, Linda D

    2009-09-01

    We investigated how the size and distribution of wild deer and feral pigs - species that might act as potential foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus maintenance hosts - might affect the persistence and spread of FMD. We used a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model and spatially referenced data from southern Texas, USA. Within this study area, 100 locations were randomly selected and FMD virus spread was simulated (50 simulations each) at each location. As expected, the predicted sizes (km(2)) of the wild deer outbreaks were highly correlated (r(SP)>0.95) with the number of deer at incursion locations, the total number of deer within 2 km of incursion locations, and the minimum and maximum deer herd size within 2 km of incursion locations. However, the predicted sizes of the feral pig outbreaks were only moderately correlated (r(SP) 0.63-0.67) with the total, maximum and variance of the number of feral pigs within 2 km of incursion locations. Lack of continuity within the feral pig herd distribution across the landscape makes predicting disease spread more difficult than for deer, a more homogenously distributed species. When assessing the potential of wild and feral animal species at a locality to act as maintenance hosts of FMD virus, estimates of the population size and distribution might serve as a useful indicator of potential outbreaks in some circumstances.

  17. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus G3 in a Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Central Italy Using PCR and Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Antonella; Piseddu, Toni; Sebastianelli, Martina; Manuali, Elisabetta; Corneli, Sara; Paniccià, Marta; Papa, Paola; Viali, Selina; Mazzone, Piera

    2017-01-24

    We report cystic echinococcosis in a free-living wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Europe. Parasites were identified by histopathology and molecular techniques, revealing Echinococcus granulosus of the G3 genotype.

  18. [Investigation of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae and their in vivo pathogenicity in water supplies of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Süleyman; Gürbüz, Esra; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Çetinkaya, Ülfet; Kuk, Salih

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are found widely in soil and water in the nature. Among them in which potentially pathogenic for humans and animals are known as "potential pathogenic free-living amoebae (PPFLA)". PPFLA are characterized as the causes of clinical manifestations leading to death especially in immunosuppressed people. Four genus of PPFLA (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia and Sappinia) are known to be pathogenic to humans. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of PPFLA in the water supplies in Turkey and to determine their in vivo pathogenicity. A total of 664 water samples were collected from the ponds, rivers, streams and wells found in provinces located at different regions (central, western, eastern and southeastern regions) of Turkey. These samples were initially inoculated in the monoxenic culture media and evaluated by both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in terms of the presence of FLA. The samples identified as positive were then cultured in axenic media, the growth of amoebae that were confirmed microscopically, were than studied with PCR for molecular characterization. The isolates that were found positive by PCR from axenic cultures were inoculated intranasally to immunocompetent and immunodeficient (athymic) [BALB/c Rag2(-/-) gamma(c)(-/-)] BALB/c mice followed by the evaluation on the 21st day by histopathological and molecular methods to investigate their in vivo pathogenicity. In our study, 143 water samples were detected as positive in monoxenic cultures and 41 of them were detected as positive in axenic cultures. Twenty of 41 samples detected as positive in axenic culture could be continued in culture for three months. As a result of PCR using primers common to SYA, only nine have been identified from 20 samples as positive. According to the result of the PCR with specific primers, all (n= 9) were positive for Acanthamoeba sp., eight for Sappini sp. and five for Balamuthia mandrillaris, while none was

  19. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  20. Experimental studies of animal social learning in the wild: Trying to untangle the mystery of human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim

    2010-08-01

    Here I discuss how studies on animal social learning may help us understand human culture. It is an evolutionary truism that complex biological adaptations always evolve from less complex but related adaptations, but occasionally evolutionary transitions lead to major biological changes whose end products are difficult to anticipate. Language-based cumulative adaptive culture in humans may represent an evolutionary transition of this type. Most of the social learning observed in animals (and even plants) may be due to mechanisms that cannot produce cumulative cultural adaptations. Likewise, much of the critical content of socially transmitted human culture seems to show no parallel in nonhuman species. Thus, with regard to the uniquely human extent and quality of culture, we are forced to ask: Are other species only a few small steps away from this transition, or do they lack multiple critical features that make us the only truly cultural species? Only future research into animal social learning can answer these questions.

  1. Associations of urban environmental pollution with health-related physiological traits in a free-living bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerová, Petra; Vinklerová, Jitka; Hraníček, Jakub; Čorba, Vojtěch; Vojtek, Libor; Svobodová, Jana; Vinkler, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Urban environmental pollution results in contamination of the tissues of synanthropic organisms by toxic trace elements with potential impacts on human health. Passerine birds may serve as convenient indicators of such contamination. In this study we investigated the effect of blood and plumage contamination with heavy metals (lead Pb, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, chromium Cr) and arsenic metalloid (As) on condition, health and ornamental colour in free-living great tit (Parus major) males from 13 cities across the Czech Republic (EU), mist netted during the early breading season (April-May). Our results showed a significant association of heavy metal tissue contamination with immune function, namely leukocyte composition in the avian blood circulation. High heavy metal contamination in bird feathers was linked to a high heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, indicating long-term stress in individuals inhabiting heavily polluted environments. In contrast, males with higher concentrations of heavy metals in blood had a lower H/L ratio, assumingly due to the direct toxicity of heavy metals in certain cell types. This is also supported by traits indicative of anaemia-like haemolytic conditions (decreased absolute erythrocyte count) and increased haematopoiesis (a tendency for increased frequencies of immature erythrocytes). We did not find any association of heavy metal contamination with the bacteriolytic activity of plasma complement, feather growth or ornamentation (black breast stripe area and yellow colouration). There was no significant relationship between heavy metal contamination in blood or feathers and PM10 pollution at the study sites. Our correlational study is the first to show on a large geographic scale that despite strict European air pollution regulations and regular monitoring that have allowed general improvements in atmospheric contamination, non-degradable heavy metals persistently contaminate animal blood and feathers in anthropogenic environments at

  2. Analyses of RNA Polymerase II genes from free-living protists: phylogeny, long branch attraction, and the eukaryotic big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacks, Joel B; Marinets, Alexandra; Ford Doolittle, W; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Logsdon, John M

    2002-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among major eukaryotic protist lineages are largely uncertain. Two significant obstacles in reconstructing eukaryotic phylogeny are long-branch attraction (LBA) effects and poor taxon sampling of free-living protists. We have obtained and analyzed gene sequences encoding the largest subunit of RNA Polymerase II (RPB1) from Naegleria gruberi (a heterolobosean), Cercomonas ATCC 50319 (a cercozoan), and Ochromonas danica (a heterokont); we have also analyzed the RPB1 gene from the nucleomorph (nm) genome of Guillardia theta (a cryptomonad). Using a variety of phylogenetic methods our analysis shows that RPB1s from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis are probably subject to intense LBA effects. Thus, the deep branching of these taxa on RPB1 trees is questionable and should not be interpreted as evidence favoring their early divergence. Similar effects are discernable, to a lesser extent, with the Mastigamoeba invertens RPB1 sequence. Upon removal of the outgroup and these problematic sequences, analyses of the remaining RPB1s indicate some resolution among major eukaryotic groups. The most robustly supported higher-level clades are the opisthokonts (animals plus fungi) and the red algae plus the cryptomonad nm-the latter result gives added support to the red algal origin of cryptomonad chloroplasts. Clades comprising Dictyostelium discoideum plus Acanthamoeba castellanii (Amoebozoa) and Ochromonas plus Plasmodium falciparum (chromalveolates) are consistently observed and moderately supported. The clades supported by our RPB1 analyses are congruent with other data, suggesting that bona fide phylogenetic relationships are being resolved. Thus, the RPB1 gene has apparently retained some phylogenetically meaningful signal, making it worthwhile to obtain sequences from more diverse protist taxa. Additional RPB1 data, especially in combination with other genes, should provide further resolution of branching orders among protist

  3. Status of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Subhani, Faysal; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The ability of pathogenic free-living amoebae to produce infections is a growing concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty-two domestic tap water samples were examined. Amoebae were identified by morphological characteristics and polymerase chain reaction. Thirty percent of the examined samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., 8% for N. fowleri while B. mandrillaris were not recovered. Additionally we examined secretory IgA antibody to Acanthamoeba and B. mandrillaris. Acanthamoeba antibody prevalence rate was 100% in both males and females, while B. mandrillaris antibody prevalence rate was 5.5% in males only (females were negative). Our findings suggest that free-living amoebae are a potential health hazard in domestic water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan.

  4. Response of free-living soil protozoa and microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 and presence of mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, R.; Gavito, M.; Larsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Possible interactions between mycorrhiza, atmospheric CO2, free-living soil microorganisms and protozoa were investigated in pot experimental systems. Pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Solara) were grown under ambient (360 mul l(-1)) or elevated (700 mul l(-1)) atmospheric CO2 concentration...... with or without the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus caledonium. It was hypothesised that (1) the populations of free-living soil protozoa would increase as a response to elevated CO2, (2) the effect of elevated CO2 on protozoa would be moderated by the presence of mycorrhiza and (3......) the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza would affect soil protozoan numbers regardless of atmospheric CO2. After 3 weeks growth there was no difference in bacterial numbers (direct counts) in soil, but the number of free-living bacterial-feeding protozoa was significantly higher under elevated CO2...

  5. Ability to negotiate stairs predicts free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Matar Abdullah; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Which clinical measures of walking performance best predict free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke? Cross-sectional observational study. 42 community-dwelling stroke survivors. Predictors were four clinical measures of walking performance (speed, automaticity, capacity, and stairs ability). The outcome of interest was free-living physical activity, measured as frequency (activity counts) and duration (time on feet), collected using an activity monitor called the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity. Time on feet was predicted by stairs ability alone (B 166, 95% CI 55 to 278) which accounted for 48% of the variance. Activity counts were also predicted by stairs ability alone (B 6486, 95% CI 2922 to 10 050) which accounted for 58% of the variance. The best predictor of free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke was stairs ability.

  6. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  7. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable,

  8. An acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an Italian zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyls, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific, one-step PCR wit...

  9. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable, li

  10. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms.

