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Sample records for fragments forhigh-throughput capillary

  1. Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing

    Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

    2001-09-15

    We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detection of dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia

    Yuan-yuan CHEN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the accuracy and stability of capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detecting dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA. Methods Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing were used in detecting trinucleotide repeated sequence of 14 SCA patients (3 cases of SCA2, 2 cases of SCA7, 7 cases of SCA8 and 2 cases of SCA17. Results Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 3 SCA2 cases showed the expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeats were 31, 30 and 32, and the copy numbers of 3 clone sequencing for 3 colonies in each case were 37/40/40, 37/38/39 and 38/39/40 respectively. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 2 SCA7 cases showed the expanded CAG repeats were 57 and 34, and the copy numbers of repeats were 69, 74, 75 in 3 colonies of one case, and was 45 in the other case. For the 7 SCA8 cases with the expanded cytosine-thymine-adenine (CTA/cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG repeats of 99, 111, 104, 92, 89, 104 and 75, the results of clone sequencing were 97, 116, 104, 90, 90, 102 and 76 respectively. For 2 SCA17 cases with the short/expanded CAG repeats of 37/50 and 36/45, the results of clone sequencing were 51/50/52 and 45/44 for 3 and 2 colonies. Conclusions Although the higher mobility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products containing dynamic mutation in the capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis might cause the deviation for analysis of copy numbers, the deviation was predictable and the results were repeatable. The clone sequencing results showed obvious instability, especially for SCA2 and SCA7 genes, which might owing to their simple CAG repeats. Consequently, clone sequencing is not suited for detection of dynamic mutation, not to mention the quantitative criteria of dynamic mutation sequencing. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2018.03.008

  3. Study on detection of mutation DNA fragment in gastric cancer by restriction endonuclease fingerprinting with capillary electrophoresis.

    Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Xu, Yue-Bing; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Meng, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Juan-Hong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xian-Hua

    2012-03-01

    The DNA fragment detection focusing technique has further enhanced the sensitivity and information of DNA targets. The DNA fragment detection method was established by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection and restriction endonuclease chromatographic fingerprinting (CE-LIF-REF) in our experiment. The silica capillary column was coated with short linear polyarclarylamide (SLPA) using nongel sieving technology. The excision product of various restricted enzymes of DNA fragments was obtained by REF with the molecular biology software Primer Premier 5. The PBR322/BsuRI DNA marker was used to establish the optimization method. The markers were focused electrophoretically and detected by CE-LIF. The results demonstrate that the CE-LIF-REF with SLPA can improve separation, sensitivity and speed of analysis. This technique may be applied to analysis of the excision product of various restricted enzymes of prokaryotic plasmid (pIRES2), eukaryote plasmid (pcDNA3.1) and the PCR product of codon 248 region of gastric cancer tissue. The results suggest that this method could very sensitively separate the excision products of various restricted enzymes at a much better resolution than the traditional agarose electrophoresis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fission-fragment attachment to aerosols and their transport through capillary tubes

    Novick, V.J.; Alvarez, J.L.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The transport of radioactive aerosols was studied using equipment, collectively called the Helium jet, that has been constructed to provide basic nuclear physics data on fission product nuclides. The transport of the fission products in the system depends on their attachment to aerosol particles. The system consists of 1) a tube furnace which generates aerosols by the sublimation or evaporation of source material, 2) a helium stream used to transport the aerosols, 3) a 25 m settling tube to eliminate the larger aerosols and smaller aerosols that would deposit in the capillary, 4) a Californium-252 self-fissioning source of fission product nuclides, and 5) a small capillary to carry the radioactive aerosols from the hot cell to the laboratory. Different source materials were aerosolized but NaCl is generally used because it yielded the highest transport efficiencies through the capillary. Particle size measurments were made with NaCl aerosols by using a cascade impactor, an optical light scattering device, and the capillary itself as a diffusion battery by performing radiation measurements and/or electrical conductivity measurements. Both radioactive and nonradioactive aerosols were measured in order to investigate the possibility of a preferential size range for fission product attachment. The measured size distributions were then used to calculate attachment coefficients and finally an attachment time

  5. Identification and characterization of a thermally cleaved fragment of monoclonal antibody-A detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Kubota, Kei; Kobayashi, Naoki; Yabuta, Masayuki; Ohara, Motomu; Naito, Toyohiro; Kubo, Takuya; Otsuka, Koji

    2017-06-05

    This report describes a novel, comprehensive approach to identifying a fragment peak of monoclonal antibody-A (mAb-A), detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS-cGE). The fragment migrated close to the internal standard (10kDa marker) of SDS-cGE and increased about 0.5% under a 25°C condition for 6 months. Generally, identification of fragments observed in SDS-cGE is challenging to carry out due to the difficulty of collecting analytical amounts of fractionations from the capillary. In this study, in-gel digestion peptide mapping and reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) were employed to elucidate the structure of the fragment. In addition, a Gelfree 8100 fractionation system was newly introduced to collect the fragment and the fraction was applied to the structural analysis of a mAb for the first time. These three analytical methods showed comparable results, proving that the fragment was a fraction of heavy chain HC1-104. The fragment contained complementarity determining regions (CDRs), which are significant to antigen binding, and thus would affect the efficacy of mAb-A. In addition, SDS-cGE without the 10kDa marker was demonstrated to clarify the increased amount of the fragment, and the experiment revealed that the fragment increases 0.2% per year in storage at 5°C. The combination of the three analytical methodologies successfully identified the impurity peak detected by SDS-cGE, providing information critical to assuring the quality and stability of the biotherapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intramolecular carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis by quantitative dry fragmentation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon in a combined injector/capillary reactor prior to GC separation.

    Penning, Holger; Elsner, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Potentially, compound-specific isotope analysis may provide unique information on source and fate of pesticides in natural systems. Yet for isotope analysis, LC-based methods that are based on the use of organic solvents often cannot be used and GC-based analysis is frequently not possible due to thermolability of the analyte. A typical example of a compound with such properties is isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), belonging to the worldwide extensively used phenylurea herbicides. To make isoproturon accessible to carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, we developed a GC-based method during which isoproturon was quantitatively fragmented to dimethylamine and 4-isopropylphenylisocyanate. Fragmentation occurred only partially in the injector but was mainly achieved on a heated capillary column. The fragments were then chromatographically separated and individually measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The reliability of the method was tested in hydrolysis experiments with three isotopically different batches of isoproturon. For all three products, the same isotope fractionation factors were observed during conversion and the difference in isotope composition between the batches was preserved. This study demonstrates that fragmentation of phenylurea herbicides does not only make them accessible to isotope analysis but even enables determination of intramolecular isotope fractionation.

  7. Quantification of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in a transformed uterine epithelial cell line, HRE-H9, using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detector (CE-LIF).

    Fiscus, R R; Leung, C P; Yuen, J P; Chan, H C

    2001-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death of uterine epithelial cells is thought to play an important role in the onset of menstruation and the successful implantation of an embryo during early pregnancy. Abnormal apoptosis in these cells can result in dysmenorrhoea and infertility. In addition, decreased rate of epithelial apoptosis likely contributes to endometriosis. A key step in the onset of apoptosis in these cells is cleavage of the genomic DNA between nucleosomes, resulting in polynucleosomal-sized fragments of DNA. The conventional technique for assessing apoptotic DNA fragmentation uses agarose (slab) gel electrophoresis (i.e. DNA laddering). However, recent technological advances in the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), particularly the introduction of the laser-induced fluorescence detector (LIF), has made it possible to perform DNA laddering with improved automation and much greater sensitivity. In the present study, we have further developed the CE-LIF technique by using a DNA standard curve to quantify accurately the amount of DNA in the apoptotic DNA fragments and have applied this new quantitative technique to study apoptosis in a transformed uterine epithelial cell line, the HRE-H9 cells. Apoptosis was induced in the HRE-H9 cells by serum deprivation for 5, 7 and 24 h, resulting in increased DNA fragmentation of 2.2-, 3.1- and 6.2-fold, respectively, above the 0 h or plus-serum controls. This ultrasensitive CE-LIF technique provides a novel method for accurately measuring the actions of pro- or anti-apoptotic agents or conditions on uterine epithelial cell lines. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. On-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using Fab´antibody fragments for the analysis of serum transthyretin.

    Pont, Laura; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes an on-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (IA-SPE-CE-MS) method using an immunoaffinity sorbent with Fab' antibody fragments (Fab'-IA) for the analysis of serum transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric protein (M r ~56,000) involved in different types of amyloidosis. The IA sorbent was prepared by covalent attachment of Fab' fragments obtained from a polyclonal IgG antibody against TTR to succinimidyl silica particles. The Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS methodology was first established analyzing TTR standard solutions. Under optimized conditions, repeatability and reproducibility were acceptable, the method was linear between 1 and 25µgmL -1 , limits of detection (LODs) were around 0.5µgmL -1 (50-fold lower than by CE-MS, ~25µgmL -1 ) and different TTR conformations were observed (folded and unfolded). The applicability of the developed method to screen for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), which is the most common hereditary systemic amyloidosis, was evaluated analyzing serum samples from healthy controls and FAP-I patients. For the analysis of sera, the most abundant proteins were precipitated with 5% (v/v) of phenol before Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS. The current method enhanced our previous results for the analysis of TTR using intact antibodies immobilized on magnetic beads. It allowed a slight improvement on LODs (2-fold), the detection of proteoforms found at lower concentrations and the preparation of microcartridges with extended durability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Surface-Confined Aqueous Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (SCARAFT) Polymerization Method for Preparation of Coated Capillary Leads to over 10 000 Peptides Identified from 25 ng HeLa Digest by Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Dovichi, Norman J

    2017-06-20

    A surface-confined aqueous reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SCARAFT) polymerization method was developed to coat capillaries for use in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). SCARAFT polymerization primarily takes place on the inner surface of the capillary instead of in solution, which greatly improves the homogeneity of the coating. Capillaries treated with this coating produced an electroosmotic mobility of 2.8 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 (N = 3), which is roughly an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial linear polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated capillaries. Coated capillaries were evaluated for bottom-up proteomic analysis using CZE. The very low electroosmotic mobility results in a 200 min separation and improved single-shot analysis. An average of 977 protein groups and 5605 unique peptides were identified from 50 ng of an E. coli digest, and 2158 protein groups and 10 005 peptides were identified from 25 ng of a HeLa digest using single-shot analysis with a SCARAFT-acrylamide capillary coupled to a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. The coating is stable. A single capillary was used for over 200 h (8.4 days) of continuous operation. RSD in migration time was between 2 and 3% for selected ion electropherograms (SIEs) generated for six ions; median theoretical plate counts ranged from 240 000 to 600 000 for these SIEs. Various types of coatings could be prepared by simply changing the functional vinyl monomers in the polymerization mixture. Positively charged coatings using direct attachment and formation of a block copolymer were prepared and demonstrated for the separation of mixtures of intact proteins.

  10. Partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis as a useful tool for fragment-based drug discovery: A proof of concept on thrombin.

    Farcaş, E; Bouckaert, C; Servais, A-C; Hanson, J; Pochet, L; Fillet, M

    2017-09-01

    With the emergence of more challenging targets, a relatively new approach, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), proved its efficacy and gained increasing importance in the pharmaceutical industry. FBDD identifies low molecular-weight (MW) ligands (fragments) that bind to biologically important macromolecules, then a structure-guided fragment growing or merging approach is performed, contributing to the quality of the lead. However, to select the appropriate fragment to be evolved, sensitive analytical screening methods must be used to measure the affinity in the μM or even mM range. In this particular context, we developed a robust and selective partial filling affinity CE (ACE) method for the direct binding screening of a small fragment library in order to identify new thrombin inhibitors. To demonstrate the accuracy of our assay, the complex dissociation constants of three known thrombin inhibitors, namely benzamidine, p-aminobenzamidine and nafamostat were determined and found to be in good concordance with the previously reported values. Finally, the screening of a small library was performed and demonstrated the high discriminatory power of our method towards weak binders compared to classical spectrophotometric activity assay, proving the interest of our method in the context of FBDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Capillary detectors

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Capillary array electrophoresis using laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection

    Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.; Mathies, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has found widespread application in analytical and biomedical research, and the scope and sophistication of CE is still rapidly advancing. Gel-filled capillaries have been employed for the rapid separation and analysis of synthetic polynucleotides, DNA sequencing fragments, and DNA restriction fragments. Open-tube capillary electrophoresis has attained subattomole detection levels in amino acid separations 14 and proven its utility for the separation of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. Separation of the optical isomers of dansyl amino acids has also been successfully demonstrated. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and on-column derivatization can all be performed on CE columns, demonstrating the utility of capillary electrophoresis as an analytical and micropreparative tool. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Jet fragmentation

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  14. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  15. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  16. Nuclear fragmentation

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  17. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  18. Controlled fragmentation

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  19. Chameleon fragmentation

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  20. Chameleon fragmentation

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  1. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a

  2. Explosive fragmentation

    Vledouts, Alexandre; Graña-Otero, José; Quinard, Joel; Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    We report on an experiment consisting in forcing the fast radial expansion of a spherical liquid shell. The shell is formed by the capillary pinch off of a water thin annular jet surrounding a jet of reactive gaseous mixture at ambient pressure. The encapsulated gas in the resulting water bubble is a mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen in controlled relative proportions, which is ignited by a laser plasma aimed at the center of the bubble. The strongly exothermic combustion of the mixture induces the expansion of the hot burnt gas, pushing the shell radially outwards in a violently accelerated motion. That motion triggers the instability of the shell, developing thickness modulations ultimately piercing it in a number of holes. The capillary retraction of the holes concentrates the liquid constitutive of the shell into a web of ligaments, whose breakup leads to stable drops. We document the overall process, from the kinematics of the shell initial expansion, to the final drops size distribution as a function of the composition of the gas mixture and bubble shell thickness.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  4. Bespoke Fragments

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  5. Rock fragmentation

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  6. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  7. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  8. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  9. Architectural fragments

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  10. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  11. Open tubular capillary column for the separation of cytochrome C tryptic digest in capillary electrochromatography.

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-10-01

    A silica capillary of 50 μm internal diameter and 500 mm length (416 mm effective length) was chemically modified with 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl isocyanate in the presence of dibutyl tin dichloride as catalyst. Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate was reacted with the terminal halogen of the bound ligand to incorporate the initiator moiety, and in situ polymerization was performed using a monomer mixture of styrene, N-phenylacrylamide, and methacrylic acid. The resultant open tubular capillary column immobilized with the copolymer layer was used for the separation of tryptic digest of cytochrome C in capillary electrochromatography. The sample was well eluted and separated into many components. The elution patterns of tryptic digest of cytochrome C were studied with respect to pH and water content in the mobile phase. This preliminary study demonstrates that open tubular capillary electrochromatography columns with a modified copolymer layer composed of proper nonpolar and polar units fabricated by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization can be useful as separation media for proteomic analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548 (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  13. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548, MAY (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  14. Intermediate Fragment

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  15. Fragmentation based

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  16. Bespoke Fragments

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  17. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    Weinberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  18. Framing Fragmentation

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  19. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  20. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  1. Capillary waves in slow motion

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  2. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  3. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  4. Confocal laser-induced fluorescence detector for narrow capillary system with yoctomole limit of detection.

    Weaver, Mitchell T; Lynch, Kyle B; Zhu, Zaifang; Chen, Huang; Lu, Joann J; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detectors for low-micrometer and sub-micrometer capillary on-column detection are not commercially available. In this paper, we describe in details how to construct a confocal LIF detector to address this issue. We characterize the detector by determining its limit of detection (LOD), linear dynamic range (LDR) and background signal drift; a very low LOD (~70 fluorescein molecules or 12 yoctomole fluorescein), a wide LDR (greater than 3 orders of magnitude) and a small background signal drift (~1.2-fold of the root mean square noise) are obtained. For detecting analytes inside a low-micrometer and sub-micrometer capillary, proper alignment is essential. We present a simple protocol to align the capillary with the optical system and use the position-lock capability of a translation stage to fix the capillary in position during the experiment. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this detector for narrow capillary systems, we build a 2-μm-i.d. capillary flow injection analysis (FIA) system using the newly developed LIF prototype as a detector and obtain an FIA LOD of 14 zeptomole fluorescein. We also separate a DNA ladder sample by bare narrow capillary - hydrodynamic chromatography and use the LIF prototype to monitor the resolved DNA fragments. We obtain not only well-resolved peaks but also the quantitative information of all DNA fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Lepel, E.A.; Stromswold, D.C.; Stoffels, J.; Sunberg, D.S.; Tenny, H.

    1996-11-01

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using 58 Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics

  6. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  7. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    Kartsova, L A; Bessonova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references

  8. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  10. Capillary gas-solid chromatography

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Modern state of gas adsorption chromatography in open capillary columns has been analyzed. The history of the method development and its role in gas chromatography, ways to construct open adsorptional capillary columns, foundations of the theory of retention and washing of chromatographic regions in gas adsorption capillary columns have been considered. The fields is extensively and for analyzing volatile compounds of different isotopic composition, inorganic and organic gases, volatile organic polar compounds, aqueous solutions of organic compounds. Separation of nuclear-spin isomers and isotopes of hydrogen is the first illustrative example of practical application of the adsorption capillary chromatography. It is shown that duration of protium and deuterium nuclear isomers may be reduced if the column temperature is brought to 47 K

  11. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  12. Capillary viscosimetry on ferrofluids

    Pop, L M; Odenbach, S

    2008-01-01

    Experiments performed for different ferrofluids under shear flow have shown that an increase of the magnetic field strength applied to the sample yields an increase of the fluid's viscosity, the so called magnetoviscous effect. It has been shown that the magnitude of the effect is strongly related to the modification of the microstructure of ferrofluids and can be influenced by varying both the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles and the concentration of large particles within the fluid. This result has been further used to synthesize new ferrofluids which, on one hand, are more compatible for technical applications but, on the other hand, led to difficulties for the experimenters in measuring the viscous behavior in the presence of a magnetic field. To overcome this problem, a specially designed ferrofluid-compatible capillary viscometer has been developed. Within this paper, the experimental setup as well as experimental results concerning the investigation of the magnetoviscous effect in both diluted and concentrated cobalt-based ferrofluids are presented

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS OF SOME CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IONSPRAY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    KOSTIAINEN, R; BRUINS, AP; HAKKINEN, VMA

    1993-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-ionspray mass spectrometry (CZE-IS-MS) in the negative-ion mode was applied in the identification of five organophosphonic acids, which are the primary hydrolysis products of nerve agents. The spectra exhibit a very abundant (M - H)- ion with minimal fragmentation.

  14. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  15. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  16. Universal elements of fragmentation

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  17. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  18. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  19. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  20. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    Emmanuelle eFiore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  1. 3D capillary valves for versatile capillary patterning of channel walls

    Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate passive capillary patterning of channel walls with a liquid in situ. Patterning is performed using a novel 3D capillary valve system combining three standard capillary stop valves. A range of different patterns is demonstrated in three channel walls. Capillary patterning was designed

  2. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  3. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  4. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  6. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  8. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  9. High-throughput fragment screening by affinity LC-MS.

