WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr28ja10r risk-based capital

  1. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk capital requirement, its market risk capital requirement, and its operations risk capital... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND...

  2. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL...

  3. 76 FR 12611 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Part 567 RIN 1550-AC41 Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework--Basel II; Establishment of a Risk-Based Capital Floor AGENCY: Office of Thrift...) proposes to: Amend its advanced risk-based capital adequacy standards (advanced approaches rules) \\1\\ to...

  4. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  5. 12 CFR 955.6 - Risk-based capital requirement for acquired member assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... losses as support for the credit risk of all AMA estimated by the Bank to represent a credit risk that is...) Recalculation of credit enhancement. For risk-based capital purposes, each Bank shall recalculate the estimated... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for acquired...

  6. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for investments. Each Bank shall hold retained earnings plus general allowance for losses as support for...

  7. 12 CFR 652.85 - When to report the risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When to report the risk-based capital level. 652.85 Section 652.85 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.85 When...

  8. 78 FR 76521 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... capital adequacy and risk profile. In those cases, a banking organization must disclose the general nature... no longer reflective of the bank's capital adequacy and risk profile, then a brief discussion of this... definition of ``Covered position'' to read as follows: Appendix E to Part 225--Capital Adequacy...

  9. 75 FR 4635 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Capital Maintenance: Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... the implementation of FAS 166 and FAS 167 without any change to regulatory capital requirements... 567 Federal Reserve System 12 CFR Parts 208 and 225 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 12 CFR Part... of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 3 RIN 1557-AD26 FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Parts...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Stress Test A Appendix A to... Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 652— Risk-Based Capital Stress Test 1.0Introduction. 2.0Credit Risk. 2... in the Stress Test. 3.0Interest Rate Risk. 3.1Process for Calculating the Interest Rate Movement....

  11. 75 FR 3647 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Risk-Based Capital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...; Risk-Based Capital Requirements AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA, Agency, us, or we) proposes to amend our regulations on the Risk-Based... cooperatives as program business. The 2008 Farm Bill further directed FCA to estimate the credit risk on...

  12. 76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... basic components of sound market risk management. For example, the current market risk capital rule requires an independent risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and an internal risk measurement model that is integrated into the daily management process. The quantitative criteria include the...

  13. 77 FR 53059 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ..., and stress tests. The Pillar 3 changes require banks to disclose certain quantitative and qualitative... modeling purposes, and their internal capital adequacy assessment methodologies. The BCBS began work on... unrated position. Finally, under Basel III: A Global Regulatory Framework for More Resilient Banks and...

  14. 12 CFR 1750.13 - Risk-based capital level computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to this subpart. The stress period has the following characteristics: (1) Credit risk—With respect to....C. 4614), shall be equal to the sum of the following amounts: (1) Credit and Interest Rate Risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level computation. 1750.13...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Risk-Based Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gains (that is, the excess, if any, of the fair value over historical cost) on available-for-sale equity... Measurement,” July 1988. The risk-based capital guidelines include both a definition of capital and a... intangible assets—a. Goodwill. Goodwill is an intangible asset that represents the excess of the cost of...

  16. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) You will use Corporation loan-level data to implement the credit risk component of the risk-based... Service corporate income tax schedule, as further described in appendix A to this subpart. (b) Credit risk. The credit risk part estimates loan losses during a period of sustained economic stress. (1) For each...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Section 2. Definitions For purposes of this appendix, the following definitions apply: (a) Covered...-zero specific risk capital charge. (A) For covered debt positions that are derivatives, a bank must... (including derivatives) in identical debt issues or indices. (iii) A bank must multiply the absolute value...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 325 - Risk-Based Capital for State Non-Member Banks: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., a bank may apply a 2.0 percent risk weighting factor to the futures and stock basket positions (long... debt (and intermediate-term preferred stock and related surplus) included in Tier 2 capital (both... measure the market risk of de minimis exposures so long as the techniques adequately measure...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Risk-Based Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-balance-sheet foreign exposure of $10 billion or more on its filings of the most recent year-end FFIEC 009...-balance sheet exposures into the assessment of capital adequacy; (iii) minimize disincentives to holding... (other than trust preferred securities) that are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  20. 12 CFR 6.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... categories of asset quality, management, earnings, or liquidity. ... risk-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; (3) The leverage ratio. (b) Capital...) Well capitalized if the bank: (i) Has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0 percent or greater;...

  1. Achieving ‘best value’ for the community by deployment of risk based cost estimation using Monte-Carlo Simulation to rate-payer-funded capital intensive road projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application and validation of a new tool developed by the first author for accurate risk-based estimation of project budgets. Typical capital intensive projects to which this tool can be applied include road reconstruction, road resheet and road rehabilitation projects. Quantitative risk analysis and stochastic modeling using Monte -Carlo simulation is embedded in the algorithms of the computer code. The tool forecasts a range of possible project costs and the probability of the occurrence of those costs by taking into account uncertainties and associated risks. Application of the tool to capital intensive road projects designed by the second author and constructed in 2011 & 2012 demonstrates its validity and utility. Comparisons of forecasted estimates using this tool with actual costs and with traditional deterministic methods of cost estimation (such as --point base-case estimates inclusive of contingency provide valuable insights that can aid management in evaluating alternatives and in making informed decisions when estimating and allocating budgets to a portfolio of road projects.

  2. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule,...

  3. 美国、欧盟以及瑞士保险业偿付能力监管的比较研究--基于风险基础资本法%A Comparative Assessment of The United States RBC Standards, Solvency II, and the Swiss Solvency Test:Based on Risk-Based Capital Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛志勇; 韩猛

    2013-01-01

      基于风险基础资本要求,对美国的风险基础资本模型、即将实施的欧盟偿付能力Ⅱ以及瑞士偿付能力测试进行了全面回顾,并从三种偿付能力监管体系的基本框架和风险基础资本法两个方面进行了比较。从比较的结果来看,保险业监管不存在唯一的资本标准,各个国家的保险业监管体系存在着相当大的差异。%  This paper provides an overview and comparison of risk-based capital requirements as currently in effect in the United States, the European Union, Switzerland: (1) the regulatory frameworks of the three solvency systems, (2) risk-based capital standards. This comparison of the various systems reveals that there is not one single capital standard in the insurance industry.

  4. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  5. From capital to capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HOW easy it is for one who lives in Beijing, capital of the country, to have the impression that all things significant happen there! This is to forget how there are now many provincial capitals in China, that are rapidly modernizing. In order to achieve such modernization, these cities, like

  6. 12 CFR 1229.11 - Capital restoration plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or long term causes for the capital deficiency; (2) Specify the level of permanent and total capital... capital to levels sufficient to fulfill its risk-based and minimum capital requirements within a... that the Bank will make to member stock purchase requirements, to assure that it will become...

  7. Social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Landhäußer, Sandra; Ziegler, Holger

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys research on social capital. We explore the concepts that motivate the social capital literature, efforts to formally model social capital using economic theory, the econometrics of social capital, and empirical studies of the role of social capital in various socioeconomic outcomes. While our focus is primarily on the place of social capital in economics, we do consider its broader social science context. We argue that while the social capital literature has produced many i...

  8. Capital y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Elizalde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    La perspectiva teórica del Capital, del siglo XIX, aparece alejada del capital social del siglo XXI.  Ambas, con la misma raíz, sin embargo, pareciera que no se tocan, ni teórica ni prácticamente.  Quizás, sería pertinente escudriñar esta relación. Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia ...

  9. Capital y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos-Lozano, José Antonio; Barrientos,Jaime; Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Brower Beltramin, Jorge; Cabrera, Cecilia; Caloca Osorio, Oscar Rogelio; Castro Sáez, Bernardo; Ceberio de León, Iñaki; Cleary, Eda; Córdova, María Gabriela; Cuéllar Saavedra, Óscar; Elizalde, Antonio; Flores Vega, Leonel; Gajardo Cornejo, Claudio; Garcés, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia y la sociología política, expertos de diversas instituciones internacionales han concurrido a este campo en busca de soluciones para el diseño de políticas públicas, que es donde parece brillar más este concepto. El “capital social”, sin embargo, –a...

  10. Capital y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos-Lozano, José Antonio; Barrientos,Jaime; Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Brower Beltramin, Jorge; Cabrera, Cecilia; Caloca Osorio, Oscar Rogelio; Castro Sáez, Bernardo; Ceberio de León, Iñaki; Cleary, Eda; Córdova, María Gabriela; Cuéllar Saavedra, Óscar; Elizalde, Antonio; Flores Vega, Leonel; Gajardo Cornejo, Claudio; Garcés, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia y la sociología política, expertos de diversas instituciones internacionales han concurrido a este campo en busca de soluciones para el diseño de políticas públicas, que es donde parece brillar más este concepto. El “capital social”, sin embargo, –a...

  11. International Banking: Implementation of Risk-Based Capital Adequacy Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    conducting open market operations ,’ and changing the official discount rate. The Bank also uses an informal mechanism known as "window guidance" as a...distinctions have blurred, and competition between these institutions has intensified. ’ Open market operations are conducted by the central bank when

  12. 78 FR 43829 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ....oecd.org/tad/xcred/cat0.htm . \\8\\ Id. In light of these changes and recognizing that CRCs have certain... Subjects 12 CFR Part 208 Confidential business information, Crime, Currency, Federal Reserve...

  13. INSURANCE AND THE CORPORATE COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.

  14. Codified Risk Based Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simplified methods are described for reliability- and risk-based inspection planning of steel structures. The methods simplify the practical aspects of identifying inspection plans complying both with specific requirements to the maximum acceptable annual probability of structural collapse...

  15. Capital regulations, supervision and the international harmonization of bank capital ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, despite the Basel Committee’s effort to develop internationally uniform regulatory capital standards, the capital ratios of banks across countries continue to exhibit significant differences. This paper examines the fundamental question of whether, given a uniform regulatory capital standard, regulators should expect similar banks to exhibit similar risk-based capital ratios. More specifically, this study develops a one-period theoretical model to examine the level playing field argument in light of not only uniform regulatory capital standards but also differences in bank supervision. The results of the theoretical model suggest that even with an internationally uniform risk-based capital requirement, it is unreasonable to expect banks in different countries to hold similar capital ratios. This occurs, in part, because regulators have discretion in how they apply the risk-based capital standards. Furthermore, the results suggest that a necessary condition for banks to exhibit similar capital ratios is that uniform capital requirements must be accompanied by a uniform stringency and application of regulatory supervision.

  16. 12 CFR 208.43 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definitions. 208.43 Section 208.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H...-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; and (3) The leverage ratio. (b)...

  17. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  18. A Generalization of the Aumann-Shapley Value for Risk Capital Allocation Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes risk capital allocation problems. For risk capital allocation problems, the aim is to allocate the risk capital of a firm to its divisions. Risk capital allocation is of central importance in risk-based performance measurement. We consider a case in which the aggregate

  19. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...... it forms a starting point for understanding and managing value-creating processes. Three distinct agendas within IC management and research can be identified. The first concerns to measure the components of IC, the second attempts to relate indicators to effects using statistical models, while the third...

  20. Celebration Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Boykoff, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.

  1. Codified Risk Based Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    and member failure and at the same time minimizing overall total service life costs. Generic inspections plans can then be established for representative fatigue sensitive details in terms of characteristics such as FDF (Fatigue Design Factor), detail type, RSR (Reserve Strength Ratio) given fatigue failure......Simplified methods are described for reliability- and risk-based inspection planning of steel structures. The methods simplify the practical aspects of identifying inspection plans complying both with specific requirements to the maximum acceptable annual probability of structural collapse...

  2. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  3. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Research 2016 Fall Allergy Capitals If you’re one of the millions ... needs of their residents with allergic diseases. Fall Allergies by the Numbers Nasal allergies affect more than ...

  4. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state...... expenditures, political legitimacy and financial markets. Boltanski and Chiapello's analysis of the projective city and connexionist logic captures important elements of capitalism in the era of neo-liberalism. However, as their analysis shows, any such logics require ‘spirit’, legitimacy and justification...... if they are to be sustained. Such logics are stabilized to the degree that they can pass the tests which they set themselves. The chapter shows how the projective city has increasingly failed these tests. It has instead created a privileged group of ‘mobile citizens’ working with mobile, global capital in ways...

  5. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  6. DOSTOYEVSKI'S "CAPITAL"

    OpenAIRE

    GUNAL, E. Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Dostoyevski who was always in need of money and in debt, wrote two great novels about capital: "Idiot" and "Crime and Punishment". In these novels the writer tries to prove the negative effects of capital on people. This article particularly focuses on "Crime and Punishment". Because crime is discussed as the multi-dimensional factor in this work. Moreover, it is claimed that in the troika of crime which formed of Raskolnikov, Svidrigaylov and Luzhin, Luzhin is the most dangerous character w...

  7. 12 CFR 206.5 - Capital levels of correspondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalized under this section without regard to the minimum leverage ratio required under paragraph (a)(3) of... 206.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... standards. See, e.g. 12 CFR part 208, subpart D. (1) A total risk-based capital ratio, as defined...

  8. 12 CFR 567.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk, credit risk, concentration of credit risk, certain risks arising from nontraditional activities... operating risks, particularly the risks presented by concentrations of credit and nontraditional activities... capital requirement for a savings association that varies from the risk-based capital requirement,...