  11. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  12. A Comparison of Two Motion Sensors for the Assessment of Free-Living Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Cuberek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the daily step counts recorded by two different motion sensors in order to estimate the free-living physical activity of 135 adolescent girls. Each girl concurrently wore a Yamax pedometer and an ActiGraph accelerometer (criterion measure every day for seven consecutive days. The convergent validity of the pedometer can be considered intermediate when used to measure the step counts in free-living physical activity; but should be considered with caution when used to classify participants’ step counts into corresponding physical activity categories because of a likelihood of ‘erroneous’ classification in comparison with the accelerometer.

  13. The Role of Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Biodegradation in Karst Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural attenuation of groundwater contamination occurs at some level for all aquifers impacted with organic contaminants. The issues regarding natural attenuation are whether it takes place at a sufficient rate to be protective of human health and the environment. Implementation of a Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA remedial alternative for groundwater requires parties responsible for the contamination to demonstrate to regulators and the public that MNA is protective at a given site. Analysis of MNA for remediation of karst aquifers is hampered by a lack of understanding of biodegradation in karst environments. The lack of studies examining biodegradation in karst aquifers may in large part be due to the widespread perception that contaminants are rapidly flushed out of karst aquifers resulting in insufficient residence times for contaminants to biodegrade. In highly developed and well-connected conduit systems, the rate of contaminant migration is perceived to be much faster than the rate of biodegradation. This perception of contaminant transport is largely incorrect. Tracer studies for karst aquifers often indicate that these aquifers are characterized by diverse flow regimes and storage capabilities. Additionally, it is also believed that if bioremediation in bedrock aquifers is dependent upon contact between surface-attached bacteria and contaminants, then bioremediation would be limited by the low surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V of karst aquifers. A quantitative basis, however, for accepting or rejecting the assumption that attached bacteria dominate the biodegradation process in karst conduits has not been shown. The objective of this research was to determine if free-living karst bacteria from contributed as much to toluene biodegradation as attached bacteria. This is an important area of research. Research indicates bacteria are both attached and free-living in karst aquifers and it is unrealistic to think that only the attached

  14. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  15. An Acute Multispecies Episode of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Captive Wild Animals in an Italian Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontoso, R; Autorino, G L; Friedrich, K G; Li, H; Eleni, C; Cocumelli, C; Di Cerbo, P; Manna, G; Scicluna, M T

    2016-12-01

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific PCR with subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, virological and serological examinations. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak, as further deaths due to OvHV-2 still occurred after the removal of the acknowledged reservoirs, domestic sheep and goats. For this purpose, samples from other susceptible species and reservoir hosts were collected for virological and serological analysis. In conjunction, a retrospective sero-investigation was conducted on sera collected between 1999 and 2010 from some of the species involved in the present episode. In total, 11 animals belonging to four different species (banteng, Himalayan tahr, Nile lechwe and sika deer) died between July 2011 and October 2012. The severe gross and histological lesions were consistent with the disease, namely haemorrhages and congestion of several organs as well as lymphoid cell infiltrates and vasculitis of varying severity. The virological tests confirmed that all animals had died of sheep-associated MCF. The investigation indicated that the OvHV-2 infection could have been due to the arrival of sheep in the petting zoo, with cases commencing after first lambing and subsequent shedding of virus. This was also supported by the serological retrospective study that indicated limited previous MCF virus circulation. Further MCF cases that occurred even after the removal of the domestic sheep and goats were attributed to the mouflon. This episode confirms the importance of biosecurity measures in zoos, which house MCF

  16. Effects of harmful cyanobacteria on the freshwater pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Agha, Ramsy; Cirés, Samuel; Lezcano, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Waara, Karl-Otto; Utkilen, Hans; Quesada, Antonio

    2013-04-15

    Grazing is a major regulating factor in cyanobacterial population dynamics and, subsequently, considerable effort has been spent on investigating the effects of cyanotoxins on major metazoan grazers. However, protozoan grazers such as free-living amoebae can also feed efficiently on cyanobacteria, while simultaneously posing a major threat for public health as parasites of humans and potential reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, we conducted several experiments in which the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was exposed to pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and six cyanobacterial strains, three MC-producing strains (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Dha7] MC-RR) and three strains containing other oligopeptides such as anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins. Although the exposure to high concentrations of pure MC-LR yielded no effects on amoeba, all MC-producing strains inflicted high mortality rates on amoeba populations, suggesting that toxic effects must be mediated through the ingestion of toxic cells. Interestingly, an anabaenopeptin-producing strain caused the greatest inhibition of amoeba growth, indicating that toxic bioactive compounds other than MCs are of great importance for amoebae grazers. Confocal scanning microscopy revealed different alterations in amoeba cytoskeleton integrity and as such, the observed declines in amoeba densities could have indeed been caused via a cascade of cellular events primarily triggered by oligopeptides with protein-phosphatase inhibition capabilities such as MCs or anabaenopeptins. Moreover, inducible-defense mechanisms such as the egestion of toxic, MC-producing cyanobacterial cells and the increase of resting stages (encystation) in amoebae co-cultivated with all cyanobacterial strains were observed in our experiments. Consequently, cyanobacterial strains showed different susceptibilities to amoeba grazing which were possibly influenced by the potentiality of their toxic secondary metabolites. Hence, this

  17. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  18. Metagenomic profiles of free-living archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somboonna Naraporn

    2012-12-01

    which could synthesize useful biotechnology gas and enzymes that could also function in high-saline and high-temperature conditions. Tham Phang contained less abundant archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the majority of the extracted metagenomes belonged to animal kingdom. Many microorganisms in Tham Phang were essential for nutrient-recycling and pharmaceuticals, for instances, Streptomyces, Pennicilium and Saccharomyces. Together, the study provided metagenomic profiles of free-living prokaryotes and eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island.

  19. Daily foraging patterns in free-living birds: exploring the predation-starvation trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonter, David N; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Sedgwick, Carolyn W; Hochachka, Wesley M

    2013-06-07

    Daily patterns in the foraging behaviour of birds are assumed to balance the counteracting risks of predation and starvation. Predation risks are a function of the influence of weight on flight performance and foraging behaviours that may expose individuals to predators. Although recent research sheds light on daily patterns in weight gain, little data exist on daily foraging routines in free-living birds. In order to test the predictions of various hypotheses about daily patterns of foraging, we quantified the activity of four species of passerines in winter using radio-frequency identification receivers built into supplemental feeding stations. From records of 472,368 feeder visits by tagged birds, we found that birds generally started to feed before sunrise and continued to forage at a steady to increasing rate throughout the day. Foraging in most species terminated well before sunset, suggesting their required level of energy reserves was being reached before the end of the day. These results support the risk-spreading theorem over a long-standing hypothesis predicting bimodality in foraging behaviour purportedly driven by a trade-off between the risks of starvation and predation. Given the increased energetic demands experienced by birds during colder weather, our results suggest that birds' perceptions of risk are biased towards starvation avoidance in winter.

  20. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  1. Persistent diel melatonin rhythmicity during the Arctic summer in free-living willow warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverin, Bengt; Gwinner, Eberhard; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Schwabl, Ingrid; Fusani, Leonida; Hau, Michaela; Helm, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    Arctic environments are challenging for circadian systems. Around the solstices, the most important zeitgeber, the change between night and day, is reduced to minor fluctuations in light intensities. However, many species including songbirds nonetheless show clear diel activity patterns. Here we examine the possible physiological basis underlying diel rhythmicity under continuous Arctic summer light. Rhythmic secretion of the hormone melatonin constitutes an important part of the songbird circadian system and its experimental suppression, e.g., by constant light, usually leads to behavioral arrhythmia. We therefore studied melatonin patterns in a free-living migratory songbird, the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), that maintains diel activity during the Arctic summer. We compared melatonin profiles during late spring and summer solstice in two Swedish populations from the south (58 degrees N) and near the Arctic circle (66 degrees N). We found the northern Swedish population maintained clear diel changes in melatonin secretion during the summer solstice, although peak concentrations were lower than in southern Sweden. Melatonin levels were highest before midnight and in good accordance with periods of reduced activity. The maintenance of diel melatonin rhythmicity under conditions of continuous light may be one of the physiological mechanisms that enables continued functioning of the circadian system.

  2. Diversity and Dynamics of Soil Free-Living Nematode Populations in a Mediterranean Agroecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wen-Ju; I.LAVIAN; S.PEN-MOURATOV; Y.STEINBERGER

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effect of agricultural management on the dynamics and functional diversity of soil nematode communities in a carrot field at Kibbutz Ramat Hakovesh, Israel, soil samples from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths were collected during the growing season of carrot. Indices were used to compare and assess the response of soil free-living nematode communities to agricultural management. Eighteen nematode families and 20 genera were observed during the growing period, with Cephalobus, Rhabditidae, Aphelenchus, Tylenchus, and Dorylaimus being the dominant genera/families.During the planting, mid-season and post-harvest periods the total number of nematodes at both depths was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the carrot treatment than in the control plots, while during the harvest period at both depths total nematodes and bacterivores were significantly higher in the treatment plots (P < 0.01). The values of the maturity index (MI) at both depths were found to be significantly lower in the treatment plots than in the control plots during the pre-planting period (P < 0.05). Overall, WI, MI and PPI were found to be more sensitive indicators than other ecological indices for assessing the response of nematode communities to agricultural management in a Mediterranean agroecosystem.

  3. Effect of daytime protein restriction on nutrient intakes of free-living Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, S; Barr, S I; Ross, S E

    1992-03-01

    Studies have shown that severe daytime restriction of dietary protein improves the efficacy of L-dopa and reduces response fluctuations in some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This study investigated the nutritional adequacy of the daytime restricted-protein diet. Eleven free-living PD patients suffering from unpredictable response fluctuations to L-dopa were counseled to limit protein intake to approximately 10 g before 1700. Three sets of 6-d food records obtained during the 8-wk study showed that while on the test diet, mean intakes of most nutrients remained above the recommended nutrient intakes, although significant decreases occurred in protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and niacin intakes. The impact of the test diet on nutritional status as evaluated by changes in body weight and serum prealbumin was small. We conclude that healthy and highly motivated patients can maintain adequate intakes of most nutrients while restricting daytime protein intake. However, nutrient intakes might be compromised in patients whose regular diets are marginally adequate.