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten

    2013-02-01

    Fragment screening, an emerging approach for hit finding in drug discovery, has recently been proven effective by its first approved drug, vemurafenib, for cancer treatment. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and isothemal titration calorimetry, with their own pros and cons, have been employed for screening fragment libraries. As an alternative approach, screening based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation has been developed. In this work, we present weak affinity LC/MS as a method to screen fragments under high-throughput conditions. Affinity-based capillary columns with immobilized thrombin were used to screen a collection of 590 compounds from a fragment library. The collection was divided into 11 mixtures (each containing 35 to 65 fragments) and screened by MS detection. The primary screening was performed in 3500 fragments per day). Thirty hits were defined, which subsequently entered a secondary screening using an active site-blocked thrombin column for confirmation of specificity. One hit showed selective binding to thrombin with an estimated dissociation constant (K (D)) in the 0.1 mM range. This study shows that affinity LC/MS is characterized by high throughput, ease of operation, and low consumption of target and fragments, and therefore it promises to be a valuable method for fragment screening.

  10. Acetic acid denaturing pulsed field capillary electrophoresis for RNA separation.

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Sumitomo, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2010-10-01

    Based on our previous work of in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis, we present a study of RNA molecular separation up to 6.0 kilo nucleotide by pulsed field CE. This is the first systematic investigation of electrophoresis of a larger molecular mass RNA in linear hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) under pulsed field conditions. The parameters that may influence the separation performance, e.g. gel polymer concentration, modulation depth and pulse frequency, are analyzed in terms of resolution and mobility. For denaturing and separating RNA in the capillary simultaneously, 2 M acetic acid was added into the HEC polymer to serve as separation buffer. Result shows that (i) in pulsed field conditions, RNA separation can be achieved in a wide range of concentration of HEC polymer, and RNA fragments between 0.3 and 0.6 kilo nucleotide are sensitive to the polymer concentration; (ii) under certain pulsed field conditions, RNA fragments move linearly as the modulation depth increases; (iii) 12.5 Hz is the resonance frequency for RNA reorientation time and applied frequency.

  11. Fission fragment angular momentum

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  13. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  14. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  15. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    Dorairaj, Rathissh [Hillsboro, OR; Keynton, Robert S [Louisville, KY; Roussel, Thomas J [Louisville, KY; Crain, Mark M [Georgetown, IN; Jackson, Douglas J [New Albany, IN; Walsh, Kevin M [Louisville, KY; Naber, John F [Goshen, KY; Baldwin, Richard P [Louisville, KY; Franco, Danielle B [Mount Washington, KY

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  16. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...... capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  17. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  18. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  19. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  20. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  1. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  2. Dimensional crossover in fragmentation

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.

  3. Resolving DNA at Efficiencies of More than A Million Plates per Meter Using Bare Narrow Open Capillary without Sieving Matrix

    Zhu, Zaifang; Liu, Lei; Wang, Wei; Lu, Joann J.; Wang, Xiayan; Liu, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel approach for effectively separating DNA molecules in free solution. The method uses a bare narrow open capillary without any sieving matrices to resolve a wide size-range of DNA fragments at efficiencies of more than a million plates per meter routinely.

  4. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  5. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  6. Capillary concentrators for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Heald, S.M.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, F.C.; Barg, B.; Stern, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary concentrators condense x-rays by multiple reflections down a gradually tapering capillary. They can provide sub-micron beam spots, and are promising candidates for use in the next generation x-ray microprobe beamlines. The weak energy dependence of their properties make them especially useful for energy scanning applications such as micro-XAFS. This paper examines the potential performance of capillary optics for an x-ray microprobe, as well as some practical issues such as fabrication and alignment. Best performance at third generation sources requires long capillaries, and the authors have been using fiber optics techniques to fabricate capillaries up to one meter in length. The performance of shorter (less than about 0.5 m) capillaries has often been found to agree well with theoretical calculations, indicating the inner surface is a high quality x-ray reflector. These capillaries have been tested at the NSLS for imaging and micro-XAFS down to 2.6 microm resolution with excellent results. On an unfocused bend magnet line flux density approaching 10 6 ph/sec/microm 2 has been achieved. While nearly optimum profiles have been achieved for longer capillaries, the results have been disappointing, and alignment problems are suspected. The dramatic improvement in performance possible at third generation synchrotrons such as the APS is discussed along with improvements possible by using the capillaries in conjunction with coupling optics

  7. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  8. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  10. Physics of projectile fragments

    Minamisono, Tadanori

    1982-01-01

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  11. Fragmentation Main Model

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  12. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  13. Fragment capture device

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  14. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  15. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ...... distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element...

  16. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  17. Ion guiding and losses in insulator capillaries

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Vikor, Gy.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Ivan, I.; Gall, F.; Toekesi, K.; Matefi-Tempfli, S.; Matefi-Tempfli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Not long ago it was discovered that insulating capillaries can guide slow ions, so that the ions avoid close contact with the capillary walls and preserve their initial charge state. This phenomenon did not only give a new puzzle for theoreticians but opened the way for new possible applications where ions are manipulated (deflected, focused and directed to different patterns on the irradiated media) with small capillary devices. The most important question for such applications is how large fraction of the ions can be guided to the desired direction. It is already known that the ion guiding is due to the charging up of the inner capillary walls by earlier ion impact events. In tilted capillaries one side of the capillary walls charges up. This deflects the later arriving ions, so that some of them pass through the capillaries nearly parallel with respect to their axes. The angle where the transmission drops to 1/e of the direct transmission at 0 deg is the guiding angle, which characterize the guiding ability. At 0 deg the ideal 100 percent transmission for the ions, which enter the capillaries, is reduced due to the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections. These losses appear in the transmission for tilted capillaries with similar magnitude, since after the deflection region, which usually restricted to the close surroundings of the capillary openings, the guided ions pass through the rest of the capillaries as in non-tilted samples. In our experimental studies with Al 2 O 3 capillaries we found that around 90 percent of the incoming ions are lost. To understand these significant losses, the effects of the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections have been calculated classically. The mirror charge potential was taken from.The model of the capillaries used in the calculations can be seen in Figure 1. The calculations have shown that the effects of mirror charge attraction and the angular

  18. Transmission properties of C60 ions through micro- and nano-capillaries

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Majima, Takuya; Tomita, Shigeo; Sasa, Kimikazu; Narumi, Kazumasa; Saitoh, Yuichi; Chiba, Atsuya; Yamada, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi; Shibata, Hiromi; Itoh, Akio

    2013-01-01

    We apply the capillary beam-focusing method for the C 60 fullerene projectiles in the velocity range between 0.14 and 0.2 a.u. We study the C 60 transmission properties through two different types of capillaries: (1) borosilicate glass microcapillary with an outlet diameter of 5.5 μm, and (2) Al 2 O 3 multi-capillary foil with a pore size of about 70 nm and a high aspect ratio of about 750. We measured the transmitted particle composition by using the electrostatic deflection method combined with the microchannel plate imaging technique. For the experiments with the single microcapillary, the main transmission component is found to be primary C 60 beams that are focused in the area equal to the capillary outlet diameter. Minor components are charge-exchanged C 60 ions and charged or neutral fragments (fullerene-like C 60-2m and small C n particles), and their fractions decrease with decreasing the projectile velocity. It is concluded that the C 60 transmission fraction is considerably high for both types of the capillaries in the present velocity range

  19. Transmission properties of C{sub 60} ions through micro- and nano-capillaries

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu, E-mail: tsuchida@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Majima, Takuya [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Shigeo [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Sasa, Kimikazu [Tandem Accelerator Complex, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Narumi, Kazumasa; Saitoh, Yuichi; Chiba, Atsuya; Yamada, Keisuke [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hirata, Koichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Itoh, Akio [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We apply the capillary beam-focusing method for the C{sub 60} fullerene projectiles in the velocity range between 0.14 and 0.2 a.u. We study the C{sub 60} transmission properties through two different types of capillaries: (1) borosilicate glass microcapillary with an outlet diameter of 5.5 μm, and (2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-capillary foil with a pore size of about 70 nm and a high aspect ratio of about 750. We measured the transmitted particle composition by using the electrostatic deflection method combined with the microchannel plate imaging technique. For the experiments with the single microcapillary, the main transmission component is found to be primary C{sub 60} beams that are focused in the area equal to the capillary outlet diameter. Minor components are charge-exchanged C{sub 60} ions and charged or neutral fragments (fullerene-like C{sub 60-2m} and small C{sub n} particles), and their fractions decrease with decreasing the projectile velocity. It is concluded that the C{sub 60} transmission fraction is considerably high for both types of the capillaries in the present velocity range.

  20. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  1. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  2. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  3. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  4. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  5. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  6. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  7. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Megalencephaly Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformations ...

  9. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  11. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  12. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  14. PELE fragmentation dynamics

    Verreault, J.; Hinsberg, N.P. van; Abadjieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model that describes the PELE fragmentation dynamics is presented and compared with experimental results from literature. The model accounts for strong shock effects and detailed interactions taking place between the filling – the inner core of the ammunition – and the target

  15. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragments of the Past

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  17. Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments

    Underlin, Emilie Nørmølle; Böhm, Maximilian F.; Madsen, Robert

    , or production of commercial chemicals which are mainly obtained from fossil fuels today.The arbinoxylan fragments have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylans with α-L-arabinose units attached at specific positions. The synthesis ultilises an efficient synthetic route, where all the xylan units can be derived from D...

  18. Fragmented Work Stories

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  19. Fragments of the Past

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  20. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  1. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  2. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  3. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  4. Microgravity Investigation of Capillary Driven Imbibition

    Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Skryleva, E. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the capillary driven filtration in porous media under microgravity conditions. New mathematical model that allows taking into account the blurring of the front due to the instability of the displacement that is developing at the front is proposed. The constants in the mathematical model were selected on the basis of the experimental data on imbibition into unsaturated porous media under microgravity conditions. The flow under the action of a combination of capillary forces and a constant pressure drop or a constant flux is considered. The effect of capillary forces and the type of wettability of the medium on the displacement process is studied. A criterion in which case the capillary effects are insignificant and can be neglected is established.

  5. Characterization of asphaltenes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis

    Kok, W.T.; Tüdös, A.J.; Grutters, M.; Shepherd, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis was used for the separation and characterization of asphaltene samples from different sources. For the separation medium (background electrolyte), mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and a high-permittivity organic solvent could be used. The best results were obtained

  6. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  7. Fragments of Time

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...... that is presented; how do we understand such films and to what extent is it even possible to make sense of a film that has no real beginning, middle or end?...

  8. Vulvar Lobular Capillary Hemangioma (Pyogenic Granuloma

    Kian-Mei Chong

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma is considered a reactive hyperproliferative vascular response to trauma or other stimuli. The name “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. There are a few cases of lobular capillary hemangioma of the glans penis but it is rare on the female genitalia. We present this case to help physicians become aware that lobular capillary hemangiomas may occur at this site.

  9. Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.

    Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2014-02-04

    Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.

  10. Fragmentation of atomic systems

    Bohn, J.L.; Fano, U.

    1996-01-01

    We report recent progress toward a nonperturbative formulation of many-body quantum dynamics that treats all constituent particles on an equal footing. This formulation is capable of detailing the evolution of a system toward the diverse fragments into which it can break up. We illustrate the general concept with the simple example of the simultaneous excitation of both electrons in a helium atom. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Modelling the fragmentation mechanisms

    Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of high amplitude collective motion in the nuclear fragmentation by using semi-classical macroscopic, as well as, microscopic simulations (BUU). These studies are motivated by the search of instabilities responsible for nuclear fragmentation. Two cases were examined: the bubble formation following the collective expansion of the compressed nucleus in case of very central reactions and, in the case of the semi-central collisions, the fast fission of the two partners issued from a binary reaction, in their corresponding Coulomb field. In the two cases the fragmentation channel is dominated by the inter-relation between the Coulomb and nuclear fields, and it is possible to obtain semi-quantitative predictions as functions of interaction parameters. The transport equations of BUU type predicts for central reactions formation of a high density transient state. Of much interest is the mechanism subsequent to de-excitation. It seems reasonable to conceive that the pressure stocked in the compressional mode manifests itself as a collective expansion of the system. As the pressure is a increasing function of the available energy one can conceive a variety of energy depending exit channels, starting from the fragmentation due the amplification of fluctuations interior to the spinodal zone up to the complete vaporization of the highly excited system. If the reached pressure is sufficiently high the reaction final state may preserve the memory of the entrance channel as a collective radial energy superimposed to the thermal disordered motion. Distributions of particles in the configuration space for both central and semi-central reactions for the Pb+Au system are presented. The rupture time is estimated to the order of 300 fm/c, and is strongly dependent on the initial temperature. The study of dependence of the rupture time on the interaction parameters is under way

  12. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  13. Excited nuclei fragmentation

    Ngo, C.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr

  14. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  15. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Azimuthal Anisotropies in Nuclear Fragmentation

    Dabrowska, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.

    2002-01-01

    The directed and elliptic flow of fragments emitted from the excited projectile nuclei has been observed for 158 AGeV Pb collisions with the lead and plastic targets. For comparison the flow analysis has been performed for 10.6 AGeV Au collisions with the emulsion target. The strong directed flow of heaviest fragments is found. Light fragments exhibit directed flow opposite to that of heavy fragments. The elliptic flow for all multiply charged fragments is positive and increases with the charge of the fragment. The observed flow patterns in the fragmentation of the projectile nucleus are practically independent of the mass of the target nucleus and the collision energy. Emission of fragments in nuclear multifragmentation shows similar, although weaker, flow effects. (author)

  17. Universality of projectile fragmentation model

    Chaudhuri, G.; Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Presently projectile fragmentation reaction is an important area of research as it is used for the production of radioactive ion beams. In this work, the recently developed projectile fragmentation model with an universal temperature profile is used for studying the charge distributions of different projectile fragmentation reactions with different projectile target combinations at different incident energies. The model for projectile fragmentation consists of three stages: (i) abrasion, (ii) multifragmentation and (iii) evaporation

  18. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges.

  19. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this

  20. Monoliths in capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry

    Moravcová, Dana; Rantamäki, A. H.; Duša, Filip; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 7-8 (2016), s. 880-912 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography * capillary liquid chromatography * mass spec- trometry * monolithic columns Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  1. An Archeology of Fragments

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  2. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    Legrain, R.

    1984-08-01

    Projectile and nuclear fragmentation are defined and processes referred to are recalled. The two different aspects of fragmentation are considered but the emphasis is also put on heavy ion induced reactions. The preliminary results of an experiment performed at GANIL to study peripheral heavy ions induced reactions at intermediate energy are presented. The results of this experiment will illustrate the characteristics of projectile fragmentation and this will also give the opportunity to study projectile fragmentation in the transition region. Then nuclear fragmentation is considered which is associated with more central collisions in the case of heavy ion induced reactions. This aspect of fragmentation is also ilustrated with two heavy ion experiments in which fragments emitted at large angle have been observed

  3. Fragmentation of random trees

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  4. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  5. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fragment-based lead generation: identification of seed fragments by a highly efficient fragment screening technology

    Neumann, Lars; Ritscher, Allegra; Müller, Gerhard; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2009-08-01

    For the detection of the precise and unambiguous binding of fragments to a specific binding site on the target protein, we have developed a novel reporter displacement binding assay technology. The application of this technology for the fragment screening as well as the fragment evolution process with a specific modelling based design strategy is demonstrated for inhibitors of the protein kinase p38alpha. In a fragment screening approach seed fragments were identified which were then used to build compounds from the deep-pocket towards the hinge binding area of the protein kinase p38alpha based on a modelling approach. BIRB796 was used as a blueprint for the alignment of the fragments. The fragment evolution of these deep-pocket binding fragments towards the fully optimized inhibitor BIRB796 included the modulation of the residence time as well as the affinity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the robustness and efficiency of our novel fragment screening technology at high fragment concentrations, compare the screening data with biochemical activity data and to demonstrate the evolution of the hit fragments with fast kinetics, into slow kinetic inhibitors in an in silico approach.

  7. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  9. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  10. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  11. Infraglottic lobular capillary hemangioma: A case report

    Vinh Ly Pham Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH is a benign proliferation of capillary blood vessels adopting a lobular configuration. A laryngeal origin of LCH is exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a subglottic lesion, leading to a subglottic stenosis. Histopathologic findings of the lesion implicated an LCH, which was removed successfully by a coblator. This is the first report of a subglottic LCH. Physicians should be aware of this unique lesion and laryngeal LCH should be considered in diagnosing the cause of a subglottic stenosis. Additionally, coblation should be an effective treatment for laryngeal LCH.

  12. Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization

    Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

  13. Can positrons be guided by insulating capillaries?

    DuBois, R.D.; Toekesi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigations of guiding of few hundred eV antiparticles by macroscopic insulating capillaries have been described. Using subfemtoamp positron and electron beams, we demonstrated that a portion of the entering beams were transmitted and emerged in the direction of the capillary. We also demonstrated that the transmitted intensities decreased as the capillary tilt angle was increased (see Fig. 1). Both of these are indications of guiding. However, a comparison with transmitted photon data implies that the positron transmission may result from geometric factors associated with our diffuse beams and tapered capillary used in these studies. For electrons, the comparison indicates differences which could imply that even very low intensity beams can be guided. Measurements of the transmitted intensity as a function of charge entering the capillary were inconclusive as no major increases in the transmitted intensity were observed. 2D static simulations imply that our beam intensities, although extremely small with respect to previous guiding experiments, were capable of supplying sufficient charge for guiding to occur. Although not definitive, our study implies that sub-femtoamp beam intensities are sufficient to form charge patches and produce guiding. This may have been observed for electrons with the question remaining open for positrons. That guiding was not clearly seen may have been due to the capillary geometry used or it may indicate that although sufficient charge is being supplied, the surface and bulk resistivities of glass permit this charge to dissipate faster than it is formed. This aspect was not taken into consideration in our simulations but a crude estimate of the discharge rate implies that beam intensities on the order of pA, rather than fA as used here, may be required for guiding to occur in the capillaries used here. Additional studies are required to definitively answer the question as to whether antiparticles

  14. Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.

    Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2011-11-14

    Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hysteretic capillary condensation in a porous material

    Lilly, M.P.; Hallock, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the behavior of hysteresis subloops in the capillary condensation of 4 He in the porous material Nuclepore. For hysteretic systems composed of many independent elements, the Preisach model may be used to predict the behavior of the resulting hysteresis. One prediction is that subloops with common chemical potential endpoints will be congruent. The observations of such subloops show that the prediction of congruence fails for this capillary condensation system. To understand deviations from Preisach behavior the authors modify the model to account for intersections among the pores. The modified model is in close agreement with the experimental results

  16. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  17. Studies on pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges

    Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C; Larour, J; Rous, J [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Favre, M; Moreno, J; Chuaqui, H; Wyndham, E [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Zambra, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Wong, C S [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on radiation characteristics of pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges are presented. The device combines the on axis electron beam assisted ionization capabilities of the transient hollow cathode discharge with a novel high voltage low inductance geometrical design, which integrates the local energy storage into the electrode system. A nanosecond regime high temperature plasma is produced in a long, high aspect ratio capillary, with light emission in the UV to XUV region. The discharge is operated from near vacuum to pressure in the 1000 mTorr range. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  18. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  19. Fractal statistics of brittle fragmentation

    M. Davydova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of fragmentation statistics of brittle materials that includes four types of experiments is presented. Data processing of the fragmentation of glass plates under quasi-static loading and the fragmentation of quartz cylindrical rods under dynamic loading shows that the size distribution of fragments (spatial quantity is fractal and can be described by a power law. The original experimental technique allows us to measure, apart from the spatial quantity, the temporal quantity - the size of time interval between the impulses of the light reflected from the newly created surfaces. The analysis of distributions of spatial (fragment size and temporal (time interval quantities provides evidence of obeying scaling laws, which suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmentation.