  9. The Nonlinear Effect of Capital Regulation on Bank Risk---Based on the Panel Threshold Model Test%资本监管对银行风险非线性的影响--基于面板门槛模型的检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文栋; 王飞

    2016-01-01

    基于我国41家银行2004-2012年的平衡面板数据,采用面板门槛模型实证检验资本监管对银行风险非线性的影响。研究发现:资本监管对银行风险表现出明显的门槛特征,两者呈非线性关系,但资本监管与银行风险在不同的阈值范围内都呈正相关关系,验证了“监管假说”;本文估计出门槛值大于最低资本监管水平,这一发现启示监管当局应对银行施加适当的压力,提出银行达到最低资本监管标准具体的时限。%Based on the balance panel data of 41 banks in China during 2004-2012, this paper uses panel threshold model to empirically test the nonlinear effect of capital regulation on bank risk. The main conclusions are as follows:reg⁃ulatory capital has a clear threshold characteristic on bank risk and they show a nonlinear relationship, but in the thresh⁃old range of different regulatory capitals, bank risk is correlated with regulatory capital positively, verifying the hypothesis of “supervision”;the estimated threshold value is greater than the minimum regulatory capital levels, which has some enlightenment to the regulatory authorities:regulatory authorities should apply appropriate pressure to allow banks to meet regulatory capital standards and put forward specific period of time for banks.

  10. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... risk of contagion from the banking sector to the broader financial system and the general economy... Risk 1. Revisions to the Recognition of Financial Collateral 2. Changes to Holding Periods and the... Insurance Act, without regard to asset size or foreign financial exposure. Banking organizations that are or...

  11. Capital Unchained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    The rise of intangible assets such as brand names, research and development, patents and other forms of abstract capital such as digital platforms and data flows has confounded extant measures and concepts of capital and accumulation. What used to be a residual asset category known as ‘goodwill......’ has now overtaken so-called fixed or tangible assets in the profitability and valuation of many leading corporations. Yet these intangible assets lead a double life as both spatial and temporal in some dimensions, yet fluid and spatio-temporally elusive in others. Using a framework focused...... on measuring (by accountants), managing (by corporations) and monitoring (by International Political Economy scholars and regulators), this article explores the longer term implications of accumulation of internationalised capital in intangible and abstract forms, and the prominent role of finance and offshore...

  12. Risk-based regulation: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Over the last twenty years, man has witnessed a gradual but steady movement toward increased usage of risk-based methods and results in the regulatory process. The ``risk perspective`` as a supportive view to existing (non-risk-based or deterministic) information used in decision making has a firm foothold now in most countries that regulate nuclear power. Furthermore, in the areas outside the nuclear power field, such as health risk assessment, risk-based information is used increasingly to make decisions on potential impacts of chemical, biological, and radiological exposures. Some of the principal concepts and issues that are pertinent to risk-based regulation are reviewed. There is a growing interest in most countries in the use of risk-based methods and results to facilitate decision-making associated with regulatory processes. A summary is presented of the challenges and opportunities related to expanded use of risk-based regulation.

  13. Capital Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  14. Capital Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China is on its way to establishing its own venture capital industry Venture capitalists will find no safe haven worldwide as the prospects for the majority of economies to pick up remain dim for the next two years. Still, if some of them have the money and

  15. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  16. Capital Regulation and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2009, risk-based capital requirements have been reinforced in the new Basel III Accord to counter excessive bank risk-taking behavior. However, prior theoretical as well as empirical literature that studies the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior is inconclusive. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior, using a panel dataset of 21 listed commercial banks of Pakistan over the period 2005–2012. Purely regulatory measures of bank capital, capital adequacy ratio, and bank assets portfolio risk, risk-weighted assets to total assets ratio, are used for the main analysis. Recently developed small N panel methods (bias corrected least squares dummy variable (LSDVC method and system GMM method with instruments collapse option are used to control for panel fixed effects, dynamic dependent variables, and endogenous independent variables. Overall, the results suggest that commercial banks have reduced assets portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. Results also confirm that all banks having risk-based capital ratios either lower or higher than the regulatory required limits, have decreased portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. The results are robust to alternative proxies of bank risk-taking, alternative estimation methods, and alternative samples.

  17. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  18. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed.

  19. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  20. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  1. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  2. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...

  3. Risk-based SMA for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conveys an approach for risk-based safety and mission assurance applied to cubesats. This presentation accompanies a NASA Goddard standard in development that provides guidance for building a mission success plan for cubesats based on the risk tolerance and resources available.

  4. 13 CFR 120.1000 - Risk-Based Lender Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Lender Oversight. 120.1000 Section 120.1000 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1000 Risk-Based Lender Oversight. (a) Risk-Based...

  5. 77 FR 76840 - Minimum Capital Ratios; Issuance of Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... using bank-specific internal risk measurement and management processes for calculating risk-based... bank's credit, market, operational, or other risks. In making a determination under this paragraph, the...--Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal- Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement...

  6. RISK BASED TESTING A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochin Sharma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier Testers used to concentrate on only functionality, usability or performance sort of testing. Many of these derived by the customer’s desire or need. Same thing was with the risk based testing. If an application used to be real time based or crucial in terms or national security or economic then it was considered to be a risk based testing candidate. But business of individual has equalimportance for the people. Hence now risked based scenario and testing is a must do strategy. But based on the various factors how will you decide when an event or activity is under risk and should be treated on priority based. In real time projects many activities cannot be decided as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ criteria. For example in a project if any one person is left out of 10 members’ team. It cannot be treated as crucial, but if 5 members left within short span of time. This 50% breakdown in work force definitely be consider as critical, so here we can wave a red (priority signal. So fuzzy approach can be consider as an important deal with respect of risk management

  7. 75 FR 82317 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... site: http://www.FDIC.gov/regulations/laws/federal/propose.html . Mail: Robert E. Feldman, Executive... of the Board of Directors. Robert E. Feldman, Executive Secretary, Federal Deposit Insurance... Currency. By order of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, December 14, 2010. Robert...

  8. 76 FR 37620 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... clarify how the proposal would interact with Basel III \\18\\ (particularly, the Basel III leverage ratio... full implementation of Basel III. \\18\\ The term ``Basel III'' refers to the new comprehensive set of... explaining their concern about how the proposal would interact with Basel III, a number of commenters...

  9. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    Within current research on social capital, a gap exists between political history analyses at the macro level and classical, sociological analyses at the meso and micro levels. Following up on  earlier work, the main purpose of this paper is to mediate between the two conflicting stances...... represented by Putnam and Portes. The paper raises the following question: Is it possible to detect the historical driving forces behind the building of both beneficial and harmful social capital? Driving forces are defined as structural determinants, which change human organization at all levels....... The hypothesis is that three forms of capital have the potential to act as driving forces: social capital, cultural capital and physical capital, the latter operationaliz­ed as buildings. A new concept, triad of capital, is introduced to analyze the interrelationship between these three forms of capital. A triad...

  10. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  11. O outro capital The other capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Prates da Fonseca Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital social uma forma de mobilizao cujo cerne no est nos indivduos nem nas formas de produo econmica, mas nas redes complexas de solidariedade e confiana. O livro Comunicao e poltica: capital social, reconhecimento e deliberao pblica traz uma coleo de artigos de pesquisadores em comunicao sobre este tema, organizado por ngela Marques e Heloiza Matos.Social capital is a form of mobilization whose core is not on individuals or in forms of economic production, but in the complex networks of solidarity and trust. The book Comunicao e poltica: capital social, reconhecimento e deliberao pblica (that translated to English means Communication and politics: social capital, recognition and public deliberation is a collection of articles written by researchers in communication about this subject, organized by ngela Marques and Heloiza Matos.

  12. CONTROLS ON CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  13. Theorizing Emotional Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottingham, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Theorizing a sociology of emotion that links micro-level resources to macro-level forces, this article extends previous work on emotional capital in relation to emotional experiences and management. Emerging from Bourdieu’s theory of social practice, emotional capital is a form of cultural capital t

  14. Theorizing Emotional Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottingham, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Theorizing a sociology of emotion that links micro-level resources to macro-level forces, this article extends previous work on emotional capital in relation to emotional experiences and management. Emerging from Bourdieu’s theory of social practice, emotional capital is a form of cultural capital

  15. Are Capital Buffers Countercyclical ? An Evidence From Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romila Qamar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New risk based capital requirement have pro-cyclical effect and causes negative externalities in the economy. During recession, on one side, quality of loan portfolio deteriorates and probability of default increases resulting into increased level of provisions and write off’s and reduced capital level. This causes an increase in capital requirements which becomes more expensive. Weaker banks fail to access new capital and ultimately reduce the credit supply. On the other side, banks are required to maintain the minimum capital which results into credit supply contraction and hits the bank’s profitability leading to a situation called Credit Crunch. This situation may prolong recession. During the crisis, developing countries are more affected than developed countries and this debate is entirely new in Pakistan. This research empirically investigates the pro-cyclical effect of new capital regulation under Basel II using panel data of 47 Pakistani Banks from 2001-2012. Particularly this paper examines the capital management mechanisms using capital buffers, using Generalized Method of Moments (GMM one step and two step estimation techniques on dynamic panel data model. The results gives evidence that capital buffer are counter-cyclical except in case of specialized banks because of difference in operations. The findings also suggest that adjustment costs, cost of raising capital and bankruptcy costs are major determines of holding capital buffer. Analysis confirms too big to fail hypothesis. Form the results, it is concluded that capital buffer are counter-cyclical, consistent with the hypothesis. The findings suggest the banks to adopt Basel III Accord.

  16. 76 FR 35351 - Capital Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., implementing, and monitoring a bank holding company's capital planning strategies and internal capital adequacy... requirements into their capital planning strategies and internal capital adequacy processes, including the... presentation of a company's capital planning strategies and capital adequacy processes that includes (i) An...

  17. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu T.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)-registered open-end investment company that holds itself out as a money market mutual fund under SEC Rule 2a... ratio and with changes in the economy, financial markets and domestic and international banking... additions to the reserve charged to operations since that date, less losses charged against the...

  19. 12 CFR 567.6 - Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... For purposes of calculating potential future credit exposure for foreign exchange contracts and other... amount of an off-balance sheet interest rate or foreign exchange rate contract that is not subject to a... contracts (percents) Foreign exchange rate contracts (percents) One year or less 0.0 1.0 Over one year 0.5 5...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 325 - Statement of Policy on Risk-Based Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest rate and foreign exchange rate related contracts. Except for commitments, short-term is defined as... of foreign banks) that are not members of the Federal Reserve System, hereafter referred to as state... bank's financial condition. These factors include overall interest rate risk exposure, liquidity...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROD Mortgage Product Type A0 Age immediately prior to start of Stress Test, in months (weighted... Variable Description Mortgage Product Type A0 Age immediately prior to start of Stress Test, in months... Enterprise projections Principal Payment Window Starting Date, Up-Rate Scenario The month in the Stress Test...

  2. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  3. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  4. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  5. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  6. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  7. Institutions and Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  8. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  9. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...

  10. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  11. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  12. Risk based rulemaking and design - Proceed with caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariadis, Panos; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend towards a risk based regulatory framework at IMO and within classification societies is expanding while some voices claim that a full ship risk based scantlings design approach can be immediately implementable. This paper attempts to clarify some widely used, but confusing to many......, notions such as Risk Based Rulemaking vs. Risk Based Design, and IMO's Goal Based Standards Traditional Approach vs. Safety Level Approach, and the implications of their use, or misuse, to future ship rulemaking, design and safety. The paper elaborates on some identified weaknesses of Formal Safety...... Assessment and the risk based approach which must be corrected. It further cautions on the over eagerness of some rule makers and designers to drop all prescriptive rule formulations and haphazardly adopt risk based formulations borrowed from other industries which may not be appropriate for ships...

  13. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...

  14. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  15. Human Capital and Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Alders

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  16. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...

  17. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...

  18. Venture capital and internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture ca

  19. Aggregating economic capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Lundin, M.; Vanduffel, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and evaluate a standard approach financial institutions use to calculate their so-called total economic capital. If we consider a business that faces a total random loss S over a given one-year horizon then economic capital is traditionally defined as the difference between

  20. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  1. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  2. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of distinction? Cultural capital in a contemporary Danish context appears to be less related to traditional highbrow cultural consumption than in Bourdieu's studies in France some decades ago. Third, is there a rise in the omnivorousness and tolerant taste within the cultural elite? This study answers negatively...

  3. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2014-01-01

    , and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  4. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  5. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  6. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...... and the 1% of the World population will control 95% of all wealth in the World....

  7. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital...... of distinction? Cultural capital in a contemporary Danish context appears to be less related to traditional highbrow cultural consumption than in Bourdieu's studies in France some decades ago. Third, is there a rise in the omnivorousness and tolerant taste within the cultural elite? This study answers negatively......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...

  8. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....

  9. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....

  10. The Genesis of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...

  11. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  12. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...

  13. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international......Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...

  14. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  15. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cyclemodel of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge-nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not onlylabor income but also capital income is optimal. The positive tax on capital incomeserves to alleviate the distortions of the labor tax on human capital accumulation.The optimal marginal tax rate on capital income is lower than that on labor inco...