  4. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Badirzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also per­formed using sequencing based method.Results: Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9% samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6% and 11 (39.3% samples, respectively. Se­quence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T4 geno­type corresponding to A. castellanii.Conclusion: Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (A. castel­lanii and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.

  5. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Free-Living Amoebae from Tap Water in Sivas, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Kübra Açıkalın; Özçelik, Semra; Elaldı, Nazif; Tutar, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    The present work focuses on a local survey of free-living amoebae (FLA) that cause opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections in humans. Determining the prevalence of FLA in water sources can shine a light on the need to prevent FLA related illnesses. A total of 150 samples of tap water were collected from six districts of Sivas province. The samples were filtered and seeded on nonnutrient agar containing Escherichia coli spread. Thirty-three (22%) out of 150 samples were found to be positive for FLA. The FLA were identified by morphology and by PCR using 18S rDNA gene. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of three different species, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis. Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study. All A. castellanii and A. polyphaga sequence types were found to be genotype T4 that contains most of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains. The results indicated the occurrence and distribution of FLA species in tap water in these localities of Sivas, Turkey. Furthermore, the presence of temperature tolerant Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in tap water in the region must be taken into account for health risks. PMID:23971043

  7. Low-molecular-mass thiol compounds from a free-living highly pathogenic amoeba, Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva; Hurtado, Gerardo

    2003-04-01

    Acid extracts labelled with the fluorescent reagent monobromobimane and separated by HPLC have enabled the detection of low-molecular-mass thiol compounds in Naegleria fowleri for the first time. The amounts detected are expressed in nmol/1 x 10(6) trophozoites cultivated at various stages of growth in the appropriate culture medium. N. fowleri is a highly pathogenic free-living amoeba, in which we found important thiol compounds, some of them in their reduced and oxidized forms. Unlike cysteine and glutathione, a number of these are not represented in normal human lymphocytes. Some of these thiol compounds from Naegleria must have their respective disulphide reductases, although the presence of thiol-disulphide exchange reactions must be considered. Ovothiol A, with antioxidant properties, is an example of a compound that is kept reduced by trypanothione in trypanosomatids, although no disulphide reductase for ovothiol A has yet been discovered. In our case we were unable to detect this biothiol in Naegleria. The presence of thiol compounds that seem to be particular to this pathogen and which are not present in human lymphocytes opens the possibility of searching for disulphide-reducing enzymes that can serve as drug targets.

  8. Development of a nested PCR assay to detect the pathogenic free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réveiller, Fabienne L; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2002-05-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a fatal disease of the central nervous system that is acquired while swimming or diving in freshwater. A cDNA clone designated Mp2C15 obtained from N. fowleri was used as a probe to distinguish N. fowleri from other free-living amoebae. The Mp2C15 probe hybridized to genomic DNA from pathogenic N. fowleri and antigenically related non-pathogenic N. lovaniensis. Mp2C15 was digested with the restriction enzyme XbaI, resulting in two fragments, Mp2C15.G and Mp2C15.P. Four species of Naegleria and four species of Acanthamoeba were examined for reactivity with Mp2C15.P. Mp2C15.P was specific for N. fowleri and was used in the development of a nested PCR assay which is capable of detecting as little as 5 pg of N. fowleri DNA or five intact N. fowleri amoebae. In summary, a rapid, sensitive, and specific assay for the detection of N. fowleri was developed.

  9. Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoebae in bat guano, an extreme habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulec, Janez; Dietersdorfer, Elisabeth; Üstüntürk-Onan, Miray; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Several representatives of the so-called free-living amoebae (FLA) are of medical relevance, not only as facultative pathogens but also as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria. Some FLA can survive and even grow under extreme environmental conditions. Bat guano is an exceptional habitat, the conditions becoming gradually more extreme with aging. In the current study, samples of bat guano of different ages from five caves in Slovenia were screened for the presence of FLA. FLA were isolated from almost all guano samples, including guano with a pH of 3.5. Only the two samples that had been drawn from >20-year-old guano were negative for FLA. Generally, FLA diversity correlated to high concentrations of cultivable bacteria (∼10(8) CFU/g) and fungi (∼10(5) CFU/g). Interestingly, the absence of FLA in seasoned guanos was mirrored by the presence of dictyostelid slime moulds. The isolated amoebae were identified as belonging to the genera Acanthamoeba, Copromyxa, Naegleria, Sappinia, Tetramitus, Thecamoeba, Vahlkampfia, Vannella and Vermamoeba. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the diversity of FLA in guano.

  10. Free-living freshwater amoebae differ in their susceptibility to the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Rafik; Bodennec, Jacques; Mameri, Mouh Oulhadj; Pernin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is known as a facultative intracellular parasite of free-living soil and freshwater amoebae, of which several species have been shown to support the growth of the pathogenic bacteria. We report for the first time the behaviour of two strains (c2c and Z503) of the amoeba Willaertia magna towards different strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and compared it with Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, known to be L. pneumophila permissive. In contrast to the results seen with other amoebae, W. magna c2c inhibited the growth of one strain of Legionella (L. pneumophila, Paris), but not of others belonging to the same serogroup (L. pneumophila, Philadelphia and L. pneumophila, Lens). Also, the different L. pneumophila inhibited cell growth and induced cell death in A. castellanii, H. vermiformis and W. magna Z503 within 3-4 days while W. magna c2c strain remained unaffected even up to 7 days. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the formation of numerous replicative phagosomes observed within Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella is rarely seen in W. magna c2c cocultured with L. pneumophila. Moreover, the morphological differences were observed between L. pneumophila cultured either with Willaertia or other amoebae. These observations show that amoebae are not all equally permissive to L. pneumophila and highlight W. magna c2c as particularly resistant towards some strains of this bacterium.

  11. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hospital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Shahabi, Saed; Biderouni, Farid Tahvildar; Taghipour, Niloofar; Eftekhar, Mohamad; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in immunodeficiency wards of hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 70 dust and biofilm samples from wards serving transplant, pediatric (malignancies), HIV, leukemia and oncology patients of five university hospitals were collected and examined for the presence of FLA using culturing and molecular approaches. Based on the morphology of the amoebae in plate cultures, primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, vahlkampfiid amoebae and Hartmannella. Out of 70 samples, 37 (52.9%) were positive for FLA. Acanthamoeba belonged to the T4 genotype was the most prevalent isolate. Presence of the T4 genotype on medical instruments, including an oxygen mask in an isolation room of an immunodeficiency pediatric ward, should be of concern for health authorities. Acanthamoeba T5 genotypes, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Vahlkampfia avara were also present. These results highlight a clear need for greater attention to improved disinfection, especially where susceptible patients, such as those who are immune-suppressed, are served. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these FLA in immunodeficiency wards in Iran, and also the first to identify Acanthamoeba T5, Hartmannella, and Vahlkampfia in moist habitats, such as biofilms, in this country.

  12. Detection of free-living amoebae by using multiplex quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Calvez, Thomas; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Humeau, Philippe; Moletta-Denat, Marina; Frère, Jacques; Héchard, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa found worldwide in soil and aquatic environments, which are able to colonize man-made water networks. Some FLA have the potential to be pathogenic and others might harbour pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, FLA feed on bacteria, but some bacteria could resist phagocytosis and either survive in FLA or even multiply within FLA. These bacteria are collectively named amoeba resistant bacteria (ARB). The best characterized example is Legionella pneumophila, for which FLA is the main reservoir in the environment. Not only could FLA be a reservoir that protects ARB, some bacteria might become more resistant to treatment and be more virulent. Thus, it is of medical significance to quantify FLA populations in soil, water or the environment. The main limitation for the quantification of FLA is that classical culture is not efficient and reliable for many genera and 'strains'. Thus, several PCR-based quantification methods have been published for various FLA. However, thus far, no method has been published to simultaneously quantify the main FLA genera in the same PCR reaction. In this study, we developed a multiplex qPCR method to detect both Amoebozoan (i.e. Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella and Echinamoeba) and Vahlkampfiidae (i.e. Vahlkampfia and Naegleria) using 18S ribosomal RNA as the target gene. This method was shown to be specific, reliable and sensitive, could be used for the quantification of FLA and is likely to be useful to anticipate risks due to FLA or pathogenic bacteria, such as L. pneumophila.

  13. Free-living amoebae and their intracellular pathogenic microorganisms: risks for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; McDonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-01

    An increasing number of microorganisms, including bacteria but also viruses and eukaryotes, have been described as benefiting from interaction with free-living amoebae (FLA). Beneficial interaction can be due to resistance to predation conferring ecological advantage, intracellular survival and/or intracellular proliferation. This review highlights the potential risk associated with amoebae by listing all known pathogenic microbial species for which growth and/or survival promotion by FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba spp.) has been demonstrated. It focuses on the susceptibility of amoebal and intra-amoebal bacteria to various categories of biocides, the known mechanisms of action of these biocides against trophozoites and cysts and the various methods used to demonstrate efficacy of treatments against FLA. Brief descriptions of FLA ecology and prevalence in domestic/institutional water systems and their intrinsic pathogenicity are also presented. The intention is to provide an informed opinion on the environmental risks associated with the presence of FLA and on the survival of cysts following biocidal treatments, while also highlighting the need to conduct research on the roles of amoebae in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Free living amoebae in water sources of critical units in a tertiary care hospital in India

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    S Khurana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of free-living amoebae (FLA is reported sparsely from water taps, ventilators, air conditioners, haemodialysis units and dental irrigation systems of hospitals worldwide. Their prevalence in hospital environment especially in wards having immunocompromised patients may pose a risk to this group of susceptible population as they may cause disease themselves or may carry pathogens inside them. No study from India has performed such surveillance. Objective: To evaluate extent of FLA contamination in water sources of bone marrow transplant (BMT intensive care unit (ICU, transplant ICU, haemodialysis unit and high dependency unit in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of hundred samples including fifty each of tap water samples and swabs from mouth of taps used for drinking, bathing and hand washing purposes in these units were collected according to standard procedure. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar plates at room temperature followed by morphological confirmation. Molecular identification including polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing was performed in culture positive samples. Results: Four tap water samples and ten swab samples showed growth of trophozoites and cyst formation. Morphologically, four amoebae resembled Acanthamoeba spp. which was further confirmed by PCR and sequencing showed them to be of T3 and T4 genotypes. Conclusion: The presence of these FLA in hospital water sources emphasises the urgent need of implementing effective preventive measures. Further studies are required to estimate the true prevalence of FLA in Indian hospitals by taking larger number of samples.