  20. Quantification of nucleotides by ICPMS: coupling of ICPMS with capillary electrophoresis or capillary HPLC

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, S.; Takatsu, A.; Yarita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Chiba, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quantification of nucleotides in small volumes of biological samples has eagerly been demanded. A method using ICPMS coupled with capillary electrophoresis or capillary liquid chromatography is reported. A new interface system, which consists of a double tube nebulizer inserted with a fused silica capillary tube and a cylinder mini-chamber with a sheath gas inlet, was designed. Moreover, the surface conditions of the sampling and skimmer cones, and the introduction of H 2 gas into the plasma were found to significantly improve the signal/background ratio for phosphorus determination at m/z 31. (author)

  1. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  2. Fluctuations in the fragmentation process

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Some general framework of sequential fragmentation is presented, as provided by the newly proposed Fragmentation - Inactivation - Binary model, and to study briefly its basic and universal features. This model includes as particular cases most of the previous kinetic fragmentation models. In particular it is discussed how one arrives in this framework to the critical behaviour, called the shattering transition. This model is then compared to recent data on gold multifragmentation at 600 MeV/nucl. (authors) 20 refs., 5 figs

  3. Hysteretic capillary condensation of 4He on Nuclepore substrates

    Godshalk, K.M.; Smith, D.T.; Hallock, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the approach to capillary condensation and the hysteresis encountered in capillary condensation are reported for helium adsorbed on the polycarbonate substrate Nuclepore. (Author) (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  4. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  5. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  6. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  7. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  8. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  9. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  10. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior

  11. Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets

    Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet

  12. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  13. Van de Graaff generator for capillary electrophoresis.

    Lee, Seung Jae; Castro, Eric R; Guijt, Rosanne M; Tarn, Mark D; Manz, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    A new approach for high voltage capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed, which replaces the standard high voltage power supply with a Van de Graaff generator, a low current power source. Because the Van de Graaff generator is a current-limited source (10μA), potentials exceeding 100kV can be generated for CE when the electrical resistance of the capillary is maximized. This was achieved by decreasing the capillary diameter and reducing the buffer ionic strength. Using 2mM borate buffer and a 5μm i.d. capillary, fluorescently labeled amino acids were separated with efficiencies up to 3.5 million plates; a 5.7 fold improvement in separation efficiency compared to a normal power supply (NPS) typically used in CE. This separation efficiency was realized using a simple set-up without significant Joule heating, making the Van de Graaff generator a promising alternative for applying the high potentials required for enhancing resolution in the separation and analysis of highly complex samples, for example mixtures of glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  15. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  17. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin A1c by capillary electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  18. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  19. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  20. Polymer fragmentation in extensional flow

    Maroja, Armando M.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Ciesla, Michal; Longa, Lech

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of fragmentation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow. The transition rate is investigated both from theoretical and computational approaches, where the existence of a Gaussian distribution for the breaking bonds has been controversial. We give as well an explanation for the low fragmentation frequency found in DNA experiments.

  1. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  2. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  3. Fragment screening of cyclin G-associated kinase by weak affinity chromatography.

    Meiby, Elinor; Knapp, Stefan; Elkins, Jonathan M; Ohlson, Sten

    2012-11-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a new strategy for drug discovery where lead compounds are evolved from small molecules. These fragments form low affinity interactions (dissociation constant (K(D)) = mM - μM) with protein targets, which require fragment screening methods of sufficient sensitivity. Weak affinity chromatography (WAC) is a promising new technology for fragment screening based on selective retention of fragments by a drug target. Kinases are a major pharmaceutical target, and FBDD has been successfully applied to several of these targets. In this work, we have demonstrated the potential to use WAC in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection for fragment screening of a kinase target-cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK). One hundred seventy fragments were selected for WAC screening by virtual screening of a commercial fragment library against the ATP-binding site of five different proteins. GAK protein was immobilized on a capillary HPLC column, and compound binding was characterized by frontal affinity chromatography. Compounds were screened in sets of 13 or 14, in combination with MS detection for enhanced throughput. Seventy-eight fragments (46 %) with K(D) < 200 μM were detected, including a few highly efficient GAK binders (K(D) of 2 μM; ligand efficiency = 0.51). Of special interest is that chiral screening by WAC may be possible, as two stereoisomeric fragments, which both contained one chiral center, demonstrated twin peaks. This ability, in combination with the robustness, sensitivity, and simplicity of WAC makes it a new method for fragment screening of considerable potential.

  4. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  5. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  7. Fragment-based drug design.

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  8. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Applications of capillary optics for focused ion beams

    Umezawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces applications of focused ion beams (∼1 μm) with glass capillaries systems. A first report on the interaction between ion beams and glass capillaries was published in 1996. The guiding capabilities of glass capillaries were discovered due to ion reflection from inner wall of glass surfaces. Meanwhile, the similar optics have been already realized in focusing X-rays using glass capillaries. The basic technology of X-rays optics using glass capillaries had been developed in the 1980's and 1900's. Also, low energy atom scattering spectroscopy for insulator material analysis will be mentioned. (author)

  10. Characterization and Study of Transgenic Cultivars by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis

    Elena Domínguez Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the analysis of genetically modified organisms. Study of the substantial equivalence, discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars, study of the unintended effects caused by a genetic modification or their response to diverse situations or stress conditions (e.g., environmental, climatic, infections are some of the concerns that need to be addressed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE is emerging as an alternative to conventional techniques for the study and characterization of genetically modified organisms. This article reviews the most recent applications of CE for the analysis and characterization of transgenic cultivars in the last five years. Different strategies have been described depending on the level analyzed (DNA, proteins or metabolites. Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE has shown to be particularly useful for the analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Metabolites and proteins have been mainly separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using UV and MS detection. Electrophoretic chips have also proven their ability in the analysis of transgenic cultivars and a section describing the new applications is also included.

  11. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  12. Design of Capillary Flows with Spatially Graded Porous Films

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new capillary tube model, consisting of multi-layered capillary tubes oriented in the direction of flow, to predict capillary speeds on spatially graded porous films. Capillary flows through thin porous media have been widely utilized for small size liquid transport systems. However, for most media it is challenging to realize arbitrary shapes and spatially functionalized micro-structures with variable flow properties. Therefore, conventional media can only be used for capillary flows obeying Washburn's equation and the modifications thereof. Given this background, we recently developed a method called breakdown anodization (BDA) to produce highly wetting porous films. The resulting surfaces show nearly zero contact angles and fast water spreading speed. Furthermore, capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. From the capillary tube model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity. The theoretical model shows good agreement with experimental capillary flows. The study will provide novel design methodologies for paper-based microfluidic devices.

  13. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    Li-Ning, Sun; Le-Feng, Wang; Wei-Bin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions, a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases. It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force. The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances, and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances. The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  14. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  15. A model for projectile fragmentation

    Chaudhuri, G; Mallik, S; Gupta, S Das

    2013-01-01

    A model for projectile fragmentation is developed whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and transport models like 'Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration' (HIPSE) model and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics (AMD) model. A very simple impact parameter dependence of input temperature is incorporated in the model which helps to analyze the more peripheral collisions. The model is applied to calculate the charge, isotopic distributions, average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of largest cluster at different Z bound of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies.

  16. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  17. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  18. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Phillips, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution measurements on γ rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author)

  20. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  1. An air-pressure-free elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    Jung, Wooseok; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Zenhausern, Frederic; Rivera, Andrew; Birdsell, Dawn N; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The valve functions include metering to capture a designated volume of biological sample into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber, sealing to preserve the sample during PCR cycling, and transfer of the PCR-products and on-chip formamide post-processing for the analysis of DNA fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis. This new valve differs from prior art polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves in that the valve is not actuated externally by air-pressure or vacuum so that it simplifies a DNA analysis system by eliminating the need for an air-pressure or vacuum source, and off-cartridge solenoid valves, control circuit boards and software. Instead, the new valve is actuated by a thermal cycling peltier assembly integrated within the hardware instrument that tightly comes in contact with a microfluidic cartridge for thermal activation during PCR, so that it spontaneously closes the valve without an additional actuator system. The valve has bumps in the designated locations so that it has a self-alignment that does not require precise alignment of a valve actuator. Moreover, the thickness of the new valve is around 600 μm with an additional bump height of 400 μm so that it is easy to handle and very feasible to fabricate by injection molding compared to other PDMS valves whose thicknesses are around 30–100 μm. The new valve provided over 95% of metering performance in filling the fixed volume of the PCR chamber, preserved over 97% of the sample volume during PCR, and showed very comparable capillary electrophoresis peak heights to the benchtop assay tube controls with very consistent transfer volume of the PCR-product and on-chip formamide. The new valve can perform a core function for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. (paper)

  2. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    Zhong, Wenwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  3. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  4. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  5. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  6. The order of condensation in capillary grooves

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p co (L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p sat − p co (L) = 2σcosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θ cap ; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σsinθ cap /L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θ cap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented. (fast track communication)

  7. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  8. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  9. The dynamics of fragment formation

    Keane, D.

    1994-09-01

    We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac's BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy

  10. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments

    Dawson, J. K.; Moseley, F.

    1960-01-01

    Some reactor design considerations of the use of fission recoil fragment energy for the production of chemicals of industrial importance have been discussed previously in a paper given at the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [A/Conf. 15/P.76]. The present paper summarizes more recent progress made on this topic at AERE, Harwell. The range-energy relationship for fission fragments is discussed in the context of the choice of fuel system for a chemical production reactor, and the experimental observation of a variation of chemical effect along the length of a fission fragment track is described for the irradiation of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Recent results are given on the effect of fission fragments on carbon monoxide-hydrogen gas mixtures and on water vapour. No system investigated to date shows any outstanding promise for large-scale chemical production. (author) [fr

  11. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  12. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  13. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Hu Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  14. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis for detection of single-nucleotide differences between fetal and maternal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Yi, Ping; Chen, Zhuqin; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Jianxin; Fu, Huabin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Yu, Lili; Li, Li

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has opened up an approach for noninvasive diagnosis. We have now assessed the possibility of detecting single-nucleotide differences between fetal and maternal DNA in maternal plasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction((LDR)/capillary electrophoresis. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis was applied to detect the genotype of c.454-397T>gene (ESR1) from experimental DNA models of maternal plasma at different sensitivity levels and 13 maternal plasma samples.alphaC in estrogen receptor. (1) Our results demonstrated that the technique could discriminate low abundance single-nucleotide mutation with a mutant/normal allele ratio up to 1:10 000. (2) Examination of ESR1 c.454-397T>C genotypes by using the method of restriction fragment length analysis was performed in 25 pregnant women, of whom 13 pregnant women had homozygous genotypes. The c.454-397T>C genotypes of paternally inherited fetal DNA in maternal plasma of these 13 women were detected by PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis, which were accordant with the results of umbilical cord blood. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis has very high sensitivity to distinguish low abundance single nucleotide differences and can discriminate point mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of paternally inherited fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

  15. Automation and integration of polymerase chain reaction with capillary electrophoresis for high throughput genotyping and disease diagnosis

    Zhang, N.

    1999-02-12

    Genotyping is to detect specific loci in the human genome. These loci provide important information for forensic testing, construction of genetic linkage maps, gene related disease diagnosis and pharmacogenetic research. Genotyping is becoming more and more popular after these loci can be easily amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Capillary electrophoresis has its unique advantages for DNA analysis due to its fast heat dissipation and ease of automation. Four projects are described in which genotyping is performed by capillary electrophoresis emphasizing different aspects. First, the author demonstrates a principle to determine the genotype based on capillary electrophoresis system. VNTR polymorphism in the human D1S80 locus was studied. Second, the separation of four short tandem repeat (STR) loci vWF, THO1, TPOX and CSF1PO (CTTv) by using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in achieving high resolution and preventing rehybridization of the DNA fragments. Separation under denaturing, non-denaturing conditions and at elevated temperature was discussed. Third, a 250 {micro}m i.d., 365 {micro}m o.d. fused silica capillary was used as the microreactor for PCR. Fourth, direct PCR from blood was studied to simplify the sample preparation for genotyping to minimum.

  16. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  17. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  18. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  19. Capillary density: An important parameter in nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Emrani, Zahra; Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease. It is detectable with nailfold capillaroscopy. This parameter is assessed by applying quantitative measurement. In this article, we reviewed a common method for calculating the capillary density and the relation between the number of capillaries as well as the existence of digital ulcers, pulmonary arterial hypertension, autoantibodies, scleroderma patterns and different scoring system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Condensation and Evaporation Transitions in Deep Capillary Grooves

    Malijevský, A. (Alexandr); Parry, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature $T_w$ condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metas...

  1. Fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds

    Tohline, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    We examine, with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, the behavior of rotating, isothermal gas clouds as they collapse from Jeans unstable configurations, in order to determine whether they are susceptible to fragmentation during the initial dynamic collapse phase of their evolution. We find that a gas cloud will not fragment unless (a) it begins collapsing from a radius much smaller than the Jeans radius (i.e., the cloud initially encloses many Jeans masses) and (b) irregularities in the cloud's initial structure (specifically, density inhomogeneities) enclose more than one Jeans mass of material. Gas pressure smooths out features that are not initially Jeans unstable while rotation plays no direct role in damping inhomogeneities. Instead of fragmenting, most of our models collapse to a ring configuration (as has been observed by other investigators in two-dimensional, axisymmetric models). The rings appear to be less susceptible to gragmentation from arbitrary perturbations in their structure than has previously been indicated in other work. Because our models, which include the effects of gas pressure, do not readily fragment during a phase of dynamic collapse, we suggest that gas clouds in the galactic disk undergo fragmentation only during quasi-equilibrium phases of their evolution

  2. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  3. Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nano-capillaries

    Dabagov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the main directions in X-ray optics and analyzing the development of capillary optics, a general theory of radiation propagation through capillary structures is described in both geometrical optics and wave optics approximations. Analysis of radiation field structure inside a capillary waveguide shows that wave propagation in channels can be of a purely modal nature, with transmitted energy mostly concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of capillary inner walls. A qualitative change in radiation scattering with decreasing channel diameter 0 namely, the transition from surface channeling in microcapillaries to bulk channeling in nanocapillaries - is discussed [ru

  4. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Arteriovenous Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    ... and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Microcephaly Centers ...

  7. Modelization and simulation of capillary barriers

    Lisbona Cortes, F.; Aguilar Villa, G.; Clavero Gracia, C.; Gracia Lozano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the different underground transport phenomena, that due to water flows is of great relevance. Water flows in infiltration and percolation processes are responsible of the transport of hazardous wastes towards phreatic layers. From the industrial and geological standpoints, there is a great interest in the design of natural devices to avoid the flows transporting polluting substances. This interest is increased when devices are used to isolate radioactive waste repositories, whose life is to be longer than several hundred years. The so-called natural devices are those based on the superimposition of material with different hydraulic properties. In particular, the flow retention in this kind stratified media, in unsaturated conditions, is basically due to the capillary barrier effect, resulting from placing a low conductivity material over another with a high hydraulic conductivity. Covers designed from the effect above have also to allow a drainage of the upper layer. The lower cost of these covers, with respect to other kinds of protection systems, and the stability in time of their components make them very attractive. However, a previous investigation to determine their effectivity is required. In this report we present the computer code BCSIM, useful for easy simulations of unsaturated flows in a capillary barrier configuration with drainage, and which is intended to serve as a tool for designing efficient covers. The model, the numerical algorithm and several implementation aspects are described. Results obtained in several simulations, confirming the effectivity of capillary barriers as a technique to build safety covers for hazardous waste repositories, are presented. (Author)

  8. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  9. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  10. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  11. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  12. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

    Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  13. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  14. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  16. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  17. Electro-capillary effects in capillary filling dynamics of electrorheological fluids.

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-09-21

    The flow of electrorheological fluids is characterized by an apparent increase in viscosity manifested by the yield stress property of the fluid, which is a function of the applied electric field and the concentration of the suspended solute phase within the dielectric medium. This property of electrorheological fluids generally hinders flow through a capillary if the imposed shear stress is lower than the induced yield stress. This results in a plug-like zone in the flow profile, thus giving the fluid Bingham plastic properties. In the present work, we study such influences of the yield stress on the capillary filling dynamics of an electrorheological fluid by employing a rheologically consistent reduced order formalism. One important feature of the theoretical formalism is its ability to address the intricate interplay between the surface tension and viscous forces, both of which depend sensitively on the electric field. Our analysis reveals that the progress of the capillary front is hindered at an intermediate temporal regime, which is attributable to the increase of the span of the plug-zone across the channel width with time. With a preliminary understanding on the cessation of the capillary front advancement due to the yield stress property of the electrorheological fluids, we further strive to achieve a basic comparison with an experimental study made earlier. Reasonable agreements with the reported data support our theoretical framework. Comprehensive scaling analysis brings further insight to our reported observations over various temporal regimes.

  18. Memory effects in nuclear fragmentation?

    Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The dominant mode at the instability point is determined from the knowledge of the mean properties (density and temperature) of the system at that point. For spinodal instabilities the dependence of fragment structures on the dynamical conditions is studied changing the beam energy and the considered equation of state. An important competition between two dynamical effects, expansion of the system and growth of fluctuations, is revealed. It is shown that in heavy-ion central collisions at medium energies memory effects of the configuration formed at the instability time could be observed in the final fragmentation pattern. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. ((orig.))

  19. Fragmentation properties of 6Li

    Lovas, R.G.; Kruppa, A.T.; Beck, R.; Dickmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The α+d and t+τ cluster structure of 6 Li is described in a microscopic α+d cluster model through quantities that enter into the description of cluster fragmentation processes. The states of the separate clusters α, d, t and τ are described as superpositions of Os Slater determinants belonging to different potential size parameters. To describe both the 6 Li and fragment state realistically, nucleon-nucleon forces optimized for the used model state spaces were constructed. The fragmentation properties predicted by them slightly differ from those calculated with some forces of common use provided the latter are modified so as to reproduce the α, d and 6 Li energies. (author) 61 refs.; 9 figs

  20. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  1. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    Baur, G.; Roesel, F.; Trautmann, D.; Shyam, R.

    1983-10-01

    Fragmentation processes in nuclear collisions are reviewed. The main emphasis is put on light ion breakup at nonrelativistic energies. The post- and prior-form DWBA theories are discussed. The post-form DWBA, appropriate for the ''spectator breakup'' describes elastic as well as inelastic breakup modes. This theory can also account for the stripping to unbound states. The theoretical models are compared to typical experimental results to illustrate the various possible mechanisms. It is discussed, how breakup reactions can be used to study high-lying single particle strength in the continuum; how it can yield information about momentum distributions of fragments in the nucleus. (orig.)

  2. Refolding Technologies for Antibody Fragments

    Tsutomu Arakawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Refolding is one of the production technologies for pharmaceutical grade antibody fragments. Detergents and denaturants are primarily used to solubilize the insoluble proteins. The solubilized and denatured proteins are refolded by reducing the concentration of the denaturants or detergents. Several refolding technologies have been used for antibody fragments, comprising dilution, dialysis, solid phase solvent exchange and size exclusion chromatography, as reviewed here. Aggregation suppressor or folding-assisting agents, including arginine hydrochloride, ionic liquids and detergents or denaturants at low concentrations, are included in the refolding solvent to enhance refolding yield.