  16. How Should Risk-Based Regulation Reflect Current Public Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Christopher John

    2016-08-01

    Risk-based regulation of novel agricultural products with public choice manifest via traceability and labelling is a more effective approach than the use of regulatory processes to reflect public concerns, which may not always be supported by evidence.

  17. ANCAMAN CAPITAL INFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sihono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital inflow can be interpreted as an increase in the amount of money available from external or foreign sources for the purchase of local capital assets such as securities, houses, buildings, land, machinery. These short-term asset purchase, so if at any time be withdrawn in large quantities, it will endanger the country's economy. The swift flow of foreign funds may be a threat to the country which became the capital inflow in the form of options: pressure of inflation, high cost economy, the defisit Central Bank balance, the economic turbulence, and the threat of economic growth. Improvement of high economic growth accompanied by rising foreign exchange reserves that high also, it turns out is not free from the risk of unbridled inflation and economic cricis, destabilizing the economy during those funds withdrawn by foreign investors. For the avoidance of economic risk, should the government together with the Central Bank made a rule to direct capital inflow into the real sektor. Keywords: capital inflows, global likuiditas

  18. Organizational networks and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  19. Organizational networks and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  20. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  1. Contabilidad del capital intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El capital intelectual es un valor intangible que debe incorporarse a los estados financieros, como parte de la generación de valor de todos los trabajadores de una organización. Existen algunos modelos que permiten cuantificarlo, aunque es preciso reconocer que debemos ahondar con más precisión con el objeto de contar con un mayor número de adeptos a esta importante referencia. The intellectual capital is an intangible value that should incorporate to the financial states, like part of t...

  2. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  3. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  4. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  5. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confide

  6. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... finance market conditions; (7) Level of reserves or retained earnings; (8) Initiatives, operations... for a periodic review of core capital maintained by an Enterprise, the amount of capital retained by...

  7. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    post optimally sell the assets or re-optimize the capital structure. Ex ante, more uncertain asset value decreases leverage, but not firm value, and selling the assets becomes less likely. Firms should tend to invest in assets whose value is less correlated to changes in earnings and, in addition...

  8. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  9. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  10. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  11. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....

  12. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  13. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  14. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...

  15. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  16. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  17. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  18. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  19. Capitalizing on Happenstance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumboltz, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Unplanned events occur every day and have a deep impact on individuals' lives. The happenstance learning theory (Krumboltz, 2009; Krumboltz & Levin, 2010), briefly summarized in this article, provides guidance for employment counselors assisting clients to clarify goals and brainstorm actions to capitalize on chance events.

  20. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  1. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  2. On Representative Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Kroger, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data for a random sample drawn from the Dutch population who reveal their propensity to invest and reward investments in building up social capital by means of an economic experiment.We find substantial heterogeneity and asymmetries in the propensity to invest and in the propensi

  3. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  4. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  5. Is capitalism possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    1998-01-01

    In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new alternati

  6. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    post optimally sell the assets or re-optimize the capital structure. Ex ante, more uncertain asset value decreases leverage, but not firm value, and selling the assets becomes less likely. Firms should tend to invest in assets whose value is less correlated to changes in earnings and, in addition...

  7. Social capital and sports clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Tacon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Book synopsis: \\ud \\ud This volume provides a collection of critical new perspectives on social capital theory by examining how social values, power relationships, and social identity interact with social capital. This book seeks to extend this theory into what have been largely under-investigated domains, and, at the same time, address long-standing, classic questions in the literature concerning the forms, determinants, and consequences of social capital.\\ud \\ud Social capital can be unders...

  8. Capitalism: A System of Conspiracy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2010-01-01

    There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...

  9. MODELLING SOCIAL CAPITAL AND GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yuan K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes three theoretical growth models incorporating social capital, based on varied expositions on the concept of social capital and the empirical evidence gathered to date. In these models, social capital impacts growth by assisting in the accumulation of human capital, by affecting financial development through its effects on collective trust and social norms, and by facilitating networking between firms that result in the creation and diffusion of business and technological i...

  10. How venture capital works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.

  11. Working Paper on Social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...

  12. Bank capital management : International evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management (redu

  13. Thin Capitalization Rules and Entrepreneurial Capital Structure Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maßbaum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax planners often choose debt over equity financing. As this has led to increased corporate debt financing, many countries have introduced thin capitalization rules to secure their tax revenues. In a general capital structure model we analyze if thin capitalization rules affect dividend and financing decisions, and whether they can partially explain why corporations receive both debt and equity capital. We model the Belgian, German and Italian rules as examples. We find that the so-called Miller equilibrium and definite financing effects depend significantly on the underlying tax system. Further, our results are useful for the treasury to decide what thin capitalization type to implement.

  14. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... are: A: to detect an emerging disease or infection, if it becomes introduced into a population; or B: to substantiate freedom from a condition in a population; or C: to detect cases and estimate the prevalence of an endemic condition in a population. In risk-based surveillance these aims should be met...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  15. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...... the estimates for confounding from other risk factors. We describe some potential unintentional effects when using adjusted risk estimates in evaluating the efficacy and sensitivity of risk-based surveillance systems (SSe). In two examples, we quantify and compare the efficacy and SSe using adjusted and crude...

  16. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how risk-based decision making can be used for maintenance planning of components exposed to degradation such as fatigue in offshore wind turbines. In fatigue models, large epistemic uncertainties are usually present. These can be reduced if monitoring results are used to upd...... to update the models, and hereby a better basis for decision making is obtained. An application example shows how a Bayesian network model can be used as a tool for updating the model and assist in risk-based decision making....

  17. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  18. Practical risk-based decision making: Good decisions made efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guthrie, V.; Walker, D. [JBF Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Singer, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Robotics and Process Systems Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have teamed with JBF Associates, Inc. to address risk-based robotic planning. The objective of the project is to provide systematic, risk-based relative comparisons of competing alternatives for solving clean-up problems at DOE facilities. This paper presents the methodology developed, describes the software developed to efficiently apply the methodology, and discusses the results of initial applications for DOE. The paper also addresses current work in applying the approach to problems in other industries (including an example from the hydrocarbon processing industry).

  19. Ensayo sobre el Capital Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Frediani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En la teoría económica existen distintas definiciones de capital: capital físico, el capital en recursos naturales, el capital financiero, el capital en infraestructura económica, el capital en infraestructura social y el capital humano. Todos ellos son condiciones necesarias para que un país alcance el desarrollo económico y social y un alto estándar y calidad de vida de sus habitantes, pero no suficientes puesto que hace falta una categoría adicional de capital. En los últimos años ha surgido el análisis de una nueva categoría: el Capital Social. El concepto se ha convertido en uno de los temas más debatidos de las ciencias sociales y políticas. Se refiere a un elemento invisible, etéreo, menos tangible que el capital humano (conocimientos y/o habilidades de los individuos o el capital físico (bienes materiales, pero que resulta decisivo para la actividad productiva, la satisfacción de las necesidades personales y el desarrollo comunitario y de una sociedad toda.

  20. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... in the presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...

  1. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scheel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  2. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  3. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  4. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  5. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how risk-based decision making can be used for maintenance planning of components exposed to degradation such as fatigue in offshore wind turbines. In fatigue models, large epistemic uncertainties are usually present. These can be reduced if monitoring results are used...

  6. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standa

  7. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end of ...

  8. Benefits of Risk Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.M.; Goyet, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The economical benefits of applying risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore structures subject to fatigue are evaluated based on experiences from past industrial projects. To this end, the factors influencing the cost of inspection, repair and failure of structures are discussed......, the financial benefit of RBI is assessed....

  9. fuente de capital humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Becerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El capital intelectual es una concepción novedosa, tipificada como un activo intangible que agrega valor a la empresa; está formado por tres componentes: el capital organizacional, el humano y el relacional. El capital humano está relacionado con el desarrollo y los conocimientos del individuo, que permite diferenciar a un profesional de otro. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la formación del Contador Público egresado de la Universidad de Los Andes (ULA de Trujillo, como fuente de capital humano para su desempeño profesional. Los datos se recolectaron aplicando un cuestionario a una muestra aleatoria de 47 de estos profesionales, empleando para el análisis y presentación de los resultados técnicas estadísticas. La investigación evidencia que la mayoría de los encuestados poseen un nivel de satisfacción de medio a bajo con su formación de pregrado, señalando como principales debilidades del Plan de Estudio las áreas tributaria y cambiaria, el manejo instrumental del inglés y el conocimiento de las normativas que rigen el sistema económico. La formación en algunas de estas áreas la han mejorado a través de otras actividades de capacitación. No obstante reconocen algunas fortalezas tales como: el aprendizaje y dominio de conceptos y Principios Contables de Aceptación General, las matemáticas y estadística, el manejo de la contabilidad computarizada y las habilidades para analizar e interpretar problemas contables. Se concluye que a pesar de las deficiencias, la realización de cursos de actualización, junto con las fortalezas en la formación de la carrera, ha contribuido a que el contador público egresado de la ULA de Trujillo constituya un capital humano con ventaja competitiva.

  10. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...

  11. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Bourdieu's (1986) seminal definition of social capital as "the aggregate of the actual or potential resources" is reflected in older definitions, as well as in many current within sociology (e.g. Portes, 2000) and organization (Adler & Kwon, 2002). The definition is interesting, because it directs...... a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...

  12. 76 FR 41602 - Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... respective risk-based pricing rules to require disclosure of credit scores and information relating to credit scores in risk-based pricing notices if a credit score of the consumer is used in setting the material.... 1681m(h), to the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) to address risk-based pricing. Risk-based pricing...

  13. Social Capital in Rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....

  14. Social capital and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  15. Re-Thinking Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Bukač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.

  16. Contratos de capital humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.

  17. Capital social comunicativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se buscan establecer las bases para una transformación del tradicional triángulo comunicativo emisor-mensaje-receptor, por un esquema que haga alusión a la dinámica social de la comunicación relacionada con lo público: actores-escenarios-sentidos. De esta forma, es posible conformar guías para la acción y encontrar en los actores ciudadanos de comunicación, la conformaciónde un capital social para la democracia.

  18. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...... for cooperation preferences rather than beliefs about others' cooperation. To disentangle the preference and belief channels, we run a (standard) public goods game in which beliefs matter for cooperation choices and one (using the strategy method) in which they do not matter. We show that the "fairness question...

  19. Human capital strategy: talent management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    .... This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps...

  20. Taxes and Venture Capital Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    -set may paradoxically contribute to higher quality of venturecapital finance and welfare. Subsidies to physical investment in VC-backed startupsare detrimental in our framework.Keywords: Venture capital, capital gains taxation, double moral hazard.JEL-Classification: D82, G24, H24, H25......'s success, but is not verifiable. Asa result, the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capitalsupport. The capital gains tax becomes especially harmful, as it further impairsadvice and causes a first-order welfare loss. Once the capital gains tax is in place,limitations on loss off...

  1. Application of risk-based inspection methods for cryogenic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Risk-based Inspection (RBI) is widely applied across the world as part of Pressure Equipment Integrity Management, especially in the oil and gas industry, to generally reduce costs compared with time-based approaches and assist in assigning resources to the most critical equipment. One of the challenges in RBI is to apply it for low temperature and cryogenic applications, as there are usually no degradation mechanisms by which to determine a suitable probability of failure in the overall risk assessment. However, the assumptions used for other degradation mechanisms can be adopted to determine, qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, a consequence of failure within the risk assessment. This can assist in providing a consistent basis for the assumptions used in ensuring adequate process safety barriers and determining suitable sizing of relief devices. This presentation will discuss risk-based inspection in the context of cryogenic safety, as well as present some of the considerations for the risk assessme...

  2. Risk-based thinking in the Production Process Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hrbackova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article has focused on risk-based thinking in the production process according to the updated ISO/FDIS 9001/2015 Quality Management System – Requirements. One of the crucial changes of this update is incorporation of the risk-based thinking into quality management system of organizations. This article deals with this current issue of correct understanding of the actions to address risksin the processes that influence the customers. On the basis of a new updated standard and case studies focused on application of the method of the FMEA Process (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis as well as the method of Quality Assurance Matrixin the production process, suitability of using these methods for risk assessment in the production process was assessed. The result is utilisation of these methods of FMEA and QAM for identification, analysis and risk assessment in the production process taking into consideration requirements of the respective standard.

  3. From Information Capitalism to Information Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoFeng

    2005-01-01

    Information technology and information capital are both neutral in character and can serve socialism as well as capitalism. As Karst pointed out, the information society is culturally and institutionally diverse. If in their transformation into social morphology information technology and capital may both end in socialism as well as capitalism, then what is the essential distinction between information capitalism and information socialism?