  15. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) isolated in Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Goñi, P; Clavel, A; Lobez, S; Fernandez, M T; Ormad, M P

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the characterization of pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) from sewage effluents. Some of them, such as Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Hartmannella, Sappinia, Balamuthia and Paravahlkampfia have been reported as a cause of diseases in humans. Therefore, the study of their habitats and their pathogenicity has become necessary. The population of potentially pathogenic FLA was analysed in five Spanish wastewater treatment plants. Five of the seven FLA isolated were identified as genus Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T7 and T9. Hartmannella and Naegleria were also isolated. Acanthamoeba demonstrated great thermotolerance and osmotolerance. It was also observed that treatment with sodium hypochlorite showed no significative reduction in the number of amoeba at concentrations of 0-100 ppm. The high resistance of FLA cysts to disinfection methods is a trojan horse for public health insofar as they colonize water systems and allow the survival of intracellular microorganisms resistant to FLA. The results of this work advance current knowledge of the FLA population.

  16. Rickettsia parkeri infecting free-living Amblyomma triste ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Andréia L T; Alves, Alvair S; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Martins, Thiago F; Witter, Rute; Pacheco, Thábata A; Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of rickettsiae in 151 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 59 Amblyomma ovale, 166 Amblyomma triste, one Amblyomma dissimile and four Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in the municipality of Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, within the Pantanal biome of Brazil. Ticks were individually processed by the hemolymph test with Gimenez staining, isolation of rickettsia in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the citrate synthase rickettsial gene. Through the shell vial technique, rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in Vero cell culture from one free-living A. triste female tick, which previously showed to contain Rickettsia-like organisms by the hemolymph test. Molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate was achieved through DNA partial sequences of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, ompB), which showed to be all 100% identical to Rickettsia parkeri. After testing all ticks by PCR, the frequency of R. parkeri infection was 7.23% (12/166) in A. triste adult ticks. The remaining ticks were negative by PCR. This is the first report of in vitro isolation of R. parkeri in the Pantanal biome, confirming the occurrence of this emerging rickettsial pathogen in this natural area of South America.

  17. Functional thioredoxin reductase from pathogenic and free-living Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasoni, Natalia; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A; Arias, Diego G

    2016-08-01

    Low molecular mass thiols and antioxidant enzymes have essential functions to detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species maintaining cellular redox balance. The metabolic pathways for redox homeostasis in pathogenic (Leptospira interrogans) and free-living (Leptospira biflexa) leptospires species were not functionally characterized. We performed biochemical studies on recombinantly produced proteins to in depth analyze kinetic and structural properties of thioredoxin reductase (LinTrxR) and thioredoxin (LinTrx) from L. interrogans, and two TrxRs (LbiTrxR1 and LbiTrxR2) from L. biflexa. All the TrxRs were characterized as homodimeric flavoproteins, with LinTrxR and LbiTrxR1 catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of LinTrx and DTNB. The thioredoxin system from L. interrogans was able to use glutathione disulfide, lipoamide disulfide, cystine and bis-γ-glutamyl cysteine and homologous peroxiredoxin as substrates. Classic TrxR activity of LinTrxR2 had not been evidenced in vitro, but recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing LbiTrxR2 showed high tolerance to oxidative stress. The enzymatic systems herein characterized could play a key role for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and the function of defense mechanisms against reactive oxidant species in Leptospira spp. Our results contribute to the general knowledge about redox biochemistry in these bacteria, positioning TrxR as a critical molecular target for the development of new anti-leptospiral drugs.

  18. Comparative genomics of free-living Gammaproteobacteria: pathogenesis-related genes or interaction-related genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rosas-Landa, Mirna; Ponce-Soto, Gabriel Yaxal; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, V

    2017-07-31

    Bacteria have numerous strategies to interact with themselves and with their environment, but genes associated with these interactions are usually cataloged as pathogenic. To understand the role that these genes have not only in pathogenesis but also in bacterial interactions, we compared the genomes of eight bacteria from human-impacted environments with those of free-living bacteria from the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), a relatively pristine oligotrophic site. Fifty-one genomes from CCB bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium and Aeromonas, were analyzed. We found that the CCB strains had several virulence-related genes, 15 of which were common to all strains and were related to flagella and chemotaxis. We also identified the presence of Type III and VI secretion systems, which leads us to propose that these systems play an important role in interactions among bacterial communities beyond pathogenesis. None of the CCB strains had pathogenicity islands, despite having genes associated with antibiotics. Integrons were rare, while CRISPR elements were common. The idea that pathogenicity-related genes in many cases form part of a wider strategy used by bacteria to interact with other organisms could help us to understand the role of pathogenicity-related elements in an ecological and evolutionary framework leading toward a more inclusive One Health concept. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Enhanced survival but not amplification of Francisella spp. in the presence of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Helen Y; Schaefer, Frank W; Rice, Eugene W

    2016-12-08

    Transmission of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia, has been associated with various water sources. Survival of many waterborne pathogens within free-living amoeba (FLA) is well documented; however, the role of amoebae in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis is unclear. In this study, axenic FLA cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis were each inoculated with virulent strains of F. tularensis (Types A and B), the attenuated live vaccine strain, and Francisella novicida. Experimental parameters included low and high multiplicity of infection and incubation temperatures of 25 and 30 °C for 0-10 days. Francisella spp. survival was enhanced by the presence of FLA; however, bacterial growth and protozoa infectivity were not observed. In contrast, co-infections of A. polyphaga and Legionella pneumophila, used as an amoeba pathogen control, resulted in bacterial proliferation, cytopathic effects, and amoebal lysis. Collectively, even though short-term incubation with FLA was beneficial, the long-term effects on Francisella survival are unknown, especially given the expenditure of available amoebal derived nutrients and the fastidious nature of Francisella spp. These factors have clear implications for the role of FLA in Francisella environmental persistence.

  20. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Free-Living Amoebae from Tap Water in Sivas, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Açıkalın Coşkun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on a local survey of free-living amoebae (FLA that cause opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections in humans. Determining the prevalence of FLA in water sources can shine a light on the need to prevent FLA related illnesses. A total of 150 samples of tap water were collected from six districts of Sivas province. The samples were filtered and seeded on nonnutrient agar containing Escherichia coli spread. Thirty-three (22% out of 150 samples were found to be positive for FLA. The FLA were identified by morphology and by PCR using 18S rDNA gene. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of three different species, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis. Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study. All A. castellanii and A. polyphaga sequence types were found to be genotype T4 that contains most of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains. The results indicated the occurrence and distribution of FLA species in tap water in these localities of Sivas, Turkey. Furthermore, the presence of temperature tolerant Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in tap water in the region must be taken into account for health risks.

  2. Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Xu, Man; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied using specific, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity measures in the southern Yellow Sea, China. The results showed that the average of Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') in the study area was 3.17. The higher values were distributed in the east part of Shandong coastal waters and north part of Jiangsu coastal waters, while the lower values were distributed in the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The average of taxonomic diversity ( Δ) was 62.09 in the study region. The higher values were distributed in the transitional areas between the coastal areas and the southern YSCWM, while the lower values were distributed near the north part of Jiangsu coastal waters and the YSCWM. Results of correlation analysis of species diversity and taxonomic diversity showed that some of the two kinds of diversity index were independent, which suggested that combining the two kinds of diversity indices can reflect the ecological characteristics better. A test for 95% probability funnels of average taxonomic distinctness and variation in taxonomic distinctness suggested that Station 8794 (in the YSCWM) was outside of the 95% probability funnels, which may be due to the environmental stress. Results of correlation analysis between marine nematodes biodiversity and environmental variables showed that the sediment characteristics (Mdø and Silt-clay fraction) and phaeophorbide a (Pha- a) were the most important factors to determine the biodiversity patterns of marine nematodes.

  3. Toward a low-cost gait analysis system for clinical and free-living assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, Cassim; Del Din, Silvia; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Hickey, Aodhan; Morris, Rosie; Catt, Michael; Rochester, Lynn; Godfrey, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Gait is an important clinical assessment tool since changes in gait may reflect changes in general health. Measurement of gait is a complex process which has been restricted to bespoke clinical facilities until recently. The use of inexpensive wearable technologies is an attractive alternative and offers the potential to assess gait in any environment. In this paper we present the development of a low cost analysis gait system built using entirely open source components. The system is used to capture spatio-temporal gait characteristics derived from an existing conceptual model, sensitive to ageing and neurodegenerative pathology (e.g. Parkinson's disease). We demonstrate the system is suitable for use in a clinical unit and will lead to pragmatic use in a free-living (home) environment. The system consists of a wearable (tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope) with a Raspberry Pi module for data storage and analysis. This forms ongoing work to develop gait as a low cost diagnostic in modern healthcare.

  4. Free-living Amoebae (FLA: morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba in dental unit water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabelsi H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect free-living Amoebae (FLA by morphological methods and to identify Acanthamoeba spp. by PCR in the dental unit water lines (DUWL. Materials and methods: it was a prospective study dealing with 196 water samples collected from DUWL (94 samples taken in the early morning before materials flush and patient consultations and 102 samples taken after consultations. At the same time, 39 samples from tap water were realized. Results: 135 (69 % samples were positives by the morphological study with morphotypical diversity. The predominant morphotype was the monopodial (39.2 %. 18 strains of Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in DUW (13.3 % and three strains in tap water (10 %. The amplification of 18S rDNA gene of these strains of Acanthamoeba spp. was positive for all samples. Conclusion: the FLA and Acanthamoeba were isolated both in tap water and in dental unit. The amoeba pathogenicity has not been demonstrated after oral or dental contamination; but the presence of intracellular and pathogenic bacteria in the amoeba could be a source of microbiological risks for patients in case of deep dental care or immunodepression. The improvement of this dental unit was necessary by putting a filter of 0.2 microns porosity before the arrival of the water in hand-pieces allowing the limitation of FLA passage.