  3. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  4. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  5. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  6. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  7. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  8. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.

    2008-01-01

    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  9. Heterogeneity of capillary spacing in the hypertrophied plantaris muscle from young-adult and old rats.

    Degens, H.; Morse, C.I.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of capillary spacing may affect tissue oxygenation. The determinants of heterogeneity of capillary spacing are, however, unknown. To investigate whether 1) impaired angiogenesis and increased heterogeneity of capillary spacing delays development of hypertrophy during aging and 2)

  10. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  11. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  12. Developments in SPR Fragment Screening.

    Chavanieu, Alain; Pugnière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have played an increasing role alongside high-throughput screening in drug discovery for 15 years. The label-free biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is now sensitive and informative enough to serve during primary screens and validation steps. In this review, the authors discuss the role of SPR in fragment screening. After a brief description of the underlying principles of the technique and main device developments, they evaluate the advantages and adaptations of SPR for fragment-based drug discovery. SPR can also be applied to challenging targets such as membrane receptors and enzymes. The high-level of immobilization of the protein target and its stability are key points for a relevant screening that can be optimized using oriented immobilized proteins and regenerable sensors. Furthermore, to decrease the rate of false negatives, a selectivity test may be performed in parallel on the main target bearing the binding site mutated or blocked with a low-off-rate ligand. Fragment-based drug design, integrated in a rational workflow led by SPR, will thus have a predominant role for the next wave of drug discovery which could be greatly enhanced by new improvements in SPR devices.

  13. Nuclear fragmentation by nucleation approach

    Chung, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleation model is used to simulate nuclear fragmentation processes. The critical value of the effective interaction radius is shown to vary linearly with the expansion factor α. The calculated mass and charge distributions are compared with some experimental data. (author)

  14. Neutron multiplicity of fission fragments

    Abdelrahman, Y S [Physics department, mu` rah university Al-Karak, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    The total average neutron multiplicity of the fission fragments produced by the spontaneous fission of {sup 248} Cm has been measured. This measurement has been done by using a new experimental technique. This technique mainly depends on {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence using a very high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. 2 figs.

  15. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  16. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  17. Research of nuclear fragmentation characteristics

    Richert, J.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for the study of nuclear fragmentation are presented. Different models and methods which were developed in the past are reviewed, critically discussed and confronted in connection with the experimental information gathered over the past years. Specific aspects related to the onset of the process, its characteristics and the mechanism which governs it are discussed [fr

  18. FRAGMENTED IDENTITIES: THE CULTURAL COLLISION ...

    User

    Born in the former French and German colony of. Togo, Komla-Ebri ... of how cultural barriers not only lead to isolation and fragmented identities, but also ..... and, in recreating bits of Italy, in the form of music, cinema and food, absorbs parts of ...

  19. Phthalocyanides sensitized fragmentation of proteins

    Klementová, S.; Tothová, D.; Revaková, R.; Kasková, M.; Wagnerová, Dana Marie

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2001), s. 13-18 ISSN 0972-0626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : phthalocyanides * photosensitied fragmentation of proteins Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Isotherms of Capillary Condensation Influenced by Formation of Adsorption Films.

    Churaev; Starke; Adolphs

    2000-01-15

    Isotherms of capillary condensation are often used to determine the vapor sorption capacity of porous adsorbents as well as the pore size distribution by radii. In this paper, for calculating the volume of capillary condensate and of adsorption films in a porous body, an approach based on the theory of surface forces is used. Adsorption isotherms and disjoining pressure isotherms of wetting films are presented here in an exponential form discussed earlier. The calculations were made for straight cylindrical capillaries of different radii and slit pores of different width. The mechanisms of capillary condensation differ in cylindrical and slit pores. In cylindrical pores capillary condensation occurs due to capillary instability of curved wetting films on a capillary surface, when film thickness grows. In the case of slit pores, coalescence of wetting films formed on opposite slit surfaces proceeds under the action of attractive dispersion forces. Partial volumes of liquid in the state of both capillary condensate and adsorbed films are calculated dependent on the relative vapor pressure in a surrounding media. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  2. Capillary condensation in porous alumina observed by positronium lifetime spectroscopy

    Ivanov, Eugeniu; Vata, Ion; Toderian, Stefan; Dudu, Dorin; Rusen, Ion; Stefan, Nitisor

    2008-01-01

    The PALS method based on time distribution measurements has been used to study capillary condensation of different gases adsorbed in microporous alumina powder. The isotherms exhibit features which are associated with a shifted gas-liquid transition. The sorption and desorption processes are irreversible presenting a hysteresis effect. Suggestions on some new aspects of the capillary condensation dynamics are made

  3. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  4. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  5. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary...

  6. First report of microcephaly-capillary malformations syndrome in ...

    Background: Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is a newly described autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, multiple cutaneous capillary malformations, intractable epilepsy and profound developmental delay. We present the first description of MIC-CAP syndrome in Russia.

  7. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  8. Geometry Effects of Capillary on the Evaporation from the Meniscus

    Choi, Choong Hyo; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of capillary cross-section geometry on evaporation is investigated in terms of the meniscus shape, evaporation rate and evaporation-induced flow for circular, square and rectangular cross-sectional capillaries. The shapes of water and ethanol menisci are not much different from each other in square and rectangular capillaries even though the surface tension of water is much larger than that of ethanol. On the other hand, the shapes of water and ethanol menisci are very different from each other in circular capillary. The averaged evaporation fluxes in circular and rectangular capillaries are measured by tracking the meniscus position. At a given position, the averaged evaporation flux in rectangular capillaries in much larger than that in circular capillary with comparable hydraulic diameter. The flow near the evaporating meniscus is also measured using micro-PIV, so that the rotating vortex motion is observed near the evaporating ethanol and methanol menisci except for the case of methanol meniscus in rectangular capillary. This difference is considered to be due to the existence of corner menisci at the four corners

  9. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  10. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  11. A macrothermodynamic approach to the limit of reversible capillary condensation.

    Trens, Philippe; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Galarneau, Anne; Brunel, Daniel; Fubini, Bice; Garrone, Edoardo; Fajula, François; Di Renzo, Francesco

    2005-08-30

    The threshold of reversible capillary condensation is a well-defined thermodynamic property, as evidenced by corresponding states treatment of literature and experimental data on the lowest closure point of the hysteresis loop in capillary condensation-evaporation cycles for several adsorbates. The nonhysteretical filling of small mesopores presents the properties of a first-order phase transition, confirming that the limit of condensation reversibility does not coincide with the pore critical point. The enthalpy of reversible capillary condensation can be calculated by a Clausius-Clapeyron approach and is consistently larger than the condensation heat in unconfined conditions. Calorimetric data on the capillary condensation of tert-butyl alcohol in MCM-41 silica confirm a 20% increase of condensation heat in small mesopores. This enthalpic advantage makes easier the overcoming of the adhesion forces by the capillary forces and justifies the disappearing of the hysteresis loop.

  12. Generalized polymer effective charge measurement by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Chamieh, Joseph; Koval, Dušan; Besson, Adeline; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we have generalized the use of capillary isotachophoresis as a universal method for determination of effective charge of anionic and cationic (co)polymers on ordinary capillary electrophoresis instruments. This method is applicable to a broad range of strong or weak polyelectrolytes with good repeatability. Experimental parameters (components and concentrations of leading and terminating electrolytes, capillary diameters, constant electric current intensity) were optimized for implementation in 100 μm i.d. capillaries for both polyanions and polycations. Determined values of polymer effective charge were in a very good agreement with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Uncertainty of the effective charge measurement using isotachophoresis was addressed and estimated to be ∼5-10% for solutes with mobilities in the 20-50 × 10(-9)m(2)V(-1)s(-1) range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic fragmentation of gall stones and extraction of fragments

    Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Schmidt, H.D.; Staritz, M.; Mainz Univ.; Mainz Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts at percutaneous removal have been made in 13 patients with solitary and multiple intra- and extra-hepatic biliary duct stones measuring 5 to 30 mm. The stones were fragmented with a Dormia basket and the fragments removed transhepatically. In ten patients the procedure was successful, including one patient with multiple intra-hepatic stones. The procedure can be recommended for cases of calculous obstruction of biliary anastomoses or of stones which could not be removed by endoscopy, or where there is already biliary drainage being carried out, or in patients with a high opertive risk. In two patients, dilatation of the papilla was also carried out, in four patients a stenosis was dilated and in a further two patients, electro-incision of a stenosis was performed. (orig.) [de

  14. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Kazarian, Artaches A.; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A.; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C.; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L"−"1 levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min"−"1, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L"−"1 for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  15. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: Brett.Paull@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  16. Rapid capillary coating by epoxy-poly-(dimethylacrylamide): Performance in capillary zone electrophoresis of protein and polystyrene carboxylate

    Chiari, M.; Cretich, M.; Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2001), s. 656-659 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary coating * capillary zone electrophoresis * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  17. Fragments

    Moreira, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    This performance autoethnography shows the author's struggle in finding his place, scholarship, voice, and body, into the academic setting. Mixing together memories of his lived experience with sugar cane workers, notes, and leftovers of different fieldworks, plus 6 years of life as grad student at the University of Illinois, the author looks for…

  18. Fragmentation

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  19. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Capillary electrophoretic determination of selected phenolic compounds in humic substances of well waters and fertilizers.

    Chen, Mei-Ying; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Jian-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) from well waters, fertilizers, and synthetic phenolic polymers were characterized by elemental and UV-VIS spectroscopic analyses. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV absorption detection was used to analyze the lignin-derived phenolic distribution in the degradation residues after alkaline CuO oxidation of HS samples. Eleven phenols with p-acetyl, vanillyl and syringyl substituents were selected to optimize the CZE parameters. For well waters and fertilizers, the content of phenolic fragments was in agreement with the findings of the elemental and spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, parameters derived from the vanillic acid/vanilline, syringyl acid/syringaldehyde, p-hydroxyl/vanillyl and syringyl/vanillyl ratios matched analogous studies on dissolved organic matter from natural waters and on humic acids from terrestrial substances. The amount of phenolic monomer bonded within two synthetic HS polymers was found to be 25.9% protocatechuic acid and 71.3% gallic acid.

  1. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall.

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-09-29

    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  4. Imbibition Triggered by Capillary Condensation in Nanopores.

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham D

    2017-02-21

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of water uptake by capillary condensation from unsaturated vapor in mesoporous silicon layers (pore radius r p ≃ 2 nm), taking advantage of the local changes in optical reflectance as a function of water saturation. Our experiments elucidate two qualitatively different regimes as a function of the imposed external vapor pressure: at low vapor pressures, equilibration occurs via a diffusion-like process; at high vapor pressures, an imbibition-like wetting front results in fast equilibration toward a fully saturated sample. We show that the imbibition dynamics can be described by a modified Lucas-Washburn equation that takes into account the liquid stresses implied by Kelvin equation.

  5. Capillary condensation and adsorption of binary mixtures.

    Weinberger, B; Darkrim-Lamari, F; Levesque, D

    2006-06-21

    The adsorption of equimolar binary mixtures of hydrogen-carbon dioxide, hydrogen-methane, and methane-carbon dioxide in porous material models is determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The material models have an adsorbent surface similar to that of nanofibers with a herringbone structure. Our main result, which is relevant for hydrogen purification and carbon dioxide capture, is that the adsorption selectivities calculated for the mixtures can differ significantly from those deduced from simulations of the adsorption of pure gases, in particular, when one of the adsorbed gases presents a capillary condensation induced by confinement within the pore network. A comparison of our data is also made with theoretical models used in the literature for predicting the properties of the mixture adsorption.

  6. Capillary Condensation with a Grain of Salt.

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2017-11-21

    Capillary condensation (CC), namely, the formation from the vapor of a stable phase of drops below the saturation pressure, is a prevalent phenomenon. It may occur inside porous structures or between surfaces of particles. CC between surfaces, a liquid "bridge", is of particular practical interest because of its resulting adhesive force. To date, studies have focused on pure water condensation. However, nonvolatile materials, such as salts and surfactants, are prevalent in many environments. In the current study, the effect of these contaminants on CC is investigated from a thermodynamic point of view. This is done by computing the Gibbs energy of such systems and developing the modified Kelvin equation, based on the Kohler theory. The results demonstrate that nonvolatile solutes may have a number of major effects, including an increase in the critical radius and the stabilization of the newly formed phase.

  7. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  8. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  9. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  10. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  11. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  12. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Kaur, Manpreet [Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India); Kaur, Varinderjit, E-mail: drvarinderjit@gmail.com [Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  13. Fragmentation of percolation cluster perimeters

    Debierre, Jean-Marc; Bradley, R. Mark

    1996-05-01

    We introduce a model for the fragmentation of porous random solids under the action of an external agent. In our model, the solid is represented by a bond percolation cluster on the square lattice and bonds are removed only at the external perimeter (or `hull') of the cluster. This model is shown to be related to the self-avoiding walk on the Manhattan lattice and to the disconnection events at a diffusion front. These correspondences are used to predict the leading and the first correction-to-scaling exponents for several quantities defined for hull fragmentation. Our numerical results support these predictions. In addition, the algorithm used to construct the perimeters reveals itself to be a very efficient tool for detecting subtle correlations in the pseudo-random number generator used. We present a quantitative test of two generators which supports recent results reported in more systematic studies.

  14. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species with different size and mobility can be regulated by different processes at the same spatial scale, a principle that may contribute to diversity. Differences in species richness between local commu...

  15. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  16. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, B.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  18. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  19. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  20. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  1. Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.

    Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C

    2014-10-03

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  2. Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons

    Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.

  3. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  4. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  5. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  6. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  7. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    The flow of inviscid bubbles and viscous drops in capillary tubes has been simulated by a Galerkin finite element method with surface tension included at the bubble/liquid interface. The results show good agreement with published experimental results. At low capillary numbers the front and the rear...... of the bubble are nearly spherical. As the capillary number increases the thickness of the wetting film between the tube wall and the bubble increases, and the bubble assumes a more slender shape with a characteristic bump at the rear. Recirculations are found in front and behind the bubble, which disappear...

  8. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  9. Recent advances of capillary electrophoresis in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Suntornsuk, Leena

    2010-09-01

    This review covers recent advances of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in pharmaceutical analysis. The principle, instrumentation, and conventional modes of CE are briefly discussed. Advances in the different CE techniques (non-aqueous CE, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography, capillary isotachophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and immunoaffinity CE), detection techniques (mass spectrometry, light-emitting diode, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and contactless conductivity), on-line sample pretreatment (flow injection) and chiral separation are described. Applications of CE to assay of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), drug impurity testing, chiral drug separation, and determination of APIs in biological fluids published from 2008 to 2009 are tabulated.

  10. Early Regimes of Water Capillary Flow in Slit Silica Nanochannels

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Mejia, Andres

    2015-01-01

    on the dynamics of capillaryfilling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes:an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by aconstant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus...... velocity profiles identify the passage froman inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicatea transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling ratescomputed for higher air pressures reveal a significant...... retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus....

  11. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  12. Scaling and critical behaviour in nuclear fragmentation

    Campi, X.

    1990-09-01

    These notes review recent results on nuclear fragmentation. An analysis of experimental data from exclusive experiments is made in the framework of modern theories of fragmentation of finite size objects. We discuss the existence of a critical regime of fragmentation and the relevance of scaling and finite size scaling

  13. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Quark fragmentation in e+e- collisions

    Oddone, P.

    1984-12-01

    This brief review of new results in quark and gluon fragmentation observed in e + e - collisions concentrates mostly on PEP results and, within PEP, mostly on TPC results. The new PETRA results have been reported at this conference by M. Davier. It is restricted to results on light quark fragmentation since the results on heavy quark fragmentation have been reported by J. Chapman

  15. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  16. Neighbouring charge fragmentations in low energy fission

    Montoya, M.

    1986-10-01

    Shell and odd-even effects in fission have been largely studied until now. The structure in fragment mass, charge and kinetic energy distributions of fragments were interpreted as shell and even-odd effects. In this paper, we want to show that the discret change of fragment charge symmetry should produce also structures in those distribution. 19 refs

  17. Independent Yields of Kr and Xe Fragments at Photofission of Odd Nuclei ^{237}Np and ^{243}Am

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Myshinskii, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E

    2004-01-01

    he independent yields of fragments Kr (A=89-93) and Xe (A=135-142) at photofission of odd nuclei 237Np and 243Am are presented. The experiments were performed using the bremsstrahlung of 25 MeV electrons on the microtron of FLNR, JINR. A technique was used that included the transportation of fragments which escaped from the target with the gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes and of the complementary fragments (Y and La at the photofission of ^{237}Np and Nb and Pr at the photofission of ^{243}Am) were obtained.

  18. Fission fragment excited laser system

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  19. Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems

    Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.

    1996-07-08

    Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).

  20. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  1. Solid density, low temperature plasma formation in a capillary discharge

    Kania, D.R.; Jones, L.A.; Maestas, M.D.; Shepherd, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the ability of the authors to produce solid density, low temperature plasmas in polyurethane capillary discharges. The initial capillary diameter is 20 μm. The plasma is produced by discharging a one Ohm parallel plate waterline and Marx generator system through the capillary. A peak current of 340 kA in 300 ns heats the inner wall of the capillary, and the plasma expands into the surrounding material. The authors studied the evolution of the discharge using current and voltage probes, axial and radial streak photography, axial x-ray diode array and schlieren photography, and have estimated the peak temperature of the discharge to be approximately 10 eV and the density to be near 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/. This indicates that the plasma may approach the strongly coupled regime. They discuss their interpretation of the data and compare their results with theoretical models of the plasma dynamics

  2. TECHNIQUES WITH POTENTIAL FOR HANDLING ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    An assessment of the methods for handling environmental samples prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) is presented for both aqueous and solid matrices. Sample handling in environmental analyses is the subject of ongoing research at the Environmental Protection Agency's National...

  3. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  4. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I.; Williamson, Erik H.; Rubner, Michael F.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2009-03-11

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Ouakad, Hassen M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny

  7. CAPILLARY CONDENSATION IN MMS AND PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION. (R825959)

    Phenomena of capillary condensation and desorption in siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (MMS) with cylindrical channels are studied by means of the non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results are compared with macroscopic thermodynamic approaches based on Kelv...

  8. Targeted functionalization of nanoparticle thin films via capillary condensation.

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I; Williamson, Erik H; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane).

  9. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  10. Omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a new association.

    Gerrits, L.C.; Mol, A.C. de; Bulten, J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: First report of an infant with coexistent omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: We describe a term infant with omphalocele and respiratory insufficiency

  11. Capillary electrophoresis in the N-glycosylation analysis of biopharmaceuticals

    Guttman, András

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, JUL-AUG (2013), s. 132-143 ISSN 0165-9936 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : automated workflow * biopharmaceuticals * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.612, year: 2013

  12. Capillary Pressure-induced Lung Injury: Fact or Fiction?

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... ing severe exercise, thus causing significant capillary hyper- tension. Pulmonary ... sponses evoked by high-pressure stress. To clarify the .... by an increased release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2.