  4. Increasing Effectiveness and Efficiency Through Risk-Based Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Security Administration, risk-based security, resource deployment, game theory, big data 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...The University of Melbourne , 2006), http://www.csdila.unimelb.edu.au/ publication/theses/Kevin_Mcdougall_PhD_Thesis.pdf. 7 Ibid. 5 At present...of this research: • Does the proposed option violate “the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses , papers, and effects, against

  5. Penilaian Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Risiko (Risk-Based Bank Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnawati .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  study  aimed  to  analyze  techniques  of  the  bank’s  health  assessment  and determine  which  strategies  should  be  done  in  order  to  improve  the  health  of the bank. The method used is the approach of Risk (Risk Based-Bank Rating in accordance with Bank Indonesia Regulation on Rating Bank that PBI Number: 13/1/PBI/2011  which  entered  into  force  on  January  1,  2012.  Bank  health assessment  performed  using  four  (4  factors:  Risk  Profile,  Good  Corporate Governance (GCG, Earning, and Capital. Object  of  this  study  is  PT.  Bank  Pembangunan  Daerah  Kalimantan  Selatan period  2012.  The  results  showed  that  the  health  of  banks  in  PT.  Bank Pembangunan  Daerah  Kalimantan  Selatan  getting  ranked  2,  meaning  can be  categorized  good.  Strategies  to  improve  the  health  value  of  a  bank  is  to improve aspects of Earnings and Capital. Strategis Steps that must to increase credit expansion, improve the quality and quantity of human resources, product innovation, and increase fee-based income. Keywords: Healthy  banks,  Risk  Profile,  Good  Corporate  Governance  (GCG,  Earnings, Capital

  6. Human capital and optimal positive taxation of capital income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also

  7. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and, ultimat......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and......, ultimately, financial affair. In some of its media and site-(un)specific manifestations, process art - which aims to encompass both old and new media art - seems to resist this pressure, despite, nonetheless, not being protected from regulations and incorporations. In the present collection of his recent...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art...

  8. Risk-based underground pipeline safety management considering corrosion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seolin; Lee, Gunhak; Ahmed, Usama; Lee, Yongkyu; Na, Jonggeol; Han, Chonghun

    2017-08-18

    Due to the long term usage and irregular maintenance for corrosion checks, catastrophic accidents have been increasing in underground pipelines. In this study, a new safety management methodology of underground pipeline, risk-based pipeline management, is introduced reflecting corrosion effect. First, principle of the risk-based pipeline management is presented compared with an original method, qualitative measure. It is distinguished from the qualitative measure by reflecting societal risk and corrosion in safety management of underground pipeline. And then, it is applied to an existing underground propylene pipeline in Ulsan Industrial Complex, South Korea. The consequence analysis is based on real information, and the frequency analysis reflects degree of corrosion. For calculation of corrosion rate, direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) and close interval potential survey (CIPS) are conducted. As a result of applying the risk-based pipeline management, risk integral is reduced by 56.8% compared to the qualitative measure. Finally, sensitivity analysis is conducted on variables, which affect the risk of the pipeline. This study would contribute to introduce quantitative measure to pipeline management and increase safety of pipeline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk-based planning analysis for a single levee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.

  10. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  11. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  12. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital measures. For purposes of section 38 and this part, the relevant capital measures shall be: (1) The total...

  13. 12 CFR 325.103 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Prompt Corrective Action § 325.103 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital measures. For purposes of section 38 and this subpart,...

  14. 76 FR 79379 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk; Alternatives to Credit Ratings for Debt and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... add-on is 8.0 percent of the net equity position, unless the bank's portfolio is both liquid and well-diversified, in which case the specific risk add-on is 4.0 percent. For positions that are index contracts comprising a well-diversified portfolio of equities, the specific risk add-on is 2.0 percent of the net long...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exposure at the most recent year-end equal to $10 billion or more (where total on-balance sheet foreign... country claims on local residents plus revaluation gains on foreign exchange and derivative products... contracts also include unsettled securities, commodities, and foreign exchange transactions with a...

  16. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  17. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  18. Social Capital and Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness.49...addition to skills and knowledge , human capital also includes people’s ability to associate with each other. He defined social capital as the ability

  19. Exploring the social capital grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger

    2007-01-01

    catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....

  20. Avascular Necrosis of the Capitate

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma.

  1. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  2. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the

  3. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the fir

  4. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  5. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton

  6. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structur

  7. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  8. Innovation and venture capital exits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwienbacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how start-ups financed by venture capital choose their innovation strategy based on the investor's exit preferences and thereby form different outcomes in the product market. It considers innovation choices and venture capital exits (IPO vs trade sale) in a setting in which ent

  9. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  10. Patterns of International Capital Raisings

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and gro...

  11. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight onc

  12. Capital loss in China's agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    China's agriculture has contributed a lot to industrialization but it has suffered a long-run and severe capital loss.This paper provides an estimation model of capital loss in agriculture and gives some explanation in marginal approach.With an eye to a balanced and sustainable economy development, it is high time for government to do something for it.

  13. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...... in SME´s Intellectual Capital – but how to release them?...

  14. Cultural capital as a measurand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymanov, R.; Sapozhnikova, K.

    2016-11-01

    The necessity for developing metrology due to extension of its application sphere is noted. The efficiency of the metrological approach to measurement of multidimensional quantities in the field of humanities is shown using the development of cultural capital interpreted by L. Harrison. The cultural capital is defined as a measure of the society structure complexity and adaptive capacity.

  15. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  16. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  17. Exploring the social capital grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger

    2007-01-01

    catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....

  18. Sand in the Wheels of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital......, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market...... frictions do not naturally arise in a static framework, or even in a dynamic framework if capital market frictions are reversible. But if capital market frictions can be made to p ersist over time, we show that young workers favor capital market frictions as a way to smo oth income, especially if wealth...

  19. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  20. Social capital and localised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2007-01-01

      This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....

  1. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. Methods We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007?2012 (n=9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  2. Measuring social capital: further insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi

    Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  4. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  5. A Phenomenology of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a questão da metodologia que Marx utilizou em O Capital. A hipótese é que Marx utiliza a Fenomenologia do Espírito de Hegel como paradigma, em vez da Ciência da Lógica, como se acredita. O argumento discerne a fenomenologia do século 19 a partir da compreensão atual, moldada por Husserl. Além disso, eu remeto a ideia de uma fenomenologia em economia de volta ao círculo dos jovens hegelianos em torno de Proudhon. No entanto, o argumento é conclusivo apenas por um olhar mais atento ao uso que Hegel e Marx fazem dos níveis distintos de abstração dentro de suas respectivas exposições. O artigo demonstra especialmente os paralelos no início de ambos os livros e a forma como os seus autores avançam de um nível para o outro. Em contraste com as abordagens atuais que empregam a Ciência da Lógica como paradigma, eu saliento a especificidade que os objetos de investigação exibem em seus níveis particulares de abstração. Exemplos são a diferença de valores e preços de mercado e a discriminação entre capitais em geral e capital como um de muitos capitais em competição.

  6. National Capital Planning Commission Meeting Transcripts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions taken...

  7. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents #0..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital... Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches...

  8. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Velthuis, A G J

    2014-02-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently.

  9. Risk Based Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents how Bayesian networks can be used to make optimal decisions for repairs of offshore wind turbines. The Bayesian network is an efficient tool for updating a deterioration model whenever new information becomes available from inspections/monitoring. The optimal decision is found...... such that the preventive maintenance effort is balanced against the costs to corrective maintenance including indirect costs to reduced production. The basis for the optimization is the risk based Bayesian decision theory. The method is demonstrated through an application example....

  10. Risk-based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    , wear and erosion are associated with significant uncertainty. Observations of the degree of damage can increase the reliability of predictions, especially in connection with condition-based maintenance. The approach can be used for gearboxes, generators, cracks, corrosion, etc. The paper also describes......For offshore wind turbines costs to operation and maintenance are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based lifecycle approach for optimal planning of operation and maintenance. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory. Deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion...

  11. Usability study of a risk based inspection software

    OpenAIRE

    Balestrand, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Usability, or the “ease of use” of a software application, is important in order to allow for a user to carry out the intended task in an efficient and effective manner. For a technical software, as the risk based inspection (RBI) software studied in this thesis, such aspects is equally important. But in order to ensure a software which is “easy to use” there must be carried out usability activities in relation to the software’s development. The goal of the thesis was to carry ...

  12. Optimal Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangel-Ramirez, Jose G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coining years. The Support structure for offshore wind turbines is typically a steel structure consisting of a tower......, inspection and maintenance activities are developed. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod types of wind turbine support structures. Based oil risk-based inspection planning methods used for oil & gas installations, a framework...

  13. Optimal Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. The support structure for offshore wind turbines is typically a steel structure consisting of a tower......, inspection and maintenance activities are developed. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod types of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning methods used for oil & gas installations, a framework...

  14. Contextual Risk-based Decision Modeling for Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijey Thayananthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET is the emerging technology that allows the drivers to keep the road safety throughout the journey. In VANETs, vehicles can collaborate with each other by exchanging the messages. When these messages are incorrect, drivers will have to face many serious problems which include traffic congestion and minor to fatal road accidents. Therefore, drivers need a method which provides the correct decision using risk analysis calculated from the vehicle context. For this purpose, we propose a new contextual risk-based decision methodology for vehicular networks. This methodology can be used to provide robust and reliable decisions.

  15. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges....... Inspection and maintenance (I&M) costs for offshore sites are much larger than for onshore ones, making the choice of suitable I&M planning for minimising costs important. Risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore installations represents a suitable methodology to identify the optimal maintenance...

  16. Optimal Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    and monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. Monopiles are at present the most typical foundation, but tripods and jackets are expected to be used in the future at larger water depths. The support structures are facing deterioration processes such as fatigue and corrosion. To ‘control' this deterioration......, inspection and maintenance activities are developed. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod types of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning methods used for oil & gas installations, a framework...

  17. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    to oil and gas structures. In addition, condition monitoring systems are often available, and the information should be taken into account when making decisions. In this thesis, methods for risk-based maintenance planning using Bayesian methods are investigated, with the aim of making optimal decisions...... to achieve big savings, but the results of course largely depend on the input. With real decision problems, it can be difficult to formulate the model if the design assumptions are not fulfilled in real life. The potential of the method is large, but further development is necessary, especially concerning...

  18. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  19. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  20. Capital-imperialismo e neoliberalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Campagnaro, Yuri Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O marxismo interpreta o imperialismo desde Hilferding, com sua análise do capital financeiro em 1910. Lenin sintetizou o primeiro debate, caracterizando o imperialismo como uma nova fase do capitalismo, com monopólios e maior centralização do capital. O debate se estende à década de 1970 com Mandel, que identificou uma alteração na morfologia do capital de então. Os autores contemporâneos debatem o período do capitalismo após os anos 1970, entre eles David Harvey e Virgínia Fontes. Ch...

  1. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital......We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  2. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk Based Inspection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Hillier, Elizabeth; Andersen, Erlend S.

    2016-01-01

    Operating offshore oil and gas production facilities is often associated with high risk. In order to manage the risk, operators commonly use aids to support decision making in the establishment of a maintenance and inspection strategy. Risk Based Inspection (RBI) analysis is widely used in the of......Operating offshore oil and gas production facilities is often associated with high risk. In order to manage the risk, operators commonly use aids to support decision making in the establishment of a maintenance and inspection strategy. Risk Based Inspection (RBI) analysis is widely used...... in the offshore industry as a means to justify the inspection strategy adopted. The RBI analysis is a decision-making technique that enables asset managers to identify the risk related to failure of their most critical systems and components, with an effect on safety, environmental and business related issues....... Risk is a measure of possible loss or injury, and is expressed as the combination of the incident probability and its consequences. A component may have several associated risk levels depending on the different consequences of failure and the different probabilities of those failures occurring...

  3. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Beest Dennis E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strategy that is based on the idea that farms that have the highest expected number of secondary infections should be culled first. We show that, in comparison with conventional approaches (ring culling, our new method of risk based culling can reduce the total number of farms that need to be culled, the number of culled infected farms (and thus the expected number of human infections in case of a zoonosis, and the duration of the epidemic. Our novel risk based culling strategy requires three pieces of information, viz. the location of all farms in the area at risk, the moments when infected farms are detected, and an estimate of the distance-dependent probability of transmission.

  4. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities.

  5. Capitales, capitalización, capitalismo. Explorando las múltiples caras del capital/Capitals, capitalization, capitalism. Exploring the numerous faces of capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Ignacio Castien Maestro

    2013-01-01

    According to the marxian conception, capital represents a social mechanism that organizes and structures social relations characterised by domination and exploitation and it is defined as the social...

  6. The Valuation of Organizational Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiala Roman, Borůvková Jana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ aim was to create a model suitable for measuring organization capital. This model was produced by means of the Forward and Backward Stepwise methods, on the basis of company information. Low p-levels (approaching 0 show the statistical significance of all regression coefficients, including the intercept. Organizational capital of 2,796 companies in the Czech Republic was quantified. A statistically significant correlation between organizational capital and return on equity (ROE, as well as between organizational capital and return on assets (ROA, has been established. This article is a part of the results of the project No. 402/09/2057 ‘‘Measurement and Management of Intangible Assets Impact on Firm Performance’’ financed by Czech Science Foundation.

  7. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...... – and hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies...

  8. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... evidence for the first time for the population of workers in an entire economy (as opposed to case study evidence) on the effects of the nature and scope of human capital on career success (measured by appointments to top management). First, we confirm the beneficial effect of acquiring general human...... capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through...