  5. Free-living amoebae (FLA) co-occurring with legionellae in industrial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Ute; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Rameder, Alexandra; Schrammel, Barbara; Zweimüller, Irene; Wesner, Wolfgang; Hinker, Manfred; Walochnik, Julia

    2014-08-01

    Legionella pneumophila is known as the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease and free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as vehicles for legionellae. The aim of this study was to screen industrial waters for the occurrence of FLA and their co-occurrence with legionellae. A total of 201 water samples, including 129 cooling waters and 72 process waters, and 30 cooling lubricants were included in the study. Treated waters were screened periodically, pre and post treatment. Altogether, 72.6% of the water samples were positive for FLA, acanthamoebae being most prevalent (in 23.9% of the samples) followed by Vermamoeba vermiformis (19.4%). Only one cooling lubricant was positive (Acanthamoeba genotype T4). Legionella spp. were detected in 34.8% of the water samples and in 15% in high concentrations (>1000 CFU/100 ml). Altogether, 81.4% of the Legionella-positive samples were positive for FLA by standard methods. By applying a highly sensitive nested PCR to a representative set of random samples it was revealed that Legionella spp. always co-occurred with Acanthamoeba spp. Although the addition of disinfectants did influence amoebal density and diversity, treated waters showed no difference concerning FLA in the interphases of disinfection. It appears that FLA can re-colonize treated waters within a short period of time.

  6. Isolation and identification of free-living amoebae from tap water in Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Kübra Açıkalın; Ozçelik, Semra; Tutar, Lütfi; Elaldı, Nazif; Tutar, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    The present work focuses on a local survey of free-living amoebae (FLA) that cause opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections in humans. Determining the prevalence of FLA in water sources can shine a light on the need to prevent FLA related illnesses. A total of 150 samples of tap water were collected from six districts of Sivas province. The samples were filtered and seeded on nonnutrient agar containing Escherichia coli spread. Thirty-three (22%) out of 150 samples were found to be positive for FLA. The FLA were identified by morphology and by PCR using 18S rDNA gene. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of three different species, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis. Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study. All A. castellanii and A. polyphaga sequence types were found to be genotype T4 that contains most of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains. The results indicated the occurrence and distribution of FLA species in tap water in these localities of Sivas, Turkey. Furthermore, the presence of temperature tolerant Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in tap water in the region must be taken into account for health risks.

  7. Occurrence of free-living amoebae in streams of the Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Caballero Villegas, Adán S; Carmona Jiménez, Javier; Lugo Vázquez, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in nature. They are important in the cycling of nutrients in aquatic food chains, but their distribution in natural aquatic environments is not well known. We conducted a survey to determine the presence and distribution of FLA and their relation to some physicochemical parameters in streams of the Mexico Basin in Central Mexico. Thirty-two sites from 18 streams were sampled. Samples were centrifuged and cultured onto NNA-media to isolate amoebae. Identifications were based on morphology. The pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba isolates was tested. Oxygen saturation, temperature, pH, specific conductance, water flow, dissolved reactive phosphorus, nitrites, nitrates, ammonia, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and coliforms were determined. One hundred-and-twenty FLA representing 18 genera were identified. The most frequent genera were Vannella, Rosculus and Acanthamoeba. The frequency of potentially pathogenic FLA was low and only 3 Acanthamoeba isolates were invasive in mice. The highest species richness of FLA was found in streams located into agriculture activity areas and those close to small villages that discharge wastewater into them. Water temperatures were always below 17°C. Oxygen saturation and pH were within the limits for the growth of most FLA. The presence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria was low; nevertheless, they include potentially pathogenic species and can act as vectors and reservoirs for microbial pathogens and can produce human infections.

  8. Ophthalmology hospital wards contamination to pathogenic free living Amoebae in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Niyyati, Maryam; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoeba in ophthalmology wards in reference hospitals in Iran. Since an increasing number of Acanthamoeba Keratitis cases after eye surgery and eye trauma have been recently observed in this country, it could be possible that the disinfection procedures undertaken in the clinical setting may not have a good hygiene and disinfection procedures, hence the aim of this study. Therefore, 42 dust and biofilm samples were collected from different areas of ophthalmology wards and checked for the presence of FLA using morphological criteria, PCR based analysis and DNA sequencing. Of the 42 samples from dust and biofilm sources, 18(42.86%) isolates were found to contain FLA and 12(92.3%) isolates belonged to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype. Isolation of the pathogenic genotype T4 from medical instruments, including slit lamp in corneal wards, may be a threat for patients undergoing eye surgery in these wards. Other FLA isolated in this study included Acanthamoeba genotype T5, Vahlkampfia sp, Naegleria australiensis, Vermamoeba vermiformis and Echinamoeba exudans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of potentially pathogenic FLA in ophthalmology wards in Iran. Improved disinfection methods and monitoring of hospitals ward are thus necessary in this area in order to minimize the risk of infection in patients.

  9. Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    There is an expanding body of evidence that free-living amoebae (FLA) increase both the numbers and virulence of water-based, human-pathogenic, amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARM). Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and other opportunistic human pathogens are known to be both ARM and also the etiologic agents of potentially fatal human lung infections. However, comparatively little is known about the FLA that may facilitate ARM growth in drinking water. This review examines the available literature on FLA in treated drinking water systems; in total 26 studies from 18 different countries. FLA were reported to breakthrough the water treatment barrier and enter distribution systems, in addition to the expected post-treatment system ingress. Once in the distribution system there is evidence of FLA colonization and regrowth especially in reservoirs and in-premise plumbing storage tanks. At the point of use the average FLA detection rate was 45% but highly variable (n = 16, σ = 31) due to both differences in both assay methods and the type of water systems examined. This review reveals that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk. However, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health, in households and institutions, due to exposure to FLA facilitated pathogenic ARM.

  10. Complementary data on four methods for sampling free-living ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2) traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.

  11. Effects of filter choice in GT3X accelerometer assessments of free-living activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Miriam; Martin, Brian W; Meier, Flurina; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi

    2013-01-01

    ActiGraph accelerometers are widely used devices to objectively assess physical activity. The GT3X version has two filter options to be selected before data assessment (normal and low-frequency extension filter option). It is not clear whether the resulting physical activity levels differ depending on the choice of the filter. The aims were to compare GT3X data collected using the different filter options during free-living activities and to establish correction factors if the results were not comparable. Sixty-five participants of the population-based SAPALDIA-cohort (50.8% women, age range = 40-80 yr) wore two GT3X accelerometers with different filter selections simultaneously during 8 d. Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, McNemar tests, scatter plots, and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the data. Correction factors were established using linear regression models. Although Spearman correlations were high (r ≥ 0.93), there were significant differences in minutes per day between filter options for nonwearing time and time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (all P Mean counts per minute and steps per day were significantly higher using the low-frequency extension filter (P filter option and to specify the filter choice in publications. The correction factors can be used to make data assessed using the low-frequency extension filter comparable to data assessed using the normal filter option.

  12. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

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    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  13. Quantitative detection of the free-living amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water by using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.; Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Boonstra, H.; Smidt, H.; Kooij, van der D.

    2006-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based method targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for the quantitative detection of Hartmannella vermiformis, a free-living amoeba which is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila in warm water systems and cooling towers. The detection specificity was validated using genomic

  14. Quantitative detection of the free-living amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water by using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.; Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Boonstra, H.; Smidt, H.; Kooij, van der D.

    2006-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based method targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for the quantitative detection of Hartmannella vermiformis, a free-living amoeba which is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila in warm water systems and cooling towers. The detection specificity was validated using genomic

  15. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We exam

  16. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  17. Stressful colours : corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q.; de Jong, Maaike; Hau, Michaela; Visser, Marcel E.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-01-01

    Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is c

  18. Stressful colours: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q.; de Jong, Maaike; Hau, Michaela; Visser, Marcel E.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-01-01

    Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is c

  19. Bilateral microphthalmia and aphakia associated with multiple eye abnormalities in a free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Franco; Vercelli, Antonella; Carminato, Antonio; Luchesa, Lucio; Pasolli, Claudio; Cova, Mariapia; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Vascellari, Marta

    2012-04-01

    A free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus) was euthanized due to bilateral microphthalmia. Lens was missing, replaced by proliferating squamous epithelial cells; hyperplastic squamous cells, sebaceous and mucinous glands were observed within the cornea with the characteristics of inclusion cyst. Findings were consistent with congenital microphthalmia/aphakia, with multiple eye abnormalities.

  20. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  1. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective fo...

  2. Unraveling the Photoprotective Response of Lichenized and Free-Living Green Algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta to Photochilling Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Míguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should

  3. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in surface water and sediment of Hawai`i and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, M.; Adams, L. M.; Pochon, X.; Gates, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Marine dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are primarily known for their symbiotic associations with invertebrates and protists, although they are also found free-living in nanoplankton and microphytobenthic communities. Free-living Symbiodinium are necessary for hosts that must acquire their symbionts anew each generation and for the possible reestablishment of endosymbiosis in bleached adults. The diversity and ecology of free-living Symbiodinium are not well studied by comparison with their endosymbiotic counterparts, and as a result, our understanding of the linkages between free-living and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium is poor. Here, we begin to address this knowledge gap by describing the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium in the surface water and reef sediments of Hawai`i and Florida using Symbiodinium-specific primers for the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S domain V (cp23S-HVR). In total, 29 Symbiodinium sequence types were detected, 16 of which were novel. The majority of Symbiodinium sequence types in free-living environments belonged to clades A and B, but smaller numbers of sequence types belonging to clades C, D, and G were also detected. The majority of sequences recovered from Hawai`i belonged to clades A and C and those from Florida to clade B. Such distribution patterns are consistent with the endosymbiotic diversity previously reported for these two regions. The ancestral sequence types in each clade were typically recovered from surface water and sediments both in Hawai`i and Florida and have been previously reported as endosymbionts of a range of invertebrates, suggesting that these types have the capacity to exploit a range of very different habitats. More derived sequence types in clades A, B, C, and G were not recovered here, suggesting they are potentially restricted to endosymbiotic environments.