  13. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  14. Methods and instrumentation for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    Revermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of novel instrumentation and analytical methodology for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is described in this thesis. Demanding only small quantities of reagents and samples, microfluidic instrumentation is highly advantageous. Fast separations at high voltages

  15. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  16. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  17. Models of fragmentation with composite power laws

    Tavassoli, Z.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-06-01

    Some models for binary fragmentation are introduced in which a time dependent transition size produces two regions of fragment sizes above and below the transition size. In the first model we assume a fixed rate of fragmentation for the largest fragment and two different rates of fragmentation in the two regions of sizes above and below the transition size. The model is solved exactly in the long time limit to reveal stable time-invariant solutions for the fragment size and mass distributions. These solutions exhibit composite power law behaviours; power laws with two different exponents for fragments in smaller and larger regions. A special case of the model with no fragmentation in the smaller size region is also examined. Another model is also introduced which have three regions of fragment sizes with different rates of fragmentation. The similarities between the stable distributions in our models and composite power law distributions from experimental work on shock fragmentation of long thin glass rods and thick clay plates are discussed.

  18. Pharmacology of post-irradiation damage of blood capillaries

    Pospisil, J.; Pouckova, P.

    1979-01-01

    Available literature data are summed up on the effect of a number of substances on irradiation damage to blood capillaries. The substances include vitamins, bioflavonoids, serotonine, histamine, bradykinin, ACTH, adrenal hormones, vasopressin, estrogens, prostaglandins, escin 1-butanol, diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenoxybenzamine, 1,4-dihydroxybenzenesulphonic acid derivatives, and xi-aminohexanoic acid. The data include the effects of the substances administered before and after irradiation on blood capillary damage and on mortality. (Ha)

  19. Soft x-ray lasing in a capillary discharge

    Lee, Tong-Nyong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Dong-Eon

    1995-01-01

    Soft x-ray lasing in the C VI Balmer α transition is observed in a capillary discharge. The capillary is made of polyethylene with a bore diameter of 1.2 mm. Plasma radiation from the discharge is analyzed using a toroidal mirror and a two-meter grazing-incidence spectrograph-monochromator. The electron temperatures are measured at both the axial and the peripheral region close to the capillary wall, using space-resolved spectra. A comparison of the branching ratio in the hot (axial) and the cool (peripheral) plasma regions indicates that there is a large population inversion between n=3 and 2 states of C 5+ ions in the cool (Te∼13 eV) region of the capillary plasma. Relative line intensities of the C VI Hα and a number of non-lasing lines are compared in this cool region as a function of capillary length. The C VI Hα line intensity increases exponentially whereas those of non-lasing transitions increase linearly with an increase of the capillary length. The gain coefficient thus measured indicates 2.8 cm -1 . The lasing line intensity does not seem to increase exponentially beyond a capillary length of 16 mm and the gain-length product, gL, obtained here is 3.9, which is a typical value one would expect for a recombination soft x-ray laser. The photoelectric signals of the lasing line indicate that the lasing takes place about 40 ns after the current peak in the first half cycle of the capillary discharge, with a lasing pulse width of 60 ns in FWHM

  20. Field-portable Capillary Electrophoresis Instrument with Conductivity Detection

    Zhang, H F; Liu, X W; Wang, W; Wang, X L; Tian, L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel capillary electrophoresis chip (CEC) is presented with integrated platinum electrodes and simplified conductivity detector. CEC is fabricated by the method of mechanical modification with probe on organic glass. Capillary electrophoresis chip can rapidly completed ion separation by simulation of concentration distribution and zone-broadening. Detection circuit is simple which can detect pA order current. This system has those advantages such as small volume, low power consumption and linearity, and well suit for field analysis

  1. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: Capillary prewetting

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangu...

  2. Soft x-ray amplification in an ablative capillary discharge

    Kwek, K.H.; Low, K.S.; Tan, C.A.; Lim, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Soft x-ray amplification in CVI 18.2 nm line is observed in an ablative UHMW-PE capillary discharge. The gain coefficient is measured to be 1.9 cm -1 . The electron density is about 2 x 10 19 cm -3 . This indicates that capillary discharge pumping device can be a source for a compact soft x-ray laser. (author)

  3. Capillary gel electrophoresis for rapid, high resolution DNA sequencing.

    Swerdlow, H; Gesteland, R

    1990-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis has been demonstrated for the separation and detection of DNA sequencing samples. Enzymatic dideoxy nucleotide chain termination was employed, using fluorescently tagged oligonucleotide primers and laser based on-column detection (limit of detection is 6,000 molecules per peak). Capillary gel separations were shown to be three times faster, with better resolution (2.4 x), and higher separation efficiency (5.4 x) than a conventional automated slab gel DNA sequenci...

  4. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....

  5. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  6. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Possibilities of testing capillary absorption on microcores

    Čeh Arpad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During inspection of reinforced concrete structures from the aspect of durability evaluation of concrete, the present methods generally use the test results obtained by the sophisticated and expensive equipment, which are usually not universal purpose, ie. they can be used only for one segment of durability evaluation of the concrete. This way any additional information about the condition of concrete is valuable, especially if it is not require an additional testing with special equipment. Tests of concrete and reinforced concrete with microcore drilling is considered to be a semi- destructive method, which slightly damages the structure itself, and it is primarily used for testing carbonation, density and absorption of concrete. The paper presents the results of capillary absorption according to SRPS EN 480-5 on standard-size samples and on the microcores extracted from cube form samples with edge length of 20 cm. In the article the testing results of penetration of water under pressure are also presented on the same samples, on which we previously gained microcores. These tests were carried out on with concrete mixtures designed for the most demanding exposure classes according to EN 206-1 and using a variety of additives that are known to affect the structure of pores and consequently also the durability of a hardened concrete.

  8. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  9. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  10. Familial Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Early in Life

    Johannes Wirbelauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH is a rare disease, especially in infancy. Four infants have been reported up to the age of 12 months. So far, no familial patients are observed at this age. Patients. We report three siblings, two female newborns and a foetus of 15-week gestation of unrelated, healthy parents suffering from histologically proven PCH. The first girl presented with increased O2 requirements shortly after birth and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. She subsequently developed progressive respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension and died at the age of five months. The second girl presented with clinical signs of bronchial obstruction at the age of three months. The work-up showed a PDA—which was surgically closed—pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial wall instability with stenosis of the left main bronchus. Transient oxygen therapy was required with viral infections. The girl is now six years old and clinically stable without additional O2 requirements. Failure to thrive during infancy and a somewhat delayed development may be the consequence of the disease itself but also could be attributed to repeated episodes of respiratory failure and a long-term systemic steroid therapy. The third pregnancy ended as spontaneous abortion. The foetus showed histological signs of PCH. Conclusion. Despite the differences in clinical course, the trias of PCH, PDA, and pulmonary hypertension in the two life born girls suggests a genetic background.

  11. Structures of endothiapepsin-fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library.

    Huschmann, Franziska U; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein-ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin-fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity.

  12. Structures of endothiapepsin–fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library

    Huschmann, Franziska U.; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein–ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin–fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity. PMID:27139825

  13. Genotyping of K-ras codons 12 and 13 mutations in colorectal cancer by capillary electrophoresis.

    Chen, Yen-Ling; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2009-06-26

    Point mutations of the K-ras gene located in codons 12 and 13 cause poor responses to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Besides, mutations of K-ras gene have also been proven to play an important role in human tumor progression. We established a simple and effective capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for simultaneous point mutation detection in codons 12 and 13 of K-ras gene. We combined one universal fluorescence-based nonhuman-sequence primer and two fragment-oriented primers in one tube, and performed this two-in-one polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR fragments included wild type and seven point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of K-ras gene. The amplicons were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-CE method. The CE analysis was performed by using a 1x Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer containing 1.5% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) (MW 250,000) under reverse polarity with 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Ninety colorectal cancer patients were blindly genotyped using this developed method. The results showed good agreement with those of DNA sequencing method. The SSCP-CE was feasible for mutation screening of K-ras gene in populations.

  14. Revisiting the Lund Fragmentation Model

    Andersson, B.; Nilsson, A.

    1992-10-01

    We present a new method to implement the Lund Model fragmentation distributions for multi-gluon situations. The method of Sjoestrand, implemented in the well-known Monte Carlo simulation program JETSET, is robust and direct and according to his findings there are no observable differences between different ways to implement his scheme. His method can be described as a space-time method because the breakup proper time plays a major role. The method described in this paper is built on energy-momentum space methods. We make use of the χ-curve, which is defined directly from the energy momentum vectors of the partons. We have shown that the χ-curve describes the breakup properties and the final state energy momentum distributions in the mean. We present a method to find the variations around the χ-curve, which also implements the basic Lund Model fragmentation distributions (the area-law and the corresponding iterative cascade). We find differences when comparing the corresponding Monte Carlo implementation REVJET to the JETSET distributions inside the gluon jets. (au)

  15. An interlaboratory comparison of ITS2-PCR for the identification of yeasts, using the ABI Prism 310 and CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis systems

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, most laboratories identify yeasts routinely on the basis of morphology and biochemical reactivity. This approach has quite often limited discriminatory power and may require long incubation periods. Due to the increase of fungal infections and due to specific antifungal resistence patterns for different species, accurate and rapid identification has become more important. Several molecular techniques have been described for fast and reliable identification of yeast isolates, but interlaboratory exchangeability of identification schemes of molecular techniques has hardly been studied. Here, we compared amplified ITS2 fragment length determination by an ABI Prism 310 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system with that obtained by a CEQ8000 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system. Results Although ITS2 size estimations on both systems differed and separate libraries had to be constructed for each system, both approaches had the same discriminatory power with regard to the 44 reference strains, identical identifications were obtained for 39/ 40 clinical isolates in both laboratories and strains from 51 samples were correctly identified using CEQ8000, when compared to phenotypic identification. Conclusion Identification of yeasts with ITS2-PCR followed by fragment analysis can be carried out on different capillary electrophoresis systems with comparable discriminatory power.

  16. Multianalyte detection using a capillary-based flow immunosensor.

    Narang, U; Gauger, P R; Kusterbeck, A W; Ligler, F S

    1998-01-01

    A highly sensitive, dual-analyte detection system using capillary-based immunosensors has been designed for explosive detection. This model system consists of two capillaries, one coated with antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the other specific for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) combined into a single device. The fused silica capillaries are prepared by coating anti-TNT and anti-RDX antibodies onto the silanized inner walls using a hetero-bifunctional crosslinker. After immobilization, the antibodies are saturated with a suitable fluorophorelabeled antigen. A "T" connector is used to continuously flow the buffer solution through the individual capillaries. To perform the assay, an aliquot of TNT or RDX or a mixture of the two analytes is injected into the continuous flow stream. In each capillary, the target analyte displaces the fluorophore-labeled antigen from the binding pocket of the antibody. The labeled antigen displaced from either capillary is detected downstream using two portable spectrofluorometers. The limits of detection for TNT and RDX in the multi-analyte formate are 44 fmol (100 microliters of 0.1 ng/ml TNT solution) and 224 fmol (100 microliters of 0.5 ng/ml RDX solution), respectively. The entire assay for both analytes can be performed in less than 3 min.

  17. Factors affecting the separation performance of proteins in capillary electrophoresis.

    Zhu, Yueping; Li, Zhenqing; Wang, Ping; Shen, Lisong; Zhang, Dawei; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2018-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool for protein separation and analysis. Compared with capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGSCE) processes the superiority on operation, repeatability and automaticity. Herein, we investigated the effect of polymer molecular weight and concentration, electric field strength, and the effective length of the capillary on the separation performance of proteins, and find that (1) polymer with high molecular weight and concentration favors the separation of proteins, although concentrated polymer hinders its injection into the channel of the capillary due to its high viscosity. (2) The resolution between the adjacent proteins decreases with the increase of electric field strength. (3) When the effective length of the capillary is long, the separation performance improves at the cost of separation time. (4) 1.4% (w/v) hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), 100 V/cm voltage and 12 cm effective length offers the best separation for the proteins with molecular weight from 14,400 Da to 97,400 Da. Finally, we employed the optimal electrophoretic conditions to resolve Lysozyme, Ovalbumin, BSA and their mixtures, and found that they were baseline resolved within 15 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  19. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  20. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A capillary-pumped loop (CPL) with microcone-shaped capillary structure for cooling electronic devices

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Oh, Hoo-Suk; Kwak, Ho-Young; Lee, Dae Keun; Choi, Kyong Bin; Dong, Sang Keun

    2008-01-01

    A MEMS-based integrated capillary-pumped loop (CPL), which can be used for cooling electronic devices such as the CPU of a personal computer or notebook, was developed. The CPL consists of an evaporator and condenser both with the same size of 30 mm × 30 mm × 5.15 mm, which were fabricated using two layers of glass wafer and one layer of silicon wafer. A key element of the CPL is that the 480 ± 15 µm thickness silicon wafer where an array of 56 × 56 cone-shaped microholes that generates the capillary forces was fabricated and inserted above the compensation cavity for liquid transportation instead of a porous wick in the evaporator. The same cone-shaped microstructure was used in the condenser to create a stable interface between the liquid and vapor phases. The CPL fabricated was tested under various conditions such as different relative heights, fill ratios and heat fluxes. The operation conditions of the CPL were varied according to the relative height and fill ratios. With an allowable temperature of 110 °C on the evaporator surfaces, the CPL can handle a heat flux of about 6.22 W cm −2 for the air-cooled condenser. Steady-state operation conditions were achieved within 10 min. (note)

  2. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  3. Fragmentation of Ceramics in Rapid Expansion Mode

    Maiti, Spandan; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Rangaswamy, Krishnan

    The study of the fragmentation process goes back to more than a century, motivated primarily by problems related to mining and ore handling (Grady and Kipp, 1985). Various theories have been proposed to predict the fragmentation stress and the fragment size and distribution. But the investigations are generally case specific and relate to only a narrow set of fragmentation processes. A number of theoretical studies of dynamic fragmentation in a rapidly expanding body can be found in the literature. For example, the study summarized in (Grady, 1982) presents a model based on a simple energy balance concept between the surface energy released due to fracture and the kinetic energy of the fragments. Subsequent refinements of the energy balance model have been proposed by (Glenn and Chudnovsky, 1986), which take into account the strain energy of the fragments and specify a threshold stress below which no fragmentation occurs. These models assume that the fracture events are instantaneous and occur simultaneously. Evidently, these assumptions are quite restrictive and these models can not take into account the transient nature of the fragmentation process after the onset of fracture in the material. A more recent model proposed by (Miller et al., 1999) however takes into account this time-dependent nature of the fragmentation event and the distribution of flaws of various strengths in the original material.

  4. Capillary Electrophoresis Artifact Due to Eosin

    Murphy, Kathleen M.; Berg, Karin D.; Geiger, Tanya; Hafez, Michael; Flickinger, Katie A.; Cooper, Lisa; Pearson, Patrick; Eshleman, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a commonly used tool in the analysis of fluorescently labeled PCR amplification products. We have identified a CE artifact caused by the tissue stain eosin that can complicate the interpretation of CE data. The artifact was detected during routine analysis of a DNA sample isolated from a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sample considered histologically suspicious for a B-cell neoplasm. A standard clinical PCR and CE assay for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement revealed a weak polyclonal population of rearranged IGH genes and a 71 base peak suspicious for IGH clonality. The spectral properties of the 71 base peak were unusual in that although the dominant fluorescence of the peak was blue, it also fluoresced in green and yellow (blue>green>yellow), raising the suspicion that the peak might represent an artifact. CE analysis of the genomic DNA sample without PCR amplification demonstrated the presence of the 71 base peak, suggesting that the artifact was caused by a contaminant within the DNA sample itself. We demonstrate that eosin, which was used to stain the formalin-fixed tissue during processing, yields a discrete 71 base peak of similar morphology to the contaminant peak on CE analysis. The data suggest that eosin in the fixed tissue was not completely eliminated during nucleic acid extraction, resulting in the artifact peak. We discuss the implications of this potentially common contaminant on the interpretation of CE data and demonstrate that artifacts caused by eosin can be avoided by using more stringent DNA purification steps. Histological dyes may fluoresce, and artifacts from them should be considered when primary peaks contain additional underlying peaks of other colors. PMID:15681487

  5. Dynamic effects in fragmentation reactions

    Bertsch, G. F.; Esbensen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fragmentation reactions offer a useful tool to study the spectroscopy of halo nuclei, but the large extent of the halo wave function makes the reaction theory more difficult. The simple reaction models based on the eikonal approximation for the nuclear interaction or first-order perturbation theory for the Coulomb interaction have systematic errors that they investigate here, comparing to the predictions of complete dynamical calculations. They find that stripping probabilities are underpredicted by the eikonal model, leading to extracted spectroscopy strengths that are two large. In contrast, the Coulomb excitation is overpredicted by the simple theory. They attribute this to a screening effect, as is well known in the Barkas effect on stopping powers. The errors decrease with beam energy as E(sub beam)(sup -1), and are not significant at beam energies above 50 MeV/u. At lower beam energies, the effects should be taken into account when extracting quantitative spectroscopic strengths

  6. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  7. Impact failure and fragmentation properties of metals

    Grady, D.E. [Applied Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kipp, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In the present study we describe the development of an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  8. Fragmentation and flow in central collisions

    Jacak, B.V.; Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of the fragmentation mechanism requires the measurement of complicated observables. To identify what part of the reacting system gives rise to the fragments, it would be useful to tag them as participants or spectators. A large acceptance for all the reaction products and an event-by-event measurement of the fragment multiplicity is required to distinguish fragment formation via sequential emission from a large equilibrated system and multifragmentation. In order to address whether fragments are formed early or late in the collision, information about the dynamical evolution of the reaction is necessary. This can be provided by study of the global properties of the events. This paper discusses experimental techniques applicable to studying fragmentation processes. 25 refs., 8 figs

  9. Gallstone fragmentation by control electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    Tung, G.A.; Mueller, P.R.; Brink, J.A.; Saini, S.; Picus, D.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have performed in vitro contact electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) of 100 gallstones > 10 mm in diameter to identify physical and technical factors that affect fragmentation success. Ninety-one of 100 stones were fragmented with a 3-F electrode (average, seven shocks; range, 1--42); only 12 stones were fragmented with a single shock. Of the nine stones refractory to 50 shocks, four were > 30 mm in diameter and five stones were densely calcified. The most important variable determining power requirements for fragmentation was gallstone size (R = .58), but radiographic calcification of gallstones was also important (R = .47). Stones < 15 mm tended to produce fragments of left-angle 2 mm; stones right-angle 20 mm tended to produce two to five large discrete fragments (P , .05). In addition, lithotripsy could be conducted equally well in 1:1 dilute diatrizoate contrast agent as in 1:6 normal saline, suggesting that contact EHL could be performed under fluoroscopy

  10. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  11. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  12. Fragmentation of neck-like structures

    Montoya, C.; Bowman, D.R.; Peaslee, G.F.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for intermediate mass fragment emission from neck-like structures joining projectile- and target-like residues has been observed for peripheral 129 Xe+ nat Cu collisions at E/A=50 MeV. These framents are emitted primarily at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile and the target. Relative to the charge distribution for fragments evaporated from the projectile-like residue, the distribution for ''neck'' emission shows an enhanced emission for fragments with 4 f < 8. (orig.)