  9. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The economic case for the recent proposal on a European ‘Capital Markets Union’ is obvious. However, the name is more symbolic than real, and the substance falls short of proposing a fully unified capital market across the EU. This short paper identifies several shortcomings of the project. In pa...... to repair the relationship with the UK and to win back support from the City of London for the European Single Market. As such, the project as a whole is certainly laudable, and it might turn out to be the right step at the right time.tion.......The economic case for the recent proposal on a European ‘Capital Markets Union’ is obvious. However, the name is more symbolic than real, and the substance falls short of proposing a fully unified capital market across the EU. This short paper identifies several shortcomings of the project...

  10. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  11. Bridges in social capital: a review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...

  12. Bridges in social capital: A review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...

  13. 47 CFR 32.4540 - Other capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other capital. 32.4540 Section 32.4540... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4540 Other capital. This... capital stock, capital recorded upon the reorganization or recapitalization of the company and...

  14. Mengukur Kontribusi Human Capital terhadap Tujuan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brata Wibawa Djojo

    2010-10-01

    Human Capital Cost Factor, (iv Human Capital Value Added, and (v Human Capital Return on Investment. Results of research can provide guidelines for the management, especially for management of JLI in view of Human Capital contribution to corporate objectives, namely in terms of staffing and agency.

  15. 12 CFR 208.4 - Capital adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital adequacy. 208.4 Section 208.4 Banks and... Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this...) Standards for evaluating capital adequacy. Standards and guidelines by which the Board evaluates the...

  16. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPITAL IN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill G. Skripkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the description of organizational capital in enterprise architecture. This approach is focused on internal consistency of organizational mechanisms and their fit to the requirements of technologies in use and key employees. The description rests on Henry Mintzberg organizational design theory. The value of this description is demonstrated for the case of influence of Ministry of Education and Science policy on the organizational capital of the Russian university.

  18. Organizational Capital of the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the main theoretical questions of the organizational capital of the enterprise are considered. The concept of «organizational capital of the enterprise» as a system consisting of three subsystems (organization of production, labour organization and management is introduced. It is shown that the organizational capital forms the labour relations system at the enterprise consisting of the cooperation, technological, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of workers’ responsibility. The model of cyclic evolution of crisis at the enterprise caused by shortcomings of the organizational capital is revealed. It is shown that the organizational capital is a basis for the realization of the human capital, which creates value added. A considerable attention is paid to the experience of the creation and functioning of the organizational capital at the enterprises of the Japanese corporation «Toyota». The Russian economic literature on crisis management quite often considers only the financial aspects of diagnostics, proposing the optimization of cash flows, elimination of excess stocks, transition to the medium-term budgeting and others. However, the deep reasons of crisis need to be found not only in financial streams, but also in the system of the work relationships. The shortcomings in the development of technological, cooperation, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of responsibility directly reflects the shortcomings in the development of the elements of the organizational capital as they «are adjusted» by these elements. In turn, organizational problems affect the product quality leading to the customer attrition and decrease in the enterprise’s financial performance. The lack of financial resources cause the need to save costs (first of all, on personnel, that was brightly shown by the economic crisis of 2009 that even more weakens the enterprise and system of labour relations. Finally, the

  19. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  20. Do European capital flows comove?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Contessi; Pierangelo DePace

    2008-01-01

    We study the cross-sectional correlations of net, total, and disaggregated capital flows for the major source and recipient European Union countries. We seek evidence of changes in these correlations since the introduction of the euro to understand whether the European Union can be considered a unique entity with regard to its international capital flows. We first use Ng's (2006) "uniform spacing" methodology to rank cross-sectional correlations (i.e., which flows comove more) and to shed lig...

  1. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPITAL IN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Kirill G. Skripkin

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a new approach to the description of organizational capital in enterprise architecture. This approach is focused on internal consistency of organizational mechanisms and their fit to the requirements of technologies in use and key employees. The description rests on Henry Mintzberg organizational design theory. The value of this description is demonstrated for the case of influence of Ministry of Education and Science policy on the organizational capital of the Russian uni...

  3. Levels of Social Capital in Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....

  4. Social capital and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.

  5. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  6. 76 FR 40407 - Sterling Capital Funds and Sterling Capital Management LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Sterling Capital Funds and Sterling Capital Management LLC; Notice of Application July 1, 2011.... Applicants: Sterling Capital Funds (the ``Trust'') and Sterling Capital Management LLC (``Sterling'' and... serves as a Sub-Adviser of Sterling Capital International Fund; and Federated Investment...

  7. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    on the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis. In order to make the problem computationally feasible, approximations are necessary. The approach typically used for RBI cannot directly be transferred to wind turbines as the conditions are different. For wind turbine components, the reliability is lower compared...... considering all available information. First, a theoretical damage model is formulated, the model is then updated using condition monitoring data, and the updated model is used as basis for risk-based decision making. Several approaches for solving the decision problems have been considered: various types...... to achieve big savings, but the results of course largely depend on the input. With real decision problems, it can be difficult to formulate the model if the design assumptions are not fulfilled in real life. The potential of the method is large, but further development is necessary, especially concerning...

  8. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    maintenance costs, and many studies have also been published for preventive maintenance. However, an important part is the modeling of the relationship between maintenance and reliability, which is typically not modeled in a consistent way. Therefore, the methods cannot be used directly for optimal......For offshore wind turbines, maintenance costs are substantial due to a large number of component failures. In addition to the repair costs, equipment costs and lost production costs are large due to limited accessibility to the turbines. In order to reduce the costs, preventive methods can be used......, but presently maintenance is not planned using advanced methods taking all available information into account in a consistent manner. Maintenance decisions can be made based on risk-based methods, where the total expected life cycle costs are minimized. Methods have been developed for assessing the corrective...

  9. Developing a regional risk based spill management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Freeman, J.; Lowen, H.A.; Ag, A. [Matrix Solutions Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Husky Oil Ltd. required a simple and effective method to cleanup brine spills from it operations in east-central Alberta. A risk based brine spill management program was developed in which soil and groundwater from 16 typical spill sites were characterized. The risk of future offsite impacts from spills was evaluated using a 2 tier method. Groundwater quality objectives were established for potential receptors. The migration of chlorine was then determined through groundwater modeling. The study showed that only spills larger than 30 cubic meters in volume posed a risk to receptors surrounding the spill site. The spills were divided into 3 management groups: (1) spills flowing directly into surface or groundwater where unique handling situations would be required, (2) large spills on coarse soils where further assessment and remediation action would be required after initial cleanup, and (3) other spills that pose little risk to receptors and where treatment would involve amendments and monitoring for land restoration capability.

  10. Risk-based Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Jannie Jessen

    2011-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines, costs to Operation and Maintenance (OM) are substantial, and can be expected to increase when wind farms are placed at deeper water depths and in more harsh environments. Traditional strategies for OM include corrective and preventive (scheduled and condition......-based) maintenance strategies. This paper describes a risk-based life-cycle approach for optimal planning of OM and design of offshore wind turbines. Damage accumulation models used to describe deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, wear and erosion are associated with significant uncertainty...... turbines. Some of the OM strategies only need basic information on failure rates and costs. Other methods need much more detailed information about damage accumulation, stochastic models for uncertain parameters and processes, reliability of inspections, indicators and monitoring systems, weather...

  11. Earthquake insurance pricing: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Hsiang

    2017-05-23

    Flat earthquake premiums are 'uniformly' set for a variety of buildings in many countries, neglecting the fact that the risk of damage to buildings by earthquakes is based on a wide range of factors. How these factors influence the insurance premiums is worth being studied further. Proposed herein is a risk-based approach to estimate the earthquake insurance rates of buildings. Examples of application of the approach to buildings located in Taipei city of Taiwan were examined. Then, the earthquake insurance rates for the buildings investigated were calculated and tabulated. To fulfil insurance rating, the buildings were classified into 15 model building types according to their construction materials and building height. Seismic design levels were also considered in insurance rating in response to the effect of seismic zone and construction years of buildings. This paper may be of interest to insurers, actuaries, and private and public sectors of insurance. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  12. Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gary S. Becker; Murphy, Kevin M.; Robert F. Tamura

    1990-01-01

    Our model of growth departs from both the Malthusian and neoclassical approaches by including investments in human capital. We assume, crucially, that rates of return on human capital investments rise, rather than, decline, as the stock of human capital increases, until the stock becomes large. This arises because the education sector uses human capital note intensively than either the capital producing sector of the goods producing sector. This produces multiple steady scares: an undeveloped...

  13. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    OpenAIRE

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been cle...

  14. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    OpenAIRE

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been cle...

  15. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... Value Correlation Factor 4. Credit Valuation Adjustments a. Simple Credit Valuation Adjustment Approach... argued that the proposals would have significant negative consequences for the financial services...) portfolio or holding additional regulatory capital solely to mitigate the volatility resulting from...

  16. The Pro-Cyclical Impact of Basel III Regulatory Capital on Bank Capital Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...

  17. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Transnational Investments in Informational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....

  19. The measurement of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  1. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    or preferences can be demonstrated, and how the move can be made from observing structured oppositions in cultural consumptions to claims about the existence of cultural capital? We note that current research frequently lack a clear argument about how the cultural forms possessed by the culturally privileged...... Distinction about the significance and content of emerging forms of cultural capital in different Western societies. Among the claims to be discussed are the following: - the claim about a decline in the adherence to traditional highbrow or classic high culture - the claim about increased omnivorousness and...... - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference...

  2. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  3. Transnational Investments in Informational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    ) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm......This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....

  4. The measurement of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.

  5. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.

  6. Financing Human Capital: Families & Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neantro Saavedra-Rivano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD describes human capital as “knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic wellbeing.”* It follows from this interpretation that investment in human capital includes the sum of all costs that allow a new being to reach economic autonomy. In this paper we analyze the family and social dimensions of human capital and discuss how decisions on human capital formation are taken and how its associated costs are shared. The discussion leads us to identify an important paradox underlying human capital formation, namely the fact that while families are its main contributors the benefits of such investment go primarily to society as a whole. This paradox and its consequences are central to two very important current issues. The first issue, one that is common to many developed countries, is low female fertility which is the source, in particular, of population aging. The second issue, affecting chiefly developing countries, is the inequality of opportunities, a problem lying at the root of underdevelopment. Two options are discussed to respond to this dilemma, one based on redistributive programs and another on market solutions. The paper discusses the limits inherent to redistributive programs and goes on to present at length the alternative market solution. In a nutshell this consists of securitizing the human capital of individuals so as to finance the expenses leading to their upbringing, from birth to adulthood. In addition to describing this scheme the paper analyzes its advantages as well as the difficulties associated with its implementation. It concludes by exploring possible interpretations of the scheme and feasible routes for its adoption.

  7. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  8. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  9. Guidelines for risk-based prioritization of DOE activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This standard describes issues that should be considered when comparing, selecting, or implementing risk-based prioritization (RBP) systems. It also discusses characteristics that should be used in evaluating the quality of an RBP system and its associated results. The purpose of this standard is to provide guidance for selecting or developing an RBP system so that when implemented, it will: (a) improve the quality of the RBP systems employed by DOE and its contractors; (b) improve the consistency and comparability of RBP system results; (c) satisfy DOE requests to perform RBP; (d) help ensure that limited resources are used efficiently and effectively; (e) help ensure that characteristics for evaluating RBP systems are met and properly balanced; (f) promote greater understanding, use, and acceptance of RBP systems; (g) promote greater understanding between DOE and its stakeholders and regulators; (h) improve the quality of resource allocation, planning, and scheduling decisions. This standard is applicable to any and all uses of RBP by DOE elements, including cases in which RBP is requested by DOE or is used to help allocate resources among alternatives that compete for resources. Prioritizing alternatives that compete for limited resources encompasses many policy issues that are inherent to an RBP effort. It is the position of this standard that policy issues should be determined by the decision maker(s) requesting the prioritization. For additional information on policy issues, refer to section 10 on Application Guidance for Policy Issues.

  10. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  11. LABOR AND CAPITAL: OPPOSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sotelo Valencia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the twentieth century, and so far this century, there have been major changes such as the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the destruction of the Twin Towers or the current economic crisis sweeping the world from 2008-2009 – to be evaluated in the sense that if they have altered the essence of the capitalist system or only its form, which would rather reaffirmed their basic laws, including the world of work. We favor the latter assessment, since today the social metabolism capital is entirely universal and becomes effective, more than ever, the contradiction between her antogonica eo trabalho capital.

  12. El capital intelectual en Confamdi

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda Lórez, Paulo César

    2012-01-01

    El “capital intelectual” es uno de los conceptos más difíciles de medir en economía. Por ello, existe un escaso consenso en la doctrina alrededor de cómo han de tratarse conceptualmente los activos intangibles y qué es lo que constituye una medición satisfactoria de los mismos. La abundante literatura acerca del capital intelectual en los últimos años, propone diversos modelos y estudios efectuados sobre esta medición, pero la falta de consenso para abordar el tema y la carencia en l...

  13. CAPITAL SOCIAL, DEMOCRACIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Dal Ri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão critica da literatura sobre a relação entre Capital Social, Democracia e o Desenvolvimento. É relevante refletirmos sobre estes três temas, pois não se consegue ver um distanciamento entre ambos. Todavia, como meio para promover o capital social, o desenvolvimento e a democracia, é necessária que haja uma melhoria do bem-estar social, devendo ser associada com liberdades econômicas e abertura de mercado de modo a viabilizar o crescimento econômico e a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.