  4. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakuya, Francis; Rossi, Luca; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2011-10-06

    Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  5. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  6. Regime shifts in coastal lagoons: Evidence from free-living marine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We test the validity of using the regime shift theory to account for differences in environmental state of coastal lagoons as a response to variation in connectivity with the sea, using free-living nematodes as a surrogate. The study is based on sediment samples from the inner and outer portions of 15 coastal lagoons (5 open to the sea, 5 intermittently open/closed, and 5 permanently closed lakes) along the southern coast of Brazil. Environmental data suggested that there are two contrasting environmental conditions, with coastal lakes being significantly different from open and intermittent lagoons. Marine nematode assemblages corroborate these two mutually exclusive alternative stable states (open vs. closed systems), but assemblages from the intermittently open/closed lagoons showed a gradual change in species composition between both systems independently of the environmental conditions. The gradient in the structural connectivity among lagoons and the sea, due to their regime shifts, changes the movement of resources and consumers and the internal physico-chemical gradients, directly affecting regional species diversity. Whereas openness to the sea increased similarity in nematode assemblage composition among connected lagoons, isolation increased dissimilarity among closed lagoons. Our results from a large-scale sampling program indicated that as lagoons lose connectivity with the sea, shifting the environmental state, local processes within individual intermittently open/closed lagoons and particularly within coastal lakes become increasingly more important in structuring these communities. The main implication of these findings is that depending on the local stable state we may end up with alternative regional patterns of biodiversity. PMID:28235030

  7. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

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    Lisa Conza

    Full Text Available Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD. Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture and FLA (by culture in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila were detected in 69.3% (61/88 of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba in 92.0% (81/88. L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88 of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012 than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47 were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47 for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8% were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  8. Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free- living actinobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Michael; Artsatbanov, Vladislav; Beller, Harry R.; Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F.; Dover, Lynn G.; Goh, Ee-Been; Kahan, Tamar; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen R.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mahillon, Jacques; Markowitz, Viktor; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Oren, Aharon; Rokem, J. Stefan; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Young, Danielle I.; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    2009-11-01

    Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, Fleming strain) has one of the smallest genomes of free living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content 73%) predicted to encode 2403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 IS elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and fourteen response regulators, indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to {Beta}-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose, and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three gene cluster essential for this metabolism has been identified in the genome.

  9. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  10. Morphological and molecular identification of free living amoeba isolated from hospital water in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Houaida; Dendana, F; Neji, S; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic and ubiquitous protozoa that are widely found in various environmental sources. They are known to cause serious human infections. The aim of our study was to detect FLA and Acanthamoeba spp. in hospital water circuits. Eighty-four water samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September-December 2011) from different wards of the Sfax University Hospital (surgical services, intensive care unit, operating theater, and water storage tanks). FLA were detected in 53.5 % of samples as follows: surgical services (80 %), operating theater and surgical intensive care unit (13.3 %), medical intensive care unit (0 %), water storage tanks (6.6 %). The predominant morphotype was the acanthopodial (89 %). The others morphotypes were as follows: monopodial (40 %), dactylopodial (22 %), rugosa (62 %), eruptive (24 %), fan shaped (18 %), and polypodial (18 %). Acanthamoeba was found in 40 samples (47.6 %). 64.2 % of isolates were identified as Acanthamoeba spp. by PCR, using primers to amplify a region of 18S rDNA which showed variation in the product length. Sequence analysis of five PCR products identified Acanthamoeba sp. These isolates belong to T4, T10, and T11 genotypes, and to our knowledge this is the first report of the T10 and T11 genotype in Tunisia.The occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA in the hospital environment may represent a health risk for patients, since these organisms can cause severe opportunistic illness and also can harbor pathogenic agents. Thus, increased awareness regarding these parasites and recognition of their importance, particularly in immunocompromised patients is crucial.

  11. Identifying and characterizing alternative molecular markers for the symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

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    Xavier Pochon

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1 identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2 characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H, and 3 conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H. Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available.

  12. Identifying and characterizing alternative molecular markers for the symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available.

  13. Interrelated effects of mycorrhiza and free-living nitrogen fixers cascade up to aboveground herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitov, Botir; Patiño-Ruiz, José David; Pina, Tatiana; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Aboveground plant performance is strongly influenced by belowground microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic and have negative effects, while others, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, usually have positive effects. Recent research revealed that belowground interactions between plants and functionally distinct groups of microorganisms cascade up to aboveground plant associates such as herbivores and their natural enemies. However, while functionally distinct belowground microorganisms commonly co-occur in the rhizosphere, their combined effects, and relative contributions, respectively, on performance of aboveground plant-associated organisms are virtually unexplored. Here, we scrutinized and disentangled the effects of free-living nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (DB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (AMF) on host plant choice and reproduction of the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris. Additionally, we assessed plant growth, and AMF and DB occurrence and density as affected by each other. Both AMF alone and DB alone increased spider mite reproduction to similar levels, as compared to the control, and exerted additive effects under co-occurrence. These effects were similarly apparent in host plant choice, that is, the mites preferred leaves from plants with both AMF and DB to plants with AMF or DB to plants grown without AMF and DB. DB, which also act as AMF helper bacteria, enhanced root colonization by AMF, whereas AMF did not affect DB abundance. AMF but not DB increased growth of reproductive plant tissue and seed production, respectively. Both AMF and DB increased the biomass of vegetative aboveground plant tissue. Our study breaks new ground in multitrophic belowground-aboveground research by providing first insights into the fitness implications of plant-mediated interactions between interrelated belowground fungi

  14. Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes in a tropical bay: Cienfuegos, Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, M.; Ruiz-Abierno, A.; Fernández-Garcés, R.; Pérez-García, J. A.; Díaz-Asencio, L.; Vincx, M.; Decraemer, W.

    2009-11-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied in Cienfuegos Bay, a tropical semi-enclosed basin in the Caribbean Sea. Taxonomic (to species level) and functional (biological trait) approaches were applied for describing the assemblage structure and relating it to abiotic environment based on a sampling scheme in six subtidal stations and three months. Biological trait approach added relevant information to species pattern regarding relationships between diversity patterns and the abiotic environment. The most common morphotypes were deposit feeding nematodes, with colonising abilities of 2-3 (in a scale from 1 to 5), tail conical cylindrical or filiforme and body slender; and their abundance were correlated with depth, organic matter and silt/clay fraction. In spite of a high turnover of species, functional diversity of assemblages did not change notably in space and time. A result probably due to sampling of the habitat pool of species and to low heterogeneity of the studied muddy bottoms. Chemical pollution (organic enrichment and heavy metals) and hydrodynamic regime possibly drove the biodiversity patterns. Spatial distribution of assemblages support the existence of two well differentiated basins inside the bay, the northern basin more polluted than the southern one. The low hydrodynamic regime would determine a poor dispersion of nematodes resulting in high spatial variance in the assemblage structure; and also the associated hypoxic conditions and pollutants in sediments can explain the dominance of tolerant nematode species such as Daptonema oxycerca, Sabatieria pulchra, Terschellingia gourbaultae, and Terschellingia longicaudata. A comparison of spatial-temporal patterns of biodiversity between Cienfuegos Bay and other semi-enclosed bays in temperate regions suggests several similarities: nematode assemblages are strongly influenced by anthropogenic disturbance, temporal trends are weak or overridden by spatial

  15. Free living energy expenditure in post menopausal women before and after exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytel, L R; Lambert, M I; Johnson, J; Noakes, T D; Lambert, E V

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of moderate exercise training, on 24-hour free living energy expenditure in previously sedentary post-menopausal women. The experimental group (EX) included 9 women. Ten non-exercising control subjects (CON) were recruited to undergo pre- and post-testing. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total 24-hour heart beats (HB), total energy intake (TEI), resting metabolic rate, maximal oxygen consumption (VáO2max), body composition, and submaximal heart rate were measured before and after the exercise intervention. Body composition did not change (body fat % in CON 34.0 +/- 4.0% vs. 33.9 +/- 3.6% and EX 34.1 +/- 4.0% vs. 34.0 +/- 3.4%). Mean submaximal heart rate during steady-state exercise in EX was lower after training compared to CON (p post, respectively), RMR (CON 134.2 +/- 9.4 vs. 136.9 +/- 15.0 KJ/kgFFM/day, and EX 138.4 +/- 6.4 vs. 140.7 +/- 14.2 KJ/kgFFM/day, pre vs. post, respectively), TEI (CON 7.9 +/- 2.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 2.5 MJ, and EX 9.4 +/-1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.8 MJ), nor HB (CON 110,808 +/- 12,574 vs. 107,366 +/- 12,864 beats, and EX 110,188 +/- 9,219 vs. 114,590 +/- 12,750 beats) change over 8 weeks in either group. These data suggest that a moderate exercise program may not impact on TDEE, RMR, TEI, or HB in previously sedentary, older women.

  16. Effect of BMI on pedometers in early adolescents under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Brian M; Bassett, David R; Coe, Dawn P; Feito, Yuri; Thompson, Dixie L

    2013-03-01

    Pedometers may provide valuable information regarding the ambulatory patterns of adolescents, but the effects of body mass index (BMI) on pedometer accuracy in this population are unknown.The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine whether the New Lifestyles NL-2000 (NL) and the Digi-Walker SW-200 (DW) (New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit, MO) yield similar step counts as compared with an ankle-mounted criterion, StepWatch 3, when worn by early adolescents in a free-living environment and 2) to study whether BMI percentile affects the accuracy of waist-mounted pedometers in adolescents. Seventy-four early adolescents (13.0 ± 1.1 yr) wore the devices during one weekday. The study population included 33 normal weight, 21 overweight, and 20 obese participants. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine whether the BMI and the device were related to the number of steps per day and percentage of actual steps. The NL and DW recorded fewer steps than the StepWatch 3 in each BMI category (P < 0.05). In the obese group, the DW underestimated the steps more than the NL (P < 0.001). For the normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, the NL counted 89.1%, 89.1%, and 91.6% of the steps, respectively, whereas the DW counted 86.7%, 84.6%, and 72.7%, respectively. Researchers must be cognizant of the limitations of waist-mounted pedometers and carefully choose a device that suits the needs of their investigations. Because of the inaccuracies of the DW when measuring steps in obese adolescents, careful consideration must be given before choosing this device for research and interventions. The NL is a better device for assessment of adolescents' steps than the DW, especially for those who are obese.