  13. Fragment-based approaches to TB drugs.

    Marchetti, Chiara; Chan, Daniel S H; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) urgently demands the development of new drug leads to tackle resistant strains. Fragment-based methods have recently emerged at the forefront of pharmaceutical development as a means to generate more effective lead structures, via the identification of fragment molecules that form weak but high quality interactions with the target biomolecule and subsequent fragment optimization. This review highlights a number of novel inhibitors of Mtb targets that have been developed through fragment-based approaches in recent years.

  14. Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  15. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  16. Kinetics of fragmentation-annihilation processes

    Filipe, JAN; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of systems in which particles of one species undergo binary fragmentation and pair annihilation. In the latter, nonlinear process, fragments react at collision to produce an inert species, causing loss of mass. We analyze these systems in the reaction-limited regime by solving a continuous model within the mean-field approximation. The rate of fragmentation for a particle of mass x to break into fragments of masses y and x-y has the form x(lambda-1) (lambda > 0), a...

  17. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    M. Kämpf

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m. In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  18. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

    Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  19. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    David Rabaud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  20. Transmission of fast highly charged ions through straight and tapered glass capillaries

    Ayyad, Asma M; Keerthisinghe, D; Kayani, A; Tanis, J A; Dassanayake, B S; Ikeda, T

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of 1 and 3 MeV protons through a borosilicate straight glass capillary and a tapered glass capillary was investigated. The straight capillary had a diameter of ∼0.18 mm and a length of ∼14.4 mm, while the tapered capillary had an inlet diameter of ∼0.71 mm, an outlet diameter of ∼0.10 mm and a length of ∼28 mm. The results show that the 1 and 3 MeV protons traverse through both samples without energy loss, while the tapered capillary showed better transmission than the straight capillary. (paper)

  1. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post-fragmentation

  2. Evidence for thyroxine transport by the lung and heart capillary endothelium

    Heltianu, C.; Dobrila, L.; Antohe, F.; Simionescu, M.

    1989-01-01

    The uptake and transport of carrier-bound thyroxine by the endothelium were investigated by perfusing through the heart and lung of young rats radiolabeled thyroxine bound to prealbumin ([125I]T4Pa) or serum ([125I]T4S). In addition these complexes were tagged to 5-nm gold particles to obtain quantitative (radioassay) and qualitative (autoradiography) data from the same experiment. The complexes (prewarmed at 37 degrees) were perfused in situ at various concentrations (1 to 50 muCi/ml) for time intervals ranging from 5 to 30 min. After thorough washing of the unbound probe, tissue fragments were either measured for total uptake in a gamma counter or processed for electron microscopy autoradiography. The results showed that both the lung and heart take up [125I]T4 complexes by a process that is saturable at low hormone concentration; uptake is completed by free T4 and Pa. In specimens perfused with double-labeled complexes (iodinated and tagged to gold) autoradiography revealed that silver grains and gold particles colocalize predominantly on endothelial plasmalemmal vesicles. The probe appeared first in vesicles open to the capillary lumen (5 min) and further on in vesicles apparently free within the cytoplasm or open to the abluminal front. At 30 min, only silver grains seem to be present in the pericapillary space, on the alveolar epithelial cells, as well as on the nucleus and mitochondria of heart myocytes. The findings suggest that (1) T4Pa uptake by the endothelial cell (EC) is a specific process (possibly via specific binding sites); (2) T4Pa is taken up and transported across capillary EC by plasmalemmal vesicles; (3) in the pericapillary space T4 seems to dissociate from its carrier

  3. Parton fragmentation and string dynamics

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Ingelman, G.; Sjoestrand, T.

    1983-01-01

    While much has been learned recently about quark and gluon interactions in the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, the relation between calculated parton properties and observed hadron densities involves models where dynamics and jet empirical rules have to be combined. The purpose of this article is to describe a presently successful approach which is based on a cascade jet model using String dynamics. It can readily lead to Monte Carlo jet programmes of great use when analyzing data. Production processes in an iterative cascade approach, with tunneling in a constant force field, are reviewed. Expected differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed. Low transverse momentum phenomena are also reviewed with emphasis on hyperon polarization. In so far as this approach uses a fragmentation scheme based on String dynamics, it was deemed appropriate to also include under the same cover a special report on the Classical theory of relativistic Strings, seen as the classical limit of the Dual Resonance model. The Equations of motion and interaction among strings are presented. (orig.)

  4. The application of capillary microsampling in GLP toxicology studies.

    Verhaeghe, Tom; Dillen, Lieve; Stieltjes, Hans; Zwart, Loeckie de; Feyen, Bianca; Diels, Luc; Vroman, Ann; Timmerman, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Capillary microsampling (CMS) to collect microplasma volumes is gradually replacing traditional, larger volume sampling from rats in GLP toxicology studies. About 32 µl of blood is collected with a capillary, processed to plasma and stored in a 10- or 4-µl capillary which is washed out further downstream in the laboratory. CMS has been standardized with respect to materials, assay validation experiments and application for sample analysis. The implementation of CMS has resulted in blood volume reductions in the rat from 300 to 32 µl per time point and the elimination of toxicokinetic satellite groups in the majority of the rat GLP toxicology studies. The technique has been successfully applied in 26 GLP studies for 12 different projects thus far.

  5. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    Dicorato, F; Moore, E; Glennon, J

    2011-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (μCE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  6. First attempts to combine capillary tubes with photocathodes

    Peskov, Vladimir; Sokolova, T; Radionov, I

    1999-01-01

    We describe our efforts to combine glass capillary plates, operating as a gas amplification structure at approx 1 atm, with photocathodes sensitive to visible light. Such capillary tubes are a by-product of the manufacture of Microchannel Plates and are commercially available. Preliminary tests indicate that gas gains >10 sup 3 could be achieved without photon feedback. With two capillary plates in tandem (double-step multiplication) overall gains up to 10 sup 5 were possible at counting rate <100 Hz/mm sup 2. This approach may open new possibilities for detection of visible photons by gaseous detectors. Potential advantages are: high gains, large sensitive area, high granularity, and insensitivity to magnetic fields.

  7. The free-jet expansion from a capillary source

    Miller, D.R.; Fineman, M.A.; Murphy, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the free-jet expansions originating from an orifice and a capillary by measuring the terminal gas properties. Time-of-flight and intensity data are reported for pure gases (He, Ar, CO 2 ) and mixtures of CO 2 /He, together with condensed dimer intensities for Ar and Co 2 . Pitot tube data are reported for N 2 . The results suggest that the free-jet expansions are nearly the same, provided the capillary is modeled as a non-isentropic Fanno flow process. The Fanno flow is slightly non-adiabatic, which complicates the analysis. Only the condensation kinetics appear strongly sensitive to the differences in the initial conditions for the supersonic expansion; any kinetic process relaxing near the capillary orifice exit would be affected

  8. Capillary condensation and evaporation in alumina nanopores with controlled modulations.

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Liu, Lifeng; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich; Coasne, Benoit

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide presenting not interconnected pores with controlled modulations is studied using adsorption experiments and molecular simulations. Both the experimental and simulation data show that capillary condensation and evaporation are driven by the smallest size of the nanopore (constriction). The adsorption isotherms for the open and closed pores are almost identical if constrictions are added to the system. The latter result implies that the type of pore ending does not matter in modulated pores. Thus, the presence of hysteresis loops observed in adsorption isotherms measured in straight nanopores with closed bottom ends can be explained in terms of geometrical inhomogeneities along the pore axis. More generally, these results provide a general picture of capillary condensation and evaporation in constricted or modulated pores that can be used for the interpretation of adsorption in disordered porous materials.

  9. X-ray Talbot interferometry with capillary plates

    Momose, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    An X-ray Talbot interferometer consisting of two capillary plates, which were used as X-ray amplitude gratings, was evaluated for X-ray phase imaging. A theoretical aspect of capillary X-ray Talbot interferometry is presented with a preliminary operation result using synchrotron radiation. A two-dimensional X-ray Talbot effect, or self-imaging effect, which was the basis of Talbot interferometry, was observed with the capillary plate, and moire images formed by the X-ray Talbot interferometer exhibited contrasts corresponding to the differential phase shift caused by phase objects placed in front of the interferometer. Finally, the possibility of quantitative phase measurement with a fringe scanning technique is discussed. (author)

  10. Capillary assisted deposition of carbon nanotube film for strain sensing

    Li, Zida; Xue, Xufeng; Lin, Feng; Wang, Yize; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Advances in stretchable electronics offer the possibility of developing skin-like motion sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their superior electrical properties, have great potential for applications in such sensors. In this paper, we report a method for deposition and patterning of CNTs on soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using capillary action. Micropillar arrays were generated on PDMS surfaces before treatment with plasma to render them hydrophilic. Capillary force enabled by the micropillar array spreads CNT solution evenly on PDMS surfaces. Solvent evaporation leaves a uniform deposition and patterning of CNTs on PDMS surfaces. We studied the effect of the CNT concentration and micropillar gap size on CNT coating uniformity, film conductivity, and piezoresistivity. Leveraging the piezoresistivity of deposited CNT films, we further designed and characterized a device for the contraction force measurement. Our capillary assisted deposition method of CNT films showed great application potential in fabrication of flexible CNT thin films for strain sensing.

  11. An improved interface for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry

    Smith, R.D.; Loo, J.A.; Barinaga, C.J.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-06-01

    We have recently developed an improved electrospray ionization interface for capillary electrophoresis mass-spectrometry (CZE-MS). Our initial interface employed a vacuum deposited metal film at the exit of the capillary to make an electrical contact with he eluting buffer and establish the electrospray field gradient. This interface did, however, impose significant limitations on the range of capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations that could be performed. To circumvent these limitations, an interface that does not require a metalized tip was designed nd developed. In the new approach, the electrical contact at the column exit is made through a flowing liquid sheath. The principal advantage of this interface is that it allows operation with a much broader range of electrophoresis conditions. The sheath flow can be readily varied in both composition and volume. An electrospray ionization spectrum is given for a previously intractable buffer solution. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Using evaporation to control capillary instabilities in micro-systems.

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; Laghezza, Gianluca; Yeomans, Julia M; Vella, Dominic

    2017-12-06

    The instabilities of fluid interfaces represent both a limitation and an opportunity for the fabrication of small-scale devices. Just as non-uniform capillary pressures can destroy micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS), so they can guide the assembly of novel solid and fluid structures. In many such applications the interface appears during an evaporation process and is therefore only present temporarily. It is commonly assumed that this evaporation simply guides the interface through a sequence of equilibrium configurations, and that the rate of evaporation only sets the timescale of this sequence. Here, we use Lattice-Boltzmann simulations and a theoretical analysis to show that, in fact, the rate of evaporation can be a factor in determining the onset and form of dynamical capillary instabilities. Our results shed light on the role of evaporation in previous experiments, and open the possibility of exploiting diffusive mass transfer to directly control capillary flows in MEMS applications.

  13. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    Dicorato, F; Moore, E [Life Sciences Interface Group, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Glennon, J, E-mail: eric.moore@tyndall.ie [Chemistry Department, University College Cork, College Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis ({mu}CE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  14. Delayed post-traumatic capillary haemangioma of the spine.

    Shilton, Hamish; Goldschlager, Tony; Kelman, Anthony; Xenos, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are well-circumscribed aggregates of closely packed, thin-walled capillaries separated by connective tissue stroma. In subcutaneous tissue they are termed pyogenic granuloma and commonly follow trauma. They rarely occur in the spine. We present a 43-year-old woman with a 6-week history of thoracic myelopathy and back pain on a background of T7 and T8 vertebral compression fractures from a motor vehicle accident 10 years previously. MRI demonstrated a posteriorly based extradural homogeneously enhancing mass at this level. The lesion was resected and diagnosed histopathologically as a capillary haemangioma. The patient's symptoms resolved and she made an uneventful recovery. The literature is reviewed and the possible pathogenesis is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    Lambert, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent. The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom. It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary adhesion (axial force), centering force in packaging and micro-assembly (lateral force) and recent developments such as a capillary motor (torque). It devises how surface tension can be used to provide mechanical functions such as actuation (bubble-actuated compliant table), sealing and tightness, energy harvesting, nanodispending.

  16. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  17. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  18. Thermodynamics of the fuel fragmentation gas

    Perez, R.B.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of nuclear reactor safety studies, a program is in progress at ORNL whereby fuel-fragmentation situations are mocked up by the application of high-current capacitor discharges through solid UO 2 samples. The goal of the present work is to predict such quantities as the number of gas and liquid fragments and their energy distributions. The point of view adopted is that upon fragmentation, a cloud of UO 2 vapor is formed containing ''primeval'' liquid fragments which act as condensation centers. In the evolution of time, fragment growth is controlled by nucleation, coagulation and evaporation processes. Eventually, the vapor-droplet system will reach a situation in which clusters (fragments) of various sizes and UO 2 vapor will coexist in an ''association-disassociation'' equilibrium. Thus, the physical model considered here consists of the identification of the fragmentation gas with an ''imperfect'' vapor, made up of interacting UO 2 vapor and liquid fragments. The results of the study are presented

  19. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  20. A note on convex renorming and fragmentability

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Using the game approach to fragmentability, we give new and simpler proofs of the following known results: (a) If the Banach space admits an equivalent. Kadec norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology. (b) If the Banach space admits an equivalent rotund ...

  1. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  2. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  3. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  4. Investigation into the suitability of capillary tubes for microcrystalline testing.

    Elie, Leonie E; Baron, Mark G; Croxton, Ruth S; Elie, Mathieu P

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between microcrystalline tests performed on microscope slides and flat capillary tubes with inner diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mm was carried out to explore the appropriateness of tubes for rapid testing of suspected drugs of abuse in the laboratory as well as in the field. Tests for mephedrone, cocaine, and phencyclidine were chosen as examples to investigate the handling of the capillary tubes, the influence on crystal habit, size, and the effects on the limit of detection. Image stacking software was used to increase the depth of field of micrographs taken from developed microcrystals greatly enhancing the interpretability even months after carrying out the microcrystalline test. Additionally, the potential of seeding capillary tubes with a reagent was studied. Pre-treatment of tubes would allow microcrystalline tests to be carried out quicker and anywhere without the necessity of taking along expensive and hazardous reagents. The sealing of capillary tubes containing developed microcrystalline tests in order to preserve results for a long period of time was successfully done by applying paraffin wax to the open ends. Finally, it was concluded that capillary tubes are suitable vessels for performing microcrystalline tests. The increased portability of the improved set-up allows tests to be safely executed outside laboratories without impairing the quality of the result. Findings were applied to six legal high samples purchased online between May and August 2011. The active ingredients like MDAI as well as cutting agents like caffeine were successfully identified using the microcrystalline test technique in capillary tubes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries.

    Yatsyshin, P; Savva, N; Kalliadasis, S

    2015-07-15

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤Tcw) or continuous (at T>Tcw), where Tcw is the capillary wetting temperature. At T>Tcw, the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  7. Experimental and numerical studies of choked flow through adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes

    Deodhar, Subodh D.; Kothadia, Hardik B.; Iyer, K.N.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Capillary tubes are extensively used in several cooling applications like refrigeration, electronic cooling etc. Local pressure variation in adiabatic straight capillary tube (mini channel) is studied experimentally and numerically with R134a as the working fluid. Experiments are performed on two straight capillary tubes. It is found that the diameter is the most sensitive design parameter of the capillary tube. Experiments are performed on five helically coiled capillary tubes to quantify the effect of pitch and curvature of helically coiled capillary tube on the pressure drop. Non dimensionalized factor to account coiling of capillary tube is derived to calculate mass flow rate in helically coiled capillary tubes. Flow visualization in adiabatic capillary tube confirms the bubbly nature of two phase flow. Numerical and experimental investigations in diabatic capillary tube suggest that the use of positive displacement pump and choking at the exit of the channel ensures flow stability. - Highlights: • Model is developed to design capillary tube in adiabatic and diabatic condition. • Effect of coil curvature on pressure drop is studied experimentally. • Correlation is developed to predict mass flow rate in helical capillary tubes. • Flow visualization is carried out to check the type of two phase flow. • Effect of choked flow on diabatic capillary tubes is studied experimentally.

  8. Current fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering

    Hamer, C.J.

    1975-04-01

    It is argued that the current fragmentation products in deep inelastic electron scattering will not be distributed in a 'one-dimensional' rapidity plateau as in the parton model picture of Feynman and Bjorken. A reaction mechanism with a multiperipheral topology, but which the above configuration might have been achieved, does not in fact populate the current fragmentation plateau; and unless partons are actually observed in the final state, it cannot lead to Bjorken scaling. The basic reason for this failure is shown to be the fact that when a particle is produced in the current fragmentation plateau, the adjacent momentum transfer in the multiperipheral chain becomes large and negative: such processes are inevitably suppressed. Instead, the current fragmentation products are likely to be generated by a fragmentation, or sequential decay process. (author)

  9. The politics of municipal fragmentation in Ghana

    Abdulai Kuyini Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly debate over the rival merits of local government consolidation and fragmentation is an old but enduring one. However, in this debate very little attention has been focused on the political dimension of council amalgamation and fragmentation – yet political considerations play a central role in both the formulation and outcomes of de-concentration policy. The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the literature by examining local government fragmentation in Ghana from 1988 to 2014. The article does this by identifying the key players and analysing their interests and gains, as well as the tensions arising from the fragmentation exercise. The implications from the Ghanaian case for more general theories of fragmentation are drawn out.

  10. Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.

  11. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  12. Antiresonant hollow core fiber with seven nested capillaries

    Antonio-Lopez, Jose E.; Habib, Selim; Van Newkirk, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth.......We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth....

  13. Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory

    Guyer, R.A.; McCall, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the capillary condensation process, i.e., of adsorption-desorption isotherms, having only pore-pore interactions is constructed. The model yields (1) hysteretic isotherms, (2) invasion percolation on desorption, and (3) hysteresis with discrete memory for interior chemical potential loops. All of these features are seen in experiment. The model is compared to a model with no pore-pore interactions (the Preisach model) and to a related model of interacting pore systems (the random field Ising model). The capillary condensation model differs from both. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Conjugation of colloidal clusters and chains by capillary condensation.

    Li, Fan; Stein, Andreas

    2009-07-29

    Capillary condensation was used to establish connections in colloidal clusters and 1D colloidal chains with high regional selectivity. This vapor-phase process produced conjugated clusters and chains with anisotropic functionality. The capillary condensation method is simple and can be applied to a wide range of materials. It can tolerate geometric variations and even permits conjugation of spatially separated particles. The selective deposition was also used to modulate the functionality on the colloid surfaces, producing tip-tethered nanosized building blocks that may be suitable for further assembly via directional interactions.

  15. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  16. Laser–capillary interaction for the EXIN project

    Bisesto, F.G., E-mail: fabrizio.giuseppe.bisesto@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, M.P. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bacci, A.L. [INFN – Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Universit degli studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via di Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M. [Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); INFN – Roma1, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L. [INFN – Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Vaccarezza, C. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The EXIN project is under development within the SPARC-LAB facility of the National Laboratory of Frascati (LNF-INFN). This project aims to accelerate pre-existing electron bunches with high brightness by exploiting the wakefield plasma acceleration technique, while preserving the initial brightness. The wakefield is excited inside a dielectric capillary by high intensity laser pulses produced by the FLAME laser interacting with a gas. In this work, we present numerical simulations in order to optimize energy coupling between our laser with super-Gaussian transverse profile and a dielectric capillary. Moreover, an overview of the experimental layout will be given.

  17. [Determination of acetochlor and oxyfluorfen by capillary gas chromatography].