  14. Capital humano y capacidad humana Human capital and human capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya Kumar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.

  15. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  16. REDD+: Quick Assessment of Deforestation Risk Based on Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Di Lallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the future dynamics of deforestation is essential to creating the basis for the effective implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation initiatives. Such evaluation is often a challenging task, especially for countries that have to cope with a critical lack of data and capacities, higher uncertainties, and competing interests. We present a new modeling approach that makes use of available and easily accessible data sources to predict the spatial location of future deforestation. This approach is based on the Random Forest algorithm, which is a machine learning technique that enables evidence-based, data-driven decisions and is therefore often used in decision-making processes. Our objective is to provide a straightforward modeling approach that, without requiring cost-intensive assessments, can be applied in the early stages of REDD+, for a stepwise implementation approach of REDD+ projects in regions with limited availability of data, capital, technical infrastructure, or human capacities. The presented model focuses on building business-as-usual scenarios to identify and rank potentially suitable areas for REDD+ interventions. For validation purposes we applied the model to data from Nicaragua.

  17. Employee Capital:Resource or Reoccurring Nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2005-01-01

    Employee capital need not be a reoccurring nightmare for bar owners if they create a system for managing their employee capital which deals with recruitment, placement, training and development for all hospitality staff members.

  18. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  19. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT – A NEW MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita-Maria GOGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain competitive advantage organizations need more efficient use of intellectual capital. Therefore, management of intellectual capital has become one of the functions of growth in companies today. Focus on managing intelectul capital is due to the role intelectula competencies and knowledge in contemporary business which is significant. The most common terms for intellectual capital management functions at the organizational level are competence management and competence development. Managers conduct activities to manage intellectual capital in the need for knowledge on personnel competencies and their development in operative functions. The literature presents a series of intellectual capital management models, most belonging to the researchers in the Nordic countries. The aim of this paper is to developea new model of managing intellectual capital that improve the existing models. Thus, by using the proposed model is expected that the relationship between intellectual capital management and strategy of a company should intensify on medium term.

  20. 12 CFR 615.5220 - Capitalization bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retirable at the sole discretion of the board, provided minimum permanent capital adequacy standards... association's funding bank in conjunction with any agreement for a transfer of capital between the...

  1. National Capital Planning Commission Library contents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — The National Capital Planning Commission library catalog is a compilation of titles, authors, years of publication and topics of books, reports and NCPC publications.

  2. Definition and Content Interpretation of Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoglyadova N. I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to researching the nature of human capital, its internal structure, comparative characteristics of human capital and other economic categories; factors of its forming under present conditions of transformations in the economy of Ukraine.

  3. Impression management as symbolic capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...

  4. Building Social Capital for Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.

  5. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  6. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  7. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... appropriate to its business model and portfolios; \\20\\ \\20\\ Whereas the proposed rule required a large bank... consideration of additional variables. Evaluating the profit and loss sensitivity of a firm's trading portfolio... feedback provided in the CCAR and Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. The Federal Reserve is...

  8. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...

  9. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  10. School Cheating and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  11. Real Assets and Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campello, M.; Giambona, E.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the relation between asset structure and capital structure by exploiting variation in the salability of corporate assets. To establish this link, we distinguish across different assets in firms’ balance sheets (machinery, land, and buildings) and use an instrumental approach that

  12. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  13. THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratianu Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some of our research results concerning the intellectual capital of universities. This is an important topic of the intellectual research area since universities are knowledge intensive organizations. They contain b

  14. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  15. School Cheating and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  16. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  17. Real Assets and Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campello, M.; Giambona, E.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the relation between asset structure and capital structure by exploiting variation in the salability of corporate assets. To establish this link, we distinguish across different assets in firms’ balance sheets (machinery, land, and buildings) and use an instrumental approach that inc

  18. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TITTENBRUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  19. Productivity spillovers of organization capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wen; Inklaar, Robert

    Investments in organization capital increase productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms-similar to investments in research and development. Recent evidence at the industry and economy level suggests such spillovers could be important. In this paper, we fail

  20. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  1. Capital productivity and the nature of competition

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel

    1997-01-01

    This paper measures capital productivity in West Germany, Japan and the United States and links capital productivity to financial performance. We show that West Germany and Japan have significantly lower levels of capital productivity than the United States, mainly due to lower capital utilization but also because less productive capacity was created per unit of physical assets. On a higher level of causality, we show that this mainly comes from less pressure from product market competition a...

  2. CRISIS FOCUS:Alert Over Capital Inflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Emerging Asia's capital markets have posted rapid gains as the pace of economic recovery in the region has increased,drawing massive investment from overseas.Governments in emerging Asia should remain vigilant and be ready to act if volatile capital inflows threaten to destabilize the region's financial markets,said the Asia Capital Markets Monitor,Asian Development Bank's annual assessment of the performance and outlook for the region's capital markets released on May18.Edited excerpts follow:

  3. The effect of human capital, social capital, and perceptual values on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...

  4. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  5. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... incorporating aspects of the BCBS's Basel II standardized framework in the ``International Convergence of... references to credit ratings. \\5\\ See BCBS, ``International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital...'' of common equity tier 1 capital in excess of the new minimum capital requirements. \\11\\...

  6. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  7. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,

  8. The Political Economy of Capital Reallocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bersem; E. Perotti; E.L. von Thadden

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a positive theory of capital market frictions. We focus on a political conflict that arises between citizens with different vintages of human capital. Once human capital is sunk in a firm- or sector specific technology, stakeholders will resist the emergence of newer sectors

  9. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital planning. 615.5200 Section 615.5200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The Board...

  10. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is...

  11. The Maastricht gigantomachy capital and its models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.S.M. Panhuysen

    2009-01-01

    In this article a figured pillar capital with gigantomachy scenes will be discussed. This unique capital represents an iconographic curiosity with its gigantomachy representations on two opposite sides of the square block. Apollo and Moira are represented. The capital must date from the second quart

  12. Human Capital Development: A Family Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1995-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital as an economic construct. Suggests that human capital contributes to economic development, as do physical capital or natural resources, in that its development reinforces individuals' future economic output. Suggests that this perspective may prove useful for human service professionals because funding…

  13. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  14. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  15. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  16. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  17. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive capitalism…

  18. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  19. 47 CFR 69.310 - Capital leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a... received for capital stock issued and outstanding. (b) Subsidiary records shall be maintained so as to...

  1. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  2. Social capital in involuntary displacement and resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, A.; Vaart, van der W.

    2013-01-01

    Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital among poor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital concept and its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used in evaluating the adaptation and integration of invo

  3. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  4. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  5. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks, withou

  6. Is Social Capital an Effective Smoke Condenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must b...

  7. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Capital Investment Projects; Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts and Small Starts Policy... Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... implementation of the major capital investment program, primarily by giving the project justification criteria...

  8. Heterogeneity of Human Capital and the Return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2015-01-01

    Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital...

  9. Information Capital and Organization's Strategy Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Djukic; Jovica Stankovic

    2005-01-01

    In digital economy very important role has information capital which produce numerous benefits and costs for organizations. But, organization capital creates grate value in an organization only if it is aligned with organization strategy. So, main management problem is being able to make alignment of information capital and organization strategy

  10. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Peigang; Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one's own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships.

  11. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Get, set, go From diabetes capital of the world to diabetes care capital of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM as well as interventions for its management evoke considerable controversy. There are different types of screening methods: universal or risk-based, one step or two step. Different thresholds for diagnosis of GDM have been in vogue. Previous definition and diagnostic criteria had no place for diagnosis of overt diabetes in pregnancy. Following Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO study and International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG recommendations, new screening and diagnostic criteria around the world seem to be gaining consensus. The present recommendation given by IADPSG for screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has two discrete phases. The first is detection of women with overt diabetes not previously diagnosed or treated outside of pregnancy. Universal early testing in populations is recommended at the first prenatal visit. The second phase is a 75-g OGTT at 24-28 week gestation in all women not previously found to have overt diabetes or GDM. ACHOIS and MFMU Network trails have proven benefit in treating hyperglycemias less than what is diagnostic for diabetes. DIPSI has shown the alternative way for resource-challenged communities. Efforts from all stake holders with interest in GDM are required to make the diabetes capital of the world into the diabetes care capital of the world.

  13. A Model of Optimal Allocations of Physical Capital and Human Capital in Three Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shaobo; XUE Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops an endogenous economic growth model about allcation of physical and human capital in three sectors. Optimal allocation of physical capital and human capital in three sectors is derived, the fraction of physical and human capital in each sector is positively related. The balanced values and the growth rates at steady state are given under certain conditions.Finally relations between the fractions of human capital and parameters are analyzed elaborately.

  14. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC...

  15. Sobre el capital erótico como capital cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Pestaña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social theory is trying, increasingly, to reach an agreement on the body place. Particularlly, the Catherine Hakim’s thesis about erotic capital has brought to the foreground the value of the body within contemporary social hierarchies. The Hakim’s questions are connected with another set of conceptualizations that try to understand the value of the physical interaction in our societies. The first aim of this article is to discuss the model proposed by Hakim on the light of the explanatory capacity of Pierre Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory. As a second goal we wish, enlightened by a set of empirical data, to confirm if it is possible to note down links between body care, social class, age class and gender.La teoría social sigue acordando, de manera creciente, un espacio al cuerpo. Señaladamente, las tesis sobre el capital erótico de Catherine Hakim han puesto en primer plano el valor del cuerpo dentro de las jerarquías sociales contemporáneas. Las interrogaciones de Hakim resultan solidarias con otro conjunto de conceptualizaciones que intentan comprender el valor de la interacción corporal en nuestras sociedades. Discutir el modelo propuesto por Hakim a la luz de la capacidad explicativa de la teoría del capital cultural de Pierre Bourdieu es el primer objetivo de este artículo. El segundo objetivo pretende, utilizando un conjunto de datos empíricos, confirmar si pueden apuntarse vínculos entre los cuidados corporales, la clase social, la clase de edad y el género.

  16. Social capital: its constructs and survey development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P; Nathaniel, Keith C

    2013-06-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the community, and the development of social capital. They then discuss the trade-offs of defining the often amorphous concepts included in social capital as they select measurement scales. The constructs used in the survey are agency, belonging, engagement, and trust for bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital.

  17. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more...

  18. Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias which has resulted...... cultural mobility theory (cultural capital more important in low-SES environments) for indicators capturing “concerted cultivation.”...... previously reported; and (3) the effect of cultural capital varies in high- and low-SES environments. Results mostly support cultural reproduction theory (cultural capital more important in high-SES environments) for cultural capital indicators capturing familiarity with legitimate culture and mostly support...

  19. International working capital practices of Ghanaian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  20. 76 FR 13902 - Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). The final rules generally require a creditor to provide a risk... Commission propose to amend their respective risk-based pricing rules to require disclosure of credit scores and information relating to credit scores in risk-based pricing notices if a credit score of the...

  1. 75 FR 2723 - Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... System 12 CFR Part 222 Federal Trade Commission 16 CFR Parts 640 and 698 Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based... Parts 640 and 698 RIN 3084-AA94 Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations AGENCIES: Board of... credit offered or extended to a particular consumer to reflect the risk of nonpayment by that...

  2. Is Social Capital an Effective Smoke Condenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must...... be added to human and physical capital, or it might enter as a reduction in either transaction or monitoring costs. A direct and an indirect way to measure social capital are discussed. The crucial question is if social capital can be changed. That is, if self enforcement can replace third party...... enforcement, and it is discussed how much harm totalitarian regimes do to social capital, when they expand their area of central control....

  3. PENGEMBANGAN HUMAN CAPITAL DALAM KONTEKS MODAL SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Widodo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural Banks/BPR have a vitality and sustainability of business if they are able to create a unique advantagethat is superior in terms of customer information and business environment surrounding besides functioningas an intermediary institution. But in Semarang credit quality is still in the high risk level that is above themaximum limit of 5%. The condition is caused by the integration of human capital and social capital that isnot optimal. Therefore, this article aims to examine the model of human capital development so that it canimprove the performance of organization within the context of social capital. Retrieval method uses purposivesampling with 120 total samples. Later analysis technique uses Structural Equation Modelling (SEM throughthe group management data which is processed based on high and low social capital. The study shows that thecontext of high social capital moderates the structure of the equation that affects human capital on organizationalperformance

  4. Ethics, Intellectual Capital & Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Saíz Álvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Resultado del proceso de globalización económica actual, unido al inicio de la denominada «Primera Crisis Global (PCG, cada vez es mayor la importancia del capital intelectual en las organizaciones, tanto por las ventajas competitivas que genera para la organización, como por permitir que la empresa pueda lograr posiciones de liderazgo sostenible en el tiempo. Dicho capital intelectual se inserta dentro de las organizaciones siguiendo una doble perspectiva basada en la ética y en la gestión del conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son las bases que, desde una gestión del conocimiento basado en la ética aplicada a la empresa, permiten construir organizaciones líderes en el mercado global.

  5. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the U...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market.......The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...