  17. A new look into the small-scale dispersal of free-living marine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli C Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the hypothesis that prevailing locomotion/feeding strategies and body morphology may lead to more active dispersal of free-living marine nematodes, besides passive transport. Neutral Red was applied to the sediment inside cores and the red plume formed during the flood tide was divided into near, middle, and distant zones. At 0.5 m and 1 m from the stained cores, sampling nets were suspended 5 and 10 cm above the sediment-water interface. Dispersion behaviors were defined as a function of a the numbers of stained recaptured nematodes in comparison to their mean densities in the sediment, b movement in the sediment or swimming in the water column, and c body morphology. Tidal currents with average velocities of 9 cm/s resuspended the numerically dominant nematode taxa Sabatieria sp., Terschellingia longicaudata de Man, 1907, Metachromadora sp. and Viscosia sp. The recapture of stained nematodes as far as 2 m from the original stained cores showed that, despite their small body size, they can disperse through relatively large distances, either passively or actively, via the water column during a single tidal event. Recapture patterns in the sediment and in the water column indicate that nematode dispersal is directly influenced by their body morphology and swimming ability, and indirectly by their feeding strategies, which ultimately define their position in the sediment column. Besides stressing the role played by passive transport in the water column, our experiment additionally showed that mobility and feeding strategies also need to be considered as determinant of short-scale nematode dispersal.

  18. Disruption of MDCK cell tight junctions by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Mineko; Martínez-Castillo, Moisés; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Navarro-García, Fernando; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Sabanero, Myrna; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This parasite invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa. However, the mechanism of epithelium penetration is not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of N. fowleri trophozoites and the non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tight junction proteins, including claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1, as well as on the actin cytoskeleton. Trophozoites from each of the free-living amoeba species were co-cultured with MDCK cells in a 1 : 1 ratio for 1, 3, 6 or 10 h. Light microscopy revealed that N. fowleri caused morphological changes as early as 3 h post-infection in an epithelial MDCK monolayer. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that after 10 h of co-culture, N. fowleri trophozoites induced epithelial cell damage, which was characterized by changes in the actin apical ring and disruption of the ZO-1 and claudin-1 proteins but not occludin. Western blot assays revealed gradual degradation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 as early as 3 h post-infection. Likewise, there was a drop in transepithelial electrical resistance that resulted in increased epithelial permeability and facilitated the invasion of N. fowleri trophozoites by a paracellular route. In contrast, N. gruberi did not induce alterations in MDCK cells even at 10 h post-infection. Based on these results, we suggest that N. fowleri trophozoites disrupt epithelial monolayers, which could enable their penetration of the olfactory epithelium and subsequent invasion of the central nervous system.

  19. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  20. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators.

  1. Predictors of Handgrip Strength Among the Free Living Elderly in Rural Pahang, Malaysia

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    KW Kee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced handgrip strength is an aging process that significantly influences the living activities of elderly. It is linked to premature mortality, disability and other health complications among elderly. Therefore, we aim to determine the associated predictors with handgrip strength among the free living elderly in Malaysia. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in a rural state in Malaysia. A total of 434 elderly individuals per­formed handgrip assessment. Socio-demographic characteristics, medical conditions, occupational history, functional ability (ADL and depression (GDS were enquired. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height were also obtained.Results: Majority of the respondents were Malays with mean age of 67.9 + 6.3 years. Maximum handgrip strength of males and females were 28.8+9.2 kg and 18.9+6.9 kg respectively (P<0.05. The aborigines had significantly lower handgrip strength (P<0.05 compared to Malays, Chinese and Indians. Handgrip strength was positively correlated (P<0.05 with weight, height and ADL, while negatively associated (P<0.05 with GDS for both gender. In the multivariate linear regres­sion analysis; weight, height and race significantly predicted handgrip strength among both male and female elderly after adjustment for all potential confounders. However, GDS and ADL were only found to significantly predict handgrip strength among the male elderly; while age was only significant among the females. Conclusion: Our sample population has significantly lower handgrip strength than the Western counterpart. Weight, height and race significantly predict handgrip strength among both male and female elderly. GDS, ADL are only found to be sig­nificant in males while age was only significant among the females.

  2. Kinetics of capture and infection of infective larvae of trichostrongylides and free-living nematodes Panagrellus sp. by Duddingtonia flagrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; Araújo, Flávia Biasoli; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Damatta, Renato Augusto; de Paula Santos, Clóvis

    2011-10-01

    Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematode-trapping fungus, has been investigated as an agent for biological control against infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of production animals. The initial process of nematode-trapping fungi infection is based on an interaction between the trap structure of the fungus and the surface of the nematode cuticle. This report investigates by light and scanning electron microscopy the kinetics of capture and infection during the interaction of D. flagrans with the infective larvae (L(3)) of trichostrongylides and the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. D. flagrans was cultivated for 7 days in a Petri dish containing agar-water. L(3) and Panagrellus sp. were inoculated in the Petri dishes and the samples consisting of agar-L(3)-fungi and agar-Panagrellus sp.-fungi were collected after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min and 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 h of interaction. All samples were observed by light microscopy. The samples with 1, 5, 15, and 25 h of interaction were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction was monitored up to 25 h. An initial differentiation of predation structures was observed after 30 min of interaction. The presence of traps and of captured L(3) or Panagrellus sp. occurred after 70 min. The live captured nematodes were observed up to 3 h of interaction. However, after 4 h, all Panagrellus sp. were dead. It took 15 h of interaction for the fungus to invade the L(3), and the presence of hyphae inside the nematode near the region of penetration was evident. At this time, the hyphae had filled the whole body of Panagrellus sp. The complete occupation of the body of L(3) occurred at 20 h of interaction and with 25 h the nematode was completely damaged except for the cuticle. Although the double cuticle of L(3) slows the penetration of D. flagrans, it was possible to verify that the process of trap formation and capture occurs quickly when both nematodes were tested, suggesting that

  3. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs for use in wild-type animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich S Gompf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV, or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-mCherry-AAV to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA, or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV to the rat locus coeruleus (LC. High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93% colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with 1 a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting, and 2 a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection. IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted. Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from promoter

  4. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs in wild-type animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Heinrich S; Budygin, Evgeny A; Fuller, Patrick M; Bass, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV), or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV) restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-EYFP-AAV) to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA), or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV) to  the  rat  locus  coeruleus  (LC). High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93%) colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with: (1) a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting); and (2) a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection). IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted). Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from

  5. Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Bakker, G.; Smidt, H.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria and also pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For thi

  6. Plumage bacterial assemblages in a breeding wild passerine: relationships with ecological factors and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Pauli; Tilgar, Vallo; Mänd, Raivo; Kilgas, Priit; Mägi, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Microorganisms have been shown to play an important role in shaping the life histories of animals, and it has recently been suggested that feather-degrading bacteria influence the trade-off between parental effort and self-preening behavior in birds. We studied a wild breeding population of great tits (Parus major) to explore habitat-, seasonal-, and sex-related variation in feather-degrading and free-living bacteria inhabiting the birds' yellow ventral feathers and to investigate associations with body condition. The density and species richness of bacterial assemblages was studied using flow cytometry and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The density of studied bacteria declined between the nest-building period and the first brood. The number of bacterial phylotypes per bird was higher in coniferous habitat, while bacterial densities were higher in deciduous habitat. Free-living bacterial density was positively correlated with female mass; conversely, there was a negative correlation between attached bacterial density and female mass during the period of peak reproductive effort. Bacterial species richness was sex dependent, with more diverse bacterial assemblages present on males than females. Thus, this study revealed that bacterial assemblages on the feathers of breeding birds are affected both by life history and ecological factors and are related to body condition.

  7. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  8. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea in Costa Rica: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Morales-Ramírez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species, which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic. By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin. Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  9. Detection of free living amoebae, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in swimming pools, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Init, I; Lau, Y L; Arin Fadzlun, A; Foead, A I; Neilson, R S; Nissapatorn, V

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was carried out at 4 sites (the platforms (P), wall (W), 1 meter from the wall (1) and middle (2)) of each swimming pool. These free living amoebae (FLA) were detected under light and inverted microscopes after being cultured on the surface of non-nutrient agar lawned with Escherichia coli. Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. While Naegleria, were detected in fewer culture plates at 3 sampling sites (absent at site P) of 8 swimming pools. This suggested that the thick double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba were more resistant, thus remaining viable in the dry-hot areas of the platforms and in chlorinated water of the swimming pools whereas Naegleria cysts, that are fragile and susceptible to desiccation, preferred watery or moist areas for growth and proliferation. The prevalence of both FLA was highest at site W (76.2%), followed by site 1 (64.7%), lowest at site 2 (19.4%), and could be detected at all 3 sampling levels (top, middle and bottom) of these 3 sites. The surface of site W might act as a bio-film that accumulated all kinds of microbes providing sufficient requirement for the FLA to develop and undergo many rounds of life cycles as well as moving from top to bottom in order to graze food. Other factors such as human activities, the circulating system which was fixed at all swimming pools, blowing wind which might carry the cysts from surroundings and the swimming flagellate stage of Naegleria could also contribute to the distribution of the FLA at these sampling sites. Both FLA showed highest growth (80.4%) at room temperature (25-28 ºC) and lesser (70.0%) at 37 ºC which might be due to the overgrowth of other microbes (E. coli, fungi, algae, etc). While at 44 ºC, only Acanthamoeba species could survive thus showing that

  10. Population dynamics of free living, nitrogen fixing bacteria Azospirillum in Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S; Gnanadesigan, M; Ignatiammal, S Thadedus Maria; Sumaya, S

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal variations of population dynamics of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azospirillum in relation to chemical parameters in Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem was assessed in root and rhizosphere soil samples of mangroves and mangrove associated plants. In rhizosphere soil and root samples, the counts of Azospirillum were recorded maximum in Acrostichum aureum as 8.63 +/- 0.92 x 10(4) and 115.48 +/- 17.36 x 10(4) CFU g(-1), respectively. The counts of Azospirillum in non-rhizosphere soil varied from 0.01 +/- 0.001 x 10(4) to 5.77 +/- 0.92 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) and found maximum in February and minimum in March and September. Azospirillum counts in water samples were found maximum (2.24 x 10(4) CFU l(-1)) in February. During seasonal variations maximum counts of Azospirillum were recorded during southwest monsoon season in Avicennia officinalis (1.40 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)) followed by Rhizophora mucronata (1.07 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)). The average maximum population density of Azospirillum counts was found during non monsoon season (9.73 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)) and the average maximum population density of Azospirillum counts was found with the mangrove associated root samples (13.73 x 10(4) CFU g(-1)). Of the selected isolates Azospirillum lipoferum (60%) was found to be predominant followed by Azospirillum brasilense (25%), Azospirillum irakense (5%), Azospirillum halopraeferens (5%) and Azospirillum amazonense (5%). Of the isolated species, A. halopraeferens exhibited better growth at 35 g l(-1) NaCl. The level of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were varied from 0.91 to 15.93 ppm. The level of Mn (12.13 ppm) was found maximum during non-monsoon of rhizosphere soil sample. Highest rainfall (192.80 mm) and atmospheric temperature (25.10 degrees C) were recorded during south west monsoon and non monsoon seasons. The increased population density was greatly influenced by the pH (r = +0.686). The present finding provides enough information on the nitrogen flow through biological process in

  11. On the cultivation of free-living marine and estuarine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, T.; Vincx, M.