    Xiang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Qing

    2002-09-01

    A method is described for the determination of acetochlor and oxyfluorfen by capillary gas chromatography with FID and an SE-30 capillary column (60 m x 0.53 mm i. d., 1.5 microm), using dibutyl phthalate as the internal standard. The standard deviations for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen concentration(mass fraction) were 0.44% and 0.47% respectively. The relative standard deviations for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen were 0.79% and 0.88% and the average recoveries for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen were 99.3% and 101.1% respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  18. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  19. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  20. Correlation of MFOLD-predicted DNA secondary structures with separation patterns obtained by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis.

    Glavac, Damjan; Potocnik, Uros; Podpecnik, Darja; Zizek, Teofil; Smerkolj, Sava; Ravnik-Glavac, Metka

    2002-04-01

    We have studied 57 different mutations within three beta-globin gene promoter fragments with sizes 52 bp, 77 bp, and 193 bp by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis CE-SSCP analysis. For each mutation and wild type, energetically most-favorable predicted secondary structures were calculated for sense and antisense strands using the MFOLD DNA-folding algorithm in order to investigate if any correlation exists between predicted DNA structures and actual CE migration time shifts. The overall CE-SSCP detection rate was 100% for all mutations in three studied DNA fragments. For shorter 52 bp and 77 bp DNA fragments we obtained a positive correlation between the migration time shifts and difference in free energy values of predicted secondary structures at all temperatures. For longer 193 bp beta-globin gene fragments with 46 mutations MFOLD predicted different secondary structures for 89% of mutated strands at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. However, the magnitude of the mobility shifts did not necessarily correlate with their secondary structures and free energy values except for the sense strand at 40 degrees C where this correlation was statistically significant (r = 0.312, p = 0.033). Results of this study provided more direct insight into the mechanism of CE-SSCP and showed that MFOLD prediction could be helpful in making decisions about the running temperatures and in prediction of CE-SSCP data patterns, especially for shorter (50-100 bp) DNA fragments. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  2. Missing Fragments: Detecting Cooperative Binding in Fragment-Based Drug Design

    2012-01-01

    The aim of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is to identify molecular fragments that bind to alternate subsites within a given binding pocket leading to cooperative binding when linked. In this study, the binding of fragments to human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is used to illustrate how (a) current protocols may fail to detect fragments that bind cooperatively, (b) theoretical approaches can be used to validate potential hits, and (c) apparent false positives obtained when screening against cocktails of fragments may in fact indicate promising leads. PMID:24900472

  3. The effects of hypercapnia on cortical capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) in anesthetized mice

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Eugenio; Angleys, Hugo; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2018-01-01

    Capillary flow patterns are highly heterogeneous in the resting brain. During hyperemia, capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) decreases, in proportion to blood's mean transit time (MTT) in passive, compliant microvascular networks. Previously, we found that functional activation reduces...

  4. Ion guiding in macro-size insulating capillaries: straight, tapered, and curved shapes

    Kojima, Takao M.

    2018-02-01

    When keV energy ions are injected into a tilted insulating capillary, a certain fraction of the injected ions are transported through the tilt angle of the capillary. This ion guiding phenomenon is considered to be caused by a self-organizing charge distribution, where the inner wall of the capillary becomes charged by initial incoming ions. The charge distribution, which is formed, can guide following ions toward the exit of the capillary. Since the initial discovery of this effect, studies of ion guiding by insulating capillaries have been extended to various materials, and different sizes and shapes of capillaries. In recent years, some investigations of the guiding effect of macro-size curved capillaries have also been reported. In this review, relevant studies in a history of ion guiding in curved capillaries are discussed and future directions in this field are considered.

  5. Ergot alkaloids as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis and other electromigration methods

    Sinibaldi, M.; Messina, A.; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 233-243 ISSN 0976-5514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * capillary electrochromatography * chiral analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T

    2003-03-20

    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  7. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol–gel modified inner capillary wall

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, V.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1517, Sep 29 (2017), s. 185-194 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography (CEC) * open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) * nucleo-compounds * oligopeptides * sol–gel methods * Porphyrin * scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; CE - Biochemistry (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Biochemistry and molecular biology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  8. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  9. Capillary Optics as an x-ray Condensing Lens An Alignment

    Cappuccio, G

    2000-01-01

    The procedure of capillary lens alignment is described in detail. The theoretical basis of capillary optics is given in the framework of a comparative analysis of monocapillary and polycapillary optics. The results of x-ray $9 distribution scanning behind the capillary lens for various angle planes, together with the tting results, are presented. A qualitative explanation is given for the discrepancy between the expected and observed divergences of x-ray $9 beams transmitted by the capillary lens.

  10. Dual Fragment Impact of PBX Charges

    Haskins, Peter; Briggs, Richard; Leeming, David; White, Nathan; Cheese, Philip; DE&S MoD UK Team; Ordnance Test Solutions Ltd Team

    2017-06-01

    Fragment impact can pose a significant hazard to many systems containing explosives or propellants. Testing for this threat is most commonly carried out using a single fragment. However, it can be argued that an initial fragment strike (or strikes) could sensitise the energetic material to subsequent impacts, which may then lead to a more violent reaction than would have been predicted based upon single fragment studies. To explore this potential hazard we have developed the capability to launch 2 fragments from the same gun at a range of velocities, and achieve impacts on an acceptor charge with good control over the spatial and temporal separation of the strikes. In this paper we will describe in detail the experimental techniques we have used, both to achieve the dual fragment launch and observe the acceptor charge response. In addition, we will describe the results obtained against PBX filled explosive targets; discuss the mechanisms controlling the target response and their significance for vulnerability assessment. Results of these tests have clearly indicated the potential for detonation upon the second strike, at velocities well below those needed for shock initiation by a single fragment.

  11. Introduction to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Erlanson, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged in the past decade as a powerful tool for discovering drug leads. The approach first identifies starting points: very small molecules (fragments) that are about half the size of typical drugs. These fragments are then expanded or linked together to generate drug leads. Although the origins of the technique date back some 30 years, it was only in the mid-1990s that experimental techniques became sufficiently sensitive and rapid for the concept to be become practical. Since that time, the field has exploded: FBDD has played a role in discovery of at least 18 drugs that have entered the clinic, and practitioners of FBDD can be found throughout the world in both academia and industry. Literally dozens of reviews have been published on various aspects of FBDD or on the field as a whole, as have three books (Jahnke and Erlanson, Fragment-based approaches in drug discovery, 2006; Zartler and Shapiro, Fragment-based drug discovery: a practical approach, 2008; Kuo, Fragment based drug design: tools, practical approaches, and examples, 2011). However, this chapter will assume that the reader is approaching the field with little prior knowledge. It will introduce some of the key concepts, set the stage for the chapters to follow, and demonstrate how X-ray crystallography plays a central role in fragment identification and advancement.

  12. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  13. Capillary gel electrophoresis-coupled aptamer enzymatic cleavage protection strategy for the simultaneous detection of multiple small analytes.

    Perrier, Sandrine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Ravelet, Corinne; Guieu, Valérie; Peyrin, Eric

    2014-05-06

    This novel, multi small-analyte sensing strategy is the result of combining the target-induced aptamer enzymatic protection approach with the CGE-LIF (capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence) technique. The implemented assay principle is based on an analysis of the phosphodiesterase I (PDE I)-mediated size variation of a fluorescein-labeled aptamer (FApt), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of nucleotides from DNA in the 3' to 5' direction. In the absence of the target, the unfolded aptamer was enzymatically cleaved into short DNA fragments. Upon target binding, the DNA substrate was partially protected against enzymatic hydrolysis. The amount of bound aptamer remaining after the exonuclease reaction was proportional to the concentration of the target. The CGE technique, which was used to determine the separation of FApt species from DNA digested products, permitted the quantification of adenosine (A), ochratoxin A (O), and tyrosinamide (T) under the same optimized enzymatic conditions. This assay strategy was subsequently applied to the simultaneous detection of A, O, and T in a single capillary under buffered conditions using corresponding FApt probes of different lengths (23, 36, and 49 nucleotides, respectively). Additionally, the detection of these three small molecules was successfully achieved in a complex medium (diluted, heat-treated human serum) showing a good recovery. It is worth noting that the multiplexed analysis was accomplished for targets with different charge states by using aptamers possessing various structural features. This sensing platform constitutes a rationalized and reliable approach with an expanded potential for a high-throughput determination of small analytes in a single capillary.

  14. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata (Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments.

    Lirman

    2000-08-23

    Acropora palmata, a branching coral abundant on shallow reef environments throughout the Caribbean, is susceptible to physical disturbance caused by storms. Accordingly, the survivorship and propagation of this species are tied to its capability to recover after fragmentation. Fragments of A. palmata comprised 40% of ramets within populations that had experienced recent storms. While the survivorship of A. palmata fragments was not directly related to the size of fragments, removal of fragments from areas where they settled was influenced by size. Survivorship of fragments was also affected by type of substratum; the greatest mortality (58% loss within the first month) was observed on sand, whereas fragments placed on top of live colonies of A. palmata fused to the underlying tissue and did not experience any losses. Fragments created by Hurricane Andrew on a Florida reef in August 1992 began developing new growth (proto-branches) 7 months after the storm. The number of proto-branches on fragments was dependent on size, but growth was not affected by the size of fragments. Growth-rates of proto-branches increased exponentially with time (1.7 cm year(-1) for 1993-1994, 2.7 cm year(-1) for 1994-1995, 4.2 cm year(-1) for 1995-1996, and 6.5 cm year(-1) for 1996-1997), taking over 4 years for proto-branches to achieve rates comparable to those of adult colonies on the same reef (6.9 cm year(-1)). In addition to the initial mortality and reduced growth-rates, fragmentation resulted in a loss of reproductive potential. Neither colonies that experienced severe fragmentation nor fragments contained gametes until 4 years after the initial damage. Although A. palmata may survive periodic fragmentation, the long-term effects of this process will depend ultimately on the balance between the benefits and costs of this process.

  15. Atomic-scale friction : thermal effects and capillary condensation

    Jinesh, Kochupurackal Balakrishna Pillai

    2006-01-01

    This work entitled as "Atomic-scale friction: thermal effects and capillary condensation" is a study on the fundamental aspects of the origin of friction from the atomic-scale. We study two realistic aspects of atomic-scale friction, namely the effect of temperature and the effect of relative

  16. Characterization of Agrobacterium species by capillary isoelectric focusing

    Süle, S.; Horká, Marie; Matoušková, H.; Kubesová, Anna; Šalplachta, Jiří; Horký, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-89 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * Agrobacterium spp. * identification Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2012

  17. Performing chemical reactions in virtual capillary of surface tension ...

    The flow paths were fabricated by making parallel lines using permanent marker pen ink or other polymer on glass surfaces. Two mirror image patterned glass plates were then sandwiched one on top of the other, separated by a thin gap - created using a spacer. The aqueous liquid moves between the surfaces by capillary ...

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  19. Study of Capillary Condensation of Butane in Vycor Membrane

    Uchytil, Petr; Petričkovič, Roman; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 264, 1-2 (2005), s. 27-36 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : capillary condensation * mass transport * porous membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2005

  20. Comparison of monolithic silica and polymethacrylate capillary columns for LC

    Moravcová, D.; Jandera, P.; Urban, J.; Planeta, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, 10-11 (2004), s. 789-800 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023 Keywords : monolithic column s * capillary HPLC * column testing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2004

  1. Characterization of polymer monolithic stationary phases for capillary HPLC

    Moravcová, D.; Jandera, P.; Urban, J.; Planeta, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 11 (2003), s. 1005-1016 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919; CEZ:MSM 253100002 Keywords : monolithic column s * capillary HPLC * column testing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.108, year: 2003

  2. Effect of surfactant on kinetics of thinning of capillary bridges

    Nowak, Emilia; Kovalchuk, Nina; Simmons, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Kinetics of thinning of capillary bridges is of great scientific and industrial interest being of vital importance for example in various emulsification and microfluidic processes. It is well known that the rate of bridge thinning is proportional to the interfacial tension. Therefore it is expected that the process should slow down by addition of surfactant. The kinetics of capillary bridges in the presence of surfactant was studied by the dripping of liquid from a capillary tip under conditions of nearly zero flow rate (We personal care products. The viscosity, surfactant activity and adsorption kinetics have been controlled by addition of glycerol and sodium chloride. The study has shown that the kinetics of capillary bridges are determined by dynamic surface tension rather than by its equilibrium value. In particular, the kinetics of the bridge thinning for the 0.1 g L-1 aqueous SLES solution is practically the same as that of pure water despite twice lower equilibrium surface tension. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  3. Investigation of X-ray lasing in a capillary discharge

    Ellwi, S. S.; Juschkin, L.; Ferri, S.; Kunze, H. J.; E. Louis,

    2001-01-01

    Using a new technique of an induced MHD instability in a capillary made of polyacetal we observed an intense spike (signal) of the Balmer-a line of C VI at 18.22 nm during the second half cycle of the discharge. The spike is identified as Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE), and enhancements are

  4. Application of a diode-array detector in capillary electrophoresis

    Beck, W.; Hoek, van R.; Engelhardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade diode-array detection has proved to be extremely useful in high performance liquid chromatography in recording UV-visible spectra directly and on-line in the column effluent. In capillary electrophoresis (CE) only fast-scanning detectors with long scan times (up to 2 s) are

  5. The dissipative flow of superfluid helium-3 through capillaries

    Kopnin, N.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equations are obtained which describe the behaviour of the chemical potential (pressure) of the superfluid helium-3 flowing through a narrow capillary, diffusively scattering boundaries being taken into consideration. The possibility is discussed whether the dissipation experimentally observed by Manninen and Pekola can be understood in terms of the phase-slip process

  6. Numerical Simulation of Particle Distribution in Capillary Membrane during Backwash

    Anik Keller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The membrane filtration with inside-out dead-end driven UF-/MF- capillary membranes is an effective process for particle removal in water treatment. Its industrial application increased in the last decade exponentially. To date, the research activities in this field were aimed first of all at the analysis of filtration phenomena disregarding the influence of backwash on the operation parameters of filtration plants. However, following the main hypothesis of this paper, backwash has great potential to increase the efficiency of filtration. In this paper, a numerical approach for a detailed study of fluid dynamic processes in capillary membranes during backwash is presented. The effect of particle size and inlet flux on the backwash process are investigated. The evaluation of these data concentrates on the analysis of particle behavior in the cross sectional plane and the appearance of eventually formed particle plugs inside the membrane capillary. Simulations are conducted in dead-end filtration mode and with two configurations. The first configuration includes a particle concentration of 10% homogeneously distributed within the capillary and the second configuration demonstrates a cake layer on the membrane surface with a packing density of 0:6. Analyzing the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles shows that the lift force plays the main role in defining the particle enrichment areas. The operation parameters contribute in enhancing the lift force and the heterogeneity to anticipate the clogging of the membrane.

  7. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  8. Thermostatted dual-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument

    Koenka, I.J.; Küng, N.; Kubáň, Pavel; Chwalek, T.; Furrer, G.; Wehrli, B.; Müller, B.; Hauser, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 17-18 (2016), s. 2368-2375 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : portable devices * on-site measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  9. Characterization of metal/humic acid systems by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Staden JJ van; Hoop MAGT van den; Cleven R; LAC

    2000-01-01

    Metal-humic acid systems have been characterised applying Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). Appropriate experimental conditions with respect to carrier electrolyte, pH range, salt concentration, humic acid concentration and the applied potential, have been optimised. The influence of multivalent metal

  10. Desing of a new driver for fast capillary discharge

    Koláček, Karel; Boháček, Vladislav; Schmidt, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel; Řípa, Milan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Fuciman, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2001), s. Pr2-613 ISSN 1155-4339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : capillary Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.401, year: 2001

  11. Capillary electrophoresis in the analysis of biologically important thiols

    Lačná, J.; Kubáň, Petr; Foret, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2017), s. 203-222 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological thiols * capillary electrophoresis * clinical applications Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  12. whistler oscillitons and capillary-gravity generalized solitons

    Nonlinear stationary waveforms in two completely different systems, namely, electromagnetic-fluid waves in a magnetic plasma and capillary-gravity water waves, are compared and contrasted. These systems display common features and are amenable to a Hamiltonian description. More importantly, however, is the fact ...

  13. Split and flow: reconfigurable capillary connection for digital microfluidic devices.

    Lapierre, Florian; Harnois, Maxime; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Thomy, Vincent

    2014-09-21

    Supplying liquid to droplet-based microfluidic microsystems remains a delicate task facing the problems of coupling continuous to digital or macro- to microfluidic systems. Here, we take advantage of superhydrophobic microgrids to address this problem. Insertion of a capillary tube inside a microgrid aperture leads to a simple and reconfigurable droplet generation setup.

  14. Capillary electrochromatography of proteins and peptides (2006–2015)

    Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 251-271 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography * peptides * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  15. Study of Streptavidin-Modified Quantum Dots by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Stanisavljevic, M.; Janů, L.; Šmerková, K.; Křížková, S.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Ryvolová, M.; Adam, V.; Hubálek, J.; Kizek, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 76, 7-8 (2013), s. 335-343 ISSN 0009-5893 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Capillary electrophoresis * Gel electrophoresis * Avidin-biotin technology * Oligonucleotide * Nanoparticle * quantum dots Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2013

  16. Study of a pulsed capillary discharge with a modulated radius

    Broks, B.H.P.; Dijk, van W.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a plasma physical model of a pulsed capillary discharge with a modulated radius. Using a 2D time-dependent model, we have modeled the plasma and wall properties of this channel. It was found that properties of the central plasma are different than the properties of a

  17. Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on simulated crop yields

    Kroes, J.G.; Supit, I.; Dam, van J.C.; Walsum, van P.E.V.; Mulder, H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Upward soil water flow is a vital supply of water to crops. The purpose of this study is to determine if upward flow and recirculated percolation water can be quantified separately, and to determine the contribution of capillary rise and recirculated water to crop yield and groundwater recharge.

  18. Thermostatted dual-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument

    Koenka, I.J.; Küng, N.; Kubáň, Pavel; Chwalek, T.; Furrer, G.; Wehrli, B.; Müller, B.; Hauser, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 17-18 (2016), s. 2368-2375 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : portable devices * on-site measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  19. An analytical model for enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis

    Ranzuglia, G. A.; Manzi, S. J.; Gomez, M. R.; Belardinelli, R. E.; Pereyra, V. D.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model to explain the mobilities of enantiomer binary mixture in capillary electrophoresis experiment is proposed. The model consists in a set of kinetic equations describing the evolution of the populations of molecules involved in the enantioseparation process in capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed. These equations take into account the asymmetric driven migration of enantiomer molecules, chiral selector and the temporary diastomeric complexes, which are the products of the reversible reaction between the enantiomers and the chiral selector. The solution of these equations gives the spatial and temporal distribution of each species in the capillary, reproducing a typical signal of the electropherogram. The mobility, μ, of each specie is obtained by the position of the maximum (main peak) of their respective distributions. Thereby, the apparent electrophoretic mobility difference, Δμ, as a function of chiral selector concentration, [ C ] , can be measured. The behaviour of Δμ versus [ C ] is compared with the phenomenological model introduced by Wren and Rowe in J. Chromatography 1992, 603, 235. To test the analytical model, a capillary electrophoresis experiment for the enantiomeric separation of the (±)-chlorpheniramine β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) system is used. These data, as well as, other obtained from literature are in closed agreement with those obtained by the model. All these results are also corroborate by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.