  6. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  7. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  8. INTERDEPENDENCE OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Baresa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available World financial centers have an impact on the economies around the world. This particularly applies for the U.S. equity market. Transactions which are performed on the U.S. market define market trends in most of the world's financial markets, the only question that arises “is to what extent”. Purpose of this research is to define and quantify the relationship of the U.S. capital markets, and market equity securities selected on world stock markets. This research will explain the concept of capital markets, its divisions and legislation. The research part is based on quantifying relationship of the U.S. equity market index on the indices of the London Stock Exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the Zagreb Stock Exchange.

  9. Human Capital and Organizational Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Julieta Josan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.

  10. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through narrat...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900......–1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...

  11. Share capitalism and worker wellbeing().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P

    2016-10-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.

  12. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  13. Risk-based decision-making for environmental protection : good, bad or indifferent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Public Health

    1998-12-31

    The concept of risk as a factor to be considered in environmental decision-making was discussed. Risk ranking was described as being inherently subjective in nature so that public involvement in risk decision-making is important in maintaining some credibility for the ultimate decisions. This paper addressed the following issues: (1) what is risk-based decision-making in environmental issues? (2) what evidence and information is needed for risk-based decision-making? (3) when is risk-based decision-making the most sensible solution? (4) how can risk-based decision-making improve environmental protection? (5) what dangers and liabilities are involved in a risk-based approach, and (6) what level of risk is acceptable and who should decide? 15 refs.

  14. Human Capital, Fertility and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded

    2006-01-01

    The demographic transition that swept the world in the past 140 years has been identified as one of the prime forces in the transition from stagnation to growth. The unprecedented increase in population growth during the early stages of industrialization was ultimately reversed. The rise in the demand for human capital in the second phase of industrialization brought about a significant reduction in fertility rates and population growth in various regions of the world, enabling economies to c...

  15. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  16. Firearm prevalence and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I; Putnam, R D

    2001-10-01

    Previous studies have shown a correlation between measures of social capital and morbidity, mortality, and violent crime. This article examines the association across U.S. states between social capital (as measured by mutual trust and civic engagement) and firearm availability. The analysis uses OLS to determine degrees of association across U.S. states. Measures of mutual trust come from responses to questions on the U.S. General Social Survey that "you can't be too careful in dealing with people," and most people "would try to take advantage of you." Measures of formal civic engagement come from responses to Lifestyle Survey questions concerning times volunteered, club meetings attended, community projects worked on, and church services attended. Informal civic engagement measures come from responses to number of times bowled, played cards, entertained at home, and gave or attended dinner parties, and number of greeting cards sent. The Lifestyle Survey also asked whether respondent believed whether "most people are honest." The percentage of suicides from firearms, and the average percentage of suicides and homicides from firearms, are used as proxies for state firearm ownership rates. Control variables are the degree of urbanization, the rates of poverty, and the percentage of nonwhites in the state. Across the U.S. states, higher levels of firearm ownership are associated with significantly lower levels of mutual trust and civic engagement. While the analysis cannot show causation, states with heavily armed civilians are also states with low levels of social capital.

  17. The Opportunity Cost of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Chit PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.

  18. Capital social en empresas familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está dirigido a caracterizar la dinámica de la gestión del capital social en empresas familiares ubicadas en Santa Ana de Coro, municipio Miranda del estado Falcón. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo, mediante el uso de la técnica de la encuesta, siendo la modalidad utilizada el cuestionario, con el interés de obtener datos e información directamente de las 08 empresas familiares que funcionan en este municipio. De esta manera se conoció que en las empresas familiares del municipio Miranda, el capital social representa significativamente una de las características conducentes a la sociabilidad y confianza entre los miembros de las familias conductoras de las organizaciones y los empleados no miembros de familia; y es precisamente esta dinámica la razón por la cual el capital social se convierte en un trascendental recurso para las empresas, permitiendo el acceso a otros recursos e impulsando la participación de todos los que hacen vida en la organización, y por ende el crecimiento y desarrollo económico se hace evidente, estimulando en los empleados el sentido de pertenencia, confianza, compromiso y reciprocidad, generando beneficios para la red de demandantes y consumidores.

  19. International regulations in capital standards in insurance companies and banking system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and expansion of the recent financial crisis has renewed the question of regulation and supervision of the financial system. Therefore, the question of managing financial risks is becoming increasingly popular and gaining more and more importance. Regulators have in recent years introduced capital standards based on specific sensitivity to risk. Based on defined issues, the starting point is the general hypothesis that the capital adequacy is a key base for measuring the resistance of the banking and insurance sector to market shocks. This paper will present the analytical, synthetic and general scientific methods. The comparative method is used in this paper to highlight the similarities and differences between Solvency II and Basel III and their operational efficiency.

  20. Social Capital Impact On Service Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Avery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study explores the impact of social capital on service firm supply chains.Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical underpinnings of social capital is reviewed from various disciplines, including sociology, management, and operations management.  This is used to develop a conceptual model of the use of social capital in a service supply chain setting.Findings - Social capital is proposed to improve the operational performance of service firms as a source of both physical and information resources.    The impact of social capital is projected to vary by firm size and service type.  Small firms have limited resources and thus a need for resources obtained through social capital.  Service firms that have high customization and customer contact are subject to process variations which can be mitigated by social capital.  A conceptual model is presented to test several propositions related to social capital.Originality/value – The impact of social capital has not been widely studied in an operational setting.  This is the first known study to specifically analyze the impact of social capital in service supply chains.

  1. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.

  2. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  3. A study on development of methodology and guidelines of risk based regulation for optimization of regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong; Kang, Kee Sik; Paek, Won Phil; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Hyeon Seop [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-15

    This project consists of the three phase as follow : define the RBR(Risk Based Regulation) concept and analysis of state of art to RBR to NRC, EPRI etc., develop the application area and guideline of RBR to the selected area, develop the regulatory guideline with considering the plant specific conditions in detail. For the first year of this study elementary work for risk based regulation concept was analysed and performed as follows : state of the art of RBR research status, methodology establishment for usage of PSA(Probabilistic Safety Assessment), establishment of the methodology of risk based regulation, and application area for RBR.

  4. Cultural Capital and Teaching Ability Rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper studies the effect of cultural capital on teachers’ ratings of children’s oral and math ability. Cultural reproduction theory hypothesises that, holding everything else constant, children who possess cultural capital are more likely to be perceived by teachers as gifted than children who...... do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...

  5. Cultural Capital and Teaching Ability Rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    , health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects......This paper studies the effect of cultural capital on teachers’ ratings of children’s oral and math ability. Cultural reproduction theory hypothesises that, holding everything else constant, children who possess cultural capital are more likely to be perceived by teachers as gifted than children who...... do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance...

  6. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  7. Mengukur Kontribusi Human Capital terhadap Tujuan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brata Wibawa Djojo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is a valuable asset of any company, especially for competent human resources and contributes both to the company. The performance evaluation given to employees annually can be defined and standardized by the company. However, the question is how big the contribution of human resources to sales and profit contribution is. Case studies take data from one branch of a general insurance company in Indonesia, Jakarta branch. Measurement is done by taking samples of data from 2007, 2008, and 2009. The study measures the risk of several components: (i Human Capital Revenue Factor, (ii Human Economic Value Added, (iii Human Capital Cost Factor, (iv Human Capital Value Added, and (v Human Capital Return on Investment. Results of research can provide guidelines for the management, especially for management of JLI in view of Human Capital contribution to corporate objectives, namely in terms of staffing and agency. 

  8. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  9. Global capital markets: An updated profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.

  10. An Economic Viewpoint on Capitalism Bashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE CAPITAL MARKET IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Buljat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 in the USA turned into a global economic crisis in a short time. As such, it had a big impact on the financial stability of Croatia, primarily on capital market. Capital market includes securities trading, primarily stocks and bonds, whose market value is influenced by the market capitalization of capital market and vice versa. Macro economically, market capitalization had an influence on the fall in the value of the entire capital market, and micro economically, it had an influence on the fall of the prices of stocks, bonds and other financial instruments of companies. The volume of trade decreased, but there was an increase in the number of transactions. In other words, people traded more and in smaller quantities. Therefore, the risk increased, and investors became more cautious.

  12. Capital intelectual: verdades e mitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thereza Pompa Antunes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Muito se tem comentado que os relatórios fornecidos pela Contabilidade Financeira não retratam certas realidades das empresas atualmente, tendo em vista o fato de o valor contábil das ações estar muitas vezes abaixo do seu valor de mercado. Esse contraste entre os dois valores vem sendo identificado como Capital Intelectual e apresentado como um novo conceito de administração de empresas que conduz à necessidade de aplicação de novas estratégias, de nova filosofia de gestão e novas formas de avaliação do valor da empresa. Este trabalho evidencia a verdadeira relação existente entre a Contabilidade e o Capital Intelectual. Desmistifica-se a novidade do conceito, pois comprova-se que o capital Intelectual é parte integrante do Goodwill, conceito secularmente conhecido e estudado pela Contabilidade. Os elementos intangíveis sempre foram abordados pela Contabilidade e, da mesma forma, como nunca se desprezou a sua importância, nunca se subestimou a sua complexidade. Portanto, a Contabilidade não é falha na divulgação das informações por ela registradas. Deve-se entender a finalidade de cada uma das Demonstrações Contábeis, bem como os Princípios subjacentes a elas. A falta de conhecimento, por vezes, conduz a conclusões precipitadas e errôneas. Por outro lado, qualquer que seja o rótulo atribuído aos elementos intangíveis, que sempre fizeram parte das organizações, entende-se e aceita-se que hoje, cada vez mais, o conhecimento e o gerenciamento desses elementos são relevantes para a gestão das empresas, pois o momento atual é caracterizado pela ampla aplicação do recurso do conhecimento pelo homem, que se materializa em novas tecnologias, sistemas e serviços (entendidos como ativos intangíveis que agregam valor às organizações.It has been said many times that the statements provided by Financial Accounting do not give a picture of certain realities of companies nowadays, considering the fact that, often

  13. Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations : Capital Accumulation by Social Relationship and Rethinking the Definition of Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    北見, 幸一

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...

  14. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.

  15. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Martyanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL MARKET IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius Andrieş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available All participants in capital markets are asking how to finance investments or to invest money available. The answer to these questions depends on the situation you have: deficit or surplus capital. This article addresses issues concerning the place and role of capital market within the financial markets and in financing investments, trying to highlight the growing importance of this subsystem, shown both to economic agents and to all categories of investors.

  17. Social capital formation : a poverty reducing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2002-01-01

    From the symposium: Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which role for the Civil Society Organizations and the State? - on 28 June 2000 in Geneva The title of the symposium is "Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which Role for Civil Society Organizations and the State?". The emphasis here is on poverty and whether poverty reduction can be obtained through a strategy of increased social capital. The emphasis is not on social development in general or the b...

  18. EMERGING CAPITAL MARKETS: OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study examines the concept of emerging capital markets in Europe from the border between certain opportunities and limits. The financial architecture of emerging capital markets has certain characteristics such as a high degree of instability and a sharp level of illiquidity which exposed the vulnerability of this particular type of market. Emerging capital market represents a main characteristic of developing countries and they are less efficient than the developed market given their deep functional, structural and institutional dysfunctions.

  19. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  20. Simulated annealing algorithm for optimal capital growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Zhu, Bo; Tang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the problem of dynamic optimal capital growth of a portfolio. A general framework that one strives to maximize the expected logarithm utility of long term growth rate was developed. Exact optimization algorithms run into difficulties in this framework and this motivates the investigation of applying simulated annealing optimized algorithm to optimize the capital growth of a given portfolio. Empirical results with real financial data indicate that the approach is inspiring for capital growth portfolio.

  1. The Positive and Negative Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Rohman, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Social capital can be useful when cooperation for mutual benefit can be facilitated by social network and norms of reciprocity (Putnam, 2000:21). In this context, both individuals and organisations agree to mobilise joint resources to achieve common outcomes which are more efficient and productive. However, the concept of social capital is not always positive.This article will discuss positive and negative social capital.

  2. Capital financing in an uncertain future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, T G

    1980-10-01

    A critical test of the hospital's ability to survive will be its ability to raise capital in private debt markets as traditional funding sources (philanthropy and government) continue to shrink. This article assesses the impact of inflation and recession on hospital capital financing and investment, describes what a commercial banker looks for in evaluating a hospital's ability to borrow, and suggests a role for trustees in meeting the hospital's capital needs.

  3. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  4. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  5. Impression management as symbolic capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...... in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German...

  6. APPLICATION OF COST OF CAPITAL FOR CAPITAL STRUCTURING IN CROATIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvije Orsag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper show result of empirical analysis application of cost of capital for capital structuring in Croatian firms. Intensity of this applications is highly unrespectable because Croatian firms usually calculated cost of capital in their capital budgeting process. Analysis also show low inconsistency of Croatian firm’s capital structures with peaking order theory. The paper shows that Croatian firm’s employ debt in their capital structure close to the debt equity ratio 1:1, with the significant portion of trade credit and short term bank credits. This short term liabilities are greater than 60% of total used debt in analyzing firms. Finally, paper shows that with degree of using the cost of capital in capital structuring rise profitability of analyzing firms.

  7. Legal-Ease:Total Investment Capital & Registered Capital Allocations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the Chinese Government, on a regional basis, specifying “minimum amounts” for registered capital contributions in order to establish foreign-invested enterprises in China, and with a similar occurrence concerning total invested capital requirements,

  8. 'Blue' social capital and work performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    (Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...