    1998-06-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on the systematics and ecology of free-living marine and brackish-water nematodes, key questions on the nature and magnitude of interactions between nematodes and other organisms in the benthos remain unanswered. Relatively few authors have investigated live nematodes in food web studies or in experiments dealing with the nematodes’ response to a varying environment. It is mainly for the latter purpose that attempts have been made to maintain, rear and cultivate selected species. This paper describes the methodology used for the maintenance, rearing, and eventual permanent agnotobiotic cultivation of a variety of estuarine nematodes. Spot plates, where small samples of sediment or macrophyte material are inoculated on a sloppy agar layer, have been used for the purpose of maintenance and initial cultivation. Those species that reproduce on spot plates are then selected for monospecific cultivation on agar layers with different nutrient enrichments and with micro-organisms cotransferred from the spot plates as food. Mixtures of bacto and nutrient agar prepared in artificial seawater were specifically suitable for the xenic cultivation of nine bacterivorous and, when supplied with Erdschreiber nutrients, two algivorous/bacterivorous nematode species. Up to three generations of five other nematode species have been reared under laboratory conditions, and several more were kept alive and active for variable periods of time on agar. Generation times observed on spot plates for Adoncholaimus fuscus and Oncholaimus oxyuris were substantially shorter than previously published estimates and suggest a correspondingly higher predatory and scavenging potency for these and related enoplids. A procedure for the long-term storage of nematodes at -80°C with glycerol as a cryoprotectant was successfully used for Diplolaimella dievengatensis, Panagrolaimus sp. 1, and Pellioditis marina, but not for Diplolaimelloides meyli. The authors

  12. Detection and genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus in free-living bharals (Pseudois nayaur) in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jingyue; Wang, Zhiliang; Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Sang, Peiwangjie; Wu, Guozhen; Ding, Guoyi; Suo, Longciren; Liu, Chunju; Wang, Junwei; Zhao, Wenji; Li, Jinming; Qi, Lin

    2011-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of sheep and goats. The wildlife hosts of PPR, which may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease, are not well characterized. The research was undertaken to study the infection of PPR virus (PPRV) in free-living bharals (Pseudois nayaur) in Tibet, China. In 2007, PPRV infection was confirmed in two bharals in Rutog County of Tibet based on clinical signs and detection of PPRV RNA in tissue samples. In 2008, PPRV infection was found in one bharal in Ge'gyai County of Tibet by competitive ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis of PPRV fusion protein (F) and nucleoprotein (N) gene segments. The PPRV variant identified in infected bharal was closely related to other circulating PPRV variants recently identified in sheep and goats from Tibet. This is the first report of PPRV infection in free-living bharals.

  13. Efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion program following diet modification for fat loss in Japanese obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Miki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion (PAP) program following a diet modification program for fat loss. Fifty obese men, aged 51.4±7.0 y, received a 6-mo regimen consisting of 2 phases. Weekly 90-min free-living PAP sessions were provided for 3 mo immediately after a 3-mo diet modification phase. Fat mass (FM) was measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6 using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was monitored by a validated single-axis accelerometer. The total energy intake of all participants was assessed at baseline and during weeks 9 and 10 of both the diet modification and PAP programs. The change (Δ) in FM was -1.4±1.9 kg (pdiet modification program (-4.3±2.9 kg, pdiet modification program.

  14. Comparison of cell-specific activity between free-living and attached bacteria using isolates and natural assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, H.P.; Tang, K.W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    to model aggregates (agar spheres) had threefold higher BPP and two orders of magnitude higher protease activity than their free-living counterpart. These observations could be explained by preferential colonization of the agar spheres by bacteria with inherently higher metabolic activity and/or individual......Marine snow aggregates are microbial hotspots that support high bacterial abundance and activities. We conducted laboratory experiments to compare cell-specific bacterial protein production (BPP) and protease activity between free-living and attached bacteria. Natural bacterial assemblages attached...... bacteria increasing their metabolism upon attachment to surfaces. In subsequent experiments, we used four strains of marine snow bacteria isolates to test the hypothesis that bacteria could up- and down-regulate their metabolism while on and off an aggregate. The protease activity of attached bacteria...

  15. Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z H; Ferrante, A; Carter, R F

    1999-05-01

    Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children.

  16. One new species and two new records of free-living marine nematodes from the Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    One new species of free-living marine nematode of the genus Curvolaimus, Curvolaimus filiformis sp. nov. from the Huanghai Sea is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by the buccal cavity teeth, large amphids and two ventral seta at the conical part of tail. Meanwhile, two new records of genus Halalaimus, Halalaimus longic audatus and H. isaits hikovi are first reported in China.Types are deposited in the College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China.

  17. Morphological Characteristics and Growth Abilities of Free Living Amoeba Isolated From Domestic Tap Water Samples in İstanbul

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Zuhal; Üstüntürk, Miray; Binay, Ali Rıza

    2010-01-01

    Free living amoeba (FLA) have been isolated from water and soil samples throughout the world. Among the many genera of FLA, members of only four genera are responsible for human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. can be cultivated on nonnutrient agar (NNA) in the presence of living or dead bacteria. Balamuthia, however, will not grow with bacteria as a food source but they can feed  upon smal...

  18. Self-reported eating rate aligns with laboratory measured eating rate but not with free-living meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Amanda J; Melanson, Kathleen J; Greene, Geoffrey W

    2013-04-01

    Methodological differences may be responsible for variable results from eating rate (ER) studies. It is unknown whether self-reported, lab-measured, and free-living ER's align. This study was the first to explore relationships among self-reported, laboratory-measured and free-living ER's. We investigated this relationship in 60 randomly selected male and female college students who were stratified by self-reported eating rate (SRER) (Slow, Medium, and Fast) from 1110 on-line survey respondents. Test day; subjects ate a prescribed breakfast (∼400kcal) at home, recording meal duration (MD); 4h later they individually ate an ad libitum laboratory pasta lunch at their own (natural) pace; remainder of the day they recorded free-living intake and MD. As expected the three self-reported ER categories aligned with lab ER (Fast=83.9±5.5, Medium=63.1±5.2, Slow=53.0±5.4kcals/min). In all ER categories at all meals, men ate faster than women (Men=80.6±30.7kcals/min: Women=52.0±21.6kcals/min). A difference in lab measured ER by SRER F=(2, 58)=7.677, post hoc Tukey analysis found fast differed from medium and slow. The three free-living meal ER's did not align with self-report categories. Findings suggest various methods of measuring ER may yield differing results, at least in this population, but results support the use of SRER as a valid measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shedding light on microbial dark matter: a TM6 bacterium as natural endosymbiont of a free-living amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafont, Vincent; Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Bouchon, Didier; Moulin, Laurent; Héchard, Yann

    2015-12-01

    The TM6 phylum belongs to the so-called microbial dark matter that gathers uncultivated bacteria detected only via DNA sequencing. Recently, the genome sequence of a TM6 bacterium (TM6SC1) has led to suggest that this bacterium would adopt an endosymbiotic life. In the present paper, free-living amoebae bearing a TM6 strain were isolated from a water network. The amoebae were identified as Vermamoeba vermiformis and the presence of a TM6 strain was detected by polymerase chain reaction and microscopy. The partial sequence of its 16S rRNA gene showed this strain to be closely related to the sequenced TM6SC1 strain. These bacteria displayed a pyriform shape and were found within V. vermiformis. Therefore, these bacteria were named Vermiphilus pyriformis. Interactions studies showed that V. pyriformis was highly infectious and that its relation with V. vermiformis was specific and highly stable. Finally, it was found that V. pyriformis inhibited the encystment of V. vermiformis. Overall, this study describes for the first time an endosymbiotic relationship between a TM6 bacterium and a free-living amoeba in the environment. It suggests that other bacteria of the TM6 phylum might also be endosymbiotic bacteria and may be found in other free-living amoebae or other organisms.

  20. Mood and Balance are Associated with Free-Living Physical Activity of People after Stroke Residing in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matar A. Alzahrani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine which characteristics are most associated with free-living physical activity in community-dwelling ambulatory people after stroke. Method. Factors (age, gender, side of stroke, time since stroke, BMI, and spouse, sensory-motor impairments (weakness, contracture, spasticity, coordination, proprioception, and balance, and non-sensory-motor impairments (cognition, language, perception, mood, and confidence were collected on 42 people with chronic stroke. Free-living physical activity was measured using an activity monitor and reported as time on feet and activity counts. Results. Univariate analysis showed that balance and mood were correlated with time on feet (r=0.42, 0.43, P<0.01 and also with activity counts (r=0.52, 0.54, P<0.01. Stepwise multiple regression showed that mood and balance accounted for 25% of the variance in time on feet and 40% of the variance in activity counts. Conclusions. Mood and balance are associated with free-living physical activity in ambulatory people after stroke residing in the community.