  20. Capillary hemangiomas with hemorrhage in cervicothoracic intramedullary, a case report

    Jian Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old male patient had presented with worsening pain at extremities and body. The MRI showed an inhomogeneously enhancing lesion at C5-T1. During the surgical evacuation through a midline myelotomy, a frozen section could not find any tumor cells or vascular malformations. Immunohistochemically, the diagnosis of capillary hemangiomas was confirmed.

  1. The capillary pattern in human masseter muscle during ageing

    Cvetko, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Eržen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 135-144 ISSN 1580-3139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D analysis * capillaries * confocal microscopy * human * masseter * muscle Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2013

  2. Determination of propionate in bread using capillary zone electrophoresis

    Ackermans, M.T.; Ackermans-Loonen, J.C.J.M; Beckers, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of propionate in bread is described. The propionate was extracted from the bread with a repeated extraction procedure and measured using capillary zone electrophoresis in the indirect UV mode applying a background electrolyte of 0.005 M Tris adjusted at pH 4.6 by

  3. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    Hall, Catherine N; Reynell, Clare; Gesslein, Bodil

    2014-01-01

    Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate t...

  4. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  5. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  6. In Vivo Microscopy Reveals Extensive Embedding of Capillaries within the Sarcolemma of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Glancy, Brian; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Dao, Lam; Bakalar, Matthew; French, Stephanie; Chess, David J.; Taylor, Joni L.; Picard, Martin; Aponte, Angel; Daniels, Mathew P.; Esfahani, Shervin; Cushman, Samuel; Balaban, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide insight into mitochondrial function in vivo, we evaluated the 3D spatial relationship between capillaries, mitochondria, and muscle fibers in live mice. Methods 3D volumes of in vivo murine Tibialis anterior muscles were imaged by multi-photon microscopy (MPM). Muscle fiber type, mitochondrial distribution, number of capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were assessed. The role of myoglobin-facilitated diffusion was examined in myoglobin knockout mice. Distribution of GLUT4 was also evaluated in the context of the capillary and mitochondrial network. Results MPM revealed that 43.6 ± 3.3% of oxidative fiber capillaries had ≥ 50% of their circumference embedded in a groove in the sarcolemma, in vivo. Embedded capillaries were tightly associated with dense mitochondrial populations lateral to capillary grooves and nearly absent below the groove. Mitochondrial distribution, number of embedded capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were proportional to fiber oxidative capacity and unaffected by myoglobin knockout. GLUT4 did not preferentially localize to embedded capillaries. Conclusions Embedding capillaries in the sarcolemma may provide a regulatory mechanism to optimize delivery of oxygen to heterogeneous groups of muscle fibers. We hypothesize that mitochondria locate to paravascular regions due to myofibril voids created by embedded capillaries, not to enhance the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria. PMID:25279425

  7. Analysis of lipoproteins by capillary zone electrophoresis in microfluidic devices: Assay development and surface roughness measurements

    Weiller, Bruce H.; Ceriotti, Laura; Shibata, Takayuki; Rein, Dietrich; Roberts, Matthew A.; Lichtenberg, Jan; German, J. Bruce; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    The development of a new assay for lipoproteins by capillary electrophoresis in fused-silica capillaries and in glass microdevices is described in this paper. The separation of low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins by capillary zone electrophoresis is demonstrated in fused-silica

  8. Cortical capillary dysfunction in patients suspected of Alzheimer’s disease

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Vascular risk factors are suspected to play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, a model that relates capillary dysfunction to the development of AD was proposed[1]. The model predicts that capillary dysfunction in form of increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH...

  9. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  10. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  11. Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium

    Ma, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs

  12. Origin of fragments in multifragmentation reactions

    Zbiri, K.; Aichelin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics approach we have started analyzing the results of the recent INDRA experiments at GSI facilities. For the first time we could identify a midrapidity source in which fragments are formed from an almost identical fraction of projectile and target nucleons. In smaller systems we have found this source. Nevertheless the fragment spectra at small and large angles is completely determined by the dynamics. We discuss how fragments are formed in the different regions of phase space and what they tell us about the reaction mechanism. (authors)

  13. Bone fragments a body can make

    Stout, S.D.; Ross, L.M. Jr. (Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Data obtained from various analytical techniques applied to a number of small bone fragments recovered from a crime scene were used to provide evidence for the occurrence of a fatality. Microscopic and histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the fragments were from a human skull. X-ray microanalysis of darkened areas on the bone fragments revealed a chemical signature that matched the chemical signature of a shotgun pellet recovered at the scene of the crime. The above findings supported the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint evidence which, along with other evidence, was used to convict a man for the murder of his wife, even though her body was never recovered.

  14. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Origin of fragments in multifragmentation reactions

    Zbiri, K.; Aichelin, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics approach we have started to analyze the results of the recent INDRA experiments at GSI experiments. For the first time we could identify a midrapidity source in which fragments are formed from a almost identical fraction of projectile and target nucleons. In smaller systems we have not found this source. Nevertheless the fragment spectra at small and large angles are completely determined by the dynamics. We discuss how fragments are formed in the different regions of phase space and what they tell us about the reaction mechanism. (author)

  16. A Simple, High-Throughput Assay for Fragile X Expanded Alleles Using Triple Repeat Primed PCR and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Lyon, Elaine; Laver, Thomas; Yu, Ping; Jama, Mohamed; Young, Keith; Zoccoli, Michael; Marlowe, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Population screening has been proposed for Fragile X syndrome to identify premutation carrier females and affected newborns. We developed a PCR-based assay capable of quickly detecting the presence or absence of an expanded FMR1 allele with high sensitivity and specificity. This assay combines a triplet repeat primed PCR with high-throughput automated capillary electrophoresis. We evaluated assay performance using archived samples sent for Fragile X diagnostic testing representing a range of Fragile X CGG-repeat expansions. Two hundred five previously genotyped samples were tested with the new assay. Data were analyzed for the presence of a trinucleotide “ladder” extending beyond 55 repeats, which was set as a cut-off to identify expanded FMR1 alleles. We identified expanded FMR1 alleles in 132 samples (59 premutation, 71 full mutation, 2 mosaics) and normal FMR1 alleles in 73 samples. We found 100% concordance with previous results from PCR and Southern blot analyses. In addition, we show feasibility of using this assay with DNA extracted from dried-blood spots. Using a single PCR combined with high-throughput fragment analysis on the automated capillary electrophoresis instrument, we developed a rapid and reproducible PCR-based laboratory assay that meets many of the requirements for a first-tier test for population screening. PMID:20431035

  17. Determination of foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex PCR-microchip capillary electrophoresis with genetic algorithm-support vector regression optimization.

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Yuanqian; Zheng, Bo; Qu, Lingli; Li, Can

    2009-06-08

    A rapid and sensitive method based on microchip capillary electrophoresis with condition optimization of genetic algorithm-support vector regression (GA-SVR) was developed and applied to simultaneous analysis of multiplex PCR products of four foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Four pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to exclusively amplify the targeted gene of Vibrio parahemolyticus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Shigella and the quadruplex PCR parameters were optimized. At the same time, GA-SVR was employed to optimize the separation conditions of DNA fragments in microchip capillary electrophoresis. The proposed method was applied to simultaneously detect the multiplex PCR products of four foodborne pathogenic bacteria under the optimal conditions within 8 min. The levels of detection were as low as 1.2 x 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Vibrio parahemolyticus, 2.9 x 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Salmonella, 8.7 x 10(1) CFU mL(-1) of E. coli O157:H7 and 5.2 x 10(1) CFU mL(-1) of Shigella, respectively. The relative standard deviation of migration time was in the range of 0.74-2.09%. The results demonstrated that the good resolution and less analytical time were achieved due to the application of the multivariate strategy. This study offers an efficient alternative to routine foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection in a fast, reliable, and sensitive way.

  18. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Evaluation and management of Periocular Capillary Hemangioma: A review

    Al-Motowa, Saeed A.; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.

    2006-01-01

    To review the salient features of periocular capillary hemangioma, provide the ophthalmologist with clinical, diagnostic and histological features characteristic of the tumor and discuss various methods of management. Methods were literature review of periocular capillary hemangioma, diagnostic evaluation with emphasis on treatment through the presentation of illustrative clinical cases. Capillary hemangioma is the most common benign vascular tumor found on the head and neck area including eyelids and orbit. The lesion typically manifests within the first few weeks of life, grows rapidly in the first year during the proliferative phase, then invariably and slowly regresses over the next 4 to 5 years during the involutional phase. The lesion may resolve without leaving any significant cosmetic sequelae in vast majority of patients, however, the functional defects in the form of amblyopia, squint, facial disfigurement and rarely optic atrophy may persist long after complete resolution of the tumor. The diagnosis of the capillary hemangioma requires a combination of clinical and imaging studies such as ultrasonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography in selected cases. With the advent of less invasive diagnostic techniques, the need for biopsy in capillary hemangioma has decreased. Nevertheless, it should be differentiated from other periocular tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphangioma, chloroma, neuroblastoma, orbital cyst, and orbital cellulites. Treatment is indicated to prevent amblyopia or cosmetic disfigurement. If indicated, intra-lesional corticosteroids may be used to enhance resolution of the tumor. Other forms of treatment tried with variable success include systematic and topical corticosteroids, radiation, surgical excision and intravenous embolization of the tumor. Indecent years, laser ablation of the tumor has been found effective in some cases. Interferon-u has been utilized effectively in cases of capillary

  20. Is pulsed electric field still effective for RNA separation in capillary electrophoresis?

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Chen, Qinmiao; Cheng, Shuyi; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2012-03-16

    Pulsed field capillary electrophoresis (PFCE) is a predominant technique to cope with difficulties in resolving large DNA strands, yet it is still unclear whether pulsed electric field is effective for the separation of higher mass RNA. In this paper we focused on the role of pulsed electric field in large RNA fragments analysis by comparing RNA separation performance in PFCE with that in constant field CE. Separation performance in terms of migration mobility, plate numbers, resolution, and selectivity has been tested for the analysis of RNA from 0.1 to 10.0 kilo nucleotide (knt) under different electrophoretic conditions. Denaturation, important to obtain uniform and identifiable peaks, was accomplished by heating the sample in 4.0M urea prior to analysis and the presence of 4.0M urea in the electrophoresis buffer. Results demonstrate that unlike DNA in PFCE, the pulsed electric field mainly affects the separation performance of RNA between 0.4 and 2.0 knt. The migration mobility of long RNA fragments is not a strong function of modulation depth and pulsed frequency. Moreover, the logarithm of RNA mobility is almost inversely proportional to the logarithm of molecule size up to 6.0 knt with correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 in all the polymer concentrations measured here. Resonance frequency of RNA in PFCE was also observed. While these initial experiments show no distinct advantages of using PFCE for RNA separation, they do take further step toward characterizing the migration behavior of RNA under pulsed field conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte–liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1317, SI (2013), s. 159-166 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : monolithic silica capillary column * immobilized liposomes * biomimicking stationary phase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  2. Determination of effective charges and ionic mobilities of polycationic antimicrobial peptides by capillary isotachophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis

    Tůmová, Tereza; Monincová, Lenka; Nešuta, Ondřej; Čeřovský, Václav; Kašička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 16 (2017), s. 2018-2024 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * capillary isotachophoresis * counterion condensation * effective charge * ionic mobility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  3. Dihadron fragmentation function and its evolution

    Majumder, A.; Wang Xinnian

    2004-01-01

    Dihadron fragmentation functions and their evolution are studied in the process of e + e - annihilation. Under the collinear factorization approximation and facilitated by the cut-vertex technique, the two hadron inclusive cross section at leading order is shown to factorize into a short distance parton cross section and a long distance dihadron fragmentation function. We provide the definition of such a dihadron fragmentation function in terms of parton matrix elements and derive its Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation at leading log. The evolution equation for the nonsinglet quark fragmentation function is solved numerically with a simple ansatz for the initial condition and results are presented for cases of physical interest

  4. A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment

    Watkins, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...

  5. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  6. Integration of fragment screening and library design.

    Siegal, Gregg; Ab, Eiso; Schultz, Jan

    2007-12-01

    With more than 10 years of practical experience and theoretical analysis, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has entered the mainstream of the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. An array of biophysical techniques has been used to detect the weak interaction between a fragment and the target. Each technique presents its own requirements regarding the fragment collection and the target; therefore, in order to optimize the potential of FBDD, the nature of the target should be a driving factor for simultaneous development of both the library and the screening technology. A roadmap is now available to guide fragment-to-lead evolution when structural information is available. The next challenge is to apply FBDD to targets for which high-resolution structural information is not available.

  7. An improved algorithm for MFR fragment assembly

    Kontaxis, Georg

    2012-01-01

    A method for generating protein backbone models from backbone only NMR data is presented, which is based on molecular fragment replacement (MFR). In a first step, the PDB database is mined for homologous peptide fragments using experimental backbone-only data i.e. backbone chemical shifts (CS) and residual dipolar couplings (RDC). Second, this fragment library is refined against the experimental restraints. Finally, the fragments are assembled into a protein backbone fold using a rigid body docking algorithm using the RDCs as restraints. For improved performance, backbone nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) may be included at that stage. Compared to previous implementations of MFR-derived structure determination protocols this model-building algorithm offers improved stability and reliability. Furthermore, relative to CS-ROSETTA based methods, it provides faster performance and straightforward implementation with the option to easily include further types of restraints and additional energy terms.

  8. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  9. Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium

    Ma, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs

  10. The lund Monte Carlo for jet fragmentation

    Sjoestrand, T.

    1982-03-01

    We present a Monte Carlo program based on the Lund model for jet fragmentation. Quark, gluon, diquark and hadron jets are considered. Special emphasis is put on the fragmentation of colour singlet jet systems, for which energy, momentum and flavour are conserved explicitly. The model for decays of unstable particles, in particular the weak decay of heavy hadrons, is described. The central part of the paper is a detailed description on how to use the FORTRAN 77 program. (Author)

  11. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  12. Fragman: an R package for fragment analysis.

    Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Schlautman, Brandon; Salazar, Walter; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-04-21

    Determination of microsatellite lengths or other DNA fragment types is an important initial component of many genetic studies such as mutation detection, linkage and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genetic diversity, pedigree analysis, and detection of heterozygosity. A handful of commercial and freely available software programs exist for fragment analysis; however, most of them are platform dependent and lack high-throughput applicability. We present the R package Fragman to serve as a freely available and platform independent resource for automatic scoring of DNA fragment lengths diversity panels and biparental populations. The program analyzes DNA fragment lengths generated in Applied Biosystems® (ABI) either manually or automatically by providing panels or bins. The package contains additional tools for converting the allele calls to GenAlEx, JoinMap® and OneMap software formats mainly used for genetic diversity and generating linkage maps in plant and animal populations. Easy plotting functions and multiplexing friendly capabilities are some of the strengths of this R package. Fragment analysis using a unique set of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) genotypes based on microsatellite markers is used to highlight the capabilities of Fragman. Fragman is a valuable new tool for genetic analysis. The package produces equivalent results to other popular software for fragment analysis while possessing unique advantages and the possibility of automation for high-throughput experiments by exploiting the power of R.

  13. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  14. Fragmentation of molten core material by sodium

    Chu, T.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A series of scoping experiments was performed to study the fragmentation of prototypic high temperature melts in sodium. The quantity of melt involved was at least one order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. Two modes of contact were used: melt streaming into sodium and sodium into melt. The average bulk fragment size distribution was found to be in the range of previous data and the average size distribution was found to be insensitive to mode of contact. SEM studies showed that the metal component typically fragmented in the molten phase while the oxide component fragmented in the solid phase. For UO 2 -ZrO 2 /stainless steel melts no sigificant spatial separation of the metal and oxide was observed. The fragment size distribution was stratified vertically in the debris bed in all cases. While the bulk fragment size showed generally consistent trends, the individual experiments were sufficiently different to cause different degrees of stratification in the debris bed. For the highly stratified beds the permeability can decrease by as much as a factor of 20 from the bottom to the top of the bed

  15. Effects of organic solvent and cationic additive on capillary electrophoresis of peptides

    Surugau, L.N.; Bergstrom, Ed T.

    2008-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nine peptides namely, bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P, Arg 8 -vasopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), bombesin, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin and oxytocin were carried out using 0.5 % and 1.0 % formic acid (FA) as the separation buffers, added with acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylamine (TEA) as an additive at low pH. The electrophoretic behaviour of these peptides was examined at different concentration of TEA (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM), and ACN (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 %) at their respective measured final pH. The results showed that all nine peptides were fully resolved with addition of 10 - 20 mM TEA. Peak efficiency was improved significantly by increasing TEA concentration up to 40 mM where 800 000 m -1 was obtained. Without TEA, the closely related enkephalins were co-migrating. Interestingly, by addition of as little as 5 mM TEA has sufficient to separate them almost at baseline. Increasing ACN to 40 % has shortened the analysis time by ca. 1 min. However, further increase of ACN can cause peak broadening and current instability. (author)

  16. Effects of organic solvent and cationic additive on capillary electrophoresis of peptides

    Surugau, L.N.; Bergstrom, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nine peptides namely, bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P, Arg 8 -vasopressin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), bombesin, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin and oxytocin were carried out using 0.5 % and 1.0 % formic acid (FA) as the separation buffers, added with acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylamine (TEA) as an additive at low pH. The electrophoretic behavior of these peptides was examined at different concentration of TEA (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM), and ACN (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 %) at their respective measured final pH. The results showed that all nine peptides were fully resolved with addition of 10-20 mM TEA. Peak efficiency was improved significantly by increasing TEA concentration up to 40 mM where 800 000 m -1 was obtained. Without TEA, the closely related enkephalins were co-migrating. Interestingly, by addition of as little as 5 mM TEA has sufficient to separate them almost at baseline. Increasing ACN to 40 % has shortened the analysis time by ca. 1 min. However, further increase of ACN can cause peak broadening and current instability. (author)

  17. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  18. Design and evaluation of capillary coupled with optical fiber light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis.

    Ji, Hongyun; Li, Meng; Guo, Lihong; Yuan, Hongyan; Wang, Chunling; Xiao, Dan

    2013-09-01

    A new detector, capillary coupled with optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (CCOF-LED-IFD, using CCOF for short), is introduced for CE. The strategy of the present work was that the optical fiber and separation capillary were, in the parallel direction, fastened in a fixation capillary with larger inner diameter. By employing larger inner diameter, the fixation capillary allowed the large diameter of the optical fiber to be inserted into it. By transmitting an enhanced excitation light through the optical fiber, the detection sensitivity was improved. The advantages of the CCOF-CE system were validated by the detection of riboflavin, and the results were compared to those obtained by the in-capillary common optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (IC-COF-LED-IFD, using COF for short). The LODs of CCOF-CE and COF-CE were 0.29 nM and 11.0 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. The intraday (n = 6) repeatability and interday (n = 6) reproducibility of migration time and corresponding peak area for both types of CE were all less than 1.10 and 3.30%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was judged by employing standard addition method, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 98.0-102.4%. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed system was largely improved, and that its reproducibility and accuracy were satisfactory. The proposed system was successfully applied to separate and determine riboflavin in real sample. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  20. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.