  9. Cultural capital, teacher bias, and educational success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier; Møllegaard, Stine

    2017-01-01

    . Second, cultural capital leads teachers to form upwardly biased perceptions of children's academic ability, but only when their exposure to children's cultural capital is brief (as in oral and written exams) rather than long (as in grades awarded at the end of the school year). Third, we find......In this paper we use new data on Danish monozygotic (MZ) twins to analyze the effect of cultural capital on educational success. We report three main findings. First, cultural capital has a positive direct effect on the likelihood of completing the college-bound track in Danish secondary education...

  10. Education - an investment in human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neamţu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.

  11. A Welfare Analysis of Capital Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Panttser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a welfare analysis of several capital insurance programs in a rational expectation equilibrium setting. We first explicitly characterize the equilibrium of each capital insurance program. Then, we demonstrate that a capital insurance program based on aggregate loss is better than classical insurance, when big financial institutions have similar expected loss exposures. By contrast, classical insurance is more desirable when the bank’s individual risk is consistent with the expected loss in a precise way. Our analysis shows that a capital insurance program is a useful tool to hedge systemic risk from the regulatory perspective.

  12. Taxation and venture capital-backed entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in thefinancing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determinesthe incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitaliststo finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well...... assubsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backedentrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes onmature firms have important consequences for start-up firms as well.JEL Classification: D82, G24, H24 and H25Keywords: double moral hazard, entrepreneurship, taxes...

  13. The multitudinous creativity of the contemporary capitalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Bârliba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Creative Capitalism, Multitudinous Creativity, Radicalities and Alterities, Edited by Giuseppe Cocco and Barbara Szaniecki, Lexington Books, Lanham. Boulder. New York. London, 2015, 269p.

  14. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  15. Venture capitalism at the Veterans Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, G H

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines the implementation of a venture capitalism program in a 519-bed Veterans Administration tertiary care medical center. Venture capitalism at the VA West Side Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois is realized through a pool of capital within the budget, for the trial implementation of various ideas and programs that demonstrate a potential to reduce costs or increase revenues. Through this adaptation of venture capitalism, the principles of entrepreneurship can be applied. Employees submit a proposal to management that describes what they wish to accomplish. The proposal includes the time schedule required for implementation and how much capital will be needed to make the proposal operational. If the proposal is successful and becomes self-sufficient, the original venture capital is returned to the pool and used for other ventures. If the proposal does not meet expectations, support is withdrawn and the remaining capital is returned to the venture capital pool. In conclusion, several successful ventures are described to demonstrate the practicality of using the concepts of entrepreneurship and venture capitalism within the budget constraints of the federal government.

  16. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  17. Investment Problems of China Rural Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junxia; YU Jialin; CHEN Ying

    2011-01-01

    The rural human capital refers to the condensation of the physical body, knowledge, skills, and all the abilities that can improve the capacity of the rural labor productivity. The ability is a form of human capital stock and it plays an important role in China's development of rural economy and society, but at present the situation of investment in human capital in rural areas is not optimistic. A lot of problems need to be solved such as the inadequate total investment and the irrational structure, as to these issues, strategies and recommendations were proposed in order to strengthen the human capital investment.

  18. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  19. Relationship between Social Capital and Livelihood Enhancing Capitals among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Njuki, Jemimah M.; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...

  20. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  1. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New capital... hospital is required under State law to obtain preapproval of the capital project or acquisition by a...

  2. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  3. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  4. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital...

  5. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital Adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels....

  6. 12 CFR 615.5240 - Permanent capital requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital requirements. (a) The capitalization bylaws shall enable the institution to meet the capital adequacy standards established under subparts H and K of this part and the total capital requirements... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital requirements....

  7. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  8. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the liquidity, capital, earnings or continuing operations of the Bank, including those affecting... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion. 933.5 Section 933.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  9. The sensitivity of capital services measurement : Measure all assets and the cost of capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on U.S. capital services at the industry and aggregate

  10. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  11. Human capital diversity in the creation of social capital for team creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents

  12. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  13. Social Capital and Educational Aspiration of Students: Does Family Social Capital Affect More Compared to School Social Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…

  14. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  15. 78 FR 24691 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... the proposed rule, ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  16. 78 FR 11611 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  17. 78 FR 69604 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... 3646), entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  18. 78 FR 48173 - Guidance for Industry on Oversight of Clinical Investigations-A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Investigations--A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Oversight of Clinical Investigations--A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring.'' This guidance assists sponsors in developing risk-based monitoring strategies and plans for...

  19. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  20. The effects of organizational embeddedness on development of social capital and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2010-07-01

    This article examines the effects of organizational embeddedness on employees' activities to build social capital and human capital. To test a latent growth model, we collected data from 375 managers at multiple points over an 8-month period. We found that the more embedded employees perceived themselves to be at Time 1, the more likely they were to show declines in social capital development behaviors over time. In addition, declines in social capital development behavior were directly related to declines in human capital development behavior over time. These findings highlight the potential negative consequences embeddedness can have on employees' career development activity.

  1. SUMMARY OF THEORIES IN CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herczeg Adrienn

    2014-07-01

    In Hungary the capital structure of enterprises changed significantly since 1990, but it is true, that their decisions about the capital can not fit with neither theoretical appeal totally. There is no universal theory of the debt-equity choice, and no reason to expect one.

  2. The determinants of Dutch capital structure choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to empirically test the determinants of capital structure choice for Dutch firms. We include major factors identified by capital structure theories and construct proxies for these factors with consideration of specific institutional se

  3. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

  4. A REVIEW OF THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visinescu Sorin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors survey capital structure theories, from the start-up point, which is considered Modigliani and Miller’s capital structure irrelevance theorem, to recent theories, such as the pecking order and the market timing theory. For each t

  5. Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2011-01-01

    in too optimistic results in previous research. After controlling for family and individual fixed effects, the author reports that (1) six indicators of cultural capital have mostly positive direct effects on children’s reading and math test scores; (2) the effect of cultural capital is smaller than...

  6. Social Capital and Stratification of Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Behtoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.

  7. 75 FR 75376 - Capital Magnet Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... capacity of financial institutions to provide capital, credit and financial services in underserved markets... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund 12 CFR Part 1807 RIN 1559-AA00 Capital Magnet Fund AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Interim rule...

  8. Spatial Analysis Of Human Capital Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdos Artur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.

  9. A Human Capital Approach to Career Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…

  10. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital, which explains how social class influences transmission of educational inequality, this article questions the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities. Discusses a study of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan students, which found that there was no mediating effect…

  11. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  12. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  13. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  14. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  15. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  16. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  17. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  18. Capital Power:From Input to Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong; Alice

    2009-01-01

    @@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".

  19. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Capital Investment Projects; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 16 / Wednesday, January... Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... investments, such as improved water quality or reduced runoff, even though some of these project...

  20. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mendonça, Joana

    2015-01-01

    - and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...

  1. A Survey of Venture Capital Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on or

  2. provider venture capital funds: investing in innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick

    2016-05-01

    As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market.

  3. Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Ray; Kearns, Ade

    2001-01-01

    Outlines key dimensions of social cohesion, exploring whether societies are facing a new crisis in this area. Examines where contemporary residential neighborhoods fit into social cohesion debates, particularly regarding the interaction between social cohesion and social capital. Outlines key debates over social capital, showing how it can be…

  4. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  5. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  6. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  7. CAPITATION IN HEALTHCARE FINANCING IN GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Concerns include i) the low level of both education and awareness of the capitation system ... goods and services eligible for value added tax; ii) 2.5 percentage ... In 2011, the sales tax provided. 73% of NHIS ... Challenges facing the NHIS include fraud ..... teething problems of capitation, and PPPs became.

  8. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  9. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  10. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  11. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  12. School Social Capital and Secondary Education Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchart, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article intends to identify the effects of school social capital on the educational plans of students, particularly those staying in school and obtaining an intermediate certificate. It is hypothesised that social capital helps to explain individual educational plans and differences between schools regarding the amount of students with…

  13. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital t

  14. Capital Structure, Strategic Competition, and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a fi

  15. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  16. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  17. A Human Capital Approach to Career Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…

  18. 47 CFR 32.2681 - Capital leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2681 Capital leases. (a... lease payments, excluding that portion of the payments representing executory costs to be paid by the... this account at the inception of a capital lease shall be equal to the original cost, if known, or...

  19. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  20. Capital Structure, Strategic Competition, and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a

  1. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  2. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  3. Star Trek, Global Capitalism, and Immaterial Labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, Dan

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most expansive storyworlds in sf, Star Trek appears to offer an imaginary representation of a post-capitalist utopia. But in the context of global capitalism the franchise’s superficial post-capitalism translates all too easily into a neoliberal fantasy of post-industrial labour and hi

  4. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility Under Authoritarian Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon...

  6. Star Trek, Global Capitalism, and Immaterial Labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, Dan

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most expansive storyworlds in sf, Star Trek appears to offer an imaginary representation of a post-capitalist utopia. But in the context of global capitalism the franchise’s superficial post-capitalism translates all too easily into a neoliberal fantasy of post-industrial labour and

  7. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  8. 76 FR 67400 - Capital Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 633 RIN 2132-AA92 Capital Project Management AGENCY... Capital Project Management to December 2, 2011, to allow interested parties time to carefully review the...) proposing to transform the current FTA rule for project management oversight into a discrete set of...

  9. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...

  10. Getting the Goods on Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ellen; Ferrazzi, Gabriele; Schryer, Frans

    1998-01-01

    Overview of the origins, development, rapid diffusion, and current usage of the concept of social capital in the literature. Focuses on three approaches to operationalizing the concept: those of James Coleman, Pierre Bourdieu, and Robert Putnam. Discusses social capital as a resource, as goal-oriented, and as a contributor to social control and…

  11. The impact of intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital: A case of French firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Boujelbene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of intellectual capital disclosure (IC on cost of Equity capital. The empirical research is based on companies listed in the French SBF 120 stock market index. The findings confirm our hypotheses that stipulate the existence of a significant and negative association between intellectual capital disclosure with its two components (human capital, structural and the cost of equity. However, the negative impact of the relational capital disclosure is not validated. The results in this paper are of considerable importance to both policy makers and firms. In fact, the understanding of the impact of Intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital helps policy makers in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of disclosure. Moreover, with regard to managers of firms, the results show the benefit of enhanced IC disclosure regarding the reduction in their cost of capital. This study is one of the very first to provide empirical evidence of the association between Cost of equity capital and the level of disclosure in the three individual intellectual capital categories (human; structural and relational capital.

  12. HUMAN CAPITAL FLIGHT - ROMANIA’S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, qualifications of workforce and human capital became key factors for progress. Human capital flight transfers not only people but work, knowledge, tangible and intangible capital and development potential. In this article, trying to answer whether Romania is a source country for emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals (ie human capital flight I flew over those two dimensions that have traditionally characterized human capital flight namely: shrinking work resource and lossing high educated peoples. Therefore, Romania was faced with decreasing the number of resident population due to the evolution of demographic phenomena with negative projections and declining number of working age population and young educated and highly skilled workers and professionals. This will generate complex problems for economy, labour market, difficulty in finding highly skilled workers, talent shortages etc so it’s critical to monitor the labour migration or brain drain phenomenon.

  13. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....

  14. Human capital in low-tech manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk

    2014-01-01

    capital appears to be equally important for economic development in low-tech industries and, second, that the divide between the large urban regions, especially Copenhagen, and the rest of the country plays the primary role in explaining the geography of human capital. These findings stress the relevance......An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however......, the influence of human capital on the development of low-tech industries is yet to be analysed. This paper provides such an examination of low-tech industries based on an analysis of employment data within manufacturing industries in Denmark in the period 1993–2006. The findings highlight, first, that human...

  15. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....

  16. Getting Connected: Can Social Capital be Virtual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Alessandrini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an analysis of data from a study conducted in Australia on the impact of Internet access on social capital. The debate regarding the definition of social capital is explored, and basic indicators of social capital resolved. The apparent emergence of the phenomenon of virtual social capital is also discussed. Australians overall have widely adopted the Internet as a source of information and communication. Data collected in a mass survey conducted in 2004 is analysed and considered. Factors associated with Internet access are: access to the Internet in the home and employment status. There are also strong links between the levels of education completed and use of the Internet. On the basis of the evidence, Australians with Internet access are more likely to engage in activities generally regarded as indicators of individual expressions of social capital.

  17. Intellectual capital: Measurement, recognition and reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Johannes Cronje

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the economy has moved from an industrial to a knowledge economy. Consequently, basic factors of production now no longer comprise only natural resources, capital and labour, but also intellectual capital. Despite the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy, the accounting framework and financial reporting have not changed sufficiently to include intellectual capital. The research problem attempts to explore whether the theory of accounting should be modified for a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital. To solve the research problem, a literature review and content analysis on corporate annual reports were used. The results of this study indicate that the theory of accounting should be modified to ensure a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital in corporate annual reports.

  18. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  19. Impression management as symbolic capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...... and the Danish markets. It is apparent that even business experts operating in both markets could better adapt to the standards and possibilities offered by the German SNS with respect to impression management. We introduce a set of recommendations to foster SNS-related and culture-sensitive impression...... in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German...

  20. